PrismaCarcere 

 1499 documenti:

| i dati | immigrazione-racial profiling | attuarialismo | privatizzazione |

| monitoraggio elettronico | Varie |

 

 

Esistono all'interno di ogni società istituzioni di carattere residuale, ancor meno utili ai fini della conservazione del sistema di quanto non lo sia l'appendice per l'uomo, ma che sopravvivono perché ormai dotate quasi di una vita istituzionale propria, che consente di superare la schiacciante evidenza della loro scarsa funzionalità sociale... Le carceri nel tardo Novecento sono degli ottimi esempi. (Lawrence Stone, Viaggio nella storia, 1981)

 

i dati


 

European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
# 26th General Report of the CPT. 1 January - 31 December 2016
Council of Europe, April 2017

 

Senato della Repubblica
# Emergenza carceri. Tra sovraffollamento cronico, condanne UE e legislazione svuota-penitenziari
Senato - Servizio Studi, N. 161 - aprile 2017
Il sovraffollamento carcerario sembra destinato ad affliggere, ciclicamente, il sistema penitenziario italiano... Ancora a marzo 2017, tuttavia, il Garante nazionale dei detenuti, nella sua relazione annuale al Parlamento, ha segnalato il permanere di criticità inaccettabili nel sistema penitenziario, soprattutto in relazione ai livelli di trattamento delle persone vulnerabili e malate, livelli «definibili appropriatamente con gli aggettivi “inumano” e “degradante”» utilizzati dalla CEDU...

# Damiano Aliprandi, Le donne delinquono meno degli uomini ma in carcere trovano condizioni peggiori, Il Dubbio, 6 aprile 2017

 

Zoé Lauwereys
# Prisons surpeuplées : ce que proposent les candidats à la présidentielle
www.leparisien.fr/ 31 mars 2017
La France a battu un nouveau record en 2017. Au 1er mars 2017, 69.430 personnes étaient détenues alors que les établissements pénitentiaires ont une capacité d’accueil de 58.664 places opérationnelles. Dans le même temps, la maison d’arrêt de Villepinte (Seine-Saint-Denis) se dit «dans l’impossibilité physique d’accueillir plus de détenus» avec un taux d’occupation de 201%.

 

Garante Nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale
# Relazione al Parlamento 2017
Roma 21 marzo 2017

 

Peter Wagner, Bernadette Rabuy
# Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2017
www.prisonpolicy.org/ March 14, 2017
The American criminal justice system holds more than 2.3 million people in 1,719 state prisons, 102 federal prisons, 901 juvenile correctional facilities, 3,163 local jails, and 76 Indian Country jails as well as in military prisons, immigration detention facilities, civil commitment centers, and prisons in the  U.S. territories. And we go deeper to provide further detail on why people are locked up in all of those different types of facilities...

 

Council of Europe
# Europe’s prison population falls, but there is no progress in tackling overcrowding, says annual Council of Europe survey
Press release - DC031(2017)
# SPACE I: report   # SPACE II: report

 

Massimo De Pascalis
# Come liberarsi della necessità del carcere. Uno sguardo alle detenzioni brevi ed altro
Ristretti Orizzonti, 22 febbraio 2017

Anche se sono state introdotte procedure per monitorare e garantire la fruibilità dello spazio minimo tollerabile determinato dalla Cedu, non possiamo non riconoscere che le politiche penitenziarie messe in campo stanno riproducendo gli stessi effetti che nella storia penitenziaria sono seguiti ad ogni indulto: al repentino abbassamento della popolazione detenuta segue un costante e progressivo aumento che ripropone sempre le stesse criticità di Sistema. Sovraffollamento, promiscuità, violazione dei diritti umani, precarie condizioni igienico sanitarie degli istituti, conflittualità diffuse...

 

Fabio Bartolomeo, Magda Bianco (eds) | Ministero della Giustizia - ItaliaDecide
# La performance del sistema giudiziaria italiano. Un confronto con i principali sistemi giudiziari europei
www.italiadecide.it/ gennaio 2017

 

Giovanni Canzio - Primo Presidente Corte Suprema di Cassazione

# Relazione sull’amministrazione della giustizia nell’anno 2016

Roma, 26 gennaio 2017

Pasquale Ciccolo - Procuratore generale della Corte suprema di cassazione, # Intervento nell’Assemblea generale della Corte sull’amministrazione della giustizia nell’anno 2016, Roma, 26 gennaio 2017

Marina Anna Tavassi Presidente della Corte di Appello di Milano, # Relazione sull’amministrazione della giustizia nel Distretto della Corte di Appello di Milano, Assemblea Generale – Milano, 28 gennaio 2017

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Relazione del Ministero sull’amministrazione della giustizia anno 2016. Inaugurazione dell’Anno Giudiziario 2017
26 Gennaio 2017

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Relazione del Ministero sull’amministrazione della giustizia anno 2016. Inaugurazione dell’Anno Giudiziario 2017
26 Gennaio 2017

 

# Comunicazioni sull’amministrazione della giustizia del Ministro Andrea Orlando -- Senato della Repubblica, 18 gennaio 2017
# Relazione del Ministero sull'amministrazione della giustizia Anno 2016 -- Inaugurazione dell'Anno Giudiziario 2017
# Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile e di Comunità

 

François-Xavier Gomez
# Au Brésil, les prisons surpeuplées sont une aubaine pour le crime organisé
www.liberation.fr/ 7 janvier 2017
Fin 2014, il y avait 622 000 prisonniers dans le pays. Ce sont les derniers chiffres disponibles. La surpopulation atteint 167% en moyenne, et dans certains centres elle est très supérieure... Quelle serait la solution ? Une réforme du système judiciaire, l’application de peines de substitution à l’enfermement, de la liberté surveillée aux travaux d’intérêt général. Et une évolution de la législation sur les stupéfiants. La plupart des détentions concernent la possession de petites quantités de drogue...

 

Rachel Kleinfeld
# Reducing All Violent Deaths, Everywhere. Why the Data Must Improve
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, January 2017
At between 370,000 and 450,000 homicides annually over the past decade according to WHO and UNODC numbers, about three-quarters of violent deaths globally are homicides. To put it in perspective, more people are killed by homicide each year than the higher estimates for five years of the brutal war in Syria.

 

European Court of Human Rights
# Annual Report. 2016 Provisional version
www.echr.coe.int/ 2017

 

E. Ann Carson, Elizabeth Anderson
# Prisoners in 2015
www.bjs.gov/ December 2016
At yearend 2015, the United States had an estimated 1,526,800 prisoners under the jurisdiction of state and federal correctional authorities. This was the smallest U.S. prison population since 2005 (1,525,900 prisoners). The prison population decreased by more than 2% from the number of prisoners held in December 2014. This was the largest decline in the number of persons under the jurisdiction of state or federal correctional authorities since 1978...

 

Danielle Kaeble, Lauren Glaze
# Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015
www.bjs.gov/ December 2016
At yearend 2015, an estimated 6,741,400 persons were under the supervision of U.S. adult correctional systems, about 115,600 fewer persons than yearend 2014. This was the first time since 2002 (6,730,900) that the correctional population fell below 6.8 million. The population declined by 1.7% during 2015, which was the largest decline since 2010 (down 2.1%). Additionally, the decrease was a change from a 3-year trend of stable annual rate declines of about 0.6% between 2012 and 2014. About 1 in 37 adults in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision at the end of 2015. 

 

The Sentencing Project
# Repurposing: New Beginnings for Closed Prisons
www.sentencingproject.org/ December 14, 2016
Since 2011, at least 22 states have closed or announced closures for 94 state prisons and juvenile facilities, resulting in the elimination of over 48,000 state prison beds1) and an estimated cost savings of over $345 million.2) The opportunity to downsize prison bed space has been brought about by declines in state prison populations as well as increasing challenges of managing older facilities. Reduced capacity has created the opportunity to repurpose closed prisons for a range of uses outside of the correctional system, including a movie studio, a distillery, and urban redevelopment.

 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts
# Fine Time Massachusetts: Judges, Poor People, and Debtors’ Prison in the 21st Century
Massachusetts Senate, November 7, 2016

 

Wendy Sawyer # Punishing Poverty: The high cost of probation fees in Massachusetts, www.prisonpolicy.org/ December 8, 2016
Probation service fees in Massachusetts cost probationers more than $20 million every year. People are placed on one of two tiers of probation: supervised and administrative, and they are currently charged $65 and $50 per month, respectively. With an average probation sentence of 17-20 months, a Massachusetts resident sentenced to probation is charged between $850$ 1,300 in monthly probation service fees alone — on top of many other court fines and fees.

 

Daniel P. Mears, Joshua C. Cochran, William D. Bales, Avinash S. Bhat
# Recidivism and Time Served in Prison
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Volume 106 | Issue 1 Article 5, Winter 2016
We describe the data, which include information about 90,423 inmates who served varying lengths of time in Florida prisons, and the analyses, which rely on generalized propensity score modeling to address confounding and to estimate the functional form of the time served and recidivism relationship. Results of the analyses reveal a curvilinear relationship: greater time served initially increases recidivism but then, after approximately one year, decreases it, and, after approximately two years, exerts no effect; estimation of the effects associated with prison durations of more than five years are uncertain...

 

Todd D. Minton, Zhen Zeng
# Jail Inmates in 2015
www.bjs.gov/ December 2016
The average daily population (ADP) of jail inmates in 2015 (721,300) remained stable from 2011 to 2015 after peaking in 2008 (776,600). The ADP jail population count is a fraction of the number of inmates flowing into jail each year. In 2015, there were 10.9 million admissions to jails. From 2008 to 2015, the volume of admissions to jails steadily declined. The number of admissions to jail in 2015 was nearly 15 times the size of ADP in 2015...

 

Danielle Kaeble and Thomas P. Bonczar
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2015
www.bjs.gov/ December 2016
At yearend 2015, an estimated 4,650,900 adults were under community supervision—a decrease of 62,300 offenders from yearend 2014. 1 About 1 in 53 adults in the United States was under community supervision at yearend 2015. This population includes adults on probation, parole, or any other post-prison supervision, with probationers accounting for the majority (81%) of adults under community supervision.

 

Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga
# Relazione sui dati relativi allo stato delle tossicodipendenze in Italia (Anno 2015 e primo semestre 2016)
Comunicata alla Presidenza del Senato il 6 dicembre 2016

 

John Attard
# Prison violence is the worst I have seen in my 30-year career
www.theguardian.com/ 3 december 2016
In my 29 years of working for the prison service – now called the National Offender Management Service – I have seen many things, from truly stunning acts of compassion to extreme acts of violence. But the violence I have seen in the last four years is the worst I have witnessed. The impact has been stark: self-inflicted deaths have doubled, violence has increased, serious assaults on our staff are at their highest level for at least a decade and we have seen riots and prisoners escaping...

 

Istat
# Stalking sulle donne. Anno 2014
www.istat.it/ 24 novembre 2016
Tra le donne che hanno un ex partner si stima che il 21,5% delle 16-70enni (pari a 2 milioni 151 mila) abbia subito comportamenti persecutori da parte di un ex partner nell’arco della propria vita. Se si considerano le donne che hanno subito più volte gli atti persecutori queste sono il 15,3%, mentre quelle che hanno subito lo stalking nelle sue forme più gravi4 sono il 9,9%. Nell’arco della propria vita, lo stalking subito da parte di altre persone è invece del 10,3%, per un totale di circa 2 milioni 229mila donne. Complessivamente dunque sono circa 3 milioni 466 mila le donne che hanno subìto stalking da parte di un qualsiasi autore, pari al 16,1% delle donne. 

 

OSSIF - Associazione Bancaria Italiana ABI
# Rapporto intersettoriale sulla Criminalità predatoria. Rapine e furti in Banca e in altri settori esposti: Poste, Tabaccherie, Farmacie, Distribuzione Moderna, Esercizi commerciali, Distributori di carburante, Trasporto Valori
www.ossif.it/ Novembre 2016

Sulla base dei dati operativi del Dipartimento di Pubblica Sicurezza del Ministero dell’Interno, le rapine denunciate in Italia nel corso del 2015 sono state 34.9571, pari ad un decremento del 10,9% rispetto al 2014. Il dato conferma il calo dei reati che già aveva caratterizzato lo scorso anno (-10,3% rispetto al 2013)...

 

Associazione Openpolis
# Dentro o fuori. Il sistema penitenziario italiano tra vita in carcere e reinserimento sociale
www.openpolis.it/ N. 9 novembre 2016

 

Senato della Repubblica - Commissione straordinaria per la tutela e la promozione dei diritti umani
# Audizione del Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale
www.senato.it/ Resoconto sommario n. 105 del 08/11/2016
Mauro PALMA tra le criticità da segnala i trasferimenti dei detenuti poiché spesso non viene meno la continuità dei percorsi e dell'osservazione della persona detenuta... Emilia ROSSI, segnala gli aspetti sanitari, quelli del lavoro e le attività di socializzazione... che anche la gestione dei malati psichiatrici nelle carceri rappresenta una forte criticità poiché, ad esempio, i protocolli con le ASL non sempre vengono applicati.

 

Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Eventi critici negli Istituti Penitenziari - Anno 2015
www.giustizia.it/ novembre 2016

 

Giovanni Torrente
# La popolazione detenuta in Italia tra sforzi riduzionisti e nuove tentazioni populiste
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 27 ottobre 2016
1. La popolazione detenuta in Italia sino alla sentenza "Torreggiani". - 2. L'Italia del dopo Torreggiani e la diminuzione del numero di detenuti. - 3. Cosa ha reso possibile il processo di de-carcerizzazione? - 4. Verso un ritorno del populismo penale?

 

Jennifer L. Truman, Rachel E. Morgan
# Criminal Victimization, 2015
www.bjs.gov/ October 2016
In 2015, U.S. residents age 12 or older experienced an estimated 5.0 million violent victimizations,  according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). There was no statistically significant change in the rate of  overall violent crime, defined as rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault, from 2014 (20.1 victimizations per  1,000 persons age 12 and older) to 2015 (18.6 per 1,000). However, the rate of violent crime in 2015 was lower than in 2013 (23.2 per 1,000). From 1993 to 2015, the rate of violent crime declined from 79.8 to 18.6 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older...

 

Nicolas Bocquet
# Les prisons provençales parmi les plus surpeuplées de France
www.laprovence.com/ Jeudi 06/10/2016

Au 1er août 2016... 68 819 incarcérés pour un total de condamnées de 80 023 (11 204 non détenus : en surveillance électronique ou en placements extérieurs). Trop souvent pointée du doigt pour la surpopulation de ses prisons, en mars un rapport du Conseil de l’Europe plaçait la France en 7e position des pires pays européens. Les chiffres sont alarmants puisque que la moyenne de densité nationale est de 117,6% (différence entre la capacité et le nombre de détenus), soit 10 312 détenus en trop. Les données nous indiquent même, très officiellement, que les maisons d’arrêts françaises proposent 1 515 matelas au sol (soit une progression de 56% par rapport à 2015). La question se pose alors, où dorment les 8 797 détenus restants ?

 

Il Ministro della Giustizia

# Atto d'indirizzo politico-istituzionale per l'anno 2017

www.giustizia.it/ 28 settembre 2016 | on line 13 ottobre 2016

 

Andrea Baiguera Altieri
# Devianza reale e devianza percepita in Occidente. Osservazioni generali
www.diritto.it/ 11 ottobre 2016

In buona sostanza, è controproducente creare o tentare di creare una società criminologicamente asettica, nella quale sia eliminata ogni minima forma di infrazione. L’ ossessione della repressione penale non tiene conto delle componenti etiche ed antropologiche delle devianze, che spesso non sono reati veri e propri, bensì gesti esasperati di rabbia, dolore e disperazione culturale ed interiore.

 

Ministero dell'Interno
# Dal Viminale un anno di attività del Ministero dell'Interno
www.interno.gov.it/ 15 agosto 2016

 

Ministère de la Justice - Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France
www.justice.gouv.fr/ situation au 1er août 2016

 

Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation State of California
# Monthly Report of Population As of Midnight July 31, 2016
www.cdcr.ca.gov/ August 1, 2016

 

Ministry of Justice - Offender Management Statistics Bulletin, England and Wales
# Quarterly January to March 2016 with Prison Population as at 30 June 2016 

www.gov.uk/ 28 July 2016

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Bromley Briefings Summer 2016
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ 2016

 

U.S. Department of Education, Policy and Program Studies Service
# State and Local Expenditures on Corrections and Education
www2.ed.gov/ July 2016
The United States has only 5 percent of the world’s population but more than 20 percent of the world’s incarcerated population. Linkages exist between educational attainment and incarceration. For example, two-thirds of state prison inmates have not completed high school. Young black men between the ages of 20 and 24 ho do not have a high school diploma (or an equivalent credential) have a greater chance of being incarcerated than of being employed...

 

James Austin, Lauren-Brooke Eisen, James Cullen, Jonathan Frank
# How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated?
www.brennancenter.org/ Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law, 2016
America’s experiment in mass incarceration has failed. Of the 1.46 million state and federal prisoners, an estimated 39 percent (approximately 576,000 people) are incarcerated with little public safety rationale. They could be more appropriately sentenced to an alternative to prison or a shorter prison stay, with limited impact on public safety. If these prisoners were released, it would result in cost savings of nearly $20 billion per year, and almost $200 billion over 10 years. This sum is enough to employ 270,000 new police officers, 360,000 probation officers, or 327,000 school teachers. It is greater than the annual budgets of the United States Departments of Commerce and Labor combined.

 

Antigone
# Pre-Rapporto 2016 sulle condizioni detentive
www.associazioneantigone.it/ 28 luglio 2016

 

Adam Taylor
# The Netherlands has a strange problem: Empty prisons
The Washington Post, July 8, 2016

 

Grahame Allen, Noel Dempsey
# Prison Population Statistics
House of Commons, Briefing Paper Number SN/SG/04334, 4 July 2016

 

European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice | Cepej
# European judicial systems Efficiency and quality of justice
www.coe.int/ CEPEJ Studies No. 23 Edition 2016 (2014 data)

 

European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC) | Directorate General Human Rights and Rule of Law
# White paper on prison overcrowding.
www.coe.int/ Strasbourg, 30 June 2016

 

Joshua A. Markman, Matthew R. Durose, Ramona R. Rantala, Andrew D. Tiedt
# Recidivism of Offenders Placed on Federal Community Supervision in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010
www.bjs.gov/ June 2016
During fiscal year 2005, approximately 43,000 offenders were placed on federal community supervision, including nearly a quarter (23%) who were directly sentenced to probation and more than three-quarters (77%) who began a term of supervised release following a prison sentence. Overall, 35% of these offenders were arrested within 3 years and 43% were arrested within 5 years of placement on community supervision.

 

Washington State Institute for Public Policy
# Correctional education (basic or post-secondary) in prison.
# Benefit-cost technical documentation
www.wsipp.wa.gov/ June 2016

 

# Adult Criminal Justice, may 2015

# What Works and What Does Not? Benefit-Cost Findings from WSIPP, February 2015

 

Washington State Institute for Public Policy
# Benefit-cost technical documentation
www.wsipp.wa.gov/ June 2016
WSIPP’s benefit-cost model is an integrated set of computational routines designed to produce three related benefit- cost summary statistics for each policy option we analyze: a net present value, a benefit-to-cost ratio, and a measure of risk associated with these bottom-line estimates. Each of the summary measures derives from the same set of estimated cash or resource flows over time. In simplest form, the model implements a standard economic calculation of the expected worth of an investment by computing the net present value of a stream of estimated benefits and costs that occur over time...

 

Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze (EMCDDA)
# Relazione europea sulla droga. Tendenze e sviluppi
Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze, 2016
L’analisi qui presentata descrive un mercato europeo della droga che si conferma resiliente, con alcuni indicatori, per la cannabis e gli stimolanti in particolare, attualmente in ascesa. Nel complesso, dai dati relativi all’offerta si evince che la purezza o la potenza della maggior parte delle sostanze illecite sono elevate o in aumento. La maggioranza dei recenti dati relativi all’indagine sulla prevalenza mostra a sua volta modesti aumenti nel consumo stimato delle sostanze stupefacenti più comunemente assunte...

 

Franco Corleone, Stefano Anastasia, Leonardo Fiorentini (a cura di)
# 7° Libro Bianco sulla legge sulle droghe. Dopo UNGASS 2016. Un anno di cambiamento nel mondo. Proposte per superare lo stallo in Italia, in Parlamento e nel Paese  #  ... in pillole
La società della ragione - Forum Droghe - Antigone - CNCA | Collaborazione: CGIL, Comunità di San Benedetto al Porto, Gruppo Abele, Itaca, ITARDD, LegaCoopSociali, LILA, Associazione Luca Coscioni | Prima edizione - Giugno 2016

 

Marzio Barbagli
# Sempre meno omicidi in Italia
www.lavoce.info/ 24giugno 2016

.... Il tasso più basso di sempre... Il numero di omicidi commessi nel nostro paese scende costantemente da 24 anni. Un cambiamento importante che dovrebbe rimettere in discussione idee molto diffuse sulla violenza nella società italiana, l’influenza della lunga crisi economica e il divario Nord-Sud. L’affermazione dello Stato

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità | Maria Stefania Totaro, Viviana Condrò, Monica Nolfo, Irene Pergolini
# Analisi dei flussi di utenza dei Servizi della Giustizia Minorile. Anno 2015
Roma, giugno 2016

 

Fair Trials
# A Measure of Last Resort? The practice of pre-trial detention decision making in the EU
www.fairtrials.org/ 26 May 2016

Within the European Union, there are over 120,000 people being detained in pre-trial detention. That’s more than 1 in 5 people held in prison that haven’t yet been found guilty of any crime...

 

Ministero della Giustizia
# Analisi statistica dell'istituto della prescrizione in Italia

# Allegato A: La prescrizione nei distretti
www.giustizia.it/ 7 maggio 2016

 

European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment CPT
# 25th General Report of the CPT | 1 January - 31 December 2015
Council of Europe, April 2016

 

Jason Furman
# Economic Perspectives on Incarceration and the Criminal Justice System
www.whitehouse.gov/ April 25, 2016

 

 Bureau of Justice Statistics | Zhen Zeng, Margaret Noonan, E. Ann Carson, Ingrid Binswanger, Patrick Blatchford, Hope Smiley-McDonald, Chris Ellis

# Assessing Inmate Cause of Death: Deaths in Custody Reporting Program and National Death Index

www.bjs.gov/ April 2016

The Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) is an annual Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) data collection. The DCRP collects national, state, and incident-level data on persons who died while in the physical custody of the 50 state departments of corrections or the approximately 2,800 local adult jail jurisdictions nationwide. The DCRP began in 2000 under the Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-297), and it is the only national statistical collection to obtain comprehensive information about deaths in adult correctional facilities. BJS uses DCRP data to track national trends in the number and causes (or manners) of deaths occurring in state prison or local jail custody.

 

Stefano Cinotti, Beatrice Lippi, Salvatore Nasca, Susanna Rollino
# La messa alla prova in Toscana: analisi statistica dalla sua emanazione ad oggi
Uepe Toscana - Aprile 2016

 

Antigone - Per i diritti e le garanzie nel sistema penale
# Galere d'Italia XII - Rapporto di Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione
www.associazioneantigone.it/ 15 aprile 2016

# Caterina Pasolini, Carceri italiane sovraffollate e costose. E chi ha misure alternative non sgarra, La Repubblica, 16 aprile 2016

 

Senato della Repubblica - Commissione straordinaria per la tutela e la promozione dei diritti umani
# Rapporto sul Regime Detentivo Speciale. Indagine conoscitiva sul 41-bis
www.senato.it/ Aprile 2016

 

Texas Department of Criminal Justice
# Offender Orientation Handbook
www.tdcj.state.tx.us/ April 2016
This handbook is designed to provide the offender population with general information along with a standard for acceptable behavior. Offenders who do not behave in an acceptable manner could be charged with a specific disciplinary offense. The disciplinary offenses are listed in the TDCJ Disciplinary Rules and Procedures for Offenders Handbook. The standards for acceptable behavior by offenders are listed in this handbook, apply to all offenders.

 

Executive Office of the President of the United States
# Economic Perspectives on Incarceration and the Criminal Justice System
www.whitehouse.gov/ April 2016

To weigh the relative crime-reducing benefits of different policies, CEA conducted a “back-of-the-envelope” cost-benefit analysis of three policies: increasing the prison population, expanding the police force, and raising the minimum wage... In assessing each of these policy changes we bound the policy’s impact on crime drawing on estimates from leading studies. For the social cost of crime, we use a central estimate from the literature of $33,000 per crime, which subsumes the varying costs of different types of crime but facilitates straightforward and transparent calculations.

 

Emilio Dolcini
# L’Europa in cammino verso carceri meno affollate e meno lontane da accettabili standard di umanità
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 16 Marzo 2016

 

United States Sentencing Commission
# Recidivism Among Federal Offenders: A Comprehensive Overview
www.ussc.gov/ March 2016
Studies have repeatedly shown that older offenders at sentencing are at lower risk for reoffending, and the Commission’s research confirms these  findings.56 Offenders sentenced when younger than twenty-one had a 71.1 percent rearrest rate, compared to 14.0 percent of offenders who are sentenced after age sixty. Age at release also is associated with different rates of recidivism. Those released into the community who were below age twenty-one had the highest rearrest rate, 67.6 percent. Conversely, those oldest at age of release, over sixty years old, had the lowest  recidivism rate, 16.0 percent

 

Mia Bird, Sonya Tafoya, Ryken Grattet, Viet Nguyen
# How Has Proposition 47 Affected California’s Jail Population?
Public Policy Institute of California, 2016
Proposition 47 reduced the penalties associated with certain drug and property crimes by preventing prosecutors from charging these offenses as felonies in most cases. The proposition passed with strong support from California voters in November 2014. In the months that followed, jail populations declined sharply, driven primarily by a reduction in individuals being held or serving time for Prop 47 offenses. Based on a sample of California county jail systems, we estimate a 50 percent decline in the number of individuals being held or serving sentences for Prop 47 offenses. This change drove an overall decline in the jail population of 9 percent in the year following the proposition’s passage...

 

Direzione Nazionale Antimafia e Antiterrorismo
# Relazione annuale sulle attività svolte dal Procuratore nazionale e dalla Direzione nazionale antimafia e antiterrorismo nonché sulle dinamiche e strategie della criminalità organizzata di tipo mafioso nel periodo 1° luglio 2014 – 30 giugno 2015 Febbraio 2016

 

Direzione Nazionale Antimafia # Relazione annuale sulle attività svolte dal Procuratore nazionale antimafia e dalla Direzione nazionale antimafia nonché sulle dinamiche e strategie della criminalità organizzata di tipo mafioso nel periodo 1° luglio 2013 – 30 giugno 2014 Gennaio 2015

 

Andrea Orlando # Comunicazioni del guardasigilli sull’amministrazione della giustizia - www.giustizia.it/ Roma, Camera dei Deputati - mercoledì 20 gennaio 2016

# Relazione del Ministero sull’amministrazione della giustizia anno 2015 - Inaugurazione dell’Anno Giudiziario 2016

 

DAP Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Situazione al 31 dicembre 2015

www.giustizia.it/ Statistiche

Detenuti presenti e capienza regolamentare degli istituti penitenziari per regione di detenzione - Detenuti presenti per posizione giuridica - Detenuti per classi di età - Tipologia di reato - Detenuti presenti e capienza regolamentare degli istituti penitenziari - Detenuti presenti condannati per pena inflitta e per pena residua - Misure alternative, lavoro di pubblica utilità, misure di sicurezza, sanzioni messa alla prova - Permessi premio concessi ai detenuti - Detenuti presenti stranieri per area geografica - Detenuti presenti per titolo di studio - Detenuti presenti per numero di figli - Detenuti presenti per regione di nascita - Detenuti presenti per regione di residenza

 

Istat
# Annuario statistico italiano 2015. Giustizia, criminalità e sicurezza (Periodo di riferimento Anno 2014)
www.istat.it/ 29 dicembre 2015

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago, Christine Burkhardt
# SPACE I – Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: Prison populations. Survey 2014
Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 23 December 2015

Marcelo F. Aebi, Julien Chopin
# SPACE II - Council of Europe: Persons Serving Non-Custodial Sanctions and Measures in 2014
Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 15 December 2015      ...

 

Grazia Parisi, Gennaro Santoro, Alessio Scandurra
# La custodia cautelare: analisi delle misure alternative e del processo decisionale dell’autorità giudiziaria in Italia
Dicembre 2015

 

Robert E. Fay, Mamadou Diallo
# Developmental Estimates of Subnational Crime Rates Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey
www.bjs.gov/ December 17, 2015
Developmental Estimates of Subnational Crime Rates Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey presents rates of violent and property crime victimization for the 50 states and select metropolitan statistical areas, generated using small-area estimation (SAE) methods. The report describes the statistical modeling approach used to produce state- evel estimates from the National Crime Victimization Survey data and auxiliary data sources. It compares SAE victimization rates for the 50 states from 1999 to 2013 to FBI crime rates from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program. It shows trends in criminal victimization rates for each state from 1999 to 2013. State-level estimates of intimate partner  violence are also presented.

 

Margaret Noonan, Ingrid A. Binswanger, Patrick J. Blatchford, Hope Smiley-McDonald, Chris Ellis
# Linking Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) and National Death Index (NDI) data: Assessing Cause of Death (COD) Data Reported to the DCRP
http://sites.usa.gov/ 2015
The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) has collected, analyzed and reported on deaths in the U.S. correctional system annually since the passage of the Death in Custody Reporting Act (2000 DICRA, PL. 106-297) to address public concerns about the safety and humane treatment of suspects, defendants, and offenders while in contact with or under the control or supervision of criminal justice agencies. The 2000 DICRA required local jails, state prisons, and state, and local law enforcement agencies to report information on the circumstances of each death occurring while offenders were in custody or of persons in the process of arrest to the Department of Justice. The Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) began in 2000.

 

European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)
# Living space per prisoner in prison establishments: CPT standards
Strasbourg, 15 December 2015
The CPT’s basic minimum standard for personal living space in prison establishments is: | 6m² of living space for a single-occupancy cell + sanitary facility | 4m² of living space per prisoner in a multiple-occupancy cell + fully-partitioned sanitary facility | at least 2m between the walls of the cell | at least 2.5m between the floor and the ceiling of the cell

 

William D. Bales, Catie Clark, Samuel Scaggs, David Ensley, Philip Coltharp, Alexa Singer, Thomas G. Blomberg
# An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Prison Work Release Programs on Post-Release Recidivism and Employment
www.ncjrs.gov/ December 1, 2015
The Florida Department of Corrections (FDC) reports that 27% or nearly 1 in 3 inmates released from a Florida prison returns to custody within three years of release. The state of Florida spends an average of 2.1 billion dollars per year on corrections costs (FDC, 2013a). With a large number of inmates being rearrested after release from prison and the additional burden of high correctional costs, it is important to identify options that both reduce recidivism and lower correctional budget expenditures.

 

Todd D. Minton, Scott Ginder, Susan M. Brumbaugh, Hope Smiley-McDonald, Harley Rohloff | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Census of Jails: Population Changes, 1999–2013
www.bjs.gov/ December 2015

From 1999 to 2013, the number of inmates in local jails increased by 21%, from 605,943 to 731,570. During this period, the growth in the jail population was not steady, as the jail confined population peaked in 2008 at 785,533 then declined to its 2013 level.

 

Ministère de la Justice | Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France
www.justice.gouv.fr/ Situation au 1er décembre 2015

 

House of Commons Justice Committee
# Appointment of HM Chief Inspector of Prisons and HM Chief Inspector of Probation. Third Report of Session 2015–16
www.publications.parliament.uk/ 25 November 2015

 

Scott Graves
# Corrections Spending Through the State Budget Since 2007-08: Still High Despite Recent Reforms
California Budget & Policy Center, November 2015
California has substantially reduced the numbers of incarcerated adults and parolees from their peak levels in 2007. The number of adults incarcerated in state prisons or other facilities, which stood at 173,312 in mid-2007, fell to 128,900 by mid-2015, a nearly 26 percent reduction. The number of adults on parole – people who are under the supervision of state parole agents following release from prison – registered an even steeper decline, falling from 126,330 in mid-2007 to 45,473 in mid- 2015, a drop of 64 percent.

 

Danielle Kaeble, Laura M. Maruschak, Thomas P. Bonczar | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2014
www.bjs.gov/ November 2015
The small decline (down 1%) observed in the adult community corrections population was due to the drop in the probation population. The probation population declined from an estimated 3,910,600 offenders at yearend 2013 to 3,864,100 at yearend 2014, falling by about 46,500  offenders. The decline in the adult community corrections population was slightly offset by a small increase in the parole population, which grew from about 855,200 offenders at  yearend 2013 to 856,900 at yearend 2014.

 

Shelley Hyland, Ph.D., Lynn Langton, Ph.D., Elizabeth Davis | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Police Use of Nonfatal Force, 2002–11
www.bjs.gov/ November 2015
A greater percentage of persons who experienced the use of force (44%) had two or more contacts with police than those who did not experience force (28%). Blacks (14%) were more likely than Hispanics (5.9%), and slightly more than whites (6.9%) to experience nonfatal force during street stops. Blacks (1.4%) were twice as likely as whites (0.7%) to experience force during contacts involving a personal search.

 

The Sentencing Project
# Fewer Prisoners, Less Crime: A Tale of Three States
http://sentencingproject.org/ November 2015
Although the pace of criminal justice reform has accelerated at both the federal and state levels in the past decade, current initiatives have had only a modest effect on the size of the prison population. But over this period, three states – New York, New Jersey, and California – have achieved prison population reductions in the range of 25%. They have also seen their crime rates generally decline at a faster pace than the national average.

 

Heather M. Harris
# Do Cellmates Matter? A Study of Prison Peer Effects under Essential Heterogeneity
www.ncjrs.gov/ November 2015

The current study has sought to establish whether average prison peer effects can be held accountable for some portion of the failure of incarceration to reduce reoffending. The null average prison peer effects identified by the current study cannot account for prison effects that appear, on average, criminogenic. Within the null average prison peer effects estimated lies tremendous variation in marginal prison peer effects. Some MPPEs appear to exert significant criminogenic effects on reoffending. Others appear to exert crimino-suppressive effects. That substantial variation in the estimated marginal prison peer effects remained despite the inclusion of numerous controls suggests the potential for bias in previous peer effect estimates...

 

César Muñoz
# Pernambuco’s Privatized Prisons
Folha de São Paulo, October 20, 2015
Brazil’s prisons hold more than 607,000 people in facilities designed for about 377,000. Pernambuco’s prisons are the most overcrowded in the country, with three inmates for each official space.

 

Sam Taxy, Julie Samuels, and William Adams | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Drug Offenders in Federal Prison: Estimates of Characteristics Based on Linked Data
www.bjs.gov/ October 2015
This study is based on 94,678 offenders in federal prison at fiscal yearend 2012 who were sentenced on a new U.S. district court commitment and whose most serious offense (as classified by the Federal Bureau of Prisons) was a drug offense. Almost all (99.5%) drug offenders in federal prison were serving sentences for drug trafficking. Cocaine (powder or crack) was the primary drug type for more than half (54%) of drug offenders in federal prison. Race of drug offenders varied greatly by drug type. Blacks were 88% of crack cocaine offenders, Hispanics or Latinos were 54% of powder cocaine offenders, and whites were 48% of methamphetamine offenders.

 

Stanford Law School
# Proposition 47 Progress Report: Year One Implementation
www-cdn.law.stanford.edu/ October 2015

Since the enactment of Proposition 47 on November 14, 2014, the number of people incarcerated in California’s prisons and jails has decreased by approximately 13,000 inmates, helping alleviate crowding conditions in those institutions. Proposition 47 has also reduced the number of jail inmates released from custody early due to overcrowding and should generate over $150 million in state savings this fiscal year. County governments stand to save even more money: over $200 million annually, in aggregate.

 

Corte dei Conti - Sezione centrale di controllo sulla gestione delle Amministrazioni dello Stato
# L’attività del Commissario straordinario del governo per le problematiche connesse all’affollamento degli istituti carcerari
www.corteconti.it/ Deliberazione 30 settembre 2015, n. 6/2015/G

Rispetto ai 462,769 ml assegnati nel periodo 2010-2014 appena 52,374 ml (l’11,32 per cento circa) risultano essere stati spesi. La differenza, di 410,395 ml, è stata rimessa... In ordine ai nuovi posti detentivi che avrebbero dovuto essere resi disponibili, si evidenza che i nuovi posti creati con i vari interventi immobiliari dei Commissari sono stati, alla fine del 2014, soltanto n. 4.415, molti di meno (il 37 per cento), dunque, rispetto alle menzionate previsioni corrette di n. 11.934, che dovrebbero raggiungere poi, entro il 2016, con successive ultimazioni di n. 1.768 posti, il totale di n. 6.183 (pari al 51,81 per cento delle suddette previsioni). E’ da ritenere che la messa a disposizione dei residui n. 5.751 posti potrebbe essere assicurata solo a partire dal 2017-2018.

 

Social News
# Carceri, comprese quelle autocostruite che ci isolano dalla realtà
www.socialnews.it/ Settembre 2015

 

E. Ann Carson
# Prisoners in 2014
Bureau of Justice Statistics,September 2015
At yearend 2014, the United States held an estimated 1,561,500 prisoners in state and federal correctional facilities, a decrease of approximately 15,400 prisoners (down 1%) from December 31, 2013. A third (34%) of the decrease was due to fewer prisoners under the jurisdiction of the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), which declined for the second consecutive year. Prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year in state or federal prison declined by almost 1% (down 11,800 prison inmates) from yearend 2013 (1,520,400) to yearend 2014 (1,508,600). The number of prisoners housed in private facilities in the United States decreased by almost 2% in 2014 to 131,300 prison inmates...

 

Lucia Dalla Pellegrina, Margherita Saraceno
# Accesso alla giustizia in carcere: alcune evidenze basate su un “questionario fra pari”
Souq - Casa della Carità, Milano, 30 settembre 2015
L’accesso alla giustizia, nella sua accezione più generale, risulta limitato e difficile per i detenuti. Gli ostacoli al pieno accesso ai diritti fondamentali e di cittadinanza e i limiti alla risoluzione delle questioni legali colpiscono in prevalenza soggetti che sono già maggiormente vulnerabili perché stranieri o privi di una rete di supporto all’esterno del carcere quale, ad esempio, la famiglia. Benché gli istituti di detenzione organizzino servizi a supporto della risoluzione dei problemi legali e amministrativi dei reclusi, la detenzione rappresenta in sé il paradosso dell’essere “dentro il sistema giustizia” ed esserne al contempo esclusi.

 

Magnus Lofstrom, Brandon Martin
# Public Safety Realignment: Impacts So Far
www.ppic.org/ PPIC Public Policy Institute of California, September 2015
Realignment—one of the most significant changes in California corrections in decades—is approaching the four-year mark. Prompted by a federal court mandate to reduce overcrowding in California’s expensive prison system, the reform was premised on the idea that locals can do a better job through increased use of evidence-based practices. Realignment shifted administrative and funding responsibility for many lower-level offenders from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation to county jail and probation systems. The reform was expected to lower incarceration rates, improve recidivism trends, and lower costs...

 

Oliver Roeder, Lauren-Brooke Eisen, Julia Bowling (Foreword by Joseph E. Stiglitz)
# What Caused the Crime Decline?
www.brennancenter.org/ Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law, 2015
Public and political pressure to effectively fight crime and improve public safety has been used to justify mass incarceration despite the economic, human, and moral toll. However, as this report finds, during the past two decades the approach of using incarceration as a one-size fits all punishment for crime has passed the point of diminishing returns to actually reduce crime. 

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenzaria

# Misure alternative alla detenzione - I Semestre 2015 : 30 giugno 2015
Dati ripartiti per cittadinanza | Dati nazionali per tipologia | Dati ripartiti per età | Dati ripartiti per sesso | Dati ripartiti per zone geografiche | Dati ripartiti per tipologia reato | Misure alternative, lavoro di pubblica utilità, misure di sicurezza, sanzioni sostitutive e messa alla prova | Revoche

www.giustizia.it/ 4 settembre 2015

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia Minorile
# Dati statitici - 15 agosto 2015
www.giustiziaminorile.it/

# La sospensione del processo e messa alla prova (art. 28 D.P.R. 448/88) - Anno 2014
www.giustiziaminorile.it/ Roma giugno 2015

 

Ministère de la Justice | Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France
www.justice.gouv.fr/ Situation au 1er juillet 2015

 

Ministero dell'Interno
# Dal Viminale. Un anno di attività del Ministero dell'Interno
www.interno.gov.it/ 15 agosto 2015

# Ministero dell'Interno, Calano i delitti commessi: variazioni % parziali 2014 - 2015, www.interno.gov.it/ agosto 2015

 

Antigone in Carcere
# Pre-rapporto sulle condizioni di detenzione    

# Venti proposte...
www.associazioneantigone.it/ 30 luglio 2015

 

HM Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2014–15 - Presented to Parliament pursuant to Section 5A of the Prison Act 1952 as
amended by Section 57 of the Criminal Justice Act 1982

www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/ Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 14 July 2015

You were more likely to die in prison than five years ago. More prisoners were murdered, killed themselves, self-harmed and were victims of assaults than five years ago. There were more serious assaults and the number of assaults and serious assaults against staff also rose... Most deaths were from natural causes and the increase can, to some extent, be explained by the aging prison population. However, taking into account differences in age and gender, the mortality rate in prison remained significantly higher than that of the general population. 

 

Ministero della Giustizia | Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Relazione al Parlamento sullo stato di attuazione delle disposizioni di legge relative al lavoro dei detenuti ai sensi dell’art.20 ultimo comma della legge 26 luglio 1975 n.354. Anno 2014.

1° Luglio 2015

 

Gobierno de España | Ministerio del Interior
# Anuario Estadistico del Ministerio del Interior 2014 - Instituciones Penitenciarias
www.interior.gob.es/ Junio 2015

 

The Economist
# Americans Prisons. The Right Choices
www.economist.com/ Jun 20th 2015
No country in the world imprisons as many people as America does, or for so long. Across the array of state and federal prisons, local jails and immigration detention centres, some 2.3m people are locked up at any one time. America, with less than 5% of the world’s population, accounts for around 25% of the world’s prisoners. The system is particularly punishing towards black people and Hispanics, who are imprisoned at six times and twice the rates of whites respectively. A third of young black men can expect to be incarcerated at some point in their lives. The system is riddled with drugs, abuse and violence. Its cost to the American taxpayer is about $34,000 per inmate per year; the total bill is around $80 billion.

 

Seena Fazel, Achim Wolf
# A Systematic Review of Criminal Recidivism Rates Worldwide: Current Difficulties and Recommendations for Best Practice
PLoS ONE 10(6) 2015
Recidivism is a broad term that refers to relapse of criminal behaviour, which can include a range of outcomes, including rearrest, reconviction, and reimprisonment. We identified recidivism data for 18 countries. Of the 20 countries with the largest prison populations, only 2 reported repeat offending rates. The most commonly reported outcome was 2-year reconviction rates in prisoners. Sample selection and definitions of recidivism varied widely, and few countries were comparable. Recidivism data are currently not valid for international comparisons. Justice Departments should consider using the reporting guidelines developed in this paper to report their data.

 

Fondazione David Hume | A cura di Rossana Cima e Luca Ricolfi e con i contributi di Dario Di Pierro, Riccardo De Caria, Caterina Guidoni e Barbara Loera
# Criminalità in Italia, Dossier II, 2015
Fondazione DAVID HUME per Il Sole 24 ORE - 2015
Esiste una “insicurezza sommersa” legata alla microcriminalità. E tuttavia, le sensazioni di insicurezza dei cittadini dipendono in parte dai livelli oggettivi di pericolo ‒ quindi dall’effettivo peso dei reati e dell’illegalità nel contesto sociale ‒ e in parte sono invece collegate ai livelli di fiducia e di tranquillità economica e sociale che pervadono la nazione, nonché dal peso che i mezzi di comunicazione di massa danno alla criminalità. Quando un cittadino si sente insicuro, anche indipendentemente dalle condizioni oggettive di pericolosità del suo ambiente di vita, si comporta come se lo fosse.

 

ISTAT
# La violenza contro le donne dentro e fuori la famiglia. Anno 2014
www.istat.it/ 5 giugno 2015
La violenza contro le donne è fenomeno ampio e diffuso. 6 milioni 788 mila donne hanno subìto nel corso della propria vita una qualche forma di violenza fisica o sessuale, il 31,5% delle donne tra i 16 e i 70 anni: il 20,2% ha subìto violenza fisica, il 21% violenza sessuale, il 5,4% forme più gravi di violenza sessuale come stupri e tentati stupri. Sono 652 mila le donne che hanno subìto stupri e 746 mila le vittime di tentati stupri.

 

United States Government Accountability Office
# Justice Could Better Measure Progress Addressing Incarceration Challenges
www.gao.gov/ June 2015
Department of Justice (DOJ) has implemented three key initiatives to address the federal incarceration challenges of  overcrowding, rising costs, and offender recidivism, which includes the return of offenders to prison after release. The Smart on Crime Initiative involves multiple DOJ components and has five key goals, one of which involves prioritizing the prosecution of the most seriouscases... DOJ’s Smart on Crime Initiative, new Clemency Initiative, and BOP’s RSD are positive steps in addressing long-standing federal incarceration challenges, and DOJ has taken some initial steps to measure its efforts in these areas.

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Why focus on reducing women’s imprisonment?
http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ 2015
Women in prison are highly likely to be victims as well as offenders. More than half (53%) report having experienced emotional, physical or sexual abuse as a child, compared to 27% of men. A similar proportion report having been victims of domestic violence. Both figures are likely to be an under-estimate. Women can become trapped in a vicious cycle of victimisation and criminal activity. Their situation can be worsened by poverty,
substance dependency or poor mental health. Leaving the relationship doesn’t guarantee that domestic violence will stop. The period when a  woman is planning or making her exit is often the most dangerous time for her and her children.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
# European Drug Report. Trends and Developments
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ 2015

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia Minorile
# Dati statitici - 31 maggio 2015
www.giustiziaminorile.it/
La criminalità minorile è connotata dalla prevalenza dei reati contro il patrimonio e, in particolare, dei reati di furto e rapina. Frequenti sono anche le violazioni delle disposizioni in materia di sostanze stupefacenti, mentre tra i reati contro la persona prevalgono le lesioni personali volontarie

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Prison: the facts. Bromley Briefings Summer 2015
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ May 2015

 

Ragnar Kristoffersen
# Relapse study in the correctional services of the Nordic countries. Key results and perspectives
http://euro-vista.org/ EuroVista, vol. 2, n. 3, 2015
The most important finding in this study is that it demonstrates that reoffending rates among different offender groups inside the correctional services is a reflection of national differences in the criminal sanction system and the dispersion and the proportion of offender groups serving in prison compared to those serving in the probation.

 

Christian Henrichson, Joshua Rinaldi, Ruth Delaney | VERA Institute of Justice
# The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration
www.safetyandjusticechallenge.org/ May 2015
The jail is one of a community’s largest investments and its funding is drawn from the same sources that support public hospitals, schools, social services, roads, and many other essential functions of local government. It is exactly for this reason that counties and cities are well positioned to reinvest jail savings into programs and services that will help keep many people, especially those who are poor or have serious mental illness, from entering or staying in jail in the first place. And, in terms of public safety, this is a much better investment.

 

J. Richard Couzens, Tricia A. Bigelow
# Proposition 47. “The Safe Neighborhoods and Schools Act”
www.courts.ca.gov/ May 2016

 

Boderick Bennet
# An Offender's Perspective of Correctional Education Programs in a Southeastern State
http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/ Walden University, April 2015
The purpose of this multiple case study was to examine the lived experiences of 20 offenders involved in correctional education programs while incarcerated to explore their correctional education experience within the context of postincarceration employment. The theoretical foundation of this study was based on Bandura’s self-efficacy theory...

 

Penal Reform International
# Global Prison Trends 2015. Special Focus - Drugs and imprisonment
www.penalreform.org/ 2015
Growing prison populations throughout the world (though not in every country) place an enormous financial burden on governments and at a great cost to the social cohesion of societies. It is estimated that more than 10.2 million people, including sentenced and pre-trial prisoners, were held in penal institutions worldwide. 144 out of every 100,000 people of the world were therefore in prison at that time. Prison populations are growing in all five continents. In the last 15 years the estimated world prison population has increased by some 25-30 per cent but at the same time the world population has risen by over 20 per cent. The world prison population rate has risen by about six per cent from 136 per 100,000 of the world population to the current rate of 144

 

Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte - Garante regionale delle persone sottoposte a misure restrittive della libertà personale
# Prima relazione annuale delle attività svolte
http://www.cr.piemonte.it/ 31 marzo 2015
Occorre però avere presente che le criticità ed illegalità del sistema penitenziario italiano non sono confinabili nel mero problema di sovraffollamento, ma anche e soprattutto riguardano l'efficacia del periodo di detenzione rispetto all'obiettivo, individuale e collettivo, della pena.

 

Jessica Benko
# The Radical Humaneness of Norway’s Halden Prison. The goal of the Norwegian penal system
is to get inmates out of it

New York Times, March 26, 2015

 

Roger Abravanel, Stefano Proverbio, Fabio Bartolomeo | «Osservatorio per il monitoraggio degli effetti sull’economia delle riforme della giustizia»
# Misurare la performance dei tribunali
www.giustizia.it/ Roma, 26 marzo 2015

 

Camera dei Deputati
# Relazione sullo svolgimento da parte dei detenuti di attività lavorative o di corsi di formazione professionale per qualifiche richieste da esigenze territoriali (anno 214)
Presentata dal Ministro della giustizia, 20 marzo 2015

 

Garante delle persone private della libertà personale | Regione Emilia-Romagna
# Relazione annuale delle attività svolte - 2014
Marzo 2015

 

Istat
# I detenuti nelle carceri italiane - anno 2013
www.istat.it/ 19 marzo 2015

Sia per chi è in attesa di una sentenza definitiva sia per i condannati il reato più frequente è la produzione e spaccio di stupefacenti, seguito dalla rapina e dal furto (Tavola 12). Per chi è in custodia cautelare, rispetto a chi è condannato, si collocano più in alto di qualche posizione nella graduatoria l’associazione di stampo mafioso, l’estorsione, e l’associazione per delinquere. Per effetto delle modifiche normative, gli imputati per il reato di produzione e spaccio di stupefacenti in carcere sono diminuiti dal 40,1% del 2011 al 35,9% del 2013.

 

 

Associazione Antigone
# XI Rapporto Nazionale sulle Condizioni di Detenzione
www.osservatorioantigone.it/ 17 marzo 2015
I detenuti presenti al 28 febbraio 2015 sono 53.982. Il 31 dicembre 2014 erano 53.623. I detenuti nelle carceri europee sono 1 milione 737 mila. In calo di circa 100 mila unità rispetto all’anno precedente... Gli ingressi in carcere dalla libertà sono stati 50.217 nel 2014. Ben 92.800 nel 2008 in piena ondata securitaria (era Roberto Maroni il ministro degli Interni). Ovvero in sei anni sono diminuiti di 42.683 unità...

 

 

Ministero della Giustizia | Dipartimento dell’Organizzazione Giudiziaria
# Censimento speciale giustizia penale
www.giustizia.it/ 14 marzo 2015
a) Relazione di Mario Barbuto (Capo del Dipartimento dell’Organizzazione Giudiziaria); b) Relazione del direttore generale della Direzione Statistiche Fabio Bartolomeo; c) Analisi dei flussi e delle pendenze nel settore penale a dicembre 2014; d) Elenco dei Tribunali italiani in ordine alfabetico con oltre 20 parametri; e) Elenchi speciali dei Tribunali in base agli indici più significativi; f) Elenco delle Corti d’Appello in base a 18 parametri; g) Elenco degli Uffici della Procura della Repubblica in ordine alfabetico con 15 parametri; h) Elenchi speciali delle Procure in base agli indici più significativi

 

 

European Commission
# The 2015 EU Justice Scoreboard
http://ec.europa.eu/ Brussels, 09 March 2015
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Central Bank, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions COM(2015) 116 final. The Justice Scoreboard contributes to identifying potential shortcomings and good practices and aims to present trends on the functioning of the national justice systems over time. While the Scoreboard presents comparative information on Member States’ justice systems based on a number of particular indicators, it is not intended to present an overall single ranking, or to promote any particular form of justice system

 

Brian A. Jackson, Joe Russo, John S. Hollywood, Dulani Woods, Richard Silberglitt,
George B. Drake, John S. Shaffer, Mikhail Zaydman, Brian G. Chow
# Fostering Innovation in Community and Institutional Corrections. Identifying High-Priority Technology and Other Needs for the U.S. Corrections Sector
www.ncjrs.gov | www.rand.org | 2015
Meeting all of these goals requires innovation—changes in technologies, policies, training, and practices—to enable better performance. In the ideal case, innovations can help achieve multiple goals simultaneously. For example, recent RAND analysis of the effects of correctional education programs showed that they have the potential to reduce recidivism and that the money spent to carry out the programs was more than compensated by reductions in the number of offenders who would have otherwise returned to prison, saving states and localities significant costs of reincarceration. However, in other cases, innovation requires new technologies or organizational practices, and in an era of tight budgets, the resources necessary to make these innovations possible can be scarce.  

 

Duren Banks, Lance Couzens, Caroline Blanton, Devon Cribb
# Arrest-Related Deaths Program Assessment. Technical Report
www.bjs.gov/ March 2015
RTI calculated the size of the law enforcement homicide population in the United States and the ARD ( Arrest-Related Deaths) program coverage using two methods to estimate the lower and upper bounds of ARD coverage. We found that over the study period from 2003 through 2009 and 2011, the ARD program captured, at best, 49% of all law enforcement homicides in the United States. The lower bound of ARD program coverage was estimated to be 36%. These findings indicate that the current ARD program methodology does not allow a census of all law enforcement homicides in the United States.

 

CEJFE: Centro de Estudios Jurídicos y Formación Especializada
# Tasa de reincidencia penitenciaria 2014. Área de Investigación y Formación Social y Criminológica
www.recercat.cat/ Año 2015

 

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Statistiche al 28 febbraio 2015

www.giustizia.it
Detenuti presenti | Detenuti presenti per posizione giuridica | Detenuti stranieri distribuiti per nazionalità e sesso | Detenuti presenti e capienza regolamentare degli istituti penitenziari | Eventi critici negli istituti penitenziari - Serie storica degli anni: 1992-2014 | Misure alternative, lavoro di pubblica utilità, misure di sicurezza e sanzioni sostitutive - Anno 2014 | Misure alternative alla detenzione - Dati nazionali per tipologia - Anno 2014 | Condannati a misure alternative e ad altre misure - Dati ripartiti per tipologia reato - Anno 2014 | Misure alternative alla detenzione - Dati ripartiti per cittadinanza - Anno 2014

# Statistiche su detenute madri, lavoro e formazione professionale in carcere

 

Ministero della Giustizia | Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile
# Dati Statistici
www.giustizia.it/ 28 febbraio 2015

 

 

Unipolis | Osservatorio Europeo sulla Sicurezza
# Nella "terra di mezzo" fra terrore globale e paure quotidiane. 8° Rapporto sulla sicurezza e l'insicurezza sociale in Italia e in Europa
www.fondazioneunipolis.org/ Febbraio 2015
Nonostante tutto, non si assiste alla drammatizzazione del sentimento sociale che avevamo osservato nel passato recente. Le paure non si traducono in Paura. Le incertezze non si condensano in una nube di Grande Incertezza, com’era avvenuto negli ultimi anni. Certo, il grado di insicurezza resta molto elevato. Le paure globali, l’inquietudine economica e il rifiuto della politica colpiscono la maggioranza della popolazione. Ma senza toccare i picchi osservati alla fine del 2012. E, comunque, si coglie qualche segno di scongelamento del clima d’opinione. Diciamo che prima era plumbeo, ora è divenuto grigio...

 

Timothy Williams
# Jails Have Become Warehouses for the Poor, Ill and Addicted, a Report Says
www.nytimes.com/ Feb. 11, 2015

Jails across the country have become vast warehouses made up primarily of people too poor to post bail or too ill with mental health or drug problems to adequately care for themselves, according to a report issued Wednesday.

 

Ram Subramanian, Ruth Delaney, Stephen Roberts, Nancy Fishman, Peggy McGarry | Vera Institute of Justice
# Incarceration's Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America
http://www.vera.org/ February 2015
There are more than 3,000 jails in the United States, holding 731,000 people on any given day—more than the population of Detroit and nearly as many people as live in San Francisco.1 This number, high as it may be, is only a one-day snapshot. In the course of a typical year, there are nearly 12 million jail admissions—equivalent to the populations of Los Angeles and New York City combined and nearly 19 times the annual admissions to state and federal prisons.

 

 

European Court of Human Rights | Cour Européenne des Droits de l'Homme
# Analysis of statistics 2014
http://www.echr.coe.int/ January 2015

 

Mark Motivans
# Federal Justice Statistics, 2011–2012
Bureau of Justice Statistics, January 2015
During fiscal year 2012, the number of suspects arrested for a federal offense declined to 172,248 after reaching a record 181,726 suspects in 2009. From 1994 to 2012, the number of suspects arrested by federal law enforcement more than doubled, from 80,450 in 1994 to 172,248 in 2012 ...

 

Zach Weissmueller
# California's 'Cruel and Unusual' Prisons. Despite court orders and ballot initiatives, Golden State prisons remain criminally overcrowded
http://reason.com/ Jan. 31, 2015
"Drug policy is the major driver of mass incarceration, both in California and nationwide," says Lynne Lyman, California state director of the Drug Policy Alliance. She points to the massive increase in the state and federal prison population following the 1980s ramp-up of the war on drugs. In California prisons alone, there are more than 11,000 inmates incarcerated for drug-related crimes, accounting for almost 9 percent of the total prison population. More than half of those were sentenced under the three-strikes law.

# Sharon Bernstein, California's Prison Population Is Finally Down, But Will It Last? www.huffingtonpost.com/ 01/29/2015

# Matt Sledge, California Voters Deal Blow To Prisons, Drug War, www.huffingtonpost.com/ 11/05/2014

 

The PEW Charitable Trusts
# Growth in Federal Prison System Exceeds States’. Federal imprisonment rate, taxpayer costs soar as states curtail expansion, protect public safety
www.pewtrusts.org/ Jan 2015
Between 1980 and 2013, the federal imprisonment rate increased 518 percent, from 11 inmates for every 100,000 U.S. residents to 68. During the same period, annual spending on the federal prison system rose 595 percent, from $970 million to more than $6.7 billion in inflation-adjusted dollars... Prison expenditures grew from 14 percent of the Justice Department’s total outlays to 23 percent, increasingly competing for resources with law enforcement and national security programs.

 

Ministère de la Justice - Direction de l'administration pénitentiaire
# Statistiques trimestrielles de la population prise en charge en milieu ouvert . Mouvements au cours du 4ième trimestre 2014 - Situation au 1er janvier 2015
www.justice.gouv.fr/ 2015

 

 

Andrea Orlando
# Intervento del guardasigilli Andrea Orlando sull’amministrazione della giustizia nel 2014
Camera dei Deputati, lunedì 19 gennaio 2015

 

Bernadette Rabuy, Peter Wagner
# Screening out Family Time: The for-profit video visitation industry in prisons and jails
http://static.prisonpolicy.org/ January 2015
Family contact is one of the surest ways to reduce the likelihood that an individual will re-offend after release, the technical term for which is “recidivism.” More contact between incarcerated people and their loved ones — whether in-person, by phone, by correspondence, or via video visitation — is clearly better for individuals, better for society, and even better for the facilities. As one Indiana prison official told a major correctional news service: “When they (prisoners) have that contact with the outside family they actually behave better here at the  facility.”

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Presenze 31 dicembre 2014
# Misure alternative 31 dicembre 2014

# Detenuti italiani e stranieri presenti e capienze per istituto - aggiornamento al 31 dicembre 2014
www.giustizia.it

 

ISTAT - Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile
# I giovani nelle strutture minorili della giustizia - Anno 2013
www.istat.it/ 29 dicembre 2014
I minori sono nell’80% dei casi italiani e nell’89% maschi; tuttavia, sia la percentuale di femmine sia quella degli stranieri sul totale è aumentata tra il 2011 e il 2013. Più della metà dei ragazzi in carico ha un’età compresa tra 16 e17 anni (52,8%), il 22,9% ha 14-15 anni con una prevalenza di ragazze straniere, infine il 23,7% ha già compiuto i 18 anni2 (Prospetto 2 e Tavola 3). I 14-17enni presi in carico sono 15.315, pari allo 0,7% del totale della popolazione minorile residente in Italia in questa fascia di età.

 

Istat
# Annuario statistico italiano 2014. Giustizia criminalità e sicurezza. Periodo di riferimento Anno 2013
www.istat.it/ martedì 23 dicembre 2014

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Eventi Critici negli Istituti Penitenziari. Anno 2014
Sezione Statistica dell’Ufficio per lo Sviluppo e la Gestione del Sistema Informativo Automatizzato, Statistica ed Automazione di supporto dipartimentale.

 

Lauren E. Glaze, Danielle Kaeble
# Correctional Populations in the United States, 2013
Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2014
An estimated 6,899,000 persons were under the supervision of adult correctional systems at yearend 2013, down from 6,940,500 at yearend 2012 (figure 1). The decrease of 41,500 offenders in 2013 resulted in the number of persons under correctional supervision falling below 6.9 million for the first time since 2003. The decline in the population during 2013 (down 0.6%) was less than 1% for the second consecutive year, down from 2.1% in 2010 when the fastest annual decline in the population was observed. About 1 in 35 adults in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision at yearend 2013. This rate was unchanged from 2012, when it dropped to the lowest rate observed since 1997.

 

# Aebi, M.F. & Delgrande, N. (2015). SPACE I – Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: Prison populations. Survey 2013. Strasbourg: Council of Europe


# Council of Europe | Annual Penal Statistics – SPACE II - 2013 | Strasbourg 14/05/2014

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France - situation au 1er décembre 2014
www.justice.gouv.fr/

 

Ministero della Giustizia
# Report Situazione Penitenziaria
www.giustizia.it/ Dicembre 2014

Nonostante la riduzione di circa 12.000 detenuti il numero dei soggetti trattati dal sistema penale è rimasto stabile...

 

Chiara Mancuso
# Uno sguardo 'oltremanica': strategie di contrasto del sovraffollamento carcerario nel modello inglese
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 16 Dicembre 2014

1. Premessa. - 2. Variazioni nel calcolo della popolazione penitenziaria inglese in relazione al sistema di misura adottato. - 3. Recenti interventi in materia penitenziaria: la custodia cautelare. - 4. Sentenze custodiali come rimedio residuale del sistema e generalizzato ricorso a misure alternative o sospensive della pena. - 5. Automatica operatività della scarcerazione preventiva come principio generale dell'esecuzione della pena. - 6. Interventi di edilizia penitenziaria e privatizzazione delle carceri.

 

Centro nazionale per il volontariato | Fondazione volontariato e partecipazione
# La Certezza Del Recupero. I costi del carcere e il valore delle misure alternative
http://www.centrovolontariato.net/ Dicembre 2014

 

Rachel E. Morgan, Britney J. Mason | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Crimes Against the Elderly, 2003–2013
http://www.bjs.gov/ november 2014
This report describes crimes against persons age 65 or older, by victim and incident characteristics. Data are from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS), and the U.S. Census Bureau. In 2003–13—  The rates of nonfatal violent crime (3.6 per 1,000 persons) and property crime (72.3 per 1,000) against elderly persons were lower than those of younger persons. 

 

Patricia O'Brien
# The case for closing down women’s prisons
http://theconversation.com/ 6 November 2014
...So what is the alternative to jailing women at the rate we do? In the UK, advocates propose community sentences for nonviolent offenders, and housing violent offenders in small custodial centers near their families. There is evidence these approaches can work in the US. Opportunities to test alternatives to prison are increasing across the states and some have demonstrated beneficial results for the women who participated. For example, state-funded Project Redeploy in Illinois...

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France situation au 1er novembre 2014
http://www.justice.gouv.fr/

 

HM Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2013–14
www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/ 21 october 2014

At the end of April 2013, the total prison population stood at 84,083 which was 96% of the usable operational capacity of 87,930. On 28 March 2014 the total population had unexpectedly increased above projections to 85,252 which was 99% of the usable operational capacity of 85,972.7 These population pressures had become particularly intense from the autumn of 2013..

 

European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI)
# European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics
www.heuni.fi/ 2014 (Fifth edition)

 

Giovanni Mastrobuoni, Daniele Terlizzese
# Rehabilitation and Recidivism: Evidence from an Open Prison
October 2014

We also find evidence that even for inmates who are not involved in work outside being exposed to prison conditions that emphasize responsibility and guarantee freedom of movement, conditions respectful of human dignity, productive use of time, are effective in reducing recidivism. Policies to that effect seem easier to implement, and are almost surely cost effective. Finally, we do not find robust evidence that peer effects are an important driver of our results. This suggests that scaling up the experience of Bollate, even by weakening somewhat the selection criteria, and adopting similar standards in other prisons, might not risk to undermine the positive results so far observed.

# Slides di sintesi - Milano marzo 2015

 

Office for National Statistics
# Crime in England and Wales, Year Ending June 2014
www.ons.gov.uk/ 16 October 2014
Latest figures from the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) show that, for the offences it covers, there were an estimated 7.1 million incidents of crime against households and resident adults (aged 16 and over) in England and Wales for the year ending June 2014. This represents a 16% decrease compared with the previous year’s survey, and is the lowest estimate since the survey began in 1981.

 

Erinn J. Herberman, Thomas P. Bonczar
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2013
Bureau of Justice Statistics, October 2014
At yearend 2013, an estimated 4,751,400 adults were under community supervision—a decline of about 29,900 offenders from yearend 2012. About 1 in 51 adults in the United States was under community supervision at yearend 2013. The community supervision population includes adults on probation, parole, or any other post-prison supervision.

 

Margaret E. Noonan, Scott Ginder

# Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2012 - Statistical Tables
http://www.bjs.gov/ October 2014

Margaret E. Noonan, Scott Ginder
Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2011 - Statistical Tables
www.bjs.gov/ Bureau of Justice Statistics, August 2013

 

E. Ann Carson | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Prisoners in 2013
www.bjs.gov/ September 2014
On December 31, 2013, the United States held an estimated 1,574,700 persons in state and federal prisons, an increase of approximately 4,300 prisoners (0.3%) from 2012. This was the first increase reported since the peak of 1,615,500 prisoners in 2009... Prisoners sentenced to more than a year under the jurisdiction of state or federal correctional authorities increased by 5,400 inmates from 2012 to 2013. However, the imprisonment rate for all prisoners sentenced to more than a year in state or federal facilities decreased by less than 1% between 2012 and 2013, from 480 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents in 2012 to 478 per 100,000 in 2013.

# Maria Lombardi Stocchetti, Il carcere negli U.S.A., oggi: una fotografia. Il Rapporto "Prisoners in 2013" (U.S. Department of Justice, 30.09.2014), www.penalecontemporaneo, 23 dicembre 2014

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire | Bureau des études et de la prospective
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France
www.justice.gouv.fr/ 1er septembre 2014

 

Florence de Bruyn, Annie Kensey
# Durées de détention plus longues, personnes détenues en plus grand nombre (2007-2013)
Cahiers d’études pénitentiaires et criminologiques, septembre 2014, n. 40

 

Jennifer L. Truman, Lynn Langton | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Criminal Victimization, 2013
www.bjs.gov/ September 2014
In 2013, U.S. residents age 12 or older experienced an estimated 6.1 million violent victimizations and 16.8 million property victimizations, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). After two consecutive years of increases, the overall violent crime rate (which includes rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault) declined slightly, from 26.1 victimizations per 1,000 persons in 2012 to 23.2 per 1,000 in 2013.

 

Hans-Jörg Albrecht, Jörg-Martin Jehle (Eds.)
# National Reconviction Statistics and Studies in Europe
Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2014
Recidivism belongs to the main categories of criminology, crime policy and criminal justice. If the target of preventing offenders from reoffending is taken seriously crime policy should be measured by success of certain penal sanctions in terms of relapses. Also institutions that deal directly with crime and offenders need to get basic information on the consequences of their actions; particularly when decisions have to be based on a prognosis they should refer to general knowledge about offender groups at risk of reoffending. All these are reasons why – besides the conventional crime and criminal justice statistics, that don´t allow to follow further offending – representative recidivism studies are needed.

 

Governement of Western Australia | Office of the Inspector of Custodial Services
# Recidivism rates and the impact of treatment programs
www.oics.wa.gov.au/ September 2014
Western Australia has high recidivism rates. On average over the past decade, 40 to 45 per cent of people have returned to prison within two years of being released.  Given Western Australia has a prisoner population of approximately 5000, a recidivism  rate of 40 per cent equates to approximately 2000 people returning to prison in under  two years. It costs, on average, around $120,000 per annum to keep one prisoner in  prison. Thus, for every ten prisoners who do not return to prison for just one year, the  projected saving in direct costs alone is over $1 million...

 

France - Ministère de la Justice
# Les chiffres-clés de la Justice
Ministère de la Justice 2014

 

Prisons and Probation Ombudsman for England and Wales | Nigel Newcomen
# Annual Report 2013–2014
http://mojppo.wpengine.com/ September 2014

We were notified of 256 deaths in 2013–14 (17 of which were not investigated as they were outside our remit). We started 239 investigations, 48 (25%) more than last year.• There were 90 apparently self-inflicted deaths, 64% more than the previous year. • The major increase in self-inflicted deaths was among adult male prisoners. There were 6 self-inflicted deaths of those aged 18–21 years, an increase from 2 deaths last year, but the biggest rise was among 25- to 30-year-olds who accounted for 22 (24%) self-inflicted deaths (an increase from 8 last year). • 130 deaths were from natural causes (7% more than last year) and 9 were classified as ‘other non-natural’.

 

Regione del Veneto
# Giustizia, Legalità e Sicurezza: tessuto di tutti i diritti. Statistiche Flash
Anno 14 - Settembre 2014
I carcerati sono prevalentemente uomini, giovani e con un'istruzione medio-bassa. Gli stranieri nelle carceri venete sono il 58%, una percentuale importante, ma che in parte si spiega considerando che, rispetto agli italiani, gli stranieri riescono a usufruire meno delle misure alternative al carcere (a livello nazionale il 13% contro il 31% degli italiani), perché spesso sprovvisti dei requisiti per poterle chiedere, come un ambiente familiare idoneo, un alloggio e un lavoro adeguato.

 

Peter Wagner, Leah Sakala, Josh Begley
# States of Incarceration: The Global Context: World Incarceration Rates If Every U.S. State Were A Country
www.prisonpolicy.org/ 2014

 

Roy Walmsley
# World Pre-trial/Remand Imprisonment List (second edition)
ICPS International Centre for Prison Studies

 

Douglas N. Evans
# The Debt Penalty. Exposing the Financial Barriers to Offender Reintegration
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, August 2014

Financial debt associated with legal system involvement is a pressing issue that affects the criminal justice system, offenders, and taxpayers. Mere contact with the criminal justice system often results in fees and fines that increase with progression through the system. Criminal justice fines and fees punish offenders and are designed to generate revenue for legal systems that are operating on limited budgets. However, fines and fees often fail to accomplish this second goal because many offenders are too poor to pay them...

 

Linda Keena, Chris Simmons
# Rethink, Reform, Reenter: An Entrepreneurial Approach to Prison Programming
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 2014
This study highlights the need for more cognitive-based educational programming with prerelease inmates. These programs are an important first step in increasing employability. The findings suggest that a substantial number of inmates are willing to approach reentry in new ways. Not only did the participants grasp the concepts, they applied them. The evaluation showed the problem may not be that inmates are unable to find jobs, but illuminates poor preparation of inmates to reenter society. Perceived changes in personal and cognitive development helped these inmates secure gainful employment and they may now have the ambition to move forward from there

 

Todd D. Minton, Daniela Golinelli
# Jail Inmates at Midyear 2013 - Statistical Tables
Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2014 (Revised August 12, 2014)
The jail incarceration rate—the confined population per 100,000 U.S. residents—declined slightly between midyear 2012 (237 per 100,000) and 2013 (231 per 100,000). This decline continues a downward trend from a high of 259 jail inmates per 100,000 residents in 2007

 

Jeremy Travis, Bruce Western (eds)
# The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences
www.nap.edu/ The National Academies Press, 2014

After decades of stability from the 1920s to the early 1970s, the rate of imprisonment in the United States more than quadrupled during the last four decades. The U.S. penal population of 2.2 million adults is by far the largest in the world. Just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in American prisons. The U.S. rate of incarceration, with nearly 1 out of every 100 adults in prison or jail, is 5 to 10 times higher than the rates in Western Europe and other democracies. The ...

 

FRA Europen Agency for Fundamental Rights
# Violence against women: an EU-wide survey Main results
http://fra.europa.eu/ European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2014
This report is based on interviews with 42,000 women across the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU). It shows that violence against women, and specifically gender-based violence that disproportionately affects women, is an extensive human rights abuse that the EU cannot afford to overlook... One in 10 women has experienced some form of sexual violence since the age of 15, and one in 20 has been raped. Just over one in five women has experienced physical and/or sexual violence from either a current or previous partner, and just over one in 10 women indicates that they have experienced some form of sexual violence by an adult before they were 15 years old. Yet, as an illustration, only 14 % of women reported their most serious incident of intimate partner violence to the police, and 13 % reported their most serious incident of non-partner violence to the police.

 

Michael Tonry
# Why Crime Rates Are Falling Throughout the Western World
http://scholarship.law.umn.edu/ The University of Chicago, 2014
Crime rates have moved in parallel in Western societies since the late Middle Ages. Homicide rates declined from 20 to 100 per 100,000 population in western Europe to one per 100,000 in most Western countries by the beginning of the twentieth century. Crime rates in major cities and in countries fell from the early nineteenth century until the middle of the twentieth. From the 1960s to the 1990s, rates for violent and property crimes rose in all wealthy Western countries. Since then, rates in all have fallen precipitately for homicide, burglary, auto theft, and other property crimes...

 

Manuel Eisner
# From Swords to Words: Does Macro-Level Change in Self-Control Predict Long-Term Variation in Levels of Homicide?
The University of Chicago, 2014

Over the past decade the idea that Europe experienced a centuries-long decline in homicide, interrupted by recurrent surges and at different speeds in different parts of the continent, became widely acknowledged. So far explanations have relied mostly on anecdotal evidence, usually broadly relying on Norbert Elias’s theory of the “civilizing process.” One major general theory of large-scale fluctuations in homicide rates, selfcontrol theory, offers a wide range of hypotheses that can be tested with rigorous quantitative analyses. A number of macro-level indicators for societal efforts to promote civility, self-discipline, and long-sightedness have been examined and appear to be strongly associated with fluctuations in homicide rates over the past six centuries.

 

Ministero dell'Interno
# Dal Viminale. Un anno di attività del Ministero dell’Interno
www.interno.gov.it/ Roma, 15 agosto 2014

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire

# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France - situation au 1er août 2014

http://www.justice.gouv.fr/

# Statistiques trimestrielles de la population prise en charge en milieu ouvert Situation au 1er avril 2014

 

Gobierno de España | Ministerio del Interior
# Anuario Estadistico del Ministerio del Interior 2013 - Instituciones Penitenciarias
www.interior.gob.es/ Julio 2014

 

England and Wales - Ministry of Justice
# Offender Management Statistics Quarterly – January to March 2014
Statistics bulletin - 31 July 2014

 

Todd D. Minton
# Jails in Indian Country, 2013
Bureau of Justice Statistics, July 2014
At midyear 2013, a total of 2,287 inmates were confined in Indian country jails—a 3.3% decrease from the 2,364 inmates confined at midyear 2012. |  The number of inmates admitted into Indian country jails during June 2013 (10,977) was five times the size of the average daily population (2,141). |  Since 2010, about 31% of inmates in Indian country jails have been confined for a violent offense, a decline from about 39% in each year between midyear 2004 and 2009. |  Nearly 2 in 10 inmates were held for public intoxication at midyear 2013.

 

Equipo de Fallecimientos en Prision - Observatorio de Carceles Federales - PPN
# Informe Estadistico sobre Muertes en Prision
http://ppn.gov.ar/ Julio de 2014

(Argentina) Este documento presenta los resultados de la aplicación del Procedimiento para la Investigación y Documentación de Fallecimientos en Prisión, ante cada muerte de detenidos bajo custodia del SPF registrada, desde el 1º de enero de 2009 hasta el 30 de junio de 2014.

 

Observatoire national de la délinquance et des réponses pénales ONDRP
# Criminalité et délinquance enregistrées en juin 2014
www.inhesj.fr/ 07.2014

 

Tribunale di Sorveglianza di Messina
# Ordinanza del 16 luglio 2014
Sollevata questione di legittimità costituzionale in merito ai nuovi criteri di accertamento della pericolosità sociale del seminfermo di mente: «non costituisce elemento idoneo a supportare il giudizio di pericolosità sociale la sola mancanza di programmi terapeutici individuali»

 

Roy Walmsley
# World Pre-trial/Remand Imprisonment List (second edition)
www.prisonstudies.org/ 18.06.2014
Two and a half million people in pre-trial detention and other forms of remand imprisonment are recorded in this List. In addition it is believed that there are about 250,000 such prisoners in China and, taking account of those in the countries on which official information is unavailable and of those pre-trial detainees in police facilities who are omitted from national totals, there will be close to three million held in pre-trial detention and other forms of remand imprisonment throughout the world.

 

Ministére de la Justice
# Prévention de la récidive et individualisation des peines. Chiffres-clés
www.justice.gouv.fr/Juin 2014
Alors que 61% des sortants de prison sont réincarcérés dans les 5 ans, seules 32% des personnes condamnées à une peine d’emprisonnement avec sursis mise à l’épreuve sont recondamnées à la prison ferme. Le choix de la peine en fonction du profil des personnes au moment du jugement est avancé pour contester ces résultats. Or, ces études se fondent sur de grands échantillons de population et les plus avancées mettent en place des dispositifs statistiques à partir de nombreux critères (antécédents judiciaires, âge, nationalité, etc.) pour prendre en compte cet effet de sélection par le juge. Leurs conclusions vont dans le même sens et affirment que les peines alternatives sont effectivement plus efficaces que la prison pour prévenir la récidive.

 

Philip Milburn, Ludovic Jamet
# Prévention de la récidive : les services de probation et d’insertion français dans la tourmente »,
Champ pénal/Penal field, Vol. XI | 2014
Les services de probation français et leurs acteurs ont connu des évolutions majeures au cours des quinze dernières années, notamment depuis que les agents ont vu leur statut d« éducateur pénitentiaire » de l’administration pénitentiaire évoluer vers celui de « Conseillers pénitentiaires  d’insertion et de probation et d’insertion » (CPIP), dont la relation hiérarchique avec les juges d’application des peines (JAP) a été supprimée. Des transformations plus récentes, moins statutaires mais davantage organisationnelles, contribuent à faire évoluer encore la réalité de leur activité, voire de leurs missions. Le début de ce changement peut être situé en 2005, lorsque ce secteur d’action publique pénale fut renommé « prévention de la récidive ».

 

Istat - Cnel
# Rapporto Bes 2014: il benessere equo e sostenibile in Italia
http://www.misuredelbenessere.it/ giugno 2014
I reati da cui si può ricavare un guadagno economico (furti, rapine, truffe, estorsioni, spaccio di sostanze stupefacenti, usura, ricettazione, ecc.) sono aumentati a partire dal 2010, mentre diminuiscono i reati a carattere non economico, fatta eccezione per l’aumento delle lesioni e delle minacce denunciate nel 2011 e nel 2012. Tra i reati denunciati sono, in particolare, i furti in abitazione ad avere avuto un’impennata nel 2012, con un aumento del 40% rispetto al 2010. Si riducono ulteriormente, invece, gli omicidi, sebbene solo tra gli uomini e non tra le donne. Dal 2011 diminuisce anche la percezione di sicurezza, soprattutto per le donne, così come aumenta la percezione del rischio della zona in cui si vive da parte delle famiglie, in particolare nel 2013.

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP
# Detenuti lavoranti alle dipendenze dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria - Situazione al 30 giugno 2014 - Serie storica semestrale degli anni: 1991 - 2014
www.giustizia.it - www.ristretti.org

 

Martin Maximino
# The effects of prison education programs: Research findings
https://journalistsresource.org/ June 3, 2014
The overall “meta-analytic findings indicate that participation in correctional education programs is associated with a 13 percentage-point reduction in the risk of reincarceration three years following release. Thus, correctional education programs appear to far exceed the break-even point in reducing the risk of reincarceration.

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Direzione Generale di Satistica
# STALKING. Indagine statistica attraverso la lettura dei fascicoli dei procedimenti definiti con sentenze di primo grado
Roma, Giugno 2014
Dall’indagine statistica emerge che il 92% dei processi trae origine da una denuncia della persona offesa, il gran parte delle volte raccolta dall’autorità di PG. In 7 casi su 100 la querela è stata conseguente all’arresto o fermo dell’imputato in flagranza del reato di stalking o di reato connesso...

 

Brigitte Poulailler, Mael Theulière, Odile Timbart
# Le travail d'intérêt général, 30 ans après sa création
Infostat Justice (Bulletin d’information statistique), n. 129, Juin 2014
Le nombre de TIG prononcés a doublé en 20 ans, mais semble se stabiliser depuis 2005, il représente 4 % de l'ensemble des peines prononcées chaque année. Il est deux fois plus fréquent en matière de vols-recels et trois fois plus en matière d'outrages ou de dégradations. Les condamnés qui bénéficient de cette peine sont nettement plus jeunes que pour les autres peines (24 ans en moyenne)...

 

Council of State Governments Justice Center
# Reducing Recidivism: States Deliver Results
http://csgjusticecenter.org/ New York: Council of State Governments Justice Center, June 2014
Research shows that correctional programs with the greatest impact on recidivism sort individuals based on their risk of reoffending. Risk and need assessment tools examine both static (historical and/or demographic) and dynamic (changeable) criminogenic needs (also known as criminogenic risk factors) that research has shown to be associated with criminal behavior and make someone more likely to reoffend. The assessment produces a risk score that allows programs to sort individuals based on risk levels in a consistent and reliable manner, tailor interventions, and prioritize resources for those who are at higher risk of reoffending.

 

Dipartimento Giustizia Minorile
# Dati Statistici - 31 Maggio 2014
www.giustizia.it
L’utenza dei Servizi minorili è prevalentemente maschile; le ragazze sono soprattutto di nazionalità straniera e provengono dall’area dell’ex Jugoslavia e dalla Romania.  La criminalità minorile è connotata dalla prevalenza dei reati contro il patrimonio e, in particolare, dei reati di furto e rapina. Frequenti sono anche le violazioni delle disposizioni in materia di sostanze stupefacenti, mentre tra i reati contro la persona prevalgono le lesioni personali volontarie.

 

# Prévention de la recidve et individualisation de la peine_ chiffres clés
www.justice.gouv.fr/ Réforme pénale : chiffres clés – mai 2014

> 0,4% des infractions en cause sont des crimes, 93,9% des délits > Les infractions routières représentent 36,2% des délits > L’emprisonnement ferme réprime 1 délit sur 5 > Les peines de substitution représentent 11% des réponses pénales > 96% des peines d’emprisonnement ferme prononcées contre les délits sont des  peines inférieures à 3 ans, 78% des peines inférieures à 1 an  > La durée moyenne de la partie ferme des peines prononcées en matière de délit  est de 7,7 mois

 

Ministero degli Affari Esteri
# Annuario Statistico 2014
SISTAN Sistema Statistico Nazionale 2014

 

Andrea Orlando

# L'Europa ci osserva, ma la mia è una riforma totale. Intervista a cura di Eleonora Martini
Il Manifesto, 29 maggio 2014
Facciamo chiarezza sui numeri? I posti disponibili sono circa 40 mila, come sostengono i Radicali e Antigone, o più di 44 mila, come sostiene il Dap? Il dato su cui metto la mano sul fuoco è il numero di detenuti, che sono incontrovertibilmente scesi di circa 7 mila unità dai tempi della sentenza Torreggiani e di quasi 10 mila dai 69 mila del 2010. Mentre è molto più difficile avere un dato certo sui posti effettivamente disponibili, un numero che varia in funzione della momentanea disponibilità delle strutture penitenziarie, ma mi sento di dire che siamo significativamente oltre 40 mila. Anche se su questo capitolo i risultati dei nostri sforzi non sono ancora soddisfacenti.

 

Antigone
# Carceri disumane. Non si fermi lo sguardo europeo
Roma, 27 maggio 2014

 

Glauco Giostra
# La politica della paura che affolla le nostre carceri
Pagina99, 25 maggio 2014

 

Radicali Italiani | Rita Bernardini, Laura Arconti, Deborah Cianfanelli
# Caso Torreggiani e altri contro Italia (No. 43517/09). Informazioni messe a disposizione da Radicali Italiani in virtù dell’art. 9 comma 2 del Regolamento del Comitato dei Ministri per la sorveglianza dell’esecuzione delle sentenze e dei
termini di conciliazione amichevoli

Maggio 2014

 

Council of Europe | Unil Université de Lausanne |  Institut de criminologie et de droit pénal | Marcelo F. Aebi, Natalia Delgrande
# SPACE I – Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: Prison populations.
Strasbourg: Council of Europe, April 2014
# SPACE I 2012 Executive Summary, April 2014

# SPACE II: Persons Serving Non-Custodial Sanctions and Measures in 2012 - Survey 2012
Strasbourg, 29 April 2014

 

Matteo De Longis
# Il problema del sovraffollamento nelle carceri persiste: pubblicato il report del Consiglio d'Europa
www.duitbase.it/ Diritti Umani in Italia, Venerdì, 16 Maggio 2014

 

Rémi Josnin
# Une approche statistique de la récidive des personnes condamnées
Infostat Justice (Bulletin d’information statistique), n. 127, Avril 2014
Le fait de récidiver et la rapidité avec laquelle un condamné va récidiver sont influencés par deux facteurs majeurs :  l’âge et la présence d’antécédents judiciaires. Plus un condamné est jeune (moins de 26 ans), plus il aura de risques de récidiver et plus il le fera rapidement. De même, un condamné déjà récidiviste sera aussi plus enclin et plus prompt à récidiver. La récidive des personnes condamnées est par ailleurs influencée par la nature de l’infraction qu’elles commettent. La condamnation en récidive sanctionne souvent (38 %) le même type d’infraction que la condamnation initiale

 

Matthew R. Durose, Alexia D. Cooper, Howard N. Snyder
# Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010
www.bjs.gov/ Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2014

About two-thirds (67.8%) of released prisoners were arrested for a new crime within 3 years, and three-quarters (76.6%) were arrested within 5 years. Within 5 years of release, 82.1% of property offenders were arrested for a new crime, compared to 76.9% of drug offenders, 73.6% of public order offenders, and 71.3% of violent offenders. More than a third (36.8%) of all prisoners who were arrested within 5 years of release were arrested within the first 6 months after release, with more than half (56.7%) arrested by the end of the first year...

 

# Audizione del Ministro della Giustizia Andrea Orlando in Commissione Giustizia del Senato della Repubblica 23 Aprile 2014

Se anche ci si volesse disinteressare della condizione inflitta ad uomini e donne, se pure si volesse ignorare il richiamo che viene da giurisdizioni internazionali alle quali abbiamo volontariamente aderito, è impossibile rimuovere un dato: il nostro è un sistema costoso che non produce sicurezza se lo si compara con gli altri sistemi del nostro continente.

 

B'Tselem - The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories

# Statistics on Palestinians in the custody of the Israeli security forces

www.btselem.org/ April 2014
At the end of April 2014, 5,021 Palestinian security detainees and prisoners were held in Israeli prisons, 373 of them from the Gaza Strip. An additional 1,333 Palestinians were held in Israel Prison Service facilities for being in Israel illegally, 21 of them from the Gaza Strip. The IPS considers these Palestinians – both detainees and prisoners – criminal offenders.


# Statistics on Palestinians in the custody of the Israeli security forces 1 jan 2014

 

J. M. Delarue | Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté
# Recommandations en urgence du Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté du 26 mars 2014 relatives au quartier des mineurs de la maison d’arrêt de Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone
Journal Officiel de la République Francaise, 23 avril 2014

 

HM Inspectorate of Probattion

# Inspection of Adult Offending Work. An aggregate report on the first six inspections: a focus on violent offending
www.justice.gov.uk/ HMI Probation April 2014
In these inspections we have focused on the quality of work in cases where the primary offence is one of violence. Nationally, work with those who have offended violently forms a significant part of the caseload of Probation Trusts; around 40% are identified as having an index (principal) offence involving violence. This rises to around 43% when robbery is included – robbery is categorised separately  by the National Offender Management Service. By contrast, work with those who offend sexually forms only a small percentage of the national caseload. This aggregate report draws on the data from those inspections, where we examined 437 cases

 

Ministry of Justice
# Progress of Action Plan Submitted to the Department for the Execution of Judgements of the ECHR (Judgment Torreggiani and others v/Italy 43517/09)
Service de l'execution des arrets de la CEDH - DH-DD(2014)471 - 03 Avr. 2014 |
Distributed at the request of Italy

 

Garante delle persone private della libertà personale | Regione Emilia-Romagna
# Relazione annuale delle attività svolte - 2013
Marzo 2014

 

Annie Kensey
# Statistiques pénitentiaires et parc carcéral, entre désencombrement et suroccupation
Criminocorpus. Revue d'Histoire de la justice, des crimes et des peines, mars 2014
La tendance générale à l’augmentation du nombre de personnes détenues s’accompagne cependant d’une tendance inverse du nombre des entrées en détention (tableau 3). Cela signifie que l’indicateur de durée moyenne de détention a considérablement augmenté, passant de 8,6 mois en 2007 à 11,5 mois en 2013, soit 3 mois de plus en 6 ans.

 

Lois M. Davis, Jennifer L. Steele, Robert Bozick, Malcolm Williams, Susan Turner, Jeremy N. V. Miles, Jessica Saunders, Paul S. Steinberg
# Correctional Education in the United States. How Effective Is It, and How Can We Move the Field Forward?
www.rand.org/ 2014
• Correctional education (CE) improves the chances that adult inmates released from prison will not return and may improve their chances of postrelease employment. • Adult CE programs can be cost-effective when it comes to recidivism, yielding about five dollars on average in cost savings for each dollar spent. • Several of the evaluated CE programs for incarcerated juveniles show promise; the field is ripe for larger-scale randomized trials...


# Second Chance Act of 2007: Community Safety Through Recidivism Prevention

 

Lois M. Davis, Jennifer L. Steele, Robert Bozick, Malcolm V. Williams, Susan Turner, Jeremy N. V. Miles, Jessica Saunders, Paul S. Steinberg
# How Effective Is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation
www.rand.org/ 2014
The results of the meta-analysis are truly encouraging. Confirming the results of previous  meta-analyses—while using more (and more recent) studies and an even more rigorous approach to selecting and evaluating them than in the past—the study show that correctional education for incarcerated adults reduces the risk of post-release reincarceration (by 13 percentage points) and does so cost-effectively (a savings of five dollars on reincarceration costs for every dollar spent on correctional education). And when it comes to post-release employment for adults—another  outcome key to successful reentry—researchers find that correctional education may increase such employment.

 

Sabine Cessou
# Prisons across Europe: lessons to be learned from UK's neighbours.
www.theguardian.com/ 29 april 2014
Prison populations have fallen in the Netherlands, Sweden and Germany but elsewhere it is a mixed picture. The Netherlands has more prison staff than prisoners. Sweden is shutting down jails because prisoner numbers have fallen by 10% in under a decade. In Germany, the decline is even starker: a fall of almost 20% since 2005...

 

Luca Rinaldi
# Il mondo dietro le sbarre. Più di 10 milioni di detenuti nel mondo, in Africa circa il 90% è in attesa di giudizio
www.linkiesta.it, 13 aprile 2014
Sono milioni i detenuti nel mondo. Secondo i dati raccolti dall’International Centre of Prison Studies,
sarebbero poco più di dieci milioni. Le strutture carcerarie maggiormente affollate sono quelle africane, dove si toccano picchi di 500 detenuti per 100 posti disponibili. Tra i Paesi europei invece, secondo gli ultimi dati disponibili del Consiglio d’Europa [4], trovano i primi posti della classifica per affollamento delle carceri Cipro, Serbia e Italia (dato medio, circa 140 detenuti ogni 100 posti disponibili), seguiti da Ungheria e Grecia.

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP

# Detenuti presenti - aggiornamento al 31 marzo 2014

www.giustizia.it/ 1 aprile 2014

# Misure alternative, lavoro di pubblica utilità, misure di sicurezza e sanzioni sostitutive - Dati al 31 marzo 2014

www.giustizia.it/ 1 aprile 2014

 

Senato - Commissioni 2^ (Giustizia) e 14^ (Politiche dell'Unione Europea) e II (Giustizia) della Camera dei Deputati)
# Audizione di membri della Commissione libertà civili, giustizia e affari interni del Parlamento europeo
Mercoledì 27 marzo 2014

Stiamo affrontando il problema del sovraffollamento non soltanto per gli effetti che produce e che produrrà la sentenza Torreggiani come sentenza pilota, ma che in realtà deriva da altre condanne (si pensi alla sentenza Sulejmanovic di qualche tempo fa), ma perché ci obbliga l'articolo 27 della nostra Costituzione, che non solo ci impone di ragionare intorno allo spazio da dedicare a ciascun detenuto, come fa la sentenza Torreggiani, ma soprattutto ci induce a ragionare sulla funzione della pena, quella rieducativa e risocializzante.

 

Carolyn W. Deady
# Incarceration and Recidivism: Lessons from Abroad
www.salve.edu/pellcenter/ March 2014
Over 50% of prisoners in the United States will be back in jail within three years of their release. Looking at recidivism in a sample of other countries, the U.S. rate does not appear exceptional. prisoners in the United States are often incarcerated for a lot longer than in other countries. For instance, burglars in the United States serve an average of 16 months in prison compared with 5 months in Canada and 7 months in England. With an emphasis on punishment rather than rehabilitation, U.S. prisoners are often released with no better skills to cope in society and are offered little support after their release, increasing the chances of reoffending. 

 

Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs - European Parliament | Alessandro Davoli, Rosa Raffaelli
# Background information for the LIBE delegation to Italy on the situation of prisons – 26-28 March 2014
www.europarl.europa.eu/studies (Manuscript completed in march 2014)
Prison overcrowding is not only the result of higher crime rates or improved effectiveness in investigating crimes and sanctioning perpetrators. The problem is also related to the excessive length of criminal proceedings and the subsequent pre-trial detention and, above all, it is related to the insufficient use of non-custodial measures.  It is important to underline that the fight against overcrowding in prisons is not only a matter of achieving better material conditions, but also of giving offenders good and human conditions respecting their dignity, with a view to achieving an effective rehabilitation, thus reducing the risk of recidivism with certain positive consequences in terms of increased social security.

 

UNODC
# Global Study on Homicide 2013. Trends, Contexts, Data
www.unodc.org/ March 2014

 

Council of Europe - CPT | European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
# Report to the Croatian Government on the visit to Croatia carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) from 19 to 27 September 2012
http://www.cpt.coe.int/ Strasbourg, 18 March 2014

 

# Council of Europe anti-torture committee calls on Croatia to reduce prison overcrowding - Press release 18 march 2014

In a report published today on its last visit to Croatia, the Council of Europe’s anti-torture committee ( CPT) has called on the authorities to improve material conditions in prisons and to reduce overcrowding, notably at the Zagreb County Prison, which was 225% over its 400 bed capacity...

 

European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice - Commission européenne pour l'efficacité de la justice (CEPEJ)
# Study on the functioning of judicial systems in the EU Member States
http://ec.europa.eu/ Strasbourg, 14 March 2014
Italy: Total annual approved public budget allocated to all courts (including prosecution and legal aid) per capita: 76,65 euros. This ratio is higher than the EU average of 62,22 euros per capita and higher than the EU median of 47,43 euros per capita. According to 2012 data, the number of professional judges sitting in courts in Italy is 6 347, which is 5 % less  than in 2010. This represents 11 judges per 100 000 inhabitants (less than the EU median of 19 judges per 100 000 inhabitants). In Italy, there are 226 202 lawyers (this category does not include the legal advisors), which is 7% more than in 2010.  This data represents 379 lawyers (without legal advisers) per 100 000 inhabitants (higher than the EU  median of 106 lawyers per 100 000 inhabitants) and 35,6 lawyers per professional judges. 

 

European Commission - Directorate-General for Justice # The EU Justice Scoreboard: A tool to promote effective justice and growth, http://ec.europa.eu/ 2013

 

Peter Wagner, Leah Sakala
# A Prison Policy Initiative briefing
www.prisonpolicy.org/ March 12, 2014
More than 2.4 million people in 1,719 state prisons, 102 federal prisons, 2,259 juvenile correctional facilities, 3,283 local jails, and 79 Indian Country jails as well as in military prisons, immigration detention facilities, civil commitment centers, and prisons in the U.S. territories... In addition to the 688,000 people released from prisons each year, almost 12 million people cycle through local jails each year...

 

# J. F. | Minneapolis, America's prison population | Who, what, where and why, www.economist.com/ Mar 13th 2014

 

# Italia: suicidi e decessi dei detenuti: 2000-2014 (9 marzo)

www.ristretti.it

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire | Bureau des études et de la prospective (PMJ5)
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France
www.justice.gouv.fr/ Situation au 1er mars 2014

 

Charlie Bishop | OxPolicy
# Politics Behind Bars. The Effect of Political Engagement on Prisoners
www.oxpolicy.co.uk/ 2.28.2014
The current prison population is 85,389.2 This is up from 84,424 prisoners 12 months ago.3 This is an imprisonment rate of 149 prisoners per 100,000 people.4 4.6% of prisoners are female and 95.4% are male.5 Prisons are operating at 99% operational capacity. 1% of prisoners are under the age of 18. 46.9% of adults are reconvicted within one year of being released. If they are serving a sentence of less than 12 months this increases to 58.5%. There is little variation between sexes. 58% of young people (aged 18-20) are reconvicted within one year. This figure is higher again for children (aged 10-17) at 72.3%.

 

Paolo Buonanno, Francesco Drago and Roberto Galbiati
# How much should we trust crime statistics? A comparison between EU and US
https://spire.sciencespo.fr/ LIEPP Working Paper, February 2014, nº19
Measuring crime is a challenging and crucial task since it is a necessary condition for a correct assessment its determinants and then for the formulation of crime control policies. In a cross-country framework, there are several issues to consider. First, reported crimes underestimate the true (unobserved) number of committed crimes. This fact may be a source of bias in inferential analysis. In particular, measurement error can bias the estimates of the effect of those determinants of criminal activity that are correlated with the extent of under reporting... 

 

Fondazione Leone Moressa

# Carceri italiane: 3 su 4 sono sovraffollate

www.fondazioneleonemoressa.org/ 21 febbraio 2014

Le carceri sovraffollate in Italia sono 156 su 205 (76%). In molti casi i detenuti ospitati sono più del doppio rispetto alla capienza dell’istituto. Guida questa classifica Modena (con 556 detenuti su 221 posti disponibili), seguita da Busto Arsizio (397 su 167) e dal carcere femminile di Pozzuoli (209 detenute su 89 posti). Di contro, molti istituti italiani ospitano un numero di detenuti molto inferiore rispetto alla propria capienza: la più alta percentuale di “posti liberi” si registra a Gorizia (73%), Arezzo (82%) e Crotone (93%).

 

España | Ministerio del Interior
# Numero de internos en los centros penitenciarios. Evolucion semanal
www.acaip.es/ 21.02.2014

 

Giulia Cella
# Presa in carico dei soggetti devianti (detenuti, internati, persone sottoposte a misure alternative) e terzo settore Lo stato attuale nel territorio regionale dell’Emilia-Romagna
Ufficio del Garante per le persone private della libertà personale della Regione Emilia‐Romagna - Dipartimento di Scienze giuridiche dell’Università di Bologna, Gennaio 2014
C’è chi sostiene che le misure alternative rappresentano forse uno strumento di decarcerizzazione, ma non costituiscono un mezzo attivo di reinserimento sociale perché la loro efficacia sarebbe prevalentemente dipendente dall’entità effettiva del capitale sociale del condannato. Si può anche convenire sul punto, ma questo non toglie validità ad un elemento decisivo: allo stato attuale del nostro sistema penale disponiamo di questa “scatola degli attrezzi”. Le misure alternative costituiscono, oggi, l’unica alternativa alla carcerizzazione che non si traduca, molto semplicemente, nella mera rinuncia dello Stato all’esercizio dello jus puniendi.

 

Lynne Lyman
# Governor Brown Given Another Chance to Offer Real Solutions to Prison Overcrowding in California
www.huffingtonpost.com/ 02/12/2014

When LA Times reporter Paige St. John tweeted that private prison industry leader Corrections Corporation of America's (CCA) stock took a nose dive after the federal judges announced they would give California two additional years to reduce the state prison population to 137 percent of design capacity...

 

Urban Institute | Nancy LaVigne, Samuel Bieler, Lindsey Cramer, Helen Ho, Cybele Kotonias, Deborah Mayer, David McClure, Laura Pacifici, Erika Parks, Bryce Peterson, Julie Samuels
# Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report
www.urban.org/ January 2014
Probationers and parolees were returning to jail and prison for failing to comply with the terms of community supervision, either by committing new crimes or by violating the terms of their release. Justice system analysis in 17 JRI states found that the revocation of supervision was a key population and cost driver. In some JRI (Justice Reinvestment Initiative) states, a substantial portion of revocations—sometimes more than half—was for technical violations rather than new crimes.

 

DAP Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenzaria

# Quadro statistico al 31 dicembre 2013 | # Serie storica 1991-2013
www.giustizia.it -|- www.ristretti.org | gennaio 2014

- Detenuti presenti - 31 dicembre 2013  ...per posizione giuridica  Ingressi dalla libertà  Detenuti condannati per pena inflitta ... per pena residua  Detenuti italiani e stranieri presenti e capienze per istituto  Indice di affollamento, per Istituto  Legge 199/2010   Permessi premio  Detenuti per area di provenienza  Detenuti stranieri presenti - Detenuti per tipologia di reato... per stato civile... per classi di età... per titolo di studio... Detenuti per numero di figli   Detenuti per regionedi nascita...  per regione di residenza  Numero di suicidi, per Istituto  Confronto con Dossier “Morire di carcere” - Anno 2013  Numero di tentati suicidi, per Istituto  Numero di atti autolesionistici, per Istituto - Anno 2013

 

Pierre V. Tournier
# Temps passé sous écrou, temps passé en détention (2001-2012) - Estimations -
http://pierre-victortournier.blogspot.fr/ Janvier 2014
Au-delà de ces effectifs à une date donnée (statistique de stock), nous publions régulièrement, dans le tableau de bord d’OPALE, des données de flux d’entrées sous écrou et un indicateur de la durée moyenne du placement sous écrou. Nous avons introduit cet indicateur, dans le champ pénal, au début des 1980. Il est calculé à partir de la formule fondamentale en analyse démographique : P = E x d

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Le Moschee negli Istituti di Pena
Sezione III – Analisi e Monitoraggi 2013

Sulla base delle nazionalità di appartenenza dei soggetti si è potuto, inoltre, stimare che circa 13.500 provengono da Paesi tradizionalmente di religione musulmana... Attraverso una verifica più approfondita si è constatato che, dei detenuti di origine musulmana, ben 8.732 sarebbero osservanti, ossia effettuano la preghiera secondo i precetti della propria religione, mentre 4.768 sembrerebbero non interessarsene. Dei detenuti osservanti è risultato che 181 svolgono la funzione di Imam e pertanto conducono la preghiera, 29 si sono posti in evidenza come promotori di iniziative riguardanti l’esercizio del culto e 19 i sono detenuti convertiti all’islam durante la detenzione.

 

 

Lauren E. Glaze, Erinn J. Herberman
# Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012
Bureau of Justice Statistics December 2013
At yearend 2012, the combined U.S. adult correctional systems supervised about 6,937,600 offenders, down by about 51,000 offenders during the year (figure 1). The decrease observed during 2012 marked the fourth consecutive year of decline in the correctional population. However, this was the smallest decrease (down 0.7%) since the correctional population first declined in 2009, reversing a three-year trend of increasing rates of decline that started in 2009 and continued through 2011. About 1 in every 35 adult residents in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision at yearend 2012, the lowest rate observed since 1997.

 

Laura M. Maruschak, Thomas P. Bonczar | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2012
www.bjs.gov/ December 2013
During 2012, the number of adults under community supervision declined for the fourth consecutive year. At yearend 2012, an estimated 4,781,300 adults were under community supervision, down 40,500 offenders from the beginning of the year. About 1 in 50 adults in the United States was under community supervision at yearend 2012. The community supervision population includes adults on probation, parole, or any other post-prison supervision.

 

Erica L. Smith, Alexia Cooper | U.S. Department of Justice | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Homicide in the U.S. Known to Law Enforcement, 2011
www.bjs.gov/ December 2013
In 2011, an estimated 14,610 persons were victims of homicide in the United States, according to FBI data on homicides known to state and local law enforcement . This is the lowest number of homicide victims since 1968, and marks the fifth consecutive year of decline. The homicide rate in 2011 was 4.7 homicides per 100,000 persons, the lowest level since 1963. This homicide rate was also 54% below its peak of 10.2 per 100,000 persons in 1980 and 17% below the rate in 2002 (5.6 homicides per 100,000).

 

E. Ann Carson, Daniela Golinelli (BJS Statisticians)
# Prisoners in 2012. Trends in Admissions and Releases, 1991–2012
www.bjs.gov/ Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2013
Between 1978 and 2009, the number of prisoners held in federal and state facilities in the United States increased almost 430%, from 294,400 on December 31, 1978, to 1,555,600 on December 31, 2009. This growth occurred because the number of prison admissions exceeded the number of releases from state prisons each year. However, in 2009, prison releases exceeded  admissions for the first time in more than 31 years, beginning the decline in the total yearend prison population. Admissions to state and federal prisons declined by 118,900 offenders (down 16.3%) between  2009 and 2012. In 2012, the number of admissions (609,800) was the lowest since 1999, representing a 9.2% decline (down 61,800 offenders) from 2011.

 

Marie Crétenot
# From national practices to European guidelines: interesting initiatives in prisons management
European Prison Observatory. Detention conditions in the European Union, december 2013
The European Prison Observatory (EPO) was launched in Rome in February 2013 and operates in 8 countries (France, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Spain). Through quantitative and qualitative analysis, the EPO monitors and analyses the present conditions of the different national prison systems and the related systems of alternatives to detention in Europe, comparing these conditions to the international norms and standards relevant for the protections of inmates’ fundamental rights, particularly the European Prison Rules (EPR) of the Council of Europe

 

Fondazione Giovanni Michelucci | Garante regionale delle persone sottoposte a misure restrittive
della libertà personale della Toscana
# Il carcere al tempo della crisi
Consiglio regionale della Toscana - Firenze, dicembre 2013
Alessandro Margara: Punti interrogativi | Franco Corleone: Si sa tutto, non si fa nulla | Mauro Palma: La tutela dei diritti fondamentali in carcere | Jonathan Simon: I diritti fondamentali e lo Stato penale: le Corti possono fermare la carcerazione di massa? | Richard Garside: Strategie per fermare la crescita della popolazione detenuta nel Regno Unito | Iñaki Rivera Beiras, Monica Aranda Ocaña: Il carcere in Spagna al tempo della crisi | Nils Christie: La riparazione dopo le atrocità. È possibile? | Marella Santangelo: L’architettura del carcere. Tendenze attuali e stato dell’arte | Massimo Pavarini: Dalla Repubblica della decarcerizzazione alla distribuzione selettiva della sicurezza | Melissa Costagli: Gli Standard del CPT e la detenzione in Toscana | Saverio Migliori, Alessio Scandurra: I numeri della detenzione in Italia e in Toscana | Commissione ministeriale per le questioni penitenziarie: Relazione al Ministro di Giustizia sugli interventi in atto e gli interventi da programmare | Comitato Nazionale di Bioetica: La salute dentro le mura | Messaggio alle Camere del Presidente della Repubblica sulla questione carceraria

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France - situation au 1er décembre 2013
http://www.justice.gouv.fr/

 

# Statistiques trimestrielles de la population prise en charge en milieu ouvert Situation au 1er juillet 2013

 

 

Istat
# Annuario statistico italiano 2013 - Giustizia
www.istat.it/ 19 dicembre 2013

I reati più comuni (il condannato che ha commesso più delitti è stato classificato secondo quello per cui la Legge prevede la pena più grave) sono stati anche per il 2011 il furto e i delitti in materia di sostanze stupefacenti (12,6 e 11,1 per cento rispettivamente, percentuali sostanzialmente invariate rispetto al 2010). Per l’80,4 per cento dei condannati la sentenza ha previsto la pena della reclusione (ed eventualmente una sanzione pecuniaria), mentre nel rimanente 19,6 per cento dei casi è stata comminata solo una multa. Tra i condannati per delitto iscritti nell’anno 2011, circa la metà (49.0 per cento) aveva precedenti penali, dato anche questo sostanzialmente invariato rispetto al 2010...

 

Intervita
# Quanto Costa il Silenzio? Indagine nazionale sui costi economici e sociali della violenza contro le donne
www.intervita.it/ 2013
Sommando il totale dei costi stimati dell’amministrazione della giustizia civile, penale e minorile con quello per la detenzione carceraria, il totale dei costi giudiziari per la violenza contro le donne ammonta a 421,3 milioni di Euro. 

 

Antigone - Per i diritti e le garanzie nel sistema penale
# X Rapporto Nazionale sulle Condizioni di Detenzione - L'Europa ci guarda
Edizioni Gruppo Abele 2013

Capienza regolamentare: 47.649 posti. Da tempo Antigone sostiene però che il numero effettivo dei posti disponibili sia decisamente inferiore, intorno ai 37.000, dato ora confermato dalla stessa Ministra Cancellieri: “Questa storia del numero dei posti letto in carcere è tutta vera, avete  ragione voi. Sono effettivamente meno”. Sovraffollamento: 134,4%, ovvero in 100 posti sarebbero detenute più di 134 persone. È uno dei valori più alti in Europa, ma se si fa riferimento alla capienza effettiva stimata da Antigone, e confermata dalla Ministra, questa percentuale schizza ad oltre il 173%...

 

Vladimiro Polchi
# Carceri, "Una macchina costosa indifferente di fronte al suo fallimento" con meno posti letto di quelli dichiarati
www.repubblica.it/ 19 dicembre 2013

 

California Department of Corrections And Rehabilitation
# Realignment Report. An Examination of Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Year of Public Safety Realignment
www.cdcr.ca.gov/ Office of Research December 2013

California’s Public Safety Realignment Act of 2011 transferred jurisdiction and funding for managing lower-level criminal offenders from the State to the counties. Under Realignment, for example, certain offenders began serving their felony sentences in jail rather than prison. Realignment also changed California’s system of community corrections.

 

Australian Bureau of Statistics
# Prisoners
www.abs.gov.au/ 5 Dec 2013
Prisoners selected characteristics by selected most serious offence/charge - selected characteristics, 1997–2013 - age by sex - most serious offence/charge and sex by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status ... most serious offence/charge by legal status and sex - most serious offence/charge by legal status, prior imprisonment and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status | Sentenced Prisoners sex by most serious offence, 2003–2013 ... most serious offence by sentence length ... Unsentenced Prisoners most serious charge by time on remand...

 

Roy Walmsley - International Centre for Prison Studies ICPS

# World Prison Population List 10th edition

www.prisonstudies.org/ 21 november 2013
More than 10.2 million people are held in penal institutions throughout the world, mostly as pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners or as sentenced prisoners. Almost half of these are in the United States (2.24m), Russia (0.68m) or China (1.64m sentenced prisoners). In addition at least 650,000 are reported to be in pre-trial or ‘administrative’ detention in China and 150,000 in North Korea (D.P.R.K.); if these were included the world total would be more than 11 million.

# World Prison Population List (ninth edition) 19.07.2011

# World Prison Population List (eighth edition) 30.01.2009

# World Prison Population List (7th Edition) 30.01.2007

# World Prison Population List (6th Edition) 30.01.2005

 

# Eurostat Prison Population 1999-2009

# Eurostat Prison Population 2001-2010

 

Joan Petersilia, Sara Abarbanel, John Butler, Mark Feldman, Mariam Hinds, Kevin Jason, Corinne Keel, Matt Owens, Camden Vilkin
# Voices from the Field: How California Stakeholders View Public Policy Safety Realignment
www.law.stanford.edu/ Stanford Law School November 2013
Passage of California’s Public Safety Realignment Act (AB 109) initiated the most sweeping correctional experiment in recent history. Launched on October 1, 2011, Realignment shifted responsibility for most lower-level offenders from the state to California’s 58 counties. By mid-2013, more than 100,000 felons had been diverted from state prison to county jail or probation.

 

Roberta Palmisano
# Prison overcrowding: the Italian experience
www.era.int/ Strasbourg, 14-15 November 2013

 

Joël Creusat
# Les délais de la mise à exécution des peines d’emprisonnement ferme
Infostat Justice (Bulletin d’information statistique), n. 124, Novembre 2013
Une peine d’emprisonnement ferme sur deux est mise à exécution à moins de 3,7 mois. Toutefois, ce délai varie en fonction du type de procédures ayant conduit à la condamnation. Ainsi, 30 % des peines sont exécutées à l’audience, donc sans délai et dans les autres cas une peine sur deux est exécutée à moins de 7,4 mois. En outre, le délai de mise à exécution peut être multiplié par deux, si le condamné (absent à son procès) est recherché par les services de Police ou de Gendarmerie. Les peines les plus lourdes sont exécutées le plus rapidement et l’aménagement de la peine retarde peu la mise à exécution.

 

Ministry of Justice

# Prison Population Projections  2013 – 2019 England and Wales

www.gov.uk/ 7 november 2013

By the end of June 2019, the prison population is projected to be 77,300 in the Scenario 1 projection, 81,800 in the Scenario 2 projection and 86,600 in the Scenario 3 projection.

 

Christopher T. Lowenkamp, Marie VanNostrand | Laura and John Arnold Foundation ljaf
# Exploring the Impact of Supervision on Pretrial Outcomes
http://arnoldfoundation.org/ November, 2013
The time it takes to process a case from arrest to disposition can differ substantially from one case to the next. This means that some defendants have significantly more time during which they might fail to appear or be arrested for new criminal activity than others. In order to control for this time differential, a measure was created called “time at risk in the community” (commonly referred to as “time at risk”). This measure simply captured the number of days from the date of release from jail to the date of case disposition.

 

Robert Weisberg, Lisa T. Quan
# Assessing Judicial Sentencing Preferences After Public Safety Realignment: A Survey of California Judges
www.law.stanford.edu/ Stanford Law School - Stanford Criminal Justice Center- November 2013
Public Safety Realignment (“AB 109”) made drastic changes to California’s criminal justice system by transferring authority for the supervision of most non-violent, nonserious, and non-sexual offenders from the state to the 58 counties. This study aims to better examine the perceived effect of AB 109 on Superior Court (trial) judges in California who sentence offenders... The responses revealed judicial preferences that emphasize a desire to deploy sentencing to manage offenders. The preferences generally aim at a combination of a “taste of jail” and rigorous community supervision, whether that is a traditional felony probation sentence...

 

Istat

# I condannati con sentenza definitiva nel periodo 2000-2011
www.istat.it/ 18 novembre 2013

Pene superiori a 10 anni (mediana della distribuzione) per i reati punibili con la reclusione sono state comminate solo nelle sentenze in cui il delitto più grave è l’omicidio volontario o il sequestro di persona a scopo di rapina o estorsione16. La maggior parte dei delitti considerati, invece, ha comportato una reclusione inferiore a un anno. Pene di reclusione mediana tra 1 e 2 anni sono invece più spesso comminate nelle sentenze in cui il delitto più grave è l’impiego di denaro di provenienza illecita, l’usura, il peculato, l’associazione per delinquere, i delitti previsti dalle leggi sull’uso e la detenzione di armi, la corruzione, le violazioni delle leggi in materia di stupefacenti e sostanze psicotrope. Condanne con pene mediane di reclusione più alte, tra 2 e 5 anni, sono state assegnate in anni recenti in sentenze aventi come reato più grave la concussione, la rapina, l’estorsione, il riciclaggio, la violenza sessuale.

 

Rémi Josnin
# La récidive plus fréquente et plus rapide chez les jeunes condamnés
www.insee.fr/
 France, portrait social 2013

En 2004, 500 000 personnes ont fait l’objet d’une condamnation pour un délit ou une contravention « grave », inscrite dans le casier judiciaire. Parmi elles, quatre sur dix ont déjà des antécédents judiciaires au moment de la condamnation de 2004. Entre 2004 et 2011, si l’on exclut les infractions à la circulation routière, qui constituent un cas de récidive fréquent et atypique, 38 % des condamnés ont récidivé. Ce taux de récidive atteint 59 % pour les condamnés présentant des antécédents judiciaires. Environ 40 %des récidivistes retournent devant la Justice pour la même infraction que celle sanctionnée en 2004.

 

Richard Orange 
# Sweden closes four prisons as number of inmates plummets

The Guardian, Monday 11 November 2013
Decline partly put down to strong focus on rehabilitation and more lenient sentences for some offences... Prison numbers in Sweden, which have been falling by around 1% a year since 2004, dropped by 6% between 2011 and 2012 and are expected to do the same again both this year and next year.

 

HM Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2012–13
www.justice.gov.uk/ 23 October 2013

The total prison population fell from 87,868 at the end of March 2012 to 84,596 at the end of March 2013, a welcome fall of almost 4%.  The extent to which the total prison population was overcrowded or operating above its certified normal accommodation in use fell from 11% to 7.1%

 

Annamaria Cancellieri

# Audizione del guardasigilli Annamaria Cancellieri in Commissione Giustizia Camera
www.giustizia.it giovedì 17 ottobre 2013
 # Allegati

Il reato per il quale è ristretto il maggior numero di detenuti è quello di produzione e spaccio di stupefacenti. Per tali fattispecie sono ristrette ben 23.094 persone (di queste 14.378 sono condannate definitivamente mentre 8.657 sono in custodia cautelare e 59 internate); il secondo reato è la rapina con 9.473 presenze (5.801 sono i definitivi, 3564 i giudicabili e 108 gli internati); il terzo reato è l’omicidio volontario con 9.077 presenze (6.049 sono i definitivi, 2.792 i giudicabili e 236 gli internati); il quarto è l’estorsione con 4.238 presenze (2.180 sono i definitivi mentre 1.982 sono i giudicabili e 76 gli internati); il quinto reato, come detto, è il furto con 3.853 presenze (1.952 sono i definitivi, 1.824 i giudicabili e 77 gli internati); il sesto reato è la violenza sessuale con 2.755 presenze (2.001 sono i definitivi, 709 i giudicabili e 45 gli internati); il settimo è la ricettazione con 2.732 presenze (1.897 sono i definitivi, 809 i giudicabili e 26 gli internati).

 

ACLU American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico
# Inside the Box: The Real Costs of Solitary Confinement in New Mexico's Prisons and Jails
http://nmpovertylaw.org/
October 2013
The American Bar Association deines long-term solitary coninement as longer than 30 days.14 According to the NMCD, in 2013 the combined average length of stay for prisoners conined to Levels V and VI in New Mexico’s “supermax” is 1,072 days – that is, almost three years... in the Santa Fe County Jail, on December 21, 2012, almost 20 percent of the prisoners – ive out of 28 – had been held in solitary coninement for more than 6 months... It is crucial to note that 95 percent of prisoners are eventually released to the public.29 How these prisoners are treated while detained plays a substantial role in determining how they will adjust to public life and whether or not they re-engage in criminal activity once released. Those who have experienced extreme solitary coninement, and especially those with mental illness, re-enter society ill-equipped to handle the “free world” in a healthy, constructive way.

 

European Commission
# The EU Justice Scoreboard.A Tool to Promote Effective Justice and Growth

http://ec.europa.eu/ European Union 2013
The objective of the EU Justice Scoreboard (‘the Scoreboard’) is to assist the EU and the Member States to achieve more effective justice by providing objective, reliable and comparable data on the functioning of the justice systems of all Member States. Quality, independence and efficiency are the key components of an 'effective justice system'. Providing information on these components in all Member States contributes to identifying potential shortcomings and good examples and supports the development of justice policies at national and at EU level.

 

England and Wales - Ministry of Justice
# Offender Management Statistics Quarterly Bulletin April to June 2013
Statistics bulletin 31 October 2013

30 september 2013: Prison population 84,488 | Under sentence 71,113 | The total annual probation caseload (court orders and pre and post release supervision) increased by 39% between 2000 and 2008 to 243,434. Since then the probation caseload has fallen year on year, reaching 224,823 at the end of 2012

 

Alan Travis
# Jail population spike threatens whole system, governors warn. Chiefs remind justice secretary Chris Grayling that rise in inmates follows decision to close four prisons
The Guardian, Wednesday 16 October 2013

A sudden rise in the jail population in England and Wales is threatening the stability of the system, prison governors have warned. They say the spike in the number of inmates, to 84,832, has led to some jails reaching their capacity just as the justice secretary, Chris Grayling, has ordered prison closures. Eoin Mclennan-Murray, the president of the Prison Governors Association (PGA), said he was concerned that an increase of 635 extra prisoners had come over the past four weeks, as four prisons had were earmarked for closure. He said the usable capacity of the prison system in England and Wales was 86,058 places, but many spare cells were in young offenders' institutions and women's prisons, and were unsuitable for adult male prisoners.

 

Lauren Galik and Julian Morris
# Smart on Sentencing, Smart on Crime: An Argument for Reforming Louisiana’s Determinate Sentencing Laws
https://reason.org/ Reason Foundation, Policy Study 425. October 2013
Nonviolent offenders who pose little or no threat to society are routinely sentenced to exceedingly long terms in prison with no opportunity for parole, probation or suspension of sentence, in most cases as a direct result of the state’s  determinate sentencing laws. These prisoners consume disproportionate amounts of Louisiana’s scarce prison resources... The study suggests... reforms that might be described as “smart on sentencing, smart on crime.”...

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ Autumn 2013

On 11 October 2013, the prison population in England and Wales was 84,078. In 1992-93, the average prison population was 44,628. England and Wales has an imprisonment rate of 149 per 100,000 of the population. France has an imprisonment rate of 102 per 100,000 and Germany has a rate of 83 per 100,000. Between 2002 and 2012, the prison population in England and Wales grew by 14,830 or 21%. During this period the number on remand fell by 13%, while those sentenced to immediate custody rose by 28%. 26,386 new prison places were provided between 1997-98 and 2011-12. Prisons are getting larger, with a drive to close small community and open prisons, build larger jails and add additional capacity to existing establishments. There are now 28 prisons in England and Wales holding more than 1,000 men each...

 

Joseph Murray, Daniel Ricardo de Castro Cerqueira, Tulio Kahn
# Crime and violence in Brazil: Systematic review of time trends, prevalence rates and risk factors
Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 18, Issue 5, September–October 2013
Between 1980 and 2010 there were 1 million homicides in Brazil. Dramatic increases in homicide rates followed rises in inequality, more young men in the population, greater availability of firearms, and increased drug use. Nevertheless, disarmament legislation may have helped reduce homicide rates in recent years. Despite its very high rate of lethal violence, Brazil appears to have similar levels of general criminal victimization as several other Latin American and North American countries. Brazil has lower rates of drug use compared to other countries such as the United States, but the prevalence of youth drug use in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years.

 

Valentina Calderone

# Carceri, i numeri della vergogna
l'Unità, 9 ottobre 2013
Con un tasso di sovraffollamento del 136 per cento, nelle carceri italiane sono ospitati 64.758 detenuti (al 30 settembre 2013), contro una capienza regolamentare di 47.615. Gli stranieri sono 22.770 e le donne 2.821. Se leggiamo i dati sulle presenza con riferimento alla posizione giuridica, scopriamo che ben 12.333 persone sono in carcere ancora in attesa di primo giudizio e che altre 12.302 stanno aspettando una sentenza definitiva. I condannati in tutti e tre i gradi - a esclusione degli internati e di quelli la cui posizione è al momento indefinibile - sono invece 38.845. Questo significa che quasi il 40 per cento dei detenuti nelle nostre carceri sono da presumersi non colpevoli, così come recita l'articolo 2 della Costituzione. Altra nota dolente, il ricorso alle misure alternative...

 

Franck Johannès
# La surpopulation carcérale, un problème inextricable en période de disette budgétaire
Le Monde | 28.09.2013
67.088 détenus, pour 57.473 places... Le problème des prisons est le clou dans la chaussure de tous les gardes des sceaux, mais l'impasse, aujourd'hui, est totale. Pour la deuxième année consécutive, le budget de l'administration pénitentiaire (3,236 milliards d'euros) est supérieur à celui de la justice judiciaire. Et c'est encore très insuffisant.

 

Instituto Nacionalde Estadistica INE | Notas de prensa
# Estadística de Condenados: Adultos / Estadística de Condenados: Menores - Año 2012
www.ine.es/ 19 de septiembre de 2013
El número de personas condenadas por sentencia firme inscritas en el Registro Central de Penados se situó en 221.063, un 0,2% menos que el año anterior. El número de menores condenados por sentencia firme inscritos en el Registro Central de Sentencias de Responsabilidad Penal de los Menores fue 16.172, un 5,1% inferior al del año 2011. Los delitos contra la seguridad vial fueron los más numerosos en el caso de los condenados adultos (38,7% de los delitos) y los robos,  en el caso de los menores (41,3%). El 54,3% de las penas impuestas, tanto principales como accesorias, fueron penas privativas de otros derechos. El 25,9% fueron penas privativas de libertad, el 19,4% penas de multa y el 0,4% expulsiones del territorio nacional. Entre las penas privativas de otros derechos, la más frecuente fue la de inhabilitación  especial para empleo (18,6% del total). Entre las penas privativas de libertad, la más frecuente fue la pena de prisión (25,5% del total).

 

Alessandro Maculan, Daniela Ronco, Francesca Vianello
# Prisons in Europe: Overview and Trends
European Prison Observatory, september 2013

 

Institute for Policy Analysis of Conlict (IPAC)
# Prison Problems: Planned and Unplanned Releases of Convicted Extremists in Indonesia
IPAC Report No.2, 2 September 2013

 

Ted Goertzel, Ekaterina Shohat, Tulio Kahn, André Zanetic, and Dmitriy Bogoyavlenskiy
# Homicide Booms and Busts: A Small-N Comparative Historical Study
Homicides Studies, 2013
Homicide booms and busts are long-term phenomena that can best be studied with comparative historical methods. They cannot easily be explained by enduring socioeconomic inequalities because these persist during boom and bust periods alike. Historical changes that may help to lower homicide rates in the long run sometimes cause homicide booms in the short term. Modern policing methods have helped to end homicide booms without first resolving underlying social problems, but this may be possible only when the conditions are propitious.

 

UN Human Rights | Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
# “Unspeakable atrocities” reported by the UN Inquiry into the Human Rights Situation in North Korea
http://www.ohchr.org/ 17 september 2013
... He cited a host of alleged abuses, ranging from abductions, torture and a policy of inter-generational punishment to arbitrary detention in prison camps marked by deliberate starvation and “unspeakable atrocities.”
“We heard from ordinary people who faced torture and imprisonment for doing nothing more than watching foreign soap operas or holding a religious belief,” said Kirby, a retired Australian judge with broad international experience...

 

Amnesty International
# North Korea: New images show blurring of prison camps and villages
www.amnesty.org/ 7 march 2013
Hundreds of thousands of people—including children—are held in political prison camps and other detention facilities in North Korea. According to former detainees prisoners are forced to work in slave-like conditions and are frequently subjected to torture and other ill-treatment

 

International Centre for Prisons Studies

# Democratic Republic of North Korea

 

Ram Subramanian, Alison Shames
# Sentencing and Prison Practices in Germany and the Netherlands: Implications for the United States
www.vera.org/ Vera Institute of Justice, 2013
Normalize the conditions within prison. In the United States, many jurisdictions, like Michigan, Ohio, and others, have begun the process of “reentry” at the prison gate, reordering priorities, housing assignments, and programming based on what will be needed after prison... Total control, hard cells, and inadequate programming do not and cannot prepare well the more than 95 percent of prisoners who will return to our communities.

 

Nigel Newcomen | Prisons and Probation Ombudsman (PPO) for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2012–2013
www.ppo.gov.uk/ September 2013
Complaints:  5,374 complaints were received this year, 80 more than last year. Of these 4,894 (91) were about the Prison Service, 369 (7%) were about the Probation Service and 111 (2%) were about immigration detention.

 

The Howard League for Penal Reform
# Revealed: The true scale of overcrowding in prisons in England and Wales
www.howardleague.org/ 2 september 2013
Almost 20,000 prisoners were kept in overcrowded cells last year, figures obtained by the Howard League for Penal Reform reveal today (2 September). New research by the charity illustrates the true scale of prison overcrowding in England and Wales – showing that the problem is far greater than ministers have suggested. The figures show that, during the financial year 2012-13, about 19,140 prisoners on average were forced to share a cell designed for one person. A further 777 prisoners were made to sleep three to a cell, when the cells were designed to accommodate only two. Official government prison population announcements mask the full extent of overcrowding because they do not state how many cells are holding more prisoners than they are designed to. The worst-affected prison in England and Wales was Wandsworth, where on a typical day 835 prisoners were forced to share cells which contain an open toilet.

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire | Bureau des études et de la prospective
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France | situation au 1er septembre 2013
www.justice.gouv.fr/
Densité carcérale: - 7 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 200 %, - 30 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 150 et inférieure à 200 %, - 58 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 120 et inférieure à 150 %, - 29 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 100 et inférieure à 120 %, - 127 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité inférieure à 100 %

 

Stéfan Lollivier, Christophe Soullez (Sous la direction de)
# INHESJ / ONDRP – Synthèse du Rapport 2013 La criminalité en France
www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/ 2013

 

Eurostat | Gert Bogers, Athina Karvounaraki, Steve Clarke, Cynthia Tavares
# Trafficking in human beings
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/ 2013 edition

 

México Evalúa, Centro de Análisis de Políticas Públicas
# La cárcel en México: ¿Para qué?
www.mexicoevalua.org/ Agosto 2013
Usamos la cárcel intensiva e irracionalmente. En nuestros códigos, el 95 por ciento de los delitos tiene contemplada la prisión. En los hechos, no existen sanciones alternativas a la cárcel porque no existen los mecanismos ni la infraestructura para hacerlas operables. En nuestro ambiente de opinión tan agraviado por el crimen, insistimos en la cárcel como castigo ejemplar para todo tipo de delitos. Sin embargo, en el caso de delitos menores y no violentos, otros mecanismos de sanciones pudieran ser más efectivos y menos onerosos en términos sociales y económicos. Las cárceles mexicanas en su condición actual son espacios propicios al contagio criminógeno.

 

Department of Corrections - New Zealand
# Prison facts and statistics - June 2013
www.corrections.govt.nz/ 30 August 2013
This page shows statistical information on the: number of prisoners in each prison; total prison population | Breakdowns of the prison population by: ages; offence type; ethnicity; security classification; percentage of prisoners on life or preventive detention sentences

 

Dan Roberts, Karen McVeigh 
# Eric Holder unveils new reforms aimed at curbing US prison population. Reversing years of tough Washington rhetoric, attorney general calls levels of US incarceration 'ineffective and unsustainable
theguardian.com, Monday 12 August 2013
Reversing years of toughening political rhetoric in Washington, attorney general Eric Holder declared that levels of incarceration at federal, state and local levels had become both "ineffective and unsustainable." The Department of Justice will now instruct prosecutors to side-step federal sentencing rules by not recording the amount of drugs found on non-violent dealers not associated with larger gangs or cartels. "Our system is in many ways broken," Holder told the American Bar Association in San Francisco. "As the so-called war on drugs enters its fifth decade we need to ask whether it has been fully effective and usher in a new approach." "Too many Americans go to too many prisons for far too long and for no truly good law enforcement reason," he said, adding later: "We cannot simply prosecute or incarcerate our way to becoming a safer country."

 

Steve Clarke
# Trends in crime and criminal justice, 2010
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/ Statistics in focus 18/2013
The latest collection of data indicates a general tendency towards a decrease in the levels of recorded crime across European Union Member States between 2007 and 2010. The number of most types of crimes recorded by the police in the European Union has fallen. While crimes linked to drug trafficking, robbery and violent crimes decreased between 3 and 6 % between 2007 and 2010, the number of motor vehicle thefts has fallen substantially faster over the same period (-23 %).  In contrast, domestic burglary is a category with a rising trend in the European Union. Compared to 2007, 7 % more cases of domestic burglary were reported in 2010.

 

Pierre V. Tournier

# Population sous écrou, population détenue au 1er juillet 2013 : nouveaux records
http://pierre-victortournier.blogspot.it/
« Arpenter le Champ pénal » (ACP) | vendredi 26 juillet 2013
Au 1er juillet 2013, le nombre de personnes sous écrou est de 80 700 (France entière) : 17 318 prévenus détenus, 51 251 condamnés détenus (soit 68 569 personnes détenues), 10 846 condamnés placés sous surveillance électronique en aménagement de peine, 629 condamnés placés sous surveillance électronique en fin de peine et 656 condamnés en placement à l’extérieur, sans hébergement pénitentiaire. Le taux de placement sous écrou est de 123 pour 100 000 habitants et le taux de détention de 105 pour 100 000 habitants.

 

House of Commons Justice Committee
# Women offenders: after the Corston Report. Second Report of Session 2013-14
www.publications.parliament.uk/ 15 July 2013
Five years after the March 2007 publication of Baroness Corston’s report A review of women with particular vulnerabilities in the criminal justice system (hereafter “the Corston Report”), which made a series of recommendations to drive improvement in the women's criminal justice agenda, we decided to hold an inquiry to review progress and examine current strategy and practice with respect to female offenders and those at risk of offending...

 

E. Ann Carson and Daniela Golinelli BJS
# Prisoners in 2012 - Advance Counts
http://www.bjs.gov/ July 2013
The U.S. prison population declined for the third consecutive year, falling to an estimated 1,571,013 prisoners at yearend 2012. This was down 27,770 prisoners (1.7%) from yearend 2011. California had the greatest population decline, with 15,035 fewer prisoners than in 2011 in part due to the state’s Public Safety Realignment policy

 

Erica Goode
# U.S. Prison Populations Decline, Reflecting New Approach to Crime
New York Times | July 25, 2013
The prison population in the United States dropped in 2012 for the third consecutive year, according to federal statistics released on Thursday, in what criminal justice experts said was the biggest decline in the nation’s recent history, signaling a shift away from an almost four-decade policy of mass imprisonment. The number of inmates in state and federal prisons decreased by 1.7 percent, to an estimated 1,571,013 in 2012 from 1,598,783 in 2011, according to figures released by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, an arm of the Justice Department. Although the percentage decline appeared small, the fact that it followed decreases in 2011 and 2010 offers persuasive evidence of what some experts say is a “sea change” in America’s approach to criminal punishment.

 

Vera Institute of Justice
# The Potential of Community Corrections: To Improve Communities and Reduce Incarceration
www.vera.org/ July 2013
Community corrections supervises people who are under the authority of the  criminal justice system but who are not in prison or jail. In 2009, more than five million people in the United States were supervised in the community by the criminal justice system. Community-based corrections supervision is less expensivethan prison or jail and can be a source of positive change for communities. By keeping individuals in the community and offering supervision, intervention, and services that are responsive to their risk and needs to prevent reoffending, community supervision can improve public safety and, with it, the viability of neighborhoods that are most affected by crime and large numbers of people returning from prison.

 

New Mexico Corrections Department (NMCD)
# Evidence-Based Programs to Reduce Recidivism and Improve Public Safety in Adult Corrections
www.nmlegis.gov/ July 2013
Ninety-five percent of incarcerated offenders will be released back into the community. About 50 percent of offenders will return to prison within five years... Reducing recidivism, even by just 10 percent, can save millions. Rigorous research has demonstrated that some programs and strategies can improve public safety and reduce recidivism...

 

EU.R.E.S. Ricerche Economiche e Sociali
# L’omicidio volontario in Italia. Rapporto EURES 2013- Sintesi
www.eures.it/ luglio 2013

 

Ministry of Justice
# Prison population figures 01.01.2013 - 12.07.2013
www.gov.uk/ 16 July 2013

 

Ministero della giustizia | Dipartimento dell'amministrazione penitenziaria DAP | Ufficio per lo Sviluppo e la Gestione del Sistema Informativo Automatizzato - Sezione Statistica

# Bollettino Penitenziario n. 17

Dati aggiornati al 31 Dicembre 2012

Risorse dell'Amministrazione penitenziaria - Popolazione Detenuta - Reati - Lavoro e corsi professionali - Detenute madri ed asili nido - Benefici concessi alla popolazione detenuta - Eventi critici

 

 | Ufficio per lo Sviluppo e la Gestione del Sistema Informativo Automatizzato - Sezione statistica

# Caratteristiche socio-lavorative, giuridiche e demografiche della popolazione detenuta
Situazione al 30 Giugno 2013

Sesso - Età - Numero di figli - Stato civile - Grado di istruzione - Condizione lavorativa - Ramo di attività - Posizione professionale - Posizione giuridica - Durata della pena - Durata della pena residua - Distribuzione per regione di detenzione e regione di nascita - Distribuzione per regione di detenzione e regione di residenza

 

Ministero della Giustizia
# Corsi Professionali Serie Storica | Anni 1992 - 2013
30 giugno 2013

 

Istat
# I minorenni nelle strutture della giustizia. Anno 2011
2 luglio 2013
Sono 20.157 i minorenni autori di reato presi in carico nell’anno 2011 dagli Uffici di Servizio Sociale per i Minorenni. Nei Centri di prima accoglienza si contano 2.343 ingressi, nelle Comunità 1.926, in Istituti penali per i minorenni 1.246. Le principali aree geografiche da cui provengono i minori stranieri segnalati dall’Autorità Giudiziaria sono la Romania, il Marocco e la Tunisia, anche se con forti differenze di genere... La maggior parte delle ragazze proviene infatti dalla Romania, dalla Croazia, dalla Bosnia Erzegovina e dalla Serbia. I minori assistiti sono nell’83,8% dei casi italiani e nel 90% maschi. Più della metà ha 16-17 anni (51,8%), il 27,2% 18-215 e il 20,6% 14-15 anni. I 14-17enni presi in carico sono 14.600, pari allo 0,6% del totale della popolazione minorile residente in Italia in questa fascia di età.

 

Department of Justice Canada
# The Youth Criminal Justice Act: Summary and Background
http://www.justice.gc.ca/ 2013

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP

Caratteristiche socio-lavorative, giuridiche e demografiche detenuti al 30 giugno 2013

www.giustizia.it

 

Prison Reform Trust
Prison: the facts
Bromley Briefings Summer 2013
The prison system as a whole has been overcrowded in every year since 1994. At the end of March 2013, 69 of the 124 prisons in England and Wales were overcrowded. Prison has a poor record for reducing reoffending – 47% of adults are reconvicted within one year of release. For those serving sentences of less than 12 months this increases to 58%. Nearly three quarters (73%) of under 18 year olds are reconvicted within a year of release. 41,875 people entered prison to serve sentences of less than or equal to six months in the year to September 2012.

 

Gavin Berman, Aliyah Dar
Prison Population Statistics
Library House of Commons 29 July 2013
On 26 July 2013 the prison population in England and Wales stood at 84,052, a 3% fall on the previous year...

 

Gavin Berman | Library House of Commons
Prison population statistics
www.parliament.uk | 28 June 2013

The prison population surpassed 80,000 for the first time in December 2006 and 85,000 in spring 2010. The prison population remained around this level until the sharp increase due to the remanding and sentencing of people alleged to have been involved in the riots in England in August 2011. The number of offenders in prison reached its current record high of 88,179 prisoners on 2 December 2011... Around 900 prisoners were being held for public disorder related offences in the immediate aftermath of the disorder... At the end of March 2013 the prison population was 83,769, a decrease of 4.3% on the previous year. The recent month end levels are the lowest recorded since December 2010.

 

The Correctional Investigator Canada | L’Enquêteur correctionnel Canada
# Annual Report of the Office of the Correctional Investigator 2012-2013
www.oci-bec.gc.ca/ june 28, 2013
I
n the 10 year period between March 2003 and March 2013, the incarcerated population has grown by close to 2,100 inmates, which represents an overall increase of 16.5%. During this period, the Aboriginal incarcerated population increased overall by 46.4%. Federally sentenced Aboriginal women inmates have increased by over 80% in the last 10 years. Visible minority groups (Black, Hispanic, Asian, East Indian and other ethnicities) behind bars increased by almost 75% over this period. As a subgroup, Black inmates have increased every year, growing by nearly 90% over the last 10 years. Meantime, Caucasian inmates actually declined by 3% over this same period.

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire | Bureau des études, de la prospective et des méthodes

# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France

Situation au 1er juin 2013 www.justice.gouv.fr

 

Zakia Belmokhtar, Abdellatif Benzakri
# Les Français et la prison
Infostat Justice, n. 122, Juin 2013
La prison est pour les Français un univers inquiétant et sombre : plus d’un sur deux (53 %) pense qu’il lui est possible d’être mis un jour en prison, et plus des deux tiers (66 %) considèrent que les conditions de détention sont mauvaises, à l’exception de la prise en charge médicale des détenus jugée globalement satisfaisante. La prison n’est pas remise en cause dans ses fondements mais pour 71%des Français, elle doit changer, notamment en ce qui concerne les conditions de détention. L’univers carcéral reste méconnu : les caractéristiques de la population des détenus sont mal connues, les droits accordés aux détenus sont sous estimés.  Un des effets de la prison les plus décriés porte sur la récidive : pour les trois quarts des Français (77 %), la prison ne permet pas de lutter contre la récidive, et pour deux Français sur trois (64 %), les aménagements de peine sont perçus comme un levier d’action efficace pour éviter la récidive. Les prises de position des Français sur la prison sont très liées à leur connaissance du milieu carcéral : les plus concernés ou les plus informés sont les plus critiques.

 

INQUEST Working for truth, justice and accountability
# Preventing the deaths of women in prison: the need for an alternative approach
www.inquest.org.uk/ June 2013

INQUEST’s monitoring of deaths in custody in England and Wales over the last 30 years has been central to the identification of emerging trends and patterns, including the sharply upward trend of women’s deaths in prison between 1998 and 2003. INQUEST’s specialist casework, research and evidence based policy work was critical in generating public and parliamentary debate on women’s deaths in prison and directly influenced the Government’s decision to commission  Baroness Corston’s review following the deaths of 6 women at Styal prison in a twelve month period... The state’s responsibility for the deaths of the women featured in this report go beyond the prison walls and extend to failures in mental health and substance abuse provision, sentencing policies and a lack of investment in alternatives to custody...

 

Todd D. Minton
# Jails in Indian Country, 2012
Bureau of Justice Statistics, Bulletin June 2013

Despite the overall stability in Indian country jail admissions, the 70 facilities that provided data in both years reported a 10% increase, from 10,463 admissions in June 2011 to 11,474 in June 2012. Specifically, 40 facilities reported either a decline or no change in their admissions, and 30 facilities reported an increase in their admissions. Over half of the increase in admissions came from the Navajo Department of Corrections - Chinle

 

Patrizio Gonnella

# I numeri di una giustizia al collasso
MicroMega | La pagina dei blog (05 giugno 2013)

... dati impietosi che indicano, numeri alla mano, come sia al collasso la nostra giustizia, sia civile che penale...

 

United States Government Accountability Office GAO | Bureau of Prisons
Improvements Needed  in Bureau of Prisons’ Monitoring and Evaluation of Impact of Segregated Housing
www.gao.gov/ May 2013
The overall number of inmates in the Bureau of Prisons’ (BOP) three main types of segregated housing units—Special Housing Units (SHU), Special Management Units (SMU), and Administrative Maximum (ADX)—increased at a faster rate than the general inmate population. Inmates may be placed in SHUs for administrative reasons, such as pending transfer to another prison, and for disciplinary reasons, such as violating prison rules; SMUs, a four-phased program in which inmates can progress from more to less restrictive conditions; or ADX, for inmates that require the highest level of security. From fiscal year  2008 through February 2013, the total inmate population in segregated housing units increased approximately 17 percent—from 10,659 to 12,460 inmates. By comparison, the total inmate

 

Direction de l’administration pénitentiaire
# L’aménagement des peines privatives de liberté : l’exécution de la peine autrement
www.justice.gouv.fr/ Collection Travaux & Document n°79, Mai 2013
L’inflation carcérale, une tendance de long terme. Commencer l’étude statistique d’un dispositif pénal au moment de son apparition conduit assez souvent à une évaluation assez optimiste des réalisations puisque la série part de presque rien, sinon d’une valeur nulle. Ainsi, la courbe des écroués non détenus qui reflète le développement des aménagements de peine sous écrou affiche avec constance depuis 2004 (début de la série en août) un taux d’accroissement  annuel à deux chiffres (par exemple 39,4 % entre le 1er septembre 2010 et le  1erseptembre 2011). Pour la période initiale, de 2004 à 2010, la série montre une progression géométrique, avec un doublement tous les deux ans.

 

Todd D. Minton | U.S. Department of Justice | Office of Justice Programs | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Jail Inmates at Midyear 2012 - Statistical Tables
www.bjs.gov/ May 2013
After three consecutive years of decline in the jail inmate population, the number of persons confined in county and city jails (744,524) increased by 1.2% (or 8,923 inmates) between midyear 2011 and midyear 2012. The majority of the increase occurred in California jails. Excluding the increase in California’s jail population, the nationwide jail population would have remained relatively stable during the period. The average daily population (ADP) in jails remained stable from 735,565 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2011, and 735,983 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2012. The jail incarceration rate—the confined population per 100,000 U.S. residents—remained stable between 2011 (236 per 100,000) and 2012 (237 per 100,000). The incarceration rate was down from a high of 259
jail inmates per 100,000 residents in 2007.

 

Tom Silver
# Breaking Out of the Prison Cycle
Harvard Political Review, May 23, 2013

Of all the costs of incarceration, the day-to-day expenses are perhaps the most difficult to ignore. By most estimates, the United States spends over $74 billion annually on its prisons. Ten states now spend more on imprisonment than they do on higher education— six times more, in the case of California. JoAnne Page, CEO of the Fortune Society, a New York-based nonprofit that specializes in prisoner reentry and alternatives to incarceration, told the HPR that these costs are increasing “more than anything else … [because] the average length of stay is going up.” Indeed, from 1990 to 2009, the average length of stay for prisoners increased by 2.9 years. As a result of this progression, the prison population is not only growing, but also aging.

 

Jo Hawley, Ilona Murphy, Manuel Souto-Otero | GHK
# Prison Education and Training in Europe Current State-of-Play and Challenges. A summary report authored for the European Commission by GHK Consulting.
http://ec.europa.eu/ May 2013
“He who opens a school door, closes a prison” (Victor Hugo). There is evidence that investing in prison education and training is worthwhile. For instance, a study assessing the costs and benefits of in-prison education to UK society found that the benefits were more than double the investment made. It is thus important to explore the quality and efficiency of current learning provision in European prisons.

 

Republic of South Africa | Mr. Sibusiso Ndebele, Minister of Correctional Services, Department Correctional Services
# Correctional Services Budget Vote Speech 2013/14
National Assembly, Cape Town • 29th May 2013
A
ccording to the latest National Offender Population Profile (September 2012), the major crime categories are economic, aggressive, sexual and narcotics. As at 27th May, South Africa’s inmate population was 152,514; 45,043 (29,5%) were remand detainees, and 107,471 were sentenced offenders. Offenders sentenced to life imprisonment increased from about 400 in 1994 to more than 11,000 in 2013. Foreign nationals comprise 8,973 inmates (4,087 sentenced and 4,886 un-sentenced). In addition, 65,931 offenders are outside correctional centres living in their respective communities; 48,716 are parolees, 15,491 are probationers (serving non-custodial sentences) and 1,724 are awaiting-trial.

 

Servizio studi del Senato | Ufficio ricerche sulle questioni istituzionali, sulla giustizia e sulla cultura
# Dati statistici relativi all'amministrazione della giustizia in Italia
dossier n. 11 - maggio 2013
Dato il tasso medio nella UE di detenzione per 100.000 abitanti a 127,7...,  rispetto a tale media, l'Italia registra un tasso più basso, pari a 112,6. A fronte di un tasso di detenzione relativamente basso, l'Italia registra un tasso di sovraffollamento delle carceri piuttosto alto. Tale circostanza si verifica, secondo il report ISTAT, "a causa sia dei detenuti in attesa di giudizio, che rappresentano il 43,1% nel 2010 contro una media europea del 27,1%, sia del minor utilizzo delle misure alternative al carcere (30,5 soggetti in misura alternativa per 100.000 abitanti contro i 199,2 per 100.000 abitanti della media europea)"

 

Matteo Mascia
# Aumentano i detenuti e crollano i finanziamenti al Dap. I numeri ufficiali assomigliano ad un bollettino di guerra. Parlamento e Governo devono intervenire
www.rinascita.eu 18 maggio 2013

La popolazione detenuta in Italia ha raggiunto cifre senza precedenti, ben superiori alle oltre 61mila presenze del luglio 2006, data dell'ultimo provvedimento di indulto. Al 31/03/2013 la popolazione detenuta è pari a 65.831 unità, 4.800 in più del giugno 2006. Alla dichiarazione dello stato di emergenza per il sovraffollamento carcerario, 13 gennaio 2010, nelle carceri italiane c'erano 64.791 persone, a fronte di una capienza di 44.073, con un tasso di affollamento del 147 per cento (147 detenuti ogni 100 posti).

 

Ministerio del Interior | Secretarìa General de Instituciones Penitenciarias
# Informe Epidemiologico sobre Mortalidad en II. PP. - Año 2012
www.acaip.es/ Area de Salud Publica - Mayo 2013

 

Acaip Agrupacion de los Cuerpos de la Administracion de Instituciones Penitenciarias
# Muertes en Prision. Mortalidad 2006/2012
www.acaip.es - 2013

 

Joan Petersilia, Jessica Greenlick Snyder
# Looking Past The Hype: 10 Questions Everyone Should Ask About California’s Prison Realignment
Calif. J. Politics Policy 2013; 5(2): 266–306
California’s Criminal Justice Realignment Act passed in 2011 shifted vast discretion for managing lower-level offenders from the state to the county, allocated over $2 billion in the first 2 years for local programs, and altered sentences for more than 100,000 offenders. Despite the fact that it is the biggest penal experiment in modern history, the state provided no funding to evaluate its overall effect on crime, incarceration, justice agencies, or recidivism. We provide a framework for a comprehensive evaluation by raising 10 essential questions: (1) Have prison populations been reduced and care sufficiently improved to bring prison medical care up to a Constitutional standard? (2) What is the impact on victim rights and safety? (3) Will more offenders participate in treatment programs, and will recidivism be reduced? (4) Will there be equitable sentencing and treatment across counties? (5) What is the impact on jail crowding, conditions, and litigation? (6) What is the impact on police, prosecution, defense, and judges? (7) What is the impact on probation and parole? (8) What is the impact on crime rates and community life? (9) How much will realignment cost? Who pays? (10) Have we increased the number of people under criminal justice supervision?

 

République française - CNCDH Commission Nationale Consultative des Droits de l'Homme
# Lutte contre la récidive: pour une approche globale
www.cncdh.fr/ 21.02.2013 - 14.05.2013

Les dix dernières années, nettement marquées par un basculement vers une politique répressive et ce qu’il est désormais commun d’appeler « le tout carcéral », n’ont pas fourni de solutions satisfaisantes en matière de lutte contre la récidive, au point qu’une majorité des acteurs s’accorde à en dénoncer les méfaits. Face à un système carcéral ayant aujourd’hui largement démontré ses limites, la CNCDH invite les pouvoirs publics à envisager un changement de paradigme profond afin de concilier éducation, répression et réinsertion. Au-delà du seul ministère de la Justice, la CNCDH appelle le Gouvernement à envisager une approche intégrée associant notamment les ministères de la famille, de l’éducation nationale et de l’intérieur, eux aussi pleinement concernés par la lutte efficace contre la récidive.

 

Garante delle persone sottoposte a misure restrittive della libertà personale della Toscana
# La detenzione in Toscana
Firenze, 14 maggio 2013

La situazione e' ''sostanzialmente identica'' al gennaio 2010 (anno della dichiarazione di 'stato di emergenza nazionale conseguente all'eccessivo sovraffollamento degli istituti penitenziari'): all'epoca in Toscana erano detenute 4.334 persone in 3.233 posti, con un tasso di affollamento del 134 per cento. Oggi quel tasso è del 127,2 per cento ed è condizionato dalla crescita della capienza del sistema penitenziario, in Toscana pari a 331 unità. Ma questa crescita di capienza dipende, secondo Margara, ''da un diverso calcolo degli spazi disponibili'' quindi questi dati del Dipartimento dell'amministrazione penitenziaria non appaiono attendibili.

 

Council of Europe COE - Marcelo F. Aebi, Natalia Delgrande

# Annual Penal Statistics. Space I. Survey 2011

Strasbourg 3 May 2013

 

# Annual Penal Statistics. Space II. Survey 2011 | Persons Serving Non-Custodial Sanctions and Measures in 2011 - Strasbourg 3 May 2013

 

#  Comunicato stampa 3 maggio 2013. Secondo un rapporto del Consiglio d’Europa, il sovraffollamento delle carceri costituisce un problema per la metà delle amministrazioni penitenziarie europee

 

Alberto Barbieri, Cecilia Francini, Novella Mori, Mariarita Peca, Marie Aude Tavoso, Marco
Zanchetta | Medici per i Diritti Umani
Arcipelago CIE. Indagine sui centri di identificazione ed espulsione italiani
Sintesi Maggio 2013

Nel solo perimetro dell’Unione Europea, la rete Migreurop stima la presenza di almeno 420 strutture di trattenimento ufficiali con una capienza totale di 37.000 posti40. E’ molto diffuso inoltre l’utilizzo di luoghi di detenzione che non compaiono nelle liste ufficiali, quali aeroporti, navi mercantili, campi, carceri statali. In alcuni Paesi, quali la Germania e l’Irlanda, le strutture carcerarie vengono spesso utilizzate per la detenzione degli stranieri, mentre in altri, come la Svizzera, la detenzione ha luogo all’interno di sezioni speciali degli istituti penitenziari ordinari. I luoghi di detenzione sono pertanto molto eterogenei sia per caratteristiche che per modalità di funzionamento. Le due tipologie più ricorrenti sono i centri in cui vengono trattenuti gli stranieri al momento dell’ingresso, quando il loro accesso al territorio è condizionato alla verifica dei requisiti di ingresso e soggiorno, e le strutture di detenzione ai fini dell’espulsione o del rimpatrio degli immigrati già presenti sul territorio in condizioni di irregolarità. La maggior parte dei centri svolgono entrambe le funzioni ed in molti casi sono preposti anche all’identificazione

 

MM. Jean-Yves Le Bouillonnec et Didier Quentin - Députés | Assemblée Nationale
# Rapport d’information relative à la mesure statistique des délinquances et de leurs conséquences
www.assemblee-nationale.fr/ Enregistré à la Présidence de l’Assemblée nationale le 24 avril 2013
Les statistiques des délinquances et de leurs conséquences, objet du présent rapport, ont pris une importance considérable dans le débat public. Tour à tour utilisées pour présenter un bilan favorable de l’action des gouvernements ou, au contraire, pour asseoir, à partir de l’état des lieux qu’elles fournissent, une nouvelle politique pénale, elles sont déraisonnablement mises en avant. La valorisation de ces statistiques, tant par les gouvernants que par les médias, est d’autant plus paradoxale que, comme vos rapporteurs entendent vous le démontrer, ces statistiques n’ont qu’une fiabilité très limitée et ne permettent  nullement de mesurer finement les délinquances.

 

ADALAH – The Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel
# Statistics on Detainees and Prisoners in Israeli prisons

http://adalah.org | 10 April 2013:1
(Researcher: Adalah Attorney Rima Ayoub) - Total number of detainees and prisoners in Israel prisons: 17,666 1. Criminal detainees and prisoners: 12,682 Security detainees and prisoners: 4,984 a. Jewish security prisoners and detainees: 10 Security prisoners and detainees from the OPT, the occupied Golan Heights, and Israel, including Palestinian citizens of Israel: 4,804...

 

U.S. Department of Justice  DOJ | Office of the Inspector General  | Evaluation and Inspections Division
# The Federal Bureau of Prisons’ Compassionate Release Program
www.justice.gov/ April 2013

In the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984, Congress authorized the Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) to request that a federal judge reduce an inmate’s sentence for “extraordinary and compelling” circumstances. Under the statute, the request can be based on either medical or non-medical conditions that could not reasonably have been foreseen by the judge at the time of sentencing. The BOP has issued regulations and a Program Statement entitled “compassionate release” to implement this authority.3 This review assessed the BOP’s compassionate release program, including whether it provides cost savings or other benefits to the BOP.

 

Michelle S. Phelps
# The Paradox of Probation: Community Supervision in the Age of Mass Incarceration
Law & Policy, Vol. 35, Nos 1–2, January–April 2013
After four decades of steady growth, U.S. states’ prison populations finally appear to be declining, driven by a range of sentencing and policy reforms. One of the most popular reform suggestions is to expand probation supervision in lieu of incarceration. However, the classic socio-legal literature suggests that expansions of probation instead widen the net of penal control and lead to higher incarceration rates. This article reconsiders probation in the era of mass incarceration, providing the first comprehensive evaluation of the role of probation in the build-up of the criminal justice system. The results suggest that probation was not the primary driver of mass incarceration in most states, nor is it likely to be a simple panacea to mass incarceration. Rather, probation serves both capacities, acting as an alternative and as a net-widener, to varying degrees across time and place. Moving beyond the question of diversion versus net widening, this article presents a new theoretical model of the probation- rison link that examines the mechanisms underlying this dynamic. Using regression models and case studies, I analyze how states can modify the relationship between probation and imprisonment by changing sentencing outcomes and the practices of probation supervision. When combined with other key efforts, reforms to probation can be part of the movement to reverse mass incarceration.

 

Fondazione di ricerca Istituto Carlo Cattaneo

# Un'anomalia italiana: il sovraffollamento carcerario

Analisi e testo a cura di Asher Colombo - twitter: @ashercolombo | 29 marzo 2013

Le carceri italiane sono più affollate oggi che prima dell’indulto del 2006, e lo sono più che le
carceri delle altre democrazie europee. In alcuni istituti italiani si superano i 3 detenuti per posto, e l’80% degli istituti ha più detenuti che posti regolamentari. Il sovraffollamento carcerario non dipende dall’aumento dei detenuti: paesi con livelli di crescita della detenzione sensibilmente più alti del nostro controllano meglio di noi il sovraffollamento carcerario... L’analisi comparata, nel tempo e nello spazio, del caso italiano mostra che il nostro sistema penitenziario ha un grave e cronico problema di sovraffollamento, ma che a ottenere risultati apprezzabili e di medio periodo nel campo del controllo del problema del sovraffollamento carcerario non sono i paesi che hanno sperimentato riduzioni straordinarie della popolazione carceraria, i cui effetti possono essere tipicamente solo di breve periodo.

 

Benjamin Monnery
# Les déterminants du risque de récidive des sortants de prison : applications micro-économetriques sur données francaises
www.jma2014.fr/ Mars 2013
Cet article se propose d’étudier les principaux d´eterminants de la probabilité instantanée de récidive des sortants de prison... Les résultats obtenus confirment les roles déterminants du sexe, de l’age, de la nationalité, de l’accés  à l’emploi et des antécédents, sur le comportement de récidive des anciens détenus en France. De plus, ils mettent en évidence des différences significatives en fonction du type d’infraction initialement commise, de la situation pénale des détenus à l’écrou et des aménagements de peine dont ils ont pu bénéficier (libération conditionnelle et placement à l’extérieur), ainsi que la présence d’effets fixes par prison. Enfin, cette étude remet en doute l’influence de certaines variables (statut matrimonial, niveau scolaire, domicile) et l’efficacité de la semi-liberté comme mesure de prévention de la récidive.

 

Mike Males, Lizzie Buchen
Beyond Realignment_Counties' Large Disparities in Imprisonment Underlie Ongoing Prison Crisis
Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice CjCJ, March 2013
New prison admissions fell by 34 percent in the fourth quarter of 2012 compared to the third quarter of 2011 (the last quarter before Realignment implementation). The majority of this reduction is due to decreases in admissions for non-violent crimes, including drug offenses and property offenses; the number of new admissions for violent offenses has remained roughly the same throughout Realignment. Consistent with the decline in non-violent imprisonments, females and parole violators showed much larger declines than did males and new admissions.

 

Margo Schlanger
Plata v. Brown and Realignment: Jails, Prisons, Courts, and Politics
Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Vol. 48, 2013
Informed by court documents,11 state reports and policy papers,12 and interviews,13 I trace the litigation and policy that led to and that have followed the Supreme Court’s ruling affirming the Plata/Coleman population order. The result illustrates the complex interplay of institutional reform litigation and political outcomes and processes.

 

Sbu Ndebele - South Africa
SA has highest prison population in Africa
Mail&Guardian - Africa's Best Read http://mg.co.za/ 11 Feb 2013
South Africa has the highest prison population in Africa, says Correctional Services Minister Sbu Ndebele. We are currently ranked ninth in the world in terms of prison population, with approximately 160.000 inmates, he said in a speech prepared for delivery.

 

Office fédéral de la statistique |  Suisse
Criminalité et droit pénal
www.bfs.admin.ch/ février 2013
En 2011, il y avait en Suisse 113 établissements d’exécution des peines et mesures (2010: 114) comptant 6660 places au total. Le jour de référence (le 7 septembre 2011), 6065 places étaient occupées (2010: 6181), ce qui représentait un taux d’occupation de 91%. Sur les 6065 personnes incarcérées, 63% exécutaient une peine, 28% se trouvaient en détention préventive, 6% étaient détenues pour des mesures de contrainte (loi sur les étrangers) et les 3% restants l’étaient pour d’autres raisons. Les personnes incarcérées sont principalement des hommes (95%), de nationalité étrangère (65%), qui purgent une peine privative de liberté. Elles sont âgées de 34 ans en moyenne. La durée de détention moyenne a passé de 103 à 207 jours de 1984 à 2001. Elle est depuis lors retombée à 160 jours. En dépit d’une nette baisse du nombre des incarcérations, la population carcérale présente une remarquable stabilité, se maintenant autour de 3900 personnes, à cause de l’allongement de la durée moyenne des peines.

 

Bear Witness Project
# Life in the Mass Incarceration
www.stopmassincarceration.org/ Black History Month, February 2013

Bear Witness will be a vehicle for mass participation. Way too many people accept mass incarceration as a collection of policies that combat crime and that are administered in a “color blind” way. Forging a massive movement of determined resistance to this injustice has to include as a key part jolting society awake to the ugly reality of this injustice and moving them to change how they view it. Just like the Freedom Riders and other activists of the 1960’s changed the way people viewed "Jim Crow" segregation in the South.

 

Commonwealth of Pennsylvania | Department of Corrections
Recidivism Report 2013
The Bureau of Planning, Research and Statistics (PRS) 2013
Approximately 6 in 10 released inmates recidivate (are rearrested or reincarcerated) within three years of release from prison.  Overall recidivism rates have been stable over the last ten years.  Rearrest rates have been slowly increasing over the last ten years.  Reincarceration rates peaked around 2005 and began to decline in the most recent years.  Despite a drop starting in 2005, reincarceration rates were slightly higher in the most recent years than they were in 1990.  Offenders returning to urban areas are more likely to be rearrested, however those returning to rural areas are more likely to be reincarcerated.  Dauphin County reports the highest overall recidivism rates.  Released inmates do not appear to heavily specialize in the same crime type when they reoffend. The most specialized type of recidivist is the property offender. The least specialized type of recidivist is the violent offender.  Released inmates are more likely to be reincarcerated (mostly for technical parole violations) than rearrested during the first 18 months after release from prison, and thereafter are significantly more likely to be rearrested.

 

The Pew Charitable Trusts
# U.S. Prison Count Continues to Drop. More Than Half of States Cut Imprisonment Rates from 2006 to 2011
www.pewstates.org/ March 8, 2013

After nearly four decades of explosive growth, the U.S. prison population declined for two years in a row, according to the Justice Department. Inmate counts fell in about half the states in each year from 2009-10 and 2010-11. Over the past five years, the imprisonment rate fell in 29 states.

 

Lois M. Davis, Robert Bozick, Jennifer L. Steele, Jessica Saunders, Jeremy N. V. Miles | RAND Corporation
# Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education. A Meta-Analysis of Programs That Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults
www.bja.gov/ 2013
Our meta-analytic findings provide further support that receiving correctional education while incarcerated reduces an individual’s risk of recidivating after release from prison. Our findings were stable even when we limited our analyses to those studies with more rigorous research designs. We found a notable effect across all levels of education, from adult basic education and GED programs to postsecondary and vocational education programs. Further, our cost analysis suggests that correctional education programs can be cost-effective.

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia minorile
# Dati Statistici

Elaborazione su dati del sistema SISM del 28 marzo 2013

La maggior parte dei minori autori di reato è in carico agli USSM nell’ambito di misure all’esterno; la detenzione, infatti, assume per i minorenni carattere di residualità, per lasciare spazio a percorsi e risposte alternativi, sempre a carattere penale. Negli ultimi anni si sta assistendo ad una sempre maggiore applicazione del collocamento in comunità, non solo quale misura cautelare, ma anche nell’ambito di altri provvedimenti giudiziari, per la sua capacità di contemperare le esigenze educative con quelle contenitive di controllo. L’utenza dei Servizi minorili è prevalentemente maschile; le ragazze sono soprattutto di nazionalità straniera e provengono dall’area dell’ex Jugoslavia e dalla Romania. La criminalità minorile è connotata dalla prevalenza dei reati contro il patrimonio e, in particolare, dei reati di furto e rapina. Frequenti sono anche le violazioni delle disposizioni in materia di sostanze stupefacenti, mentre tra i reati contro la persona prevalgono le lesioni personali volontarie.

 

House of Commons - Justice Committee
Youth Justice. Seventh Report of Session 2012–13
Volume I: Report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence
Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 26 February 2013
Published on 14 March 2013

We strongly welcome the substantial decrease since 2006/07 in the number of young people entering the criminal justice system for the first time, and commend local partnerships for their successful efforts to bring this figure down. Justice agencies play a crucial role in preventing youth crime by diverting young people away from formal criminal justice processes, which, when done well, means they are less likely to go on to serious and prolonged offending. We are particularly encouraged that many youth offending teams and police forces are using a restorative approach to resolving minor offending.

 

Allen Frances, M.D.
# Prison Or Treatment For the Mentally ill
We should be supporting mental health, not punishing patients.
www.psychologytoday.com - March 10, 2013
According to the Department of Justice, nearly 1.3 million people with mental illness are incarcerated in state and federal jails and prisons -- compared to only about 70,000 people being served in psychiatric hospitals... "The current psychiatric hospital inpatient population is only 5 percent of what it was at its height. We have about the same number of psychiatric hospital beds now as we did in 1850. Some of this 'deinstitutionalization' comes from the availability of medication and improved outpatient treatment, but most of the change is no more than a switch of institutions from hospital to prison."   BJS 2006

Amanda Pustilnik
# Calling Mental Illness “Myth” Leads to State Coercion
www.cato-unbound.org - August 13, 2012

State psychiatry is a mouse in the manger of an elephant, a barnacle on a Leviathan. The coercive giant that straddles our country and that feeds its maw with people who have serious mental illnesses is not state psychiatry. It is our vast prison system, which coercively confines hundreds of thousands of nonviolent, severely mentally ill people who have wound up there for want of adequate treatment.... Five times more people with severe mental illnesses are confined in penal institutions than are treated (or confined) in all psychiatric facilities combined in any given year. In a typical year, according to the Department of Justice, over 300,000 people with severe mental illnesses are incarcerated in state and federal jails and prisons. Yet for the same period, only about 40,000–60,000 people with such conditions reside in public psychiatric hospitals. This current total psychiatric hospital population is also only about ten percent of what it was at its height over a half-century ago, in or around 1957.    BJS 2006

 

Laurent Mucchielli,
# «Un procédé marketing, et pas scientifique»
l'Humanité, le 26 Février 2013
On ne peut pas tracer de courbe de la délinquance de 1950 à nos jours à partir de la statistique de police. D’une part, la population était beaucoup moins nombreuse il y a soixante ans. D’autre part, les actes de délinquance enregistrés reposent sur le Code pénal. Or, le texte a été modifié des centaines de fois depuis 1950...

 

Laurence Leturmy
# Evolution de la prise en compte de la récidive sur les conditions d’exécution de la peine
Conférence de consensus 14 février 2013

Quinze ans (1998-2013), neuf lois qui marquent singulièrement l’évolution des dispositions relatives à l’exécution des peines applicables aux récidivistes.  Parmi elles, deux, celles du 12 décembre 2005 et du 24 novembre 2009, se distinguent en ce qu’elles visent les condamnés dans une situation de récidive légale avérée. Toutes les autres, 17 juin 1998, 10 août 2007, 25 février 2008, 10 mars 2010, 14 mars 2011, 10 août 2011 et 27 mars 2012 s’intéressent à certains condamnés en raison des risques de récidive que leur dangerosité fait redoute.

 

Rapport du jury de consensus remis au Premier ministre - Conférence de consensus

# Pour une nouvelle politique publique de prévention de la récidive. Principes d’action et méthodes
www.inavem.org
Paris, le 20 février 2013
Le premier principe se fonde sur deux recommandations essentielles et qui sont étroitement liées : considérer la prison comme une peine parmi d’autres et instaurer une peine de probation, sans lien ni référence avec l’emprisonnement, dont la finalité réside dans la réinsertion des personnes condamnées et, partant, la protection de la société et des victimes. Pour assurer la lisibilité, cette nouvelle peine fusionne les différentes peines et mesures non privatives de liberté qui existent actuellement. L’abandon des peines automatiques et des peines plancher, la réduction du nombre d’incriminations passibles d’une peine d’emprisonnement, ainsi que la contraventionnalisation de certains délits sont également des recommandations induites par ce principe.

 

Lila Kazemian
# Que sait-on des facteurs qui préconisent la récidive?
Conférence de consensus sur la prevention de la récidive Paris, le 20 février 2013

Il y a deux catégories générales de facteurs de risque liés au comportement délinquant. Les facteurs dynamiques, qu’Andrews et Bonta (2006) qualifient de « besoins criminogènes », sont malléables et peuvent, en principe, être modifiés (par exemple, les caractéristiques cognitives, les valeurs, les comportements, etc.). À l’inverse, les facteurs statiques ne peuvent pas être modifiés; ils incluent des variables tels que l’âge, les antécédents criminels, et les facteurs de risque durant l’enfance. La méta-analyse de Gendreau, Little et Goggin (1996) suggère qu’il est important de tenir compte de ces deux catégories de facteurs dans l’étude de la récidive. Gendreau et al (1996) rapportent que les deux prédicteurs les plus saillants de la récidive sont les antécédents criminels et les besoins criminogènes. L’influence respective de ces facteurs sera discutée ci-dessous.

 

Nicole Maestracci | Propos recueillis par Franck Johannès
# Les alternatives à la prison protègent de la récidive
Le Monde 14.02.2013

On sait avec certitude que les peines exécutées en milieu ouvert favorisent moins la récidive que les peines de prison. Et ce, dans tous les cas de figures : on objecte souvent que les détenus qui purgent leur peine à l'extérieur sont précisément ceux qui offrent des gages de réinsertion plus importants et qu'ils ont ainsi moins de risques de récidiver. C'est vrai, et des chercheurs ont essayé de neutraliser ces biais de sélection. Il s'avère que, dans tous les cas, les mesures alternatives protègent mieux de la récidive que la prison. Autre point de consensus, le risque de récidive est 1,6 fois plus grand pour les personnes qui sortent de prison, en fin de peine, sans suivi, plutôt qu'en libération conditionnelle. C'est une donnée indiscutable, dont on n'a pas tiré les conséquences, puisque la libération conditionnelle ne concerne qu'un sortant de prison sur dix.

 

Sonya Faure
# Récidive : les peines planchers vers la petite porte
Libération 6 février 2013
Entre 2006 et 2010, le taux de récidivistes est passé de 3,9% à 6% pour les crimes, et de 7 à 11,1% pour les délits. Ce qui, à première vue, ne plaide pas pour la loi Sarkozy. Seulement, explique Jean-Paul Jean, ce taux de récidive légale ne veut rien dire. Il «ne traduit pas une augmentation des faits de récidive, mais une augmentation mécanique des cas légaux de récidive, du fait des évolutions des textes et des pratiques des juridictions.» Pour leurs défenseurs, les peines planchers devaient avoir un effet dissuasif. Mais «la stratégie de la dissuasion créée par les peines automatiques ne concerne que les délinquants rationnels, qui calculent le risque de se faire prendre avant d’agir. Cette approche n’a aucun sens pour le toxicomane, la personne ayant un trouble psychiatrique, nombre de délinquants sexuels».

 

Ministére de la Justice | Odile Timbart
# Les condamnations, Année 2011
www.justice.gouv.fr/ Février 2013
604 000 condamnations ont été prononcées en 2011 et inscrites au Casier Judiciaire. o 604 000 condamnations ont été prononcées en 2011 et inscrites au Casier Judiciaire. Les tribunaux correctionnels sont à l’origine de quatre condamnations sur cinq (80,7 %), les tribunaux de police et juridictions de proximité de 6,3 % et les juridictions de mineurs de 8,2 %. Les cours d’appel émargent à 4,4 %.

 

Département fédéral de justice et police DFJP | Office fédéral de la justice OFJ | Unité Exécution des peines et mesures
# Pratique de l’exécution des peines: Les collaborateurs sous la loupe
https://www.bj.admin.ch/ Informations sur l’exécution des peines et mesures 1/2013

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire | Bureau des études, de la prospective et des méthodes

# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France

Situation au 1er février 2013 www.justice.gouv.fr
Au 1er février 2013, la France comptait 66746 détenus | 11 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 200 % | 25 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 150 et inférieure à 200 % | 59 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 120 et inférieure à 150 % | 36 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 100 et inférieure à 120 % | 117 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité inférieure à 100 %

 

Le Monde.fr

# Février 2013 : chiffres clefs de la population carcérale
Lun 25 Fév 2013
Source: - Ministère de la justice - Controleur général des lieux de privation de liberté pour l'année 2012

 

France | Conférence de consensusPrincipes d’action et méthodes
# Pour une nouvelle politique publique de prévention de la récidive

Rapport du jury de consensus remis au Premier ministre
Paris, le 20 février 2013

La récidive est une réalité complexe qui réunit, tant sur le plan théorique que pratique, certaines des questions les plus significatives du droit pénal, et sans doute aussi les plus irritantes. La récidive est en effet la marque visible des limites du système de justice pénale qui ne peut à lui seul appréhender un problème qui concerne la société toute entière. En un mot, la prévention de la récidive, enjeu humain et social majeur, est à la fois une question de politique pénale et une question de politique sociale.

 

Pierre V. Tournier
# Prévenir la récidive? Commencer par appliquer les recommandations qui font consensus au sein des États  membres du Conseil de l’Europe sur les mesures et sanctions pénales
http://conference-consensus.justice.gouv.fr/ 6 janvier 2013

Une détention «utile», c’est avant tout une détention dont les conditions vont permettre de respecter, à tout moment, la dignité de la personne détenue, et ce en conformité avec l’article 3 de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme interdisant les traitements inhumains et dégradants. C’est une détention qui est en cohérente avec le sens que lui a assigné le législateur, dans le cadre de l’article 1er de la loi pénitentiaire (24 novembre 2009), reprenant une formulation du Conseil de l’Europe: «Permettre à la personne détenue de mener une vie responsable et prévenir la commission de nouvelles infractions». Comment atteindre un tel objectif de responsabilisation dans des établissements pénitentiaires surpeuplés?

 

Ministère de la Justice
# Mesurer la récidive. Contribution à la conférence de consensus de prévention de la récidive
Service support et moyens du ministère - Sous-direction de la Statistique et des Études Janvier 2013
Avant de commencer l’analyse du phénomène de la récidive, il faut s’arrêter sur la façon de le définir. Récidive et réitération ont désormais des définitions légales inscrites au code pénal, mais ces définitions donnent une vision étroite, peu cohérente (entre crime et délit) et restrictive d’un phénomène plus large de « retour devant la justice » que l’on peut qualifier de récidive statistique ou plutôt de récidive au sens large...

 

England and Wales - Ministry of Justice
#  Story of the Prison Population: 1993 – 2012 England and Wales January 2013
Crown copyright - Produced by the Ministry of Justice

Between June 1993 and June 2012 the prison population in England and Wales increased by 41,800 prisoners to over 86,000. Almost all of this increase (98%) took place within two segments of the population - those sentenced to immediate custody* (85% of the increase) and those recalled to prison for breaking the conditions of their release (13% of the increase).

 

England and Wales - Ministry of Justice
Offender Management Statistics Quarterly Bulletin July to September 2012
Statistics bulletin - 31 January 2013

The prison population at 31 December 2012 was 83,757, a decrease of 2,415 (3 per cent) compared to 31 December 2011 when the total population was 86,172... Within the adult sentenced population, the numbers serving longer  determinate sentences of 4 years or more continued to rise (up 5 per cent  from 23,361 to 24,462), while those serving shorter sentences fell. The number of prisoners serving indeterminate sentences (either a life sentence or an Indeterminate Sentence for Public Protection – an IPP) fell by two per cent to 13,577... The annual total probation caseload (court orders and pre and post release supervision) increased by 39 per cent between 2000 and 2008 to 243,434, before falling slightly to 234,528 in 2011.

 

England / Wales | Ministry of Justice

Population and Capacity Briefing for Friday 25/01/2013

http://www.justice.gov.uk/

 

Ministry of Justice
# Story of the Prison Population: 1993 – 2012. England and Wales
www.gov.uk/ January 2013
Between June 1993 and June 2012 the prison population in England and Wales increased by 41,800 prisoners to over 86,000. Almost all of this increase (98%) took place within two segments of the population - those sentenced to immediate custody* (85% of the increase) and those recalled to prison for breaking the conditions of their release (13% of the increase)... • Since 1999, sentenced offenders have been spending longer in prison, which has also contributed to the increase in the prison population. There has been an increase of 1.4 months in the average time served in custody since 1999 for offenders serving determinate sentences. • This reflects longer determinate sentences handed down by the courts, which increased by 2.1 months between 2000 and 2004, and by 2 months between 2007 and 2011...

 

Prison Service Journal
# Migration, Nationality and Detention
Special Edition - January 2013

Mary Bosworth, Blerina Kellezi, Developing a Measure of the Quality of Life in Detention | Hon Judi Moylan, Desperation, Displacement and Detention: Australia’s Treatment of Asylum Seekers Past
and Present |
Hindpal Singh Bhui, The changing approach to child detention and its implications for immigration detention in the UK | Lea Sitkin, ‘The right to walk the streets’: Looking for illegal migration on the streets and stations of the UK and Germany | Andriani Fili, The maze of immigration detention in Greece: a case study of the Athens airport detention facility | Ana Aliverti, Sentencing in immigration-related cases: the impact of deportability and immigration status | Francesca Cooney, Double Punishment: The treatment of foreign national prisoners | Femke Hofstee-van der Meulen, Assisting Dutch Nationals Imprisoned Abroad | Ray Taylor, Book Review, Foreign national prisoners: law and practice | Jamie Bennett, Book Review, Racial criminalisation of migrants in the 21st century

 

Francesco Cascini
Analisi della popolazione detenuta e proposte di intervento
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 1, 2013
Prima dell’indulto i detenuti presenti in carcere erano 61.400, numero, in modo unanime, ritenuto assolutamente incompatibile con i criteri minimi di umanità della pena e rispetto della dignità della persona. Con il provvedimento di clemenza, a partire dal luglio 2006, sono usciti dal carcere 26.000 detenuti definitivi con una pena residua di tre anni. Da allora, e per i primi tre anni circa, il ritmo di crescita delle presenze è stato costante e si è assestato intorno ad una media di mille unità al mese...

 

Turkey - CEZA VE TEVKİFEVLERİ GENEL MÜDÜRLÜĞÜ İSTATİSTİĞİ

Statistics General Directorate of Prisons and Detention Houses

www.cte.adalet.gov.tr 28.02.2013

Total 126.393 || Official capacity of prison system 142,906 (28.1.2013).

Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population) 167, based on an estimated national population of 75.89 million at end of February 2013.

 

# ICPS Turkish prison

 

Portugal - Direcção-Geral dos Serviços Prisionais

# População Prisional, por tipo de estabelecimento, segundo a situação penal em 15 de fevereiro e 1 de março de 2013

 

Direção-Geral dos Serviços Prisionais
# Estatisticas Prisionais 2º Trimestre de 2012

 

Prison Statistics Portugal - 2011

 

ICPS - 2010

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP

# Presenze - Ingressi - Eventi critici - Bilancio

Dati del 18 marzo 2013

 

#  Presenze - Capienza regolamentare - Pena residua - Tipologia reato - Classi d'età - Misure alternative - Misure di sicurezza

31 dicembre 2012

 

Mexico - Órgano Administrativo Desconcentrado Prevencion y Readaptacion Social
Estadisticas del Sistema Penitenciartio Nacional
www.ssp.gob.mx - Enero 2013

 

Thomas H. Cohen
# Pretrial Detention and Misconduct in Federal District Courts, 1995-2010
U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs - Bureau of Justice Statistics
February 2013

From 1995 to 2010, the percentage of federal defendants who were detained pretrial increased from 59% to 76%... Federal defendants detained for the duration of a case increased from 42% in 1995 to 64% in 2010.

Between 1995 and 2010, the number of defendants detained pretrial increased by 184% Growth in the number of pretrial detentions were driven by immigration caseloads, which increased by 664% between 1995 and 2010.

 

Russian Legal Information Agency RAPSI
# From Russian Prisons
28 february 2013 - www.rapsinews.com
As of February 1, 2013, there are 697,500 prisoners in Russia... Over 4,000 prison inmates died in Russia last year...

 

Japan’s prisons

#  Eastern porridge.Even Japanese criminals are orderly and well-behaved
The Economist - Feb 23rd 2013 | TOKYO

Japan incarcerates its citizens at a far lower rate than most developed countries: 55 per 100,000 people compared with 149 in Britain and 716 in America. The country’s justice ministry can also point to low rates of recidivism. Yet increasingly the nation’s 188 prisons and detention centres come in for harsh criticism, particularly over their obsession with draconian rules and secrecy (on February 21st the government unexpectedly announced it had hanged three men for murder), and their widespread use of solitary confinement.

 

M. Dominique Raimbourg, M. Sébastien Huyghe
Mission d’information sur les moyens de lutte contre la surpopulation carcérale
www.assemblee-nationale.fr/ 23 janvier 2013
Les thèmes de l’inflation carcérale et de la surpopulation des établissements pénitentiaires font, depuis de nombreuses années, partie intégrante des débats sur la prison... la surpopulation des établissements pénitentiaires est le produit, à un instant donné, du déséquilibre entre le nombre de personnes  détenues et le nombre de places opérationnelles du parc carcéral. De manière concrète, elle se traduit par un taux moyen d’occupation des établissements pénitentiaires supérieur à 100 %... La surpopulation carcérale n’est ni une situation nouvelle, ni un phénomène exclusivement français. À l’occasion de son audition par la mission, M. Lorenzo Salazar, président du Comité européen pour les problèmes criminels du Conseil de l’Europe, a par exemple rappelé que le taux d’occupation moyen des établissements pénitentiaires italiens s’élevait, en octobre 2012, à 145 %. Au 1er septembre 2010, celui de la Belgique atteignait 125 %. Plus généralement, le  phénomène concerne, à un degré certes variable, de nombreux pays européens.

 

Christine Lazerges – Commission nationale consultative des droits de l'Homme
Audition de Christine Lazerges par la Conférence de consensus sur la prévention de la récidive
http://conference-consensus.justice.gouv.fr/ Janvier 2013

Depuis 2005, les lois sur la prévention et la répression de la récidive se sont succédé à un rythme infernal. Ces lois ont constitué une fuite en avant, au nom de la dangerosité. Elles n’ont pu influer de manière décisive sur la récidive. L’une des raisons centrales de cet échec est l’insuffisante connaissance des causes de la récidive. Les données existantes sont par ailleurs très peu et très mal diffusées, et les personnes qui ont directement pour rôle de prévenir la récidive n’en disposent que rarement. L’initiative de la conférence de consensus est un effort de mise en commun des connaissances qu’il convient de saluer. Il conviendrait de soutenir la recherche scientifique sur le sujet, et de permettre une meilleure diffusion des savoirs. Cependant, il est nécessaire de garder à l’esprit que la prédiction d’un comportement futur est impossible, et que la suppression complète de toute forme de récidive est illusoire...

 

Statistisches Bundesamt - Rechtspflege
Bestand der Gefangenen und Verwahrten in den deutschen Justizvollzugsanstalten nach ihrer Unterbringung auf Haftplätzen des geschlossenen und offenen Vollzugs jeweils zu den Stichtagen 31. März, 31. August und 30. November eines Jahres
Stichtag 30. November 2012 | Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden 2013

 

Amnesty International
Iraq: A decade of abuses
Amnesty International London 2013

Prison Statistics Iraq ICPS

 

James Austin, Eric Cadora, Todd R. Clear, Kara Dansky, Judith Greene, Vanita Gupta, Marc Mauer, Nicole Porter, Susan Tucker, Malcolm C. Young
Ending Mass Incarceration. Charting a New Justice Reinvestment
http://sentencingproject.org/ 04-2013

 

Human Rights in Ukraine - Information website of the Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group
Ukraine’s Prisoners in Figures
24.01.13 | ukrprison.org.ua
As of 1 January 2013 there were 147, 112 prisoners in 182 places of confinement within the State Penitentiary Service (as against 154, 029 exactly one year earlier). There were thus 6, 917 prisoners less, a reduction of 4.49%.

 

Ukraine ICPS

 

Thailand | Thai Prison Statistics

# Latest statistics about prisons in Thailand: Prison Population 2012- feb.2013

www.thaiprisonlife.com - ICPS

Prison population 1 Feb 2013: 219,466 men & 37,857 women = 257,323 . The 144 prisons in Thailand only have a capacity for 105,748 prisoners based on regulations that each inmate has 2.25 square metres of space in a cell.

 

Luiz G.A. Alves, Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Renio S. Mendes
Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate
Physica A 392 (2013) 2672–2679
The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.

 

Luiz G. A. Alves, Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Ervin K. Lenzi, Renio S. Mendes
Distance to the Scaling Law: A Useful Approach for Unveiling Relationships between Crime and Urban Metrics

www.plosone.org/ August 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 8
We report on a quantitative analysis of relationships between the number of homicides, population size and ten other urban metrics. By using data from Brazilian cities, we show that well-defined average scaling laws with the population size emerge when investigating the relations between population and number of homicides as well as population and urban metrics. We also show that the fluctuations around the scaling laws are log- normally distributed, which enabled us to model these scaling laws by a stochastic-like equation driven by a multiplicative and log-normally distributed noise...

 

Associazione Antigone

Osservatorio europeo sulle condizioni di detenzione

Febbraio 2013

 

Bianconi Giovanni
# I 699 al 41 bis sono più camorristi che mafiosi
Corriere della Sera | 13 gennaio 2013 | Pagina 22

Dal 2007 c'è stata una costante crescita, da 526 ai 680 detenuti del 2010. Nel 2011 s'è registrato un fisiologico calo di 7 unità e nel 2012 s'è raggiunta la cifra record di 699 detenuti: quattro le donne

 

Nathan James - Congressional Research Service
The Federal Prison Population Buildup: Overview, Policy Changes, Issues, and Options
CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress -
January 22, 2013

Congress could consider whether there are alternative ways to properly manage offenders convicted of committing relatively minor crimes without sending them to prison. Data from BJS show that in FY2010 over half of inmates entering federal prison were sentenced to three years or less. Given the relatively short sentences these inmates received, it is likely that they were sentenced for relatively minor offenses. One policy option Congress could consider is amending penalties for some offenses to allow more defendants to be placed on probation rather than being sentenced to a period of incarceration.

 

Annie Kensey
# Les « taux de récidive » : principaux enseignements
http://conference-consensus.justice.gouv.fr/ 2013
L’âge au moment de la libération est une variable évaluée comme très corrélée à la récidive. Dans toutes les études, le taux de récidive varie en raison inverse de l’âge : plus l’âge augmente, plus la récidive diminue. Dans la dernière étude, les mineurs présentent un taux de recondamnation supérieur de 17 points à celui des majeurs (75% contre 58%) et un taux de prison ferme supérieur de 21 points (66% pour les mineurs contre 45% pour les majeurs). Pour les libérés de 50 ans et plus, le taux de recondamnation était de 29%. 

 

France - Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France
Ministère de la Justice et des Libertés 1er janvier 2013

 

Direction de l’Administration Pénitentiaire - Ministere de la Justice et des Libertés
Chiffre clés de l’administration pénitentiaire
www.justice.gouv.fr -- 1er janvier 2012

 

UNODC Office des Nations Unies contre la Drogue et le Crime |  Vivienne Chin, Yvon Dandurand
# Manuel d’introduction pour la Prévention de la Récidive et la Réinsertion Sociale des Délinquants
Nations Unies, New York 2013
La prévention de la récidive demande des interventions efficaces basées sur la connaissance des facteurs qui présentent des risques pour les délinquants et rendent difficile la réussite de leur réinsertion dans la société (par exemple, la victimisation dès le plus jeune âge, les difficultés d’apprentissage, la toxicomanie, les familles qui n’offrent aucun soutien, les maladies mentales et physiques etc.). Certains facteurs de risque sont dynamiques — c’est-à dire qu’ils sont susceptibles de changer — alors que d’autres facteurs de risques ne le sont pas16. Les facteurs de risques dynamiques peuvent être abordés par des programmes au sein du système de justice pénale ou en dehors.

 

James Austin, Michael P. Jacobson, Inimai Chettiar | VERA Institute of Justice
How New York City Reduced Mass Incarceration: A Model for Change?
www.brennancenter.org/ Brennan Center for Justice January 2013
The declines in New York State’s prison population as well as the New York City jail population are due largely to a reduction in the number of people being arrested for felony level crimes. Greater use of non-prison sanctions by New York City courts also contributed to the decline. The New York City and overall New York prison population decline would have occurred much  sooner had the state legislature not been incentivized by the federal government to adopt “truth-in-sentencing” laws that increased the length of imprisonment. These results show that policy changes at the local level can have a dramatic and lasting impact on state prison as well as jail, probation, and parole populations.

 

Giovanni Cellini
Controllo Sociale, Servizio Sociale e Professioni di Aiuto. Una Ricerca nel Sistema Penitenziario
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca | Dipartimento di Sociologia | Dottorato in Sociologia Applicata e Metodologia della Ricerca Sociale - 2013
In Italia il sistema penitenziario è basato su un modello riabilitativo, teso al reinserimento sociale degli autori di reato, che affida compiti rilevanti alle professioni di aiuto. Tra queste, il servizio sociale è chiamato oggi a confrontarsi con un nuovo ordine sociale, segnato dall’influenza del pensiero neoliberista. In questo scenario i mutamenti delle politiche sociali, intervenuti con la crisi del welfare state, sono intrecciati con quelli delle politiche penali. Nella letteratura sociologica contemporanea ci si interroga sulla graduale transizione da un modello di welfare basato principalmente sulla garanzia del benessere sociale ad un modello in cui l’interesse dominante è, fondamentalmente, quello di garantire un controllo sociale efficace. In questo “nuovo welfare” si registra un impoverimento della protezione sociale e delle risorse da destinare ai segmenti di popolazione più vulnerabili; tale processo ha portato, in alcuni casi, a pratiche di policy discriminatorie, finalizzate all’incarcerazione delle persone più svantaggiate. Queste tematiche sono al centro della ricerca qualitativa presentata nel volume, realizzata in Lombardia, Piemonte e Liguria, mediante interviste semi-strutturate a professionisti operanti nel settore penitenziario: assistenti sociali – in prevalenza nel campione –,  educatori e psicologi.

 

 

2012


 

Dap Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

Risorse umane e finanziarie, popolazione detenuta, corsi e lavoro in carcere
Situazione al 31 dicembre 2012

 

Gobierno de El Salvador | Ministerio de Justicia y Securidad Publica, Direccion General de Centros Penales
# Estadística Penitenciaria al 31/Diciembre/2012
www.dgcp.gob.sv/

 

Gobierno de España | Ministerio del Interior
# Anuario Estadistico del Ministerio del Interior 2012 - Instituciones Penitenciarias
www.fspugt.es/

 

Washington Department of Corrections
# 2012 Report on Community Corrections Practices to the Legislature
December 1, 2012

 

Israel Prison Service

# A Map of the Prisons - Types of Violations

Ministry of Public Security 2012

Security Prisoners - There are some 4,500 security prisoners and detainees incarcerated in the Israel Prison Service, about 50% of whom are considered prisoners “with blood on their hands.” These prisoners include men, women and minors...

 

# ICPS Israel Prison Population Trend 1992-2010

 

Margaret E. Noonan
Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2010 - Statistical Tables
U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs - Bureau of Justice Statistics
December 2012

During 2010, 4,150 inmates died while in the custody of local jails and state prisons—a 5% decline from 2009. Local jails accounted for about a quarter of all inmate deaths, with 918 inmates who died in custody in 2010. The number of jail inmate deaths declined from 2009 to 2010 (down 3%), while the mortality rate remained relatively stable, from 128 deaths per 100,000 jail inmates in 2009 to 125 per 100,000 in 2010. The five leading causes of jail inmate deaths were suicide, heart disease, drug or alcohol intoxication, cancer, and liver disease. Most inmates who died in custody were serving time in state prisons (78%). In 2010, 3,232 state prison  inmates died in custody—a 5% decline from 2009. The mortality rate in state prisons declined slightly, from 257 deaths per 100,000 prison inmates in 2009 to 245  per 100,000 in 2010. In 2010, the five leading causes of state prison inmate deaths were cancer, heart disease, liver disease, respiratory disease, and suicide.

 

Statistics Belgium

# Population détenue 2005 -2012

http://statbel.fgov.be/

 

Le Soir -- Belgique
# 11.855 personnes sont en prison pour 9.600 places
Jeudi 27 Décembre 2012,
www.lesoir.be/

Ce nombre de personnes emprisonnées est un record absolu. En théorie, seules 9.600 places sont cependant disponibles.

[La Belgique compte 32 prisons : 16 en Flandre, 14 en Wallonie et 2 à Bruxelles. A Paifve, des internés séjournent dans un établissement de défense sociale. Les internés sont des personnes qui ont commis un délit et que le juge a déclaré irresponsables de leurs actes].

 

Canada Public Safety

Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview 2012

Public Works and Government Services Canada December 2012

The overall crime rate has decreased 25.9% since 1998, from 8,915 per 100,000 to 6,604 in 2011. Over the same period, there was a 38.2% decrease in the property crime rate, from a rate of 5,696 per 100,000 to 3,520 in 2011. In contrast, the crime rate for drug offences has increased 39.5% since 1998, from 235 per 100,000 population to 328... Canada’s incarceration rate is higher than the rates in most Western European countries but much lower than the United States, where the most recent incarceration rate was 730 per 100,000 general population. Based on the most up to date information available from the International Centre for Prison Studies, Canada’s incarceration rate was 117 per 100,000, calculated based on the 2008 population...

 

The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice
# Evaluation of European Judicial Systems
www.coe.int/ 2012 edition

Between 2008 and 2010, the European trend is still increasing budgets for justice in general and the judicial system in particular (+6.8%). The development of the judicial system remains a priority for governments in Europe... Different political choices - or structural ways for building justice organisation – can be highlighted in Europe: more than half the member states spend more resources to other areas of justice than the judicial system (prison system, etc.), while others direct public budgetary efforts mainly to court operation.

 

Istat | Ministero della Giustizia - DAP

# I detenuti nelle carceri italiane

18 dicembre 2012

Per quanto riguarda le misure alternative alla detenzione va segnalato un aumento rispetto agli anni immediatamente precedenti: sono infatti 22.423 i soggetti in esecuzione penale esterna al 31 dicembre 20114 (erano 5.933 nel 2006 e 10.220 nel 2008), un numero di non molto superiore della metà dei condannati reclusi (38.023 al 31 dicembre 2011). Negli altri paesi europei, invece, il numero di beneficiari di misure alternative è doppio rispetto ai condannati presenti negli Istituti Penitenziari. L’Italia, quindi, pur avendo un tasso di detenzione più basso di altri paesi europei, ricorre meno alle misure alternative al carcere: nel 2010 in Italia vi erano 30,5 soggetti in misura alternativa per 100.000 abitanti contro i 199,2 (per 100.000 abitanti) della media europea. A titolo di esempio si consideri che, in Francia nel 2010, a fronte di 59.856 detenuti in carcere, i soggetti in esecuzione penale esterna erano 173.022 e che nel Regno Unito, a fronte di 81.627 detenuti, i soggetti in misura alternativa sono 237.507. In Italia tali valori nel 2010 erano, rispettivamente, 67.961 e 18.435. Nel 2011 i valori sono 66.897 e 22.423 con un tasso pari al 37,5 per 100.000 abitanti.

 

Human Rights Watch
# The Answer is No. Too Little Compassionate Release in US Federal Prisons
www.hrw.org/ November 30, 2012
In 1984 Congress authorized what is commonly called “compassionate release” because it recognized the importance of ensuring that justice could be tempered by mercy. A prison sentence that was just when imposed could—because of changed circumstances—become cruel as well as senseless if not altered. The US criminal justice system, even though it prizes the consistency and finality of sentences, makes room for judges to take a second look to assess the ongoing justice of a sentence. Prisoners cannot seek a sentence reduction for extraordinary and compelling circumstances directly from the courts. By law, only the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP, the Bureau) has the authority to file a motion with a court that requests judicial consideration of early release. Although we do not know how many prisoners have asked the BOP to make motions on their behalf—because the BOP does not keep such records—we do know the BOP rarely does so. The federal prison system houses over 218,000 prisoners, yet in 2011, the BOP filed only 30 motions for early release, and between January 1 and November 15, 2012, it filed 37. Since 1992, the annual average number of prisoners who received compassionate release has been less than two dozen. Compassionate release is conspicuous for its absence.

 

The New York Times - EDITORIAL
# What Compassionate Release?
Published: December 8, 2012

 

Gabrielle Garton Grimwood, Gavin Berman
# Reducing Reoffending: the "What Works" Debate
House of Commons Library, Research Paper 12/71, 22 November 2012

 

Human Rights Watch
# “Prison Is Not For Me”. Arbitrary Detention in South Sudan
www.hrw.org/ 2012
While ensuring accountability for crimes is a critical aspect of establishing the rule of law, arbitrary detention is rife in South Sudan,with individuals who should not have been detained at all spending months or even years in one of the country’s approximately 79 prisons. There are people in prison detained simply to compel the appearance of a relative or friend; because they were said to show evidence of mental disability; or because they are unable to pay a debt, court fine, or compensation award. Many are serving prison terms for adultery or for customary law crimes such as “elopement” or “pregnancy,”which place undue restrictions on the rights to privacy and to marry a spouse of one’s choice. Legal aid is almost totally absent, leaving individuals charged with crimes—the vast majority of whom are illiterate—unable to follow the status of their case or to call and prepare witnesses in their defense.

 

France - Ministère de la Justice
# Les chiffres-clés de la Justice
Ministère de la Justice 2012

 

Secrétariat Général - Service support et moyens du ministère - Sous-Direction de la Statistique et des Etudes

Annuaire statistique de la Justice. Édition 2011-2012

La Documentation française - Direction de l’information légale et administrative. Paris 2012

 

Franck Johannès
# La révolution Taubira contre la récidive

LE MONDE | 20.08.2012

La principale étude française (des démographes Annie Kensey et Abdelmalik Benaouda, du bureau des études et de la prospective de l'administration pénitentiaire) a prouvé que 63 % des sortants de prison sans aménagement de peine étaient à nouveau condamnés dans les cinq ans, contre 39 % pour les sortants en libération conditionnelle. Les différentes études internationales confirment ces résultats, une étude canadienne de référence (Smith, Goggin et Gendreau en 2002), conclut franchement à "l'inefficacité des stratégies punitives pour réduire la récidive"... Six fois moins de conseillers d'insertion que de surveillants.

 

Tapio Lappi-Seppälä
# Imprisonment and Penal Policy in Finland
Scandinavian Studies In Law, 2012
During the 1990s foreign population living in Finland increased by some 250 %. This was reflected also in the prisoner rates. The number of foreign prisoners increased from a near zero to a figure that corresponds to about 9 % of the Finnish prisoner rates. During the 1990s foreign population living in Finland increased by some 250 %. This was reflected also in the prisoner rates. The number of foreign prisoners increased from a near zero to a figure that corresponds to about 9 % of the Finnish prisoner rates. 

 

Daria Perrone
# Il costo del carcere
Rivista dell'Associazione Italiana dei Costituzionalisti, 31 luglio 2012

 

Libération

# Le manifeste «pour une justice pénale efficace»
12 juin 2012

L'ensemble des recherches internationales menées depuis plus de vingt ans converge vers les mèmes conclusions: le recours systématique à l'emprisonnement aggrave les risques de récidive.

 

Jean-Claude Bouvier, Valérie Sagant, Pascale Bruston, Charlotte Cloarec, Marie Cretenot, Lara Danguy des Deserts, Sarah Dindo, Ludovic Fossey, Benoist Hurel, Sarah Silva-Descas

# Prévention de la récidive: sortir de l'impasse. Pour une politique pénale efficace, innovante et respectueuse des droits
11 juin 2012

 

Sonya Faure

Récidive : pour une autre prévention
Dans un texte publié par «Libération», sociologues, magistrats et conseillers d’insertion prônent de nouvelles pistes après dix ans de politique sécuritaire.
Libération | 12 juin 2012

Depuis janvier, des sociologues, des statisticiens, des magistrats, des conseillers d’insertion de la pénitentiaire ... présentent aujourd’hui dans Libération un manifeste, fruit de leur réflexion. «Depuis dix ans, le système pénal français est engagé dans une course à l’abîme. Une véritable frénésie législative - 29 lois pénales votées en dix ans - a conduit à la multiplication des incriminations et des occasions de recours à l’emprisonnement. Les résultats de cette politique doivent être pris pour ce qu’ils sont : le témoignage d’un échec et la promesse d’une faillite.».

 

M. Jean-René Lecerf et Mme Nicole Borvo Cohen-Seat (Sénateurs)
# Rapport d'information fait au nom de la commission des lois constitutionnelles, de législation, du suffrage universel, du Règlement et d’administration générale (1) et de la commission sénatoriale pour le contrôle de l’application des lois (2) sur l’application de la loi pénitentiaire n° 2009-1436 du 24 novembre 2009
www.senat.fr/ Enregistré à la Présidence du Sénat le 4 juillet 2012

 

Scott Wm. Bowman, Raphael Travis Jr.
# Prisoner Reentry and Recidivism According to the Formerly Incarcerated and Reentry Service Providers: A Verbal Behavior Approach
The Behavior Analyst Today, vol. 13, n. 3-4, 2012
However, theory-based, non-traditional examinations of prisoner reentry are needed to better understand potential ingredients for reentry success. With a general behavior analysis approach and a the specific application of B.F. Skinner’s Theory of Verbal Behavior (1957) as a theoretical foundation, focus groups were conducted with both formerly incarcerated persons and reentry service providers to examine the factors that influence significant recidivism rates.

 

Susan M. Campers
# A Failing Correctional System: State Prison Overcrowding in the United States
Pell Scholars and Senior Theses. Paper 79. 2012
For offenders who must be more closely monitored, probation, parole, and home confinement allow for special attention without incarceration. Electronic monitoring has increased the effectiveness of these programs by constantly tracking offenders by ankle bracelet or other electronic device. Although these programs will require some cost to taxpayers, they have the advantage of costing less than housing a prisoner while still reducing the overcrowding problem. Utilizing the many sentencing alternatives that are available would mean lower rates of overcrowding, heightened opportunity for reintegration into lawful society for those not incarcerated and the chance for violent offenders who are incarcerated to receive the attention and programs necessary for rehabilitation...

 

Rob Allen
# Reducing the use of imprisonment. What can we learn from Europe?
Criminal Justice Alliance - May 2012

The recent study by the National Audit Office found no correlations, noting “the lack of evidence for a clear relationship between the use of prison and changes in crime levels”.15 The countries in their study included some where crime had gone down, as the prison population had increased (including all three UK jurisdictions); countries where crime had increased, as the prison population increased (including the Republic of Ireland); one country where crime was up but the prison population down (Finland) and another where crime had gone down and so had the prison population the
Netherlands.

 

The Sentencing Project
# Trends in U.S. Corrections
http://sentencingproject.org/ May 18, 2012

 

Barbara Owen, Alan Mobley
# Realignment in California: Policy and Research Implications
Western Criminology Review 13(2):46-52 2012
Many important questions surround the policy change. What does realignment say about our contemporary approach to crime and punishment? Will California continue to invest in a punitive criminal justice system, albeit at the local level, at the expense of needed social services? Will this touted reform change how offenders are treated and create rehabilitative and reentry services that do, in fact, reduce recidivism? Or, as many advocates fear, will this new system of punishment repeat the mistakes of the state prison system and continue the practice of “mass incarceration” that has affected mostly poor and minority communities? California, through its 58 local counties, has an opportunity to do something different: to examine the purposes and rationale for punishment and address criminal offending in alternative ways, breaking the dependence on incarceration. We await answers to these questions-- and many others—as Realignment and its consequences play out in the communities and people of California.

 

Elías Carranza

# Situación penitenciaria en América Latina y el Caribe ¿Qué hacer?

Anuario de Derechos Humanos 2012 - No. 8 (2012) pág. 31 - 66
www.anuariocdh.uchile.cl/

Argentina Bolivia - Brasil - Colombia - Costa Rica - Chile - Ecuador - El Salvador - Guatemala - Honduras - México - Nicaragua - Panamá - Paraguay - Perú - R. Dominicana - Uruguay - Venezuela. La situación penitenciaria en los países de América Latina y el Caribe es muy grave. Hay alta violencia, numerosas muertes y delitos que ocurren al interior de los presidios, muchos de ellos cometracialen su interior pero con efectos fuera de ellos, y gravísimas violaciones a derechos humanos tanto de las personas privadas de libertad como de las personas funcionarias. La situación ha venido deteriorándose durante las tres últimas décadas (1980-2010), y ha escapado del control de los países a partir de la década de los noventa en la mayoría de los casos.

 

Infojus - Sistema Argentino Informacion Juridica
# Una gestión penitenciaria integral. El aporte del Sistema Nacional de Estadísticas sobre la Ejecución de la Pena (SNEEP)
www.jus.gob.ar/ 01.08.2012
De acuerdo al último censo penitenciario realizado al 31 de diciembre de 2010, exisơ an en la Argentina 59.227 personas privadas de libertad en establecimientos de ejecución penal, lo que equivale a una tasa de encarcelamiento de 146 cada 100.000 habitantes. Este dato merece una aclaración y es que solo incluye la población privada de libertad que se encuentra en una unidad penitenciaria (o sistema análogo), es decir no incluye a los detenidos en comisarías y destacamentos de fuerzas de seguridad. En ese sentido, de acuerdo al relevamiento efectuado por el mismo organismo sobre personas privadas de libertad que se encontraban en comisarías u otras dependencias de fuerzas de seguridad al 30 de junio de 2010, de acuerdo a las instituciones que informaron, había 5.868 personas en dicha situación. Por tal motivo, el total estimado (las fechas de corte son distintas) de personas mayores de edad privadas de libertad por confl icto con la ley penal es de 65.095, lo que equivale a una tasa de 161 cada 100.000 habitantes.

 

Andrew Coyle

# Prisiones y prisioneros: una revisión desde los estándares internacionales de derechos humanos. An overview of prisons, prisoners and international human rights standards
Anuario de Derechos Humanos 2012, No. 8 (2012) p. 17 - 29
www.anuariocdh.uchile.cl
Las tasas de encarcelamiento habitualmente se estiman sobre la base de cada 100.000 habitantes sobre el total de la población. Sobre esta base, la tasa promedio de privación de libertad en el mundo es aproximadamente de 145 personas. Esta tasa varía considerablemente entre regiones  e incluso entre países. Estados Unidos tiene la mayor tasa de encarcelamiento del mundo con una amplia ventaja, con 730 de cada 100.000 habitantes en prisión. En algunos estados, como Texas y Luisiana, una de cada cien personas está en la cárcel. Sin embargo, justo al otro lado de la frontera norte de Estados Unidos, la tasa de encarcelamiento en Canadá es sumamente baja: 117. Podemos encontrar contrastes similares en otras partes del mundo.

 

Justice Center - The Council of State Governments (CSG)
States Report Reductions in Recidivism
September 2012

Many states are now presenting data that indicate declines in statewide recidivism rates for adults released from prison... This brief highlights significant statewide recidivism reductions achieved in Kansas, Michigan, Mississippi, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, and Vermont. For each state, this brief compares three-year post-release recidivism rates for two cohorts: people exiting prison in 2005 and those  released in 2007. This data is among the most current available for statewide three-year recidivism rates. Some states saw particularly sharp reductions during this period, such as Kansas, which achieved a 15-percent decline, and Michigan, which saw an 18-percent drop. When measuring recidivism changes over a longer period of time, the reductions for some states are even more dramatic: Ohio’s recidivism rate declined by 21 percent between 2003 and 2008, while Texas saw a drop of 22 percent between 2000 and 2007.

 

Giovanni Tamburino
# Resoconto aggiornato dello stato del sistema penitenziario
DAP - Ufficio del Capo Dipartimento, Roma 19 settembre 2012

 

Donatella Stasio
# Meno recidiva, più crescita
Il Sole 24ore 27 settembre 2012
La recidiva ha un costo sociale ed economico: riduce il livello di sicurezza collettiva, scoraggia gli investimenti, pesa sul bilancio dello Stato. Abbattere la recidiva significa quindi contribuire alla crescita di un Paese in termini di legalità, risparmio e competitività.

Roberto Nicastro
# L’Istituto Einaudi ha avviato una ricerca sulla relazione tra misure alternative e recidiva
Le due città, settembre 2012

... Ricerca che il Ministero della Giustizia e il Dipartimento dell’Amministrazione Penitenziaria hanno affidato all’Einaudi Institute for Economics Finance (Eief), al Crime Research Economic Group (Creg) e al Sole 24 Ore. Sarà proprio il Dap a consentire agli studiosi l’accesso alle informazioni necessarie alla ricerca, aprendo – con un’operazione trasparenza – i suoi archivi all’esterno, al fine di valutare l’incidenza sulla recidiva delle misure alternative e del lavoro in carcere.

 

J. Grinage
# Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness

Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Criminology Review
July, 2012, Vol. 4(2):127-132
The permanence of racism in the United States has not remained in the same form over centuries of its existence. Instead, racism shifts, changes, and molds into often unrecognizable ways that fit seamlessly into the fabric of the American consciousness to render it utterly invisible to the majority of white Americans. In the current era of political thinking, colorblindness, or society’s unwillingness to discuss or even recognize race in any way, seems to be the dominant perspective. Michelle Alexander, in her book, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness shatters this dominantly held ideology.

 

National Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Committee nidac | Australian National Council on Drugs ANCD
# An economic analysis for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offenders : prison vs residential treatment
Australian National Council on Drugs 2013 August 2012

Indigenous Australians are over-represented in Australian prisons. At 30 June 2011, there were 29 106 prisoners in Australian prisons, of which 7656 (26%) were Indigenous (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011a). By comparison, 2.5 per cent of the total population was Indigenous in 2011 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011b). In 2010–11, the imprisonment rate for Indigenous adults (aged 18 years or over) was 1746.51 per 100 000 compared with a corresponding rate of 125.4 for non-Indigenous people — a ratio of Indigenous to non-Indigenous imprisonment rates of 13.9

 

Jacob & Valeria Langeloth Foundation | John Jay College | Policy Research Associates
# Responding to the needs of an aging prison population
http://gainscenter.samhsa.gov/ August 2012
The percentage of prisoners age 65 and older has grown by 67 percent in the past four years – even though the total state/Federal prison population stayed flat. In the past decade, between 2000 and 2009, the number of sentenced prisoners under state and Federal jurisdiction increased 17 percent, while the number of older prisoners (prisoners aged 55 or older) increased 79 percent...

 

Maribel Lozano Cortés

# Estudio comparativo de la cárcel en España y México en la actualidad
Julio-Diciembre 2012
El riesgo, la amenaza y la incertidumbre forman parte del mundo global. Las personas tienen miedo, particularmente, las que viven más acomodadas. Existe una obsesión por la seguridad que sobrepasa todo principio ético y humanitario. Las cárceles de todo el mundo, sobre todo las de los países desarrollados, como es el caso de España, han incrementado su población. Ahí están los inmigrantes y/o desempleados, los “excedentes”, como los llama Bauman; aquellos los marginados del “progreso económico”. Ellos son las consecuencias de la modernidad, la desigualdad social, el individualismo y el incremento de riesgos lo que ha conducido a la creación de Estados punitivos, para los cuales es más importante la seguridad que la libertad. Las medidas alternativas a la prisión, el discurso de readaptación o reinserción social de los Estados de bienestar social han sido relegadas con el ejercicio del control punitivo.

 

Cindy Chang The Times-Picayune
Louisiana is the world's prison capital
The Times-Picayune on May 13, 2012

Louisiana imprisons more people than any nation in the world: Louisiana 1,619 people per 100,000 residents | United State 730 | Russia 525 | Rwanda 450 | Iran 333 | China 122 | Afghanistan 62

 

Department of Justice (G. J. Mazza ed.)
Report on Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails. Review Panel on Prison Rape
U.S. Department of Justice, April 2012
This Report presents the findings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel), resulting from the hearings it held in Washington, DC, in the spring and fall of 2011, based on the national survey that the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) published in August 2010, Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails, Reported by Inmates, 2008-09. Under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, the Panel is responsible for holding public hearings to which it invites, relying on data from the BJS, two correctional institutions with a low prevalence of sexual victimization and three institutions with a high prevalence of sexual victimization. The purpose of the hearings is to identify the common characteristics of (1) sexual predators and victims, (2) correctional institutions with a low prevalence of sexual victimization, and (3) correctional institutions with a high prevalence of sexual victimization.

 

Paula Smith and Myrinda Schweitzer
The Therapeutic Prison
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 2012 28: 7

Historically, one of main purposes of the American correctional system has been to rehabilitate offenders . At the present time, there is now a well-developed literature on “what works” in reducing offender recidivism that
should be used to inform the design and implementation of offender assessment and treatment services in prison. In fact, meta-analyses have reported a 28% reduction in recidivism when programs adhere to the principles of effective intervention (see Andrews & Bonta, 2010). If none of the principles are followed, slight  increases in recidivism have often been recorded. Moreover, corrections professionals should focus on factors beyond the content of assessment and treatment programs to include consideration of the organizational context of the prison. Using the items contained in the CPAI as a blueprint, institutions can develop treatments that will produce optimal results in terms of rehabilitating offenders.

 

Kofi Poku Quan-Baffour, Britta E. Zawada
Education Programmes for Prison Inmates: Reward for Offences or Hope for a Better Life?
J Sociology Soc Anth, 3(2): 73-81 (2012)
Education is a means to emancipate people from abuse, unemployment and poverty, which is why democratic countries provide basic education for all their citizens, even ‘law breakers’. Education for prisoners is gaining currency in many countries. In South Africa, it is both a constitutional right and a foundation stone for rehabilitation. The objective of this paper was to investigate the value of prison education at two correctional service facilities in Pretoria...

 

Christian Henrichson, Ruth Delaney
The Price of Prisons What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers
Vera Institute of Justice, January 2012 (Updated 7/20/12)
A growing body of research suggests—and government officials acknowledge—that beyond a certain point, further increases in incarceration have significantly diminishing returns as a means of making communities safer. This means that for many systems, putting more lower-risk offenders in prison is yielding increasingly smaller improvements in public safety and may cost more to taxpayers than the value of the crime it prevents. As states look to strike a balance that results in better outcomes, it is essential to assess the benefits and costs of incarceration.

 

Human Rights Watch
Old Behind Bars. The Aging Prison Population in the United States
www.hrw.org 2012

Using data from the United States Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), Human Rights Watch calculates that the number of sentenced federal and state prisoners who are age 65 or older grewan astonishing 94 times fasterthan the total sentenced prisoner population between 2007 and 2010. The older prison population increased by 63 percent, while the total prison population grewby 0.7 percent during the same period. Some older men andwomen in prison today enteredwhen they were young or middle-aged; others committed crimes when they were already along in years. Those who have lengthy sentences, as many do, are notlikely to leave prison before they are aged and infirm. Some will die behind bars: between 2001 and 2007, 8,486 prisoners age 55 or older died in prison.

 

Ilyana Kuziemko
How Should Inmates Be Released from Prisons? An Assessment of Parole Versus Fixed-Sentence Regimes
http://www.oregon.gov/ September 11, 2012

Exploiting quasi-experiments from the state of Georgia, I show that prison time reduces recidivism risk and that parole boards set prison time in an allocatively e cient manner. Prisoners respond to these incentives; after a reform that eliminated parole for certain o enders, they accumulated a  greater number of disciplinary infractions, completed fewer prison rehabilitative programs, and recidivated at higher rates than inmates una ected by the reform. I estimate that eliminating parole for all prisoners would increase the prison population by ten percent while also increasing the crime rate through deleterious e ects on recidivism.

 

American Civil Liberties Union ACLU | Allen Hopper, Margaret Dooley-Sammuli, Kelli Evans
Public Safety Realignment: California at a Crossroads
ACLU of California March 2012
It’s time to fix California’s broken criminal justice system. Most people in California jails have not been convicted of a crime. More than 50,000 of the 71,000 Californians held in a county jail on any given day are awaiting trial: that‘s 71% of county jails’ average daily population. In addition to the human cost, there is a high financial cost of pretrial incarceration. $100 per day to keep someone in jail awaiting trial. $2.50 per day to monitor people with pretrial programs.

 

Roy Walmsley | International Centre for Prison Studies ICPS
World Female Imprisonment List (second edition). Women and girls in penal institutions, including pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners
www.prisonstudies.org/ 2012
The female prison population is growing in all five continents. The total in the 187 countries whose figures were shown in the first edition of  this List (2006) has increased by more than 16%, with the largest increase being in the Americas (up 23%) and the smallest increase in European countries (up 6%). In about 80% of prison systems female prisoners constitute between 2 and 9% of the total prison population. The highest percentage levels are in Maldives (21.6%), Hong Kong-China (20%), Bahrain (18.5%), Andorra (16.4% - 10 out of a total of 61 prisoners), Macau-China (14.8%), Qatar (14.7%) and Thailand (14.6%).

 

Penal Reform International
# Alternatives to imprisonment in East Africa. Trends and challenges
www.penalreform.org/ 2012
Prison overcrowding is a serious problem on the African continent. According to the International Centre for Prison Studies’ World Prison Brief, the number of prisoners exceeds capacity in 28 out of 40 African countries. In nine countries occupancy levels are more than twice capacity. Figures compiled by the International Centre for Prison Studies show the occupancy rate of prisons to be 226% of capacity in Kenya (2010), 214% in Uganda (2011) and 145% in Tanzania (2011). A large part of the overcrowding problem is caused by the widespread use of often lengthy pre-trial detention. Pre-trial detainees represent 54% of prisoners in Uganda, 52% in Tanzania and 43% in Kenya.

 

Jane Hurry, Lynne Rogers, Margaret Simonot, Anita Wilson
# Inside Education: The Aspirations and Realities of prison education for under 25s in the London area
www.ioe.ac.uk/ June 2012
In an overarching Recommendation, the Council of Europe (1989) proposed that ‘the right to [prison] education is fundamental’. In England and Wales it is legislated that ‘Every prisoner able to profit from the education facilities provided at a prison shall be encouraged to do so’. However, of the adult population in prison, only around 25 per cent will be receiving education of some kind. It is hoped that the implementation of new policy will provide greater incentives, opportunities, and a clearer vision of what prisoner learners can expect from the educational offer.

 

State of Wisconsin - Department of Corrections
# Recidivism After Release from Prison
Office of the Secretary - Research and Policy Unit - October 2012

The data shows that the recidivism rate has been steadily trending down since 1993, when the three-year follow-up recidivism rate was 45.3%, the highest during the analysis timeframe. Overall, between 1990 and 2007 the three-year rate decreased by 24.8% (10.7 percentage points), and between 1993 and 2007, it decreased by 28.5% (12.9 percentage points).

 

España - Ministerio del Interior - La Administración Penitenciaria
Estadística penitenciaria
31 diciembre de 2012

Clasificación y tratamiento de los internos. Régimen penitenciario

 

Europa Press | Barcelona
Siete de cada 10 presos españoles, con problemas mentales por consumir drogas
www.elmundo.es/ - 15/04/2012

El 84,4% de los presos españoles sufre o ha sufrido enfermedades mentales en algún momento de su vida en las prisiones españolas, en su mayoría por adicción o abuso de drogas (76%), según un estudio con datos de 2011 al que ha tenido acceso Europa Press, realizado a más de 700 hombres de cinco cárceles de Cataluña, Madrid y Zaragoza.
Esta cifra está lejos de la prevalencia de los trastornos mentales en la población general, que es de un 15,7%, y se explica por la influencia del consumo de drogas en el desarrollo de diferentes trastornos mentales, ha afirmado en una entrevista a Europa Press el director de psiquiatría penitenciaria del Parc Sanitari de Sant Joan de Déu, el doctor Francesc Pérez Arnau, colaborador del estudio. (Estudio PRECA 2011)

 

INFORME PRECA

# COMUNICADO: El 80% de los reclusos de centros penitenciarios españoles ha sufrido un trastorno mental
www.europapress.es  - 22 marzo 2012

 

Conférence de consensus sur la prévention de la récidive
# Combien coûte la prison ?
http://conference-consensus.justice.gouv.fr/ 2012
Pour les personnes qui ont bénéficié d’une alternative à l’incarcération ou qui ont été écrouées et bénéficient d’un aménagement de peine, la prise en charge par l’administration pénitentiaire représente un coût très inférieur à celui de la détention... Pour l’ensemble de ces mesures mises en œuvre par le service pénitentiaire d’insertion et de probation (SPIP) en milieu ouvert, il a été établi un coût moyen annuel de 1014 € par personne.

 

Mexico - Secretaria de Securidad Publica
# El Sistema Penitenciario Mexicano - 6 de septeimbre 2012
www.cmic.org/
Hay 419 centros penitenciarios con 188 mil 147 espacios.  13 centros federales con 18 mil 684 espacios  305 centros estatales y 10 del D.F. con 165 mil 419 espacios  91 centros municipales con 4 mil 044 espacios • El 50% de las instalaciones penitenciarias del país (226 centros de reclusión estatales y municipales) tiene sobrepoblación. • 50% de la población se concentra en 30 centros de reclusión. • 7 estados concentran el 52% de la población penitenciaria: Distrito Federal, Estado de México, Baja California, Jalisco, Sonora, Nuevo León y Puebla.

 

Kim Williams, Vea Papadopoulou and Natalie Booth | Ministry of Justice Analytical Services
# Prisoners’ childhood and family backgrounds. Results from the Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR) longitudinal cohort study of prisoners
Ministry of Justice Research Series 4/12 | March 2012

Many prisoners had problematic backgrounds: Twenty-four per cent stated that they had been in care at some point during their childhood. Those who had been in care were younger when they were first arrested, and were more likely to be reconvicted in the year after release from custody than those who had never been in care. Many prisoners had experienced abuse (29%) or observed violence in the home (41%) as a child – particularly those who stated that they had a family member with an alcohol or drug problem. Those who reported experiencing abuse or observing violence as a child were more likely to be reconvicted in the year after release than those who did not. Thirty-seven per cent of prisoners reported having family members who had been convicted of a non-motoring criminal offence, of whom 84% had been in prison, a young offenders’ institution or borstal. Prisoners with a convicted family member were more likely to be reconvicted in the year after release from custody than those without a convicted family member. Eighteen per cent of prisoners stated that they had a family member with an alcohol problem, and 14% with a drug problem.

 

Laurent Mucchielli, Emilie Raquet, Claire Saladino
# Délinquances et contextes sociaux en région PACA. Premiers éléments pour un tableau de bord statistique analytique
Etudes et travaux de l’ORDCS (Observatoire Régional de la Délinquance et des Contextes Sociaux), N°1 - Février 2012

Cette étude constitue le premier travail statistique réalisé par l’ORDCS sur l’ensemble de la région PACA, à partir des chiffres officiels de la police et de la gendarmerie. Dans une première partie, les auteurs expliquent d’abord longuement les précautions méthodologiques indispensables à l’utilisation de ces données administratives, signalant au passage les critiques qui peuvent être adressées aux divers organismes utilisant couramment ces statistiques. Ils expliquent, dans une seconde 22partie, la sélection qu’ils ont réalisée parmi les 107 index de cette statistique administrative, ainsi que les regroupements qu’ils ont opérés pour construire 5 nouveaux indicateurs de délinquances. Les auteurs présentent ensuite un travail inédit de calcul de taux tenant compte non seulement de la population résidente sur les terri-toires mais aussi des flux touristiques. Ces calculs conduisent à des changements notables dans l’évalua-tion des niveaux de délinquances sur les territoires. Dans une troisième partie, les auteurs développent une analyse cartographique et statistique poussée (tests de corrélation, régressions logistiques) afin de rechercher les relations significatives existantes entre, d’une part les indicateurs de délinquance et d’autre part les variables de contextes démographique et socio-économique (principalement des données INSEE). Ils mettent ainsi en évidence l’importance de plusieurs variables au premier rang desquelles le taux de chômage, en particulier celui des jeunes. Ils formulent enfin une hypothèse de corrélation entre certains types de délinquance et l’ampleur des inégalités de revenus.

 

E. Ann Carson, William J. Sabol - Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS
# Prisoners in 2011
Bulletin December 2012
Declining for the second consecutive year, state and federal prison populations totaled 1,598,780 at yearend 2011, a decrease of 0.9% (15,023 prisoners) from yearend 2010.
State correctional authorities had jurisdiction over 21,663 fewer sentenced inmates in 2011 than in 2010. Seventy percent of this decrease was due to California’s Public Safety Realignment program.

The number of state and federal prisoners sentenced to more than one year declined by 15,254 individuals, from 1,552,669 in 2010 to 1,537,415 in 2011.

Between 2010 and 2011, the imprisonment rate — the number of sentenced prisoners divided by the U.S. resident population times 100,000 — declined from 500 to 492 per 100,000 U.S. residents (table 6). The imprisonment rate has declined consistently since 2007 when there were 506 persons imprisoned per 100,000 U.S. residents. The rate in 2011 was comparable to the rate observed in 2005 (492 per 100,000).

 

David E. Olson, Sema Taheri
# Population Dynamics and the Characteristics of Inmates in the Cook County Jail
Loyola University Chicago 2-2012
Based on 2010 data collected by the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Cook County Jail housed a total of 9,777 inmates on June 30, 2010, second behind the 10,264 inmates detained in the largest single site facility in the country, the Harris County Jail in Houston, TX, and more than the 7,549 inmates housed in the Maricopa County Jail in Phoenix, AZ (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2011). Although the jail systems in New York and Los Angeles have many more inmates—12,745 and 16,862 on June 30, 2010, respectively—the jail systems in these two jurisdictions are in multiple sites across their respective jurisdictions.

 

Tracey Kyckelhahn - Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS
# State Corrections Expenditures, FY 1982-2010
Bulletin December 2012
Between 1982 and 2001, total state corrections expenditures increased each year, rising from $15.0 billion to $53.5 billion in real dollars. Between 2002 and 2010, expenditures fluctuated between $53.4 billion and $48.4 billion. Preliminary data from the Census Bureau’s Annual Survey of State Government Finances indicated that states spent $48.5 billion on corrections in 2010, a decline of 5.6% since 2009.

 

Laura M. Maruschak, Erika Parks - Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2011

November 2012 Bulletin

During 2011, for the third consecutive year, the number of adults under community supervision declined. At yearend 2011, there were about 4,814,200 adults under community supervision, down 1.5% or 71,300 offenders from the beginning of the year (figure 1). The community supervision population includes adults on probation, parole, or any other post-prison supervision (see text box on page 2 for definitions of probation and parole). The  drop in the probation population drove the decline in the total number of adults under community supervision. In 2011, the probation population fell 2%, from an estimated 4,053,100 to 3,971,300. While the parole population increased 1.6% during 2011, the increase was not enough to offset the overall decrease in the community supervision population. At yearend 2011, 1 in 50 adults in the U.S. were under community supervision.

 

Prison Reform Trust
Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ November 2012

Prison has a poor record for reducing reoffending – 47.5% of adults are reconvicted within one year of being released. For those serving sentences of less than 12 months this increases to 57.6% - an increase of 3.3 percentage points from 2000. For those who have served more than 11 previous custodial sentences the rate of reoffending rises to 68%. 51% of women leaving prison are reconvicted within one year – for those serving sentences of less than 12 months this increases to 62%. For those women who have served more than 10 previous custodial sentences the reoffending rate rises to 88%. 58% of young people (18-20) released from custody  in the first quarter of 2008 reoffended within a year

 

Prison Reform Trust
Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile
June 2012

Now, 83 of 134 prisons in England and Wales are overcrowded. Outcomes of excessive use of imprisonment are bleak. There are high levels of violence and self-harm. Just 36% of people leaving prison go into education, training or employment. Very many are homeless and in debt on release. Prison has a poor record for reducing reoffending with 47% of all adults reconvicted within one year of release, rising to 57% for those serving sentences of less than 12 months and almost 70% for under 18 year olds.

 

England / Wales | Ministry of Justice

Prison Population Projections 2011 – 2017 England and Wales
Ministry of Justice Statistics Bulletin Published 27th October 2011

 

Didi Kirsten Tatlow
# Women in Prison Fare Better in China
The New York Times - September 11, 2012
In the United States and in China, women now account for about 9 percent and 6 percent of inmates, respectively, Mr. Kamm estimated... Ms. Wang estimated China’s female prison population at 4 to 5 percent of the total, but she cautioned that she did not have exact figures, with so much about China’s prison system a secret.
And Mr. Kamm also noted that the new clauses did not apply to women in China’s large system of re-education through labor, or “laojiao,” an extrajudicial form of detention that snares many thousands every year.

 

Brazil | Ministério da Justiça - Departamento Penitenciário Nacional - Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias – InfoPen
Formulário Categoria e Indicadores Preenchidos

Referência: 06/2012

Quantidade de Presos custodiados no Sistema Penitenciário Masculino 476.805 | Feminino 31.552 | Total 508.357

 

Brazil ICPS

Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population) 276 based on an estimated national population of 198.9 million at June 2012

 

Artur Barrio Ricart, Marta Carrasco Moreno, Marta Ferrer Puig, Ignasi Jambrina Gato, Mireia Roca, Bertran and Gemma Torres Ferrer
# The specialised training of social educators involved in the implementation of sanctions and measures
Generalitat de Catalunya Centre d’Estudis Jurídics i Formació Especialitzada, June 2012
This is an explanatory guide to the way in which the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training (CEJFE) conceives and structures the  specialised training of social educators in the field of correctionals. The guide contains the basis of the annual  training programmes which make up the specialised training available at the Centre for this group of professionals...

 

Policy Forum EXOCP di Berlino
# La dichiarazione di Berlino sul reinserimento degli autori di reat reati e degli ex autori di reati
http://archivio.isfol.it/ 18-19 giugno 2012

I detenuti tendono ad avere scarse competenze, la maggior parte di essi è sprovvisto di qualifiche scolastiche o professionali. In maggioranza sono disoccupati da lungo tempo o non hanno mai avuto accesso al mercato del lavoro. La loro carenza di abilità sociali e di vita può costituire un ostacolo notevole, non solo per ottenere un posto di lavoro, ma anche per affrontare la vita quotidiana e reinserirsi nella società. Alcuni hanno notevoli problemi comportamentali a livello sociale che rappresentano un immediato svantaggio sul mercato del lavoro. Altri poi hanno disturbi fisici e mentali che necessitano di interventi sanitari prima che essi possano collegarsi efficacemente con il mercato del lavoro o con la società.

 

Department of Correctional Services Republic of South Africa

# Annual Report 2011/12 (1 april 2011 to 31 march 2012)

Minister of Correctional Services 31 may 2012

For the 2011/12 financial year the inmate population was on average 158 790. Since the 2009/10 financial year there was a slight decrease annually in the male inmate population (2009/10 – 160 280; 2010/11 – 157 345 and 2011/12 -155 032) whilst there was a slight increase in the female inmate population from 2010/11 to 2011/12 (2010/11 – 3 562;  2011/12 – 3 758). [Prison population rate 307]

As at March 2012, there were 243 correctional facilities with an approved bed capacity of 118 441 in the department. It should be noted that during the course of the year some of these were temporarily closed either as the centre or as a section, resulting in an available bed space for the financial year of 118 154. There is massive diversity in terms of size, minimum standards and facilities across the South African correctional centres, given the time periods over which  they were built, the purposes for which they were built and the political landscape that prevailed when they were built. DCS must manage this legacy to enable a set of minimum norms and standards to prevail across all centres and to ensure cost-effective and delivery efficient centres.

 

Annual Report 2010/11 (1 april 2010 to 31 march 2011)

 

Perù Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos | Instituto Nacional Penitenciario
Presentacion de Documento Informe Estadistico “10 Medidas de Reforma del Sistema Penitenciario" Abril 2012
www.inpe.gob.pe/
A través de la pirámide de la población penal clasificada por género y los grupos de edad, observamos que la mayor concentración de la población penal masculina se encuentra en el grupo comprendido entre los 20 a 39 años, mientras que en el caso de la población penal femenina se da entre los 25 a 44 años... El 36% de la población total de internos (rango de 18 a 29 años), se encuentra considerada entre la población joven y económicamente activa o productiva. Estos datos son muy importantes para evaluar los programas de políticas preventivas encaminados a cambiar la conducta delictiva. Otra situación es la población de internos entre 18 a 24 años, que constituye el 17% de la  población total, la que estaría en la etapa de formación técnico-productiva; al respecto, se podría destinar o fomentar programas de formación técnica o universitaria, e incluso el aprendizaje de idiomas...

 

Australian Bureau of Statistics ABS
Corrective Services March Quarter 2012
www.abs.gov.au
Commonwealth of Australia 2012

Based on first day of the month averages, for the March quarter 2012 there were 29,226 persons in full-time custody and 53,763 persons in community-based corrections. This comprises an increase of 822 persons (3%) in full-time custody from the March quarter 2011, and a decrease of 994 persons (2%) in community-based corrections for the same period. This represents a decrease of 172 persons (less than 1%) in corrective services from the March quarter 2011.

 

Swiss - Confederazione svizzera

#  Statistiche penitenziarie 2011-2012.

Privation de liberté et exécution des sanctions - Données, indicateurs

www.bfs.admin.ch/

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP
Ufficio per lo Sviluppo e la Gestione del Sistema Informativo Automatizzato - Sezione statistica
#  Caratteristiche socio-lavorative, giuridiche e demografiche della popolazione detenuta.
Situazione al 31 dicembre 2012 - Anno XV - 2012 - II Semestre

65.701 persone, di cui 23.492 straniere, presenti il 31.12.2012

- Caratteristiche anagrafiche e lavorative" (sesso, età, numero di figli, stato civile, grado di istruzione, condizione lavorativa, ramo di attività, posizione professionale);

- Caratteristiche giuridiche" (posizione giuridica, durata della pena, durata della pena residua);

- Caratteristiche demografiche (distribuzione per regione di detenzione e regione di nascita, residenza e, per gli stranieri, area geografica);
- Numero di persone uscite dal carcere per effetto della detenzione presso il domicilio di cui alla legge n. 199/2010 (c.d. svuota carceri): 4.725 dalla data di entrata in vigore della legge al 31.12.2012;
- Recidiva: dati relativi al numero di carcerazioni precedenti, anche con sentenza definitiva.
- Popolazione detenuta: dati relativi alla capienza degli istituti di pena; dati relativi agli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari e alle Case di Cura e di Custodia.

 

Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria - DAP

Detenuti per durata pena residua, pena inflitta, tipologia di reato 2005-2012

31 dicembre 2012

 

Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria - DAP

#  Detenuti per titolo di studio - numero figli - classi d'età - stato civile - regione di nascita - regione residenza 2005-2012

31 dicembre 2012

 

Ondine Millot
Les clés de Taubira pour vider les prisons
www.liberation.fr/ Libération 25 Septembre 2012
Les prisons françaises - «une humiliation pour la République»... Face aux centres de détention surpeuplés, la garde des Sceaux entend développer massivement les peines alternatives. Un changement profond de la politique pénale française… qui demande beaucoup de moyens.
«Nos prisons sont pleines, mais vides de sens.» La garde des Sceaux, Christiane Taubira, s’attaque aujourd’hui à un problème ancien avec une nouvelle formule...

 

Joycelyn M. Pollock, Nancy L. Hogan, Eric G. Lambert, Jeffrey Ian Ross, Jody L. Sundt
# A Utopian Prison: Contradiction in Terms?
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 28(1) 60–76 (2012)
The current prison system overshadows education and public services as the major consumer of state revenue. Today about 1.6 million individuals are incarcerated in this nation’s prisons. The so-called “prison industrial complex” has grown from 319,598 inmates in 1980 to 1,613,740 in 2009. About a third of felony offenders  sentenced to prison are convicted of drug crimes and another third for property crimes. Other countries with similar property crime rates as the United States’ rate choose other ways to deter and punish these offenders. The United States’ total incarceration rate (which includes jails) of 756 per 100,000 can be compared with Canada’s 116, the United Kingdom’s 153, Germany’s 89, France’s 96, or Finland’s 64

 

Paola Severino | Ministero della Giustizia
Intervento della guardasigilli Paola Severino alla conferenza stampa su carcere e recidiva
giustizia newsonline mercoledì 26 settembre 2012

Le slides

 

ISTAT

noi italia. 100 statististiche per capire il Paese in cui viviamo

Febbraio 2012

L’Italia, con circa 1,0 omicidi per centomila abitanti nel 2009, si colloca al di sotto della media dell’Unione (1,2 omicidi). Il fenomeno mostra un trend decrescente dal 1991. Le rapine denunciate alle autorità sono quasi 36 mila, pari a 59,5 ogni centomila abitanti, in forte calo rispetto all’anno precedente. L’Italia in sede di confronto europeo si colloca per la prima volta nel 2009 al di sotto della media del complesso dei 27 paesi dell’Unione europea.

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
Séries statistiques des personnes placées sous main de justice 1980-2012
http://www.justice.gouv.fr/ juillet 2012

 

Ministry of Justice
2012 Compendium of re-offending statistics and analysis
Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin, 12 July 2012
Using a cohort of offenders between January and December 2000:  27.9 per cent re-offended within one year;  38.9 per cent after 2 years;  53.2 per cent after 5 years; and,  58.9 per cent after nine years. In 2000 there were around 480,000 offenders in the cohort. Over 9 years this group committed approximately 3.6 million further offences. For adults 26.2 per cent re-offended within one year and 56.4 per cent reoffended within nine years. While for juveniles 33.7 per cent re-offended within one year and 67.7 per cent re-offended within 9 years..

 

Regione Emilia Romagna - Direzione Generale Sanità e Politiche Sociali - Servizio Salute Mentale, Dipendenze Patologiche e Salute nelle Carceri
Assistenza Sanitaria erogata negli Istituti Penitenziari  della Regione Emilia-Romagna nell’anno 2011
Relazione per la Commissione IV, Politiche per la Salute e Politiche Sociali, e la Commissione VI, Statuto e Regolamento convocate in seduta congiunta martedì 3 luglio 2012

 

Regione Emilia Romagna - Servizio Salute Mentale, Dipendenze Patologiche e Salute nelle Carceri
Il percorso clinico-assistenziale per le persone detenute. Attività e prestazioni rivolte alle persone detenute negli Istituti Penitenziari della Regione Emilia-Romagna

Primavera 2012

 

 Eurostat | Cynthia Tavares, Geoffrey Thomas, Fethullah Bulut
# Crime and Criminal Justice, 2006-2009
Eurostat Statistics in focus 6/2012

The prison population figures (Table 9) include both adult and juvenile convicted prisoners and pre-trial detainees in all types of prison establishments but exclude non-criminal prisoners held for administrative purposes such as pending investigation into their immigration status. In 2009, there were over 630 000 prisoners in the EU. This gives a rate of about 129 prisoners per 100 000 population in the EU Member States (averaged over the period 2007-2009). By comparison, the incarceration rate in the USA was much higher, at 784 per 100 000 population.

 

Mazhar Hussain Bhutta - Muhammad Siddique Akbar

Situation of Prisons in India and Pakistan: Shared Legacy, Same Challenges

South Asian Studies. A Research Journal of South Asian Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, January-June 2012

Prison Statistics India

 

Philippines - Bureau of Jail Management and Penology BJMP

# Data and Statistics 2012

 www.bjmp.gov.ph

 

Romulo A. Virola - National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB)
# Statistics on jails and prisons 2010
www.nscb.gov.ph

Prisoners are further classified as follows: (a) insular or national prisoner who is sentenced to a prison term of three years and one day to death; (b) provincial prisoner or one who is sentenced to a prison term of six months and one day to three years; (c) city prisoner who is sentenced to a prison term of one day to three years; and (d) municipal prisoner or one who is sentenced to a prison term of one day to six months...
In 2010, there were 59,2895 inmates in BJMP jails, an increase of 2.9% from 2009. Of this total, 56,479 or 95.3 % were detained, and 2,810 or 4.7% were sentenced, representing an increase of 3.3% and a decrease of 4.7%, respectively, from 2009. In addition, 1,147 were in PNP jails on a temporary basis in 2010, an increase of 5.0% from 2009.

 

Sergio Alejandro Gomez

Sistema penitenciario cubano

# Respeto a la dignidad y al mejoramiento humano

Granma | Órgano Oficial del Comité Central del Partido Comunista de Cuba
La Habana, martes 22 de mayo de 2012

Cuba es un país subdesarrollado y a la vez sometido a un brutal bloqueo por parte de Estados Unidos desde hace más de cincuenta años, por lo que las reformas y mejoras al sistema carcelario se han impulsado en el contexto de los limitados recursos disponibles. Ello, unido a la continua crisis económica y financiera mundial, crea serios obstáculos y desafíos para nuestro desempeño. No obstante, se han llevado a cabo proyectos de reparación y acondicionamiento de los centros penitenciarios para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los 57 337 internos (31 494 en condiciones cerradas y 25 843 en instalaciones abiertas).

 

Fernando Ravsberg
# Cuba Finally Quantifies Its Prisoners

Havana Times.org - May 23, 2012

The number of prisoners in Cuban jails is 57,337, a figure just revealed by the official Granma newspaper after decades of silence on the issue. This total places Cuba in a better position than the US, a country with more than 700 prisoners per 100,000 inhabitants.

 

# ICPS

 

Soo-Ryun Kwon, Amanda Solter, Dana Marie Isaac | University of San Francisco (USF) School of Law’s Center for Law and Global Justice
Cruel and Unusual. U. S. Sentencing Practices in a Global Context
www.usfca.edu/ May 2012
All of these sentencing practices—life without the possibility of parole, “three strikes” laws, consecutive sentences, mandatory
minimums, juvenile justice laws, dual sovereignty, and non-retroactive application of ameliorative law—are used
frequently in the United States in ways they are not in the rest of the world...

 

HM Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales
Annual Report 2011–12

Presented to Parliament pursuant to Section 5A of the Prison Act 1952
as amended by Section 57 of the Criminal Justice Act 1982.
Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 17 October 2012.

The number of self-inflicted deaths in prison rose from 54 (0.64 per 1,000 prisoners) in 2010–11 to 66 (0.76 per 1,000 prisoners) in 2011–12. Incidents of self-harm are, however, also rising in men’s prisons – from 14,768 in 2010–11 to 16,146 in 2011–12 (the number fell in women’s prisons) – as are the number of recorded assaults, from 13,804 to 14,858... In March 2011, the prison population was 85,400; by March 2012, it had grown by 2,131 to 87,531. The operational capacity of prisons had grown over the same period by 3,532 to 90,622...

 

Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP
Relazione triennale al Parlamento sul regime detentivo speciale di cui all'art. 41 bis O.P.
Roma, 21 febbraio 2012
La stabilizzazione del regime scaturita dalle nuove disposizioni di legge ha inciso notevolmente sul numero complessivo dei detenuti ascritti asl regime speciale. Allo stato si registra un picco nella presenza di detenuti 41bis che risultano essere 679. Ciò a parità di strutture penitenziarie disponibili, con le ovvie difficoltà di allocazione e di garanzia delle separazioni interne.

 

Christoffer Carlsson
# Using "Turning Points" to Understand Processes of Change in Offending. Notes from a Swedish Study on Life Courses and Crime
BRIT. J. CRIMINOL. (2012) 52, 1–16
Processes of within-individual change in offending and desistance from crime can be very complex, often involving multiple, context-specific processes. But even in a generous reading of much research on turning points, while this is theoretically stated or inferred, it is less often shown or illustrated in empirical cases. I explore processes of change in offending with the help of the concept of ‘turning points’, through life story interviews conducted in the Stockholm Project, trying to make use of the possibilities inherent in qualitative inquiry. I show how life course processes and the turning points that emerge within them are often interdependent on each other, emerging in very context-specific circumstances, and need to be studied and understood and such. Future research areas are suggested.

 

Edward J. Latessa
Designing More Effective Correctional Programs Using Evidence-Based Practices
www.ncjrs.gov/ 2012
Behavioral programming has shown the strongest effects across a wide range of programs and settings. This paper reviews some evidence-based programs and methods proven effective in addressing various criminogenic needs of high-risk offenders. Results from three large-scale studies are reviewed to show that the more criminogenic needs targeted by a program, the greater the reduction in recidivism rates. On the other hand, programs that targeted an insufficient number of criminogenic needs showed only a slight decrease in failure rates.

 

COE Council of Europe - Unil Université of Lausanne
Marcelo F. Aebi - Natalia Del Grance

Annual Penal Statistics: Space I Survey 2010

Strasbourg, 28 March 2012 | PC-CP (2012) 1

 

Prison Service Pay Review Body
# Eleventh Report on England and Wales 2012 | Presented to Parliament by the Prime Minister and the Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice by Command of Her Majesty - March 2012
http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/ 2012
NOMS is an Executive Agency of the Ministry of Justice. Its role is to commission and provide offender management services in the community and in custody ensuring best value for money from public resources. It works to protect the public and reduce reoffending by delivering the punishment and orders of the courts, and supporting rehabilitation by helping offenders to reform their lives. On 17 February 2012, the prisoner population was 87,631, 3.0 per cent higher than a year earlier. NOMS paybill costs relating to the remit group in 2010-11 were £1¼ billion (including  social security and other pension costs). At the end of December 2011, there were 32,410 staff in our remit.

 

Christopher Uggen, Sarah Shannon
# State-Level Estimates of Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States, 2010
http://sentencingproject.org/ The Sentencing Project, July 2012
A remarkable 5.85 million Americans are forbidden to vote because of “felon disenfranchisement,” or laws restricting voting rights for those convicted of felony-level crimes. Approximately 2.5 percent of the total U.S. voting age population – 1 of every 40 adults – is disenfranchised due to a current or previous felony conviction. Ex-felons in the eleven states that disenfranchise people after they have completed their sentences make up about 45 percent of the entire disenfranchised population, totaling over 2.6 million people. The number of people disenfranchised due to a felony conviction has escalated dramatically in recent decades as the population under criminal justice supervision has increased. There were an estimated 1.17 million people disenfranchised in 1976, 3.34 million in 1996, and over 5.85 million in 2010.

 

Editorial
# Disenfranchised Felons
www.nytimes.com/ The New York Times, Published: July 15, 2012
The disproportionate number of blacks among the disenfranchised remains a huge racial justice problem. Almost 7.7 percent of blacks of voting age are disenfranchised because of their criminal records, compared with less than 2 percent for non-blacks.

 

Michelle Tolbert | U.S. Department of Education Office of Vocational and Adult Education
# A Reentry Education Model. Supporting Education and Career Advancement for Low-Skill Individuals In Corrections
www2.ed.gov/ U.S. Department of Education - Office of Vocational and Adult Education 2012
How can we solve the reentry challenge and ensure that incarcerated individuals and those under community supervision become productive members of society? Although there is no one answer, a growing body of evidence shows that providing offenders with education and training increases their employment opportunities, addresses their cognitive deficits, and helps reduce their likelihood of recidivating... The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education, therefore, supported the development of a correctional education reentry model illustrating an education continuum to bridge the gap between prison and community-based education and training programs.

 

Allen J. Beck, Candace Johnson | Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS
# Sexual Victimization Reported by Former State Prisoners, 2008
Office of Justice Programs www.ojp.usdoj.gov | May 2012

One In Ten State Prisoners Sexually Abused. Bureau of Justice Statistics study confirms national crisis of sexual abuse in U.S. detention, exposes systemic problem of staff retaliation, and shatters prisoner rape stereotypes... 9.6% of former state prisoners reported one or more incidents of sexual victimization during the most recent period of incarceration in jail, prison, or a postrelease community-treatment facility... 5.4% of former inmates reported an incident with another inmate; 5.3% reported an incident with staff... An estimated 3.7% of former prisoners said they had nonconsensual sex with another inmate, including manual stimulation and oral, anal, or vaginal penetration. An additional 1.6% of former prisoners said they had experienced one or more abusive sexual contacts only with another inmate, including unwanted touching of the inmate’s buttocks, thigh, penis, breast, or vagina in a sexual way. An estimated 1.2% of former prisoners reported that they unwillingly had sex or sexual contact with facility staff. An estimated 4.6% said they “willingly” had sex or sexual contact with staff.

 

NATIONAL PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION COMMISSION REPORT AND STANDARDS
# HEARING BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON CRIME, TERRORISM, AND HOMELAND SECURITY OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES ONE HUNDRED ELEVENTH CONGRESS FIRST SESSION

JULY 8, 2009  Serial No. 111–49 judiciary.house.gov

 

Jill Filipovic
# Is the US the only country where more men are raped than women? The figures on rape may be uncertain, but we could lower the sexual assault rate in American jails – if we had the political will
The Guardian, guardian.co.uk, Tuesday 21 February 2012

 

Vivre Ensemble
# Sortie de prison. Difficile réinsertion
www.vivre-ensemble.be/ 2012/02
Tout détenu qui entre en prison sera un jour amené à en sortir. Il est dans l’intérêt de la société qu’il ne récidive pas et qu’il puisse se réinsérer, notamment par le logement et l’emploi. Une telle réinsertion ne se fait pas du jour au lendemain. Elle doit être préparée et accompagnée. Préparée pendant la détention, accompagnée à la sortie. 

 

California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR)
# The year in accomplishments 2012
www.cdcr.ca.gov/ 2012
Total Inmate Population – The total inmate population dropped 10 percent from 147,578 to 132,785 during 2012.  Overcrowding – As defined by the inmate population in relation  to the design capacity of the 33 adult institutions – declined from  167 percent to 150 percent. Parolee population – The parolee population dropped  42.9 percent from December 2011 to December 2012.

 

France - Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire

# Les Chiffres Clés de l'Administration Pénitentiaire au 1er janvier 2012

www.justice.gouv.fr

 

Le Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté
# Rapport d’activité 2011

Éditions Dalloz, 2012

 

Vera Institute of Justice

Christian Henrichson - Ruth Delaney

The Price of Prisons. What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers
January 2012

Decades of increasing incarceration and soaring corrections costs have been well documented and are a familiar story to policy makers and the public. Over the past 40 years, the United States has seen a dramatic increase in the use of prisons to combat crime. As a result, incarceration rates have skyrocketed, with the country’s state prison population having grown by more than 700 percent since the 1970s. Today, more than 1 in 100 adults are in prison or jail nationwide.2 This trend has come at great cost to taxpayers. States’ corrections spending—including prisons as well as probation and parole—has nearly quadrupled over the past two decades, making it the fastest-growing budget item after Medicaid.

 

The Prison Reform Trust (PRT)
# Prison Reform Trust submission to the Labour Party Justice Policy Working Group Consultation, Punishment and Reform: What Works to Protect the Public and Stop Crime?
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ January 2012
There is consensus across the top of the justice system and beyond on the need to reverse the unsustainable trend in ever expanding prison numbers. In the last two decades the prison population has almost doubled from around 44,000 in the early 1990s to over 88,000 today. Inflation in sentencing and massive overuse of custody leaves us with a society where seven per cent of school children experience their father's imprisonment. Estimates reveal that more children are affected by parental imprisonment than by divorce in the family. Reform is essential to overhauling an overcrowded, expensive and, in many ways, counter-productive prison system. It costs £39,573 per year to lock up an individual and two out of every three prisoners are reconvicted within two years of release. The National Audit Office estimates that reoffending by former prisoners costs the UK economy between £9bn and £13bn a year. Research by the Prime Minister‟s Strategy Unit shows that the 22% increase in the prison population since 1997 is estimated to have reduced crime by around 5% during a period where overall crime fell by 30%. The report states: “There is no convincing evidence that further increases in the use of custody would significantly reduce crime.”

 

Nathan Brady Office of Legislative Research and General Counsel OLRGC
# Utah's Recidivism Rate In Light of National Trends
https://le.utah.gov/ January 31, 2012

 

José Becerra Muñoz
# Las prisiones españolas vistas desde Europa. Un análisis comparado
UneD. Revista de Derecho Penal y Criminología, 3.a Época, n.o 7 (2012)

... En lo que se refiere a las condenas de 1 a 5 años, todos los países muestran cifras superiores a la franja anterior situándose entre el 30 y el 60%. Sólo españa y Holanda presentan más internos condenados a menos de un año de prisión que a una pena de entre 1 y 5 años (aunque en nuestro país ambos grupos son casi idénticos). Además, lo habitual es que este segundo intervalo acumule el mayor número de internos (ocurre en todos excepto en Holanda y Portugal). La franja de 5-10 años devuelve de nuevo valores pequeños, entre los que llaman la atención los casos de Bélgica, Letonia y Portugal, únicos países que superan en este rango el 30% de internos. nuestro país es el octavo con más población en esta franja...

 

2011


 

Cour des comptes - Bruxelles
# Mesures de lutte contre la surpopulation carcérale | Rapport de la Cour des comptes transmis à la Chambre des représentants
www.courdescomptes.be/ Bruxelles, décembre 2011
La surpopulation dans les prisons n’a cessé de s’aggraver ces dix dernières années. Entre les 1er mars 2000 et 2010, la population pénitentiaire  augmenté de 21 %, passant de 8.668 à 10.501 détenus. Dans le même temps, la capacité a progressé de 18 %, passant de 7.462 à 8.829 places (la capacité de la prison de Tilburg, aux Pays-Bas, est incluse dans les chiffres de 2010). La surpopulation, mesurée tous les ans au 1er mars, est passée, durant la même période, de 16,4 % à 18,9 %...

 

Ministerio del Interior | Secretaría General de Instituciones Penitenciarias
# Informe General 2011

www.apfp.es/
La población reclusa en los Centros Penitenciarios dependientes de la Administración General del Estado1 a 31-12-2011 fue de 59.975 internos. El año 2011, en relación con 2010, finalizó con 3.428 internos menos (-5,4%). La media de población reclusa fue de 61.851 internos (-5,3% menos que en el año anterior). Por sexo, son varones 55.425 internos (2.937 internos menos que en las mismas fechas de 2010) y mujeres 4.550 (-491 internas menos en relación con el año anterior). Nueve de cada diez internos son hombres (92,4%)...

 

Tracy L. Snell
# Capital Punishment, 2010 – Statistical Tables
Bureau of Justice Statistics December 2011

Between January 1 and December 19, 2011, 13 states executed 43 inmates, which was 3 fewer than the number executed as of the same date in 2010. Three states accounted for more than half of the executions carried out during this period: Texas executed  13 inmates; Alabama executed 6; and Ohio executed 5.

At yearend 2010, 36 states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons held 3,158 inmates under sentence of death,15 fewer inmates than at yearend 2009. This represents the tenth consecutive year that the number of inmates under sentence of death has decreased. Four States (California, Florida, Texas, and Pennsylvania) held more than half of all inmates on death row as of December 31, 2010. The Federal Bureau of Prisons held 58 inmates on death row. Of those under sentence of death at yearend, 55% were white and 42% were black. The 388 Hispanic inmates under sentence of death accounted for 14% of inmates with a known ethnicity. Ninety-eight percent of inmates under sentence of death were male, and 2% were female. The race and gender of those under sentence of death has remained relatively unchanged since 2000.

 

Paul Guerino, Paige M. Harrison, and William J. Sabol
Prisoners in 2010
Bureau of Justice Statistics, Bulletin december 2011

Most offenders enter prison in one of two ways. About two-thirds are admitted as new court commitments. New court commitments include admissions into prison of offenders convicted and sentenced by a court, usually to a term of more than 1 year, including probation violators and persons with a split sentence to incarceration followed by court- ordered probation or parole. About a third of new court commitments were admitted because they violated a condition of supervised release. Parole violators include all conditional release violators returned to prison for either violation of conditions of release or for new crimes. Both types of admissions declined in 2010.

 

Sri Lanka

# Prison Statistics 2007 - 2011

www.prisons.gov.lk

 

Jagath Abeysirigunawardana
# Overcrowded Prisons and Present Practices and Experiences in relation to Community-Based Alternatives to Incarceration

Department of Prisons in Sri Lanka 2008

 

ICPS - Sri Lanka

 

Observatoire International des Prisons OIP
# Les conditions de détention en France
www.oip.org - Dossier de presse 7 décembre 2011

La période 2005-2011 est marquée par une systématisation et une aggravation de la sanction en cas de récidive, principalement pour les petits délits. Une option contreproductive en matière de prévention de la récidive. Entre août 2005 et novembre 2010, 18 nouvelles lois pénales ont été adoptées dans l’objectif affiché de lutter contre la récidive... L’OIP alerte sur le caractère contre-productif des peines minimales... Dans un contexte de surpopulation, les conditions de détention restent indignes dans de nombreux établissements, et les nouvelles prisons sont critiquées pour le
manque de contacts humains inhérent à leur fonctionnement... « La France présente l’un des taux de suicide carcéral le plus élevé de l’Europe des Quinze », un taux qui a «quintuplé en 50 ans alors qu’il a dans le même temps peu changé dans la population générale » (INSEE).
Prévaut en prison une approche de la sécurité dite « passive », qui inscrit la détention dans un rapport de force coercitif générateur de tensions et violences, loin des préconisations de sécurité « active » fondées sur le respect des droits des personnes, le dialogue et la prévention.

 

Minnesota Department of Corrections
# The Effects of Prison Visitation on Offender Recidivism
www.doc.state.mn.us/ November 2011
Following recent studies in Florida and Canada, this study examines the effects of prison visitation on recidivism among 16,420 offenders released from Minnesota prisons between 2003 and 2007. Using multiple measures of visitation (any visit, total number of visits, visits per month, timing of visits, and number of individual visitors) and recidivism (new offense conviction and technical violation revocation), the study found that visitation significantly decreased the risk of recidivism, a result that was robust across all of the Cox regression models that were estimated. 

 

Jake Cronin
# The Path to Successful Reentry: The Relationship Between Correctional Education, Employment and Recidivism
http://ipp.missouri.edu/ September 2011
Nearly all Missouri inmates will be released from prison, but the majority of them will reoffend and return to prison. To combat this problem, prisons have implemented educational programs to help offenders successfully reenter society. Using data from the Missouri Department of Corrections, this study evaluates the impact of these educational programs in terms of post-prison employment rates and recidivism rates. The results show that inmates who increase their education in prison are more likely to find a full-time job after prison, and those with a job are less likely to return to  prison.

 

Direction générale des Etablissements pénitentiaires | Eric Leytens, Annelies Boffé, Inge Nagels, Laurent Sempot, Olivier Michiels, Nathalie Faes, Christine Melebeck, Samuel Deltenre
# Rapport d’activités
http://justice.belgium.be/ Avril 2011
Les établissements les plus surpeuplés en 2010 sont, en ordre décroissant : Ieper, Dinant, Antwerpen, Forest et Jamioulx avec une population qui a excédé en moyenne leur capacité de plus de 50% ! A l’inverse, 12 établissements (y compris les centres fédéraux pour jeunes) affichent une population moyenne inférieure à la capacité théorique. On observe une croissance annuelle de la population globale d’une part, des prévenus et des condamnés d’autre part, qui est de l’ordre de 6 à 7 %.

 

Alexia Cooper, Erica L. Smith | U.S. Department of Justice | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Homicide Trends in the United States, 1980-2008. Annual Rates for 2009 and 2010
www.bjs.gov/ November 2011
The homicide rate doubled from the early 1960s to the late 1970s, increasing from 4.6 per 100,000 U.S. residents in 1962 to 9.7 per 100,000 by 1979.  In 1980 the rate peaked at 10.2 per 100,000 and subsequently fell to 7.9 per 100,000 in 1984.  e rate rose again in the late 1980s and early 1990s to another  peak in 1991 of 9.8 per 100,000.  e homicide rate declined sharply from 9.3 homicides per  100,000 in 1992 to 4.8 homicides per 100,000 in 2010.  The number of homicides reached an all-time high of 24,703  homicides in 1991 then fell rapidly to 15,522 homicides by  1999...

 

Bryn A. Herrschaft, Zachary Hamilton
# Recidivism Among Parolees in New York City, 2001-2008
www.courtinnovation.org/ Center for Court Innovation NY November 2011
Parolees returning to New York City are predominantly male (91%), nonwhite (57% black and 35% Hispanic), and multiple-time offenders (10.6 prior  arrests and 7.3 prior convictions on average). In addition, 47% were imprisoned on drug  charges, 30% on violent felony charges, and 23% on other charges; and almost one-fourth (23%) had a previous parole episode on the same case that ended in re-incarceration. • Recidivism Rates: Over the three-year tracking period: The re-arrest rate was 53%. The re-conviction rate was 42%. o Almost one-third (29%) of the parolees had their parole revoked and were returned to prison (23% for a technical violation and 6% for a new felony conviction).

 

Grant Duwe, Valerie Clar
# Blessed Be the Social Tie That Binds: The Effects of Prison Visitation on Offender Recidivism
Criminal Justice Policy Review, 2011
Prison visitation can improve recidivism outcomes by helping offenders not only maintain social ties with both nuclear and extended family members (especially fathers, siblings, and in-laws) while incarcerated but also develop new bonds such as those with clergy or mentors. In doing so, offenders can sustain or broaden their networks of social support, which we found was important in lowering recidivism.

 

Vera Institute of Justice
# Los Angeles County Jail Overcrowding Reduction Project. Final Report: Revised
www.vera.org/ September 2011

 

M. Eric Ciotti

# Rapport. Pour renforcer l’efficacité de l’exécution des peines
(Présenté en conclusion des travaux d’une mission confiée par le Président de la République)

Juin 2011

 

Serge Portelli

# Le rapport Ciotti est "émaillé de mensonges, contre-vérités et approximations"
Le Monde.fr | 07.06.2011
 

Nicole Borvo (PCF)

# Rapport Ciotti : « une dérive dangereuse et inefficace »
l'Humanité le 7 juin 2011 | www.humanite.fr
 

Laura Thouny | l'Humanité le 7 juin 2011

# Prisons : le rapport Ciotti est "absurde" et "dangereux"
www.humanite.fr

 

Francesco Drago, Roberto Galbiati, Pietro Vertova
# Prison Conditions and Recidivism
American Law and Economics Review 2011
The authors examine the impact of prison conditions on future criminal behavior. The take over is based on a unique dataset on the post-release behavior of about twenty thousand Italian former prison inmates. The authors use variation in prison assignment as a means of identifying the effects of prison overcrowding, deaths in prison, and degree of isolation on the probability of reoffending. They do not find compellingevidence  of (specific) deterrent effects of experienced prison severity. The measures of prison severity do not reduce the probability of recidivism. Instead, all point estimates suggest that harsh prison conditions increase post-release criminal activity, though they are not always precisely estimated...

 

Leonidas K. Cheliotis
# Suffering at the Hands of the State Conditions of Imprisonment and Prisoner Health in Contemporary Greece
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law - Legal Studies Research Paper No. 82/2011

Against the background of an immense growth in the use of imprisonment in Greece over the last three decades or so, it is shown that prison establishments are greatly overcrowded and material conditions of detention are deplorable. Healthcare provision is minimal, and the prevalence of serious transmittable diseases and mental disorders amongst prisoner populations is high, as are the rates of deliberate self-harm, suicide, and death more generally. Indeed, the officially recorded incidence of prisoner deaths has risen at a faster pace than imprisonment itself.

# Greece ICPS

 

Giovanni Torrente

# Tribunali di Sorveglianza e giurisprudenza in materia di concessione di misure alternative
VIII rapporto Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione in Italia, 2011

Il presente studio si è occupato di analizzare la giurisprudenza di undici tribunali di sorveglianza in relazione alla concessione di misure alternative alla pena detentiva. Nello specifico, l'analisi ha riguardato i dati statistici raccolti dai singoli tribunali in relazione ai provvedimenti emessi a seguito di istanza volta alla concessione di misure alternative. In particolare, l'analisi qui proposta riguarda quattro fra le principali misure alternative: l'affidamento in prova ai servizi sociali, l'affidamento ex art. 94 del DPR 309/90, la detenzione domiciliare e la semilibertà.

 

Joan Petersilia
# Beyond the Prison Bubble
NIJ Journal / Issue No. 268 October 2011
The announcement last summer that the number of Americans behind bars had increased for the 37th consecutive year in 2009 provoked a fresh round of grim editorializing and national soulsearching. With its prisons and jails now holding more than 2.4 million inmates — roughly one in every 100 adults — the United States has the highest incarceration rate of any free nation. As a proportion of its population, the United States incarcerates five times more people than Britain, nine times more than Germany, and 12 times more than Japan. “No other rich country is nearly as punitive as the Land of the Free,” The Economist has declared.

 

Fair Trials International
# Detained without trial: Fair Trials International’s response to the European Commission’s Green Paper on detention | # Appendix 2 Pre-trial Detention Comparative Research
http://ec.europa.eu/ October 2011
Pre-trial detention is defined differently across the EU; this report defines pre-trial detention as the time spent in
detention between charge and sentencing. he total prison population of the EU is estimated to be 643,000. Overcrowding is severe with over half of the 27 Member States running prisons with occupancy levels above capacity and the average occupancy level for EU prisons at 108%. Bulgaria‟s prisons are operating at 156% capacity, Italy‟s at 149% capacity and Spain‟s at 138%. Overcrowding exacerbates poor prison conditions. There are approximately 132,800 pre-trial detainees in the EU, which represents approximately 21% of the total EU prison population.

 

Roberto Nicastro
# Hotel carcere
Le due città, ottobre 2011
Ogni anno 40mila persone passano in cella meno di sei mesi: è il fenomeno della porta girevole, una delle cause maggiori del sovraffollamento

 

European Commission
# Green Paper. Strengthening mutual trust in the European judicial area – A Green Paper on the application of EU criminal justice legislation in the field of detention

Brussels, 14.6.2011 - COM(2011) 327 final

Probation measures and alternatives to imprisonment would be available in all legal
systems across the Union. These measures may then have to be promoted at Union level for a proper and efficient application of the rules by Member States...

Pre-trial detention in the context of this Green Paper covers the period until the sentence is final19. Pre-trial detention is a measure of an exceptional nature in all Member States' judicial systems...

 

Smart on Crime Coalition | The Constitution Project (TCP)
# Smart on Crime: Recommendations for the Administration and Congress
The Constitution Project 2011
The Coalition is comprised of more than 40 organizations and individuals, who participated in developing policy recommendations across 16 broad issue areas. These organizations and individuals represent the leading voices in criminal justice policy. Coalition members focus their efforts on such diverse and varied areas as combating unnecessary expansions of criminal law, advocating for improvements to investigatory and forensic science standards, ensuring that persons accused of crimes have an opportunity to receive a fair trial, helping persons who have served their sentences successfully reenter their communities, and protecting the rights and dignity of victims of crime.Our dedication to exploring all options means that Smart on Crime focuses on providing non-ideological, cost-effective, and evidence-based solutions to address the worst problems in our system...

 

Jennifer l. Truman
# National Crime Victimization Survey. Criminal Victimization, 2010
Bureau of Justice Statistics, Bulletin September 2011

 the rate of total violent crime victimizations declined by 13% in 2010, which was about three times the average annual decrease observed from 2001 through 2009 (4%).  the decline in the rate of simple assault accounted for about 82% of the total decrease in the rate of violent victimization in 2010.  in 2010 the property victimization rate declined by 6%, compared to the average annual decrease of 3% observed from 2001 through 2009.  From 2001 to 2010, weapon violence (26% to 22%) and stranger-perpetrated violence (44% to 39%) declined.  Between 2001 and 2010, about 6% to 9% of all violent victimization were committed with fi rearms. this percentage has remained stable since 2004.  after a slight overall decline from 2001 to 2008, the percentage of victims of violent crimes who suffered an injury during the victimization increased from 24% in 2008 to 29% in 2010.  about 50% of all violent victimizations and nearly 40% of property crimes were reported to the police in 2010. these percentages have remained stable over the past 10 years.  males (15.7 per 1,000) and females (14.2 per 1,000) had similar rates of violent victimization during 2010.

 

Marina Minster
# Comparative Analysis of Legal Status of Women Sentenced to Deprivation of Freedom in Russia and in the USA
VARSTVOSLOVJE, Journal of Criminal Justice and Security, year 13 no. 4 pp. 418-430 : 2011
Governmental tendencies are oriented now to the humanization of system of criminal sanctions, the way of its execution and to the increase of amount of punishments alternative to the deprivation of freedom. However, deprivation of freedom is the most widespread type of punishment nowadays.Women form rather a small part of the total amount of prisoners in the world. Women usually form from 2 to 9% of all prisoners of the country but in some cases this indicator can be higher of number of imprisoned women but according to the research in some countries this increase has a faster rate than the increase of amount of imprisoned men. For example, in the USA the amount of women incarcerated for more than one year had increased to 757% since 1977 to 2004 what is practically twice as much as 388% growth of the amount of men. In Australia since 1984 to 2003 the amount of incarcerated men had increased to 74%, the amount of incarcerated women had significantly increased to 209%. This tendency in 1994-2003 was also in Mexico, in Bolivia, in Colombia, in Kenya, in New Zealand and in Kirghizstan and in some European governments such as Cyprus, Estonia, Finland,Greece and Netherlands...

 

Leopold Sudaryono

# Reform at the Doorstep of Prisons in Indonesia
http://asiafoundation.org
August 10, 2011

The number of inmates in Indonesia's prisons almost doubled between 2003 and 2008... In 2009, the correctional system was able to discharge 24,000 inmates after streamlining parole procedures so that inmates could exercise their legal right to early release. However, that same year, the prison population still increased by 5,000 inmates – to a total of 124,000 people – due to an increase in number of people arrested and prosecuted.

 

# Prison Statistics Indonesia

 

The American Society of Criminology.
Special Issue on Mass Incarceration
http://criminology.fsu.edu/ Criminology & Public Policy Volume 10 Issue 3, August 2011

 

Iran Human Rights
Annual Report: Death Penalty in Iran 2011
www.iranhr.net

Prison Statistics Iran

 

David Gould, Jason Hainsworth, Kevin Manning, Toni McLackland
# Finishing the job: providing a roadmap for post release education
Australasian Journal of Correctional Staff Development, v. 6, 2011
Different forms of community based education and employment support programs for offenders have been implemented in numerous jurisdictions, both in Australia and internationally... Pre and post release employment support for up to 12 months. 82% reduction in ‘offences per day’ reported (measure of recidivism by frequency over time)...

 

Grupo PRECA (Prevalencia Carceles)

# Informe prevalencia de trastornos mentales en centros penitenciarios españoles. (Estudio PRECA)

Barcelona Junio 2011

La prevalencia vida y del último mes de los trastornos mentales según criterios DSM-IV se muestran en la tabla 2. La prevalencia vida de presentar cualquier trastorno mental fue del 84,4%. El trastorno por uso de sustancias fue el más frecuente (76,2%)
seguido del trastorno de ansiedad (45,3%), trastorno afectivo (41%) y trastorno psicótico (10,7%).
Entre los reclusos con trastorno por uso de sustancias (abuso o dependencia) los más frecuentes fueron los trastornos por consumo de alcohol y cocaína (Tabla 2). Entre los trastornos inducidos por sustancias el más prevalente a lo largo de la vida fue el trastorno de ansiedad (16,1%), seguido del trastorno afectivo (15,8%) y del trastorno psicótico (7,1%).
La prevalencia en el último mes de presentar cualquier trastorno mental fue del 41,2%. El trastorno más prevalente fue el de ansiedad (23,3%) seguido del trastorno por uso de sustancias (17,5%), trastorno afectivo (14,9%) y trastorno psicótico (4,2%). Dentro de las categorías mencionadas previamente, los trastornos más frecuentes fueron el trastorno por uso de cannabis (14,4%), trastorno de ansiedad no especificado (9,2%) y el trastorno depresivo mayor (7,8%).

 

Fondazione ICSA - Intelligence Culture and Strategic Analysis
Rapporto sulla criminalità e la sicurezza in Italia 2010 (a cura di Marzio Barbagli e Asher Colombo)
1^ edizione luglio 2011
Alla ricerca di spiegazioni: la recente crescita del numero di detenuti ha ridotto la criminalità? È bene chiarire che è molto difficile valutare il ruolo delle pene, e tra queste dell’incarcerazione, come fattore di controllo, di deterrenza e di neutralizzazione eventualmente svolto dal carcere nei confronti della criminalità...

 

Ministry of Justice
# Reporting of deaths in custody. Ministry of Justice Technical note: discussion of measurement of trends in deaths in custody – standardised mortality rates methodology
www.gov.uk/ 28 July 2011

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Reforming Women’s Justice. Final report of the Women’s Justice Taskforce
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ London 2011
Custody not only proves ineffective in many cases, it is also expensive. The Taskforce heard that the average cost of a women’s prison place is £56,415 per annum. By contrast, an intensive community order that commands the confidence of the police and the courts could cost in the region of £10,000 - £15,000. With this report, we are presenting an assessment of the costs and benefits of women’s imprisonment, community penalties and women’s centres. If work to reduce women's offending were better integrated across governmant and more strategic, it could pay dividends - not only by getting vulnerable women out of trouble but also by tackling costly inter-generational crime.

 

S. Harrendorf, M. Heiskanen, S. Malby (eds) | European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control | United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
# International Statistics on Crime and Justice
www.unodc.org/ Helsinki 2010
Global homicide levels: Data previously published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime suggests that approximately 490,000 deaths from intentional homicide occurred in 2004 (Geneva Declaration 2008). This represented a world average homicide rate in 2004 of 7.6 per 100,000 population. The dataset used for this calculation focused on maximum geographic coverage at the expense of more recently available data for some countries in order to produce a single global dataset for one point in time... In order to represent the distribution of this nearly half a million annual homicides by regions of the world...

 

Christian Mouhanna
# La coordination des politiques judiciaires et penitentiaire. Une analyse des relations entre monde judiciaire et administration pénitentiaire
www.gip-recherche-justice.fr/ Juin 2011
La schizophrénie organisationnelle. La description détaillée de toutes ces interactions entre monde judiciaire et administration pénitentiaire nous montre donc un monde assez éclaté, traversé par des tensions, des logiques plus ou moins convergentes, de la coopération et aussi souvent des dilemmes. Dans ce système humain où tous les acteurs sont interdépendants entre eux, les objectifs ne sont pas tous partagés. La logique répressive s’oppose à celle de la réinsertion sociale, celle de l’enfermement à celle de l’évitement de l’incarcération, celle de l’automatisation à celle du « cas par cas ». La difficulté pour bien appréhender l’impact de ces diverses logiques dans le système et ainsi pouvoir aisément le décrypter provient du fait que les rôles qu’occupent les uns et les autres dans leur fonction ne sont pas figés...

 

Ignacio González Sánchez
# Aumento de presos y Código Penal: una explicación insuficiente
Revista Electrónica de Ciencia Penal y Criminología 12 junio 2011
En los últimos 30 años la cantidad de personas que se encuentran encerradas en las prisiones de nuestro país se ha multiplicado, pasando de haber 8440 presos en 1975 a haber cerca de ocho veces más, 67.100 presos, en 2007 (en mayo de 2010 ya se habían alcanzado los 76.951 presos).... El crecimiento ha sido pronunciado, pasando de 23’59 presos/100.000 habitantes a 148’45 presos/100.000 habitantes en 2007. Es decir, es seis veces mayor...

 

Adalberto Carim Antonio
# Les peines alternatives dans le monde
http://epublications.unilim.fr/ Université de Limoges, 24 juin 2011

L’utilité et l’importance des peines alternatives doivent être distinguées non seulement face au phénomène de la fallite des peines privatives de liberté, mais aussi parce que les delits les plus pénalisés dans le système de justice pénale en général sont ceux qui peuvent avoir ses peines efficacement remplacés par des mesures et des peines alternatives, et qui, malheureusement, ne le sont pas, exposant les délinquants à tous types de maux causés par l’immersion dans le monde souterrain de la criminalité répandu dans les prisons.

 

Claire Duchemin
# European Inventory on Validation of Nonformal and Informal Learning 2010. Case Study: Validation of prior learning: a stepping stone for the reintegration of inmates into society (Norway)
https://cumulus.cedefop.europa.eu/ 2010

The three-year project ‘Validation of prior learning in prison education’was developed simultaneously in five Norwegian counties. It was led in each case by one prison and one upper secondary school. It aimed to use validation of prior learning (VPL) to provide inmates with an education that is adapted to their backgrounds and needs. Education and training is considered in Norway to be a key element in prison rehabilitation efforts. As prison education should be on par with education and training in the rest of society, it is thought that it should also keep pace with recent developments, such as VPL. 

 

Annie Kensey, Abdelmalik Benaouda (DAP/PMJ5)
# Les risques de récidive des sortants de prison. Une nouvelle évaluation
Cahiers d’études pénitentiaires et criminologiques - mai 2011 - n. 36

Ce cahier présente les premiers résultats d’une nouvelle recherche sur la récidive menée sur un échantillon national en 2011 des sortants de prison entre le 1er juin et le 31 décembre 2002. Les différences de risque de récidive les plus significatives sont liées au sexe, les femmes ayant une probabilité deux fois plus faible que les hommes d’avoir une nouvelle condamnation dans les cinq ans après la sortie de prison ; à l'âge, les mineurs ayant un risque nettement plus élevé et les personnes âgés de plus de 50 ans plus faible de récidiver que les jeunes majeurs de 18 à 30 ans. Par définition, ces risques de récidive sont liés aux antécédents pénaux : on constate que là où il y a plusieurs condamnations antérieures la probabilité du prononcé d’une nouvelle condamnation est quatre fois plus élevée que dans le cas d’une condamnation unique.

# Franck Johannès, L'absence d'aménagement de peine aggrave le risque de récidive des sortants de prison, Le Monde | 14.10.2011

 

Laura E. Gorgol, Brian A. Sponsler
# Unlocking Potential: Results of a National Survey of Postsecondary Education in State Prisons
www.ihep.org/ Institute for Higher Education Policy, May 2011
Despite the positive outcomes associated with postsecondary correctional education (PSCE), discussion of postsecondary opportunity for the nation’s prison population is notably absent from the top tier of state and federal policy agendas. This lack of topline policy attention to PSCE is detrimental to the country—postsecondary education has a critical role to play in mitigating challenging social conditions exacerbated by high incarceration levels.  

 

Annie Kensey, René Lévy, A. Benaouda
# Reoffending after an EM measure | La récidive des placés sous surveillance électronique
www.cepprobation.org/ 6 mai 2011

 

BIS Department for Business Innovation & Skills | Ministry of Justice
# Making Prisons Work: Skills for Rehabilitation. Review of Offender Learning
www.bis.gov.uk / May 2011

Re-offending blights lives and communities, carrying personal, social and economic costs of between £9.5 billion and £13 billion a year. Enabling offenders to have the skills that will make them attractive to employers so that they can find and keep jobs on release or whilst  serving a community sentence – becoming an asset rather than a burden to society – makes sense. Whilst our investment in giving offenders the skills they need to help them get and keep jobs is significant, it is a fraction of the prize on offer to all of us if we can prevent the creation of future victims of crime, with the associated economic and social costs, by cutting their reoffending.

 

Anne Costelloe, Torfinn Langelid, Walter Hammerschick, Eduard Matt | GHK
# Prison education and training in Europe - a review and commentary of existing literature, analysis and evaluation. Directorate General for Education and Culture, European Commission
http://ec.europa.eu/ 6 May 2011
The theme „prison as a positive environment for learning‟ is grounded in the assumption that education and training should be integral to and integrated into all aspects of the prison regime. The theme also assumes that prison education and training have a significant role to play in the daily life of the prisoner as well as significant consequences for resettlement on release. The idea of „prison as a positive environment for learning‟ is wide-reaching and  the application of the concept appears to vary considerably from country to country.

 

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
# Making Prisons Work: Skills for Rehabilitation
www.gov.uk/, May 2011

Re-offending blights lives and communities, as well as carrying significant social and economic costs: the National Audit Office assessed the cost of re-offending by recent prisoners in 2007- 08 as between £9.5 billion and £13 billion a year. Around half of all crime is committed by people who have already been convicted of a criminal offence. Improving the skills of offenders, focussed on the requirements of real jobs, is critical to reducing re-offending, alongside addressing other factors that drive crime such as substance misuse, mental health issues, poor accommodation, family issues and poverty. Evidence shows that prison education and vocational interventions produce a net benefit to the public sector ranging from £2,000 to £28,000 per offender (or from £10,500 to £97,000 per offender when victim costs are included): we are determined to secure those savings for the public purse.

 

Greg Berman
# A Thousand Small Sanities. Crime Control Lessons from New York
www.courtinnovation.org/ 2011
As is typical of New York City, this patchwork of alternative programmes has emerged organically without centralised planning. Some are funded by  the city. Some are funded by the state. And some rely on federal funding or private donations. The field is constantly evolving as new problems emerge and new gaps in services are identified. A particular area of focus at the moment is using risk and needs assessments to allocate scarce resources where they are most needed. The latest research suggests that there needs to be a continuum of non-incarcerative interventions for offenders, with the most intensive options reserved for populations that are both high-risk and high-need...

 

Justice Policy Institute
# Finding direction: Expanding Criminal Justice Options By Considering Policies of Other Nations
www.justicepolicy.org/ April 2011

Despite dropping crime rates and evidence that incarceration is neither the most effective nor the most efficient means of preserving public safety,incarceration in the United States continues to grow; since 1980 the number of people in prison has increased 458 percent. During this difficult economic time, the U.S. federal government and states alike have been looking to save scarce resources by significantly reducing incarceration rates. However, to date, alternatives to our current policies and practices which are contributing to these rates have not been implemented on a large scale.

Pew Center on the States
# State of Recidivism. The Revolving Door of America’s Prisons
April 2011
According to the survey results, 45.4  percent of people released from prison  in 1999 and 43.3 percent of those sent  home in 2004 were reincarcerated within three years, either for committing a new crime or for violating conditions governing their release...  When excluding California, whose size skews the national picture, recidivism rates between 1994 and 2007 have consistently remained around 40 percent.

 

Ministry of Justice
# Adult re-convictions: results from the 2009 cohort - England and Wales
Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin March 2011
The starting point for the re-conviction indicators (see Appendix B for more information) is to take all offenders discharged from custody or commencing a court order supervised by the probation service (aged 18+ at discharge or commencement) in the 1st quarter of a year (between 1 January and 31 March). Offenders are then matched to the Police National Computer and their criminal history is collated and criminal behaviour is tracked over the following one year. Any offence committed in this one-year period which is proven by a court conviction (either in the one-year period, or in a further six months) counts as a re-conviction. This enables us to calculate the frequency rate, the number of most serious offences and the re-conviction rate.

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Breaking the Cycle: Effective Punishment, Rehabilitation and Sentencing of Offenders
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk March 2011
The current adversarial approach to crime is very expensive and produces a poor return in terms of victim satisfaction and reoffending rates. The Prison Reform Trust supports the proposed increased use of diversionary restorative justice approaches for adults and young people and believes such approaches should be given far greater prominence than is apparent from the green paper. The Making Amendsix report demonstrates that  restorative approaches can transform criminal justice, for the benefit of victims and public safety...

 

Kriminal Forsorgen
# The Danish Prison and Probation Service – in brief
www.kriminalforsorgen.dk/ 2011

The Prison and Probation Service has activities at almost 80 locations all over Denmark, including at 10 locations in Greenland and on the Faroe Islands. Prisoners per 100,000 inhabitants: 71 | Total number of places in state and local prisons: 4,120 | Capacity utilisation, management target: 92 % (but 96 % for 2011) | Prisoners per day serving sentences: 2,460 | Remand prisoners per day: 1,380 | Female prisoners per day: 170 | Detained asylum-seekers per day: 50 | Young offenders under the age of 18 per day: 20 | Inmates with an ethnic background other than Danish: 33% | Admissions per year: 14,500

 

Peter Katel

# Downsizing Prisons

CQ Researcher March 11, 2011 Judith Greene

 

Judith Greene - Marc Mauer
# Downscaling Prisons. Lessons from Four States
The Sentencing Project - Research and Advocacy for Reform - Washington 2010

It is particularly instructive to examine the four states that are the focus
of this report – Kansas, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York. In contrast to the 12% growth in state prison populations since 2000, these states have actually achieved significant declines in their prison populations in recent years, and therefore offer lessons to policymakers in other states about how this can be accomplished. These declines have spanned the following periods: • New York: A 20% reduction from 72,899 to 58,456 from 1999 to 2009 • Michigan: A 12% reduction from 51,577 to 45,478, from 2006 to 2009 • New Jersey: A 19% reduction from 31,493 to 25,436, from 1999 to 2009 • Kansas: A 5% reduction from 9,132 to 8,644, from 2003 to 2009

 

2010


 

Erwin James
# Cost of re-offending is around £11bn - prison is a colossal failure
www.theguardian.com/ Thursday 4 November 2010
The average annual cost of keeping someone in prison is around £45,000. For some years it has been estimated that the financial cost to society of re-offending is around £11bn (the human cost, of course, is incalculable). By any measure the evidence is clear – prison as we have been using it is a colossal failure.

 

V. Carrasco, O. Timbart
# Les condamnés de 2007 en état de récidive ou de réitération
Infostat Justice, September 2010
La rapprochement, par type de crime, des deux termes de la réitération montre une assez faible «spécialisation». En effet, même si les auteurs de vols criminels sont près de 60 % à avoir précédemment été condamnés pour une atteinte aux biens, il n’en est pas de même pour les auteurs d’homicides ou de violences criminelles qui sont seulement 18,2 % à avoir déjà commis ce type d’infraction ou les auteurs de viols qui sont 12,4 % à avoir été condamnés précédemment pour une atteinte sexuelle.

 

Antonio Salvati
# L’emergenza del sovraffollamento carcerario
Amministrazione in Cammino, 20 aprile 2010
Il problema del sovraffollamento è in sostanza una questione di legalità “perché nulla è più disastroso che far vivere chi non ha recepito il senso di legalità e, quindi, ha commesso reati, in una situazione di palese non corrispondenza tra quanto normativamente definito e quanto attuato e vissuto”2. Il sovraffollamento, inoltre, non è solo un problema di spazio vitale individuale, ma ha effetti negativi sul processo di reintegrazione e di conseguenza sulla recidiva e sulla sicurezza della comunità esterna. Ciò è paradossale, poiché il sovraffollamento è spesso la conseguenza di una richiesta mai soddisfatta di sicurezza che viene da una società paurosa che guarda ai cancelli chiusi del carcere come alla risposta al proprio allarme e alle proprie difficoltà sociali mentre, al contrario, questa richiesta si ritorce in una situazione meno sicura.

 

Antonio Salvati
# La detenzione femminile
http://www.amministrazioneincammino.luiss.it/ 2010

La presenza delle donne negli istituti penitenziari viene analizzata solitamente nel confronto con la preponderante componente maschile. Gli sforzi di  comprensione sembrano concentrarsi più sul perché le donne siano poche, che non sulla realtà in sé. Il fatto che le donne detenute siano meno rispetto agli uomini tende a far considerare la condizione maschile come norma, riproducendo la subalternità concettuale della donna, la sua assimilazione ad una generalità che non è generale. Forse anche a causa dell’esiguità della percentuale di donne detenute, rimasta pressoché costantemente attestata intorno al 5% delle presenze complessive 3 , si riscontra un’evidente difficoltà a elaborare accorgimenti organizzativi e offerte riabilitative idonei a cogliere e valorizzare la specificità della popolazione detenuta femminile.

 

Franklin E. Zimring
# The scale of imprisonment in the United States: Twentieth century patterns and twenty-first century prospects
The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, vol. 100 n. 3, 2010
Just as theories of stability of punishment followed sustained periods of little change in prison population, a concern with explaining wide variations in rates of imprisonment grew out of the fourfold expansion of rates of imprisonment in the United States in the generation after 1970. Among the long list of unanswered questions about the determinants of rates of imprisonment is whether the dramatic rise in prison population over the past decades is a new norm for the scale of imprisonment or a precursor to significant declines in the rates of imprisonment in the early decades of a new century.

 

Franklin E. Zimring
# The City that Became Safe: New York and the Future of Crime Control
www.law.berkeley.edu/ April 8, 2010

New York’s decrease in serious crime is unprecedented among America’s biggest cities. In the 1990s the entire country experienced the largest documented crime decline of the twentieth century, in which the typical big city experienced approximately 35 to 40% reductions in felonies. But in most urban areas the downward trend ended around the year 2000. In contrast, Zimring notes that New York’s decline has so far lasted twice as long, and the average felony rate drop has been twice as large. The city’s felony rates have plunged by an average of about 80%, and they have continued to stay at that low level or to decrease even further in the post-2000 period.

 

Robert J. Sampson, Charles Loeffler
# Punishment’s place: the local concentration of mass incarceration
Daedalus. 2010 ; 139(3): 20–31
Concentrated incarceration may have the unintended consequence of increasing crime rates through its negative impact on the labor market and social-capital prospects of former prisoners. What is more, evidence shows that neighborhood context plays a major role in the recidivism rates of ex-prisoners. The integration of prisoner release programs and efforts to build community capacity are important steps for policy. Along with policy reform, efforts to destigmatize and achieve justice for communities are crucial to overcoming the vicious cycle of crime production, victimization, incapacitation, and disadvantage.

 

FNARS (Fédération nationale des associations d'accueil et de réinsertion sociale)
# Les aménagements de peine et mesures alternatives à l’incarcération. Les apports de la loi pénitentiaire
www.fnars-ra.org/ Juin 2010
L’augmentation constante de la population carcérale ces dernières années a fait prendre conscience aux autorités publiques des problèmes posés par l’enfermement systématique : surpopulation, difficultés de réinsertion, etc. Pour lutter contre ce phénomène, dès 2004, les sanctions  non carcérales et les aménagements de peine sont encouragés. Cependant on observe que l’emprisonnement reste la peine de référence. De nouvelles législations, mais aussi les politiques pénales prônent le prononcé des peines privatives de liberté. Il est dans l’intérêt de la société et de la personne condamnée, de développer les aménagements de peine et autres mesures alternatives à l’incarcération. En effet, elles participent à réduire les tensions liées à l’augmentation de la population carcérale, et contribuent efficacement et de manière progressive à la réinsertion de la personne condamnée (permissions, placement sous surveillance électronique, libération conditionnelle, placement extérieur, semi-liberté…).

 

Matthew DeMichele
# Three Worlds of Western Punishment: A Regime Theory of Cross-National Incarceration Rate Variation, 1960-2002
University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations, Paper 89, 2010
This dissertation offers an explanation of cross national incarceration rate variation for 17 industrialized countries for the second half of the 20th century. Both historical case studies and time-series cross-section analyses are used to provide an institutional explanation of incarceration rate differences. Borrowing from Weber’s Sociology of Law and comparative legal scholarship, it is suggested that three types of legal thinking exist among western democracies— ommon, Romano-Germanic, and Nordic law. A regime approach commonly applied in political economic explanations of welfare state development is used to quantify the legal and criminal justice institutional differences between 1960 and 2002 to assert that there are ‘three worlds of western punishment’ in the post-War period...

 

Ryan McNamara, Linda Bynoe
# Education in American Prisons: A Review of the Literature
California State University Monterey Bay , May 20, 2010
The purpose of this study is to understand how education programs in prison can benefit both prisoners and society in an America with a perennially rising prison population comprised of less educated individuals and budget cuts on education programs within prisons... . The findings indicate a correlation with participation in educational programs in prison with reduced recidivism rates, an improvement in the environment of the prisons themselves, and an increased likelihood of the children of prisoners becoming educated along with other positive outcomes.

 

Margaret E. Shippen, David E. Houchins, Steven A. Crites, Nicholas C. Derzis, Dashaunda Patterson
# An Examination of the Basic Reading Skills of Incarcerated Males
Adult Learning, Sum-Fall 2010
The more that is known about the literacy abilities of prisoners that greater the chances are that effective and efficient educational programming can be developed for this population of adults. Increased literacy skills have the potential to improve the overall quality of life of these men and enhance society by reducing recidivism rates and the costs associated with incarceration.

 

The Pew Charitable Trusts | The Economic Mobility Project - The Public Safety Performance Project

# Prison Count 2010. State Population Declines for the First Time in 38 Years
Revised April 2010
For the first time in nearly 40 years, the number of state prisoners in the United States has declined. Survey data compiled by the Public Safety Performance Project of the Pew Center on the States, in partnership with the Association of State Correctional Administrators, indicate that as of January 1, 2010, there were 1,404,053 persons under the jurisdiction of state prison authorities, 4,777 (0.3 percent) fewer than there were on December 31, 2008. This marks the first year-to-year drop in the state prison population since 1972. In this period, however, the nation’s total prison population increased by 2,061 people because of a jump in the number of inmates under the jurisdiction of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The federal count rose by 6,838 prisoners, or 3.4 percent in 2009, to an all-time high of 208,118.

 

The Pew Charitable Trusts | The Economic Mobility Project - The Public Safety Performance Project
# Collateral Costs: Incarceration’s Effect on Economic Mobility
www.pewstates.org/ 2010

The findings in this report should give policy makers reason to reflect. The price of prisons in state and federal budgets represents just a fraction of the overall cost of incarcerating such a large segment of our society. The collateral consequences are tremendous and far-reaching, and as this report illuminates with fresh data and analysis, they include substantial and lifelong damage to the ability of former inmates, their families and their children to earn a living wage, move up the income ladder and pursue the American Dream.

 

Prison Reform Trust | The All-Party Parliamentary Penal Affairs Group
# Too Many Prisoners
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ Prison Reform Trust 2010
With the prison population at an all time high of around 85,000 and plans for further considerable expansion of the estate... This report revives the title of the group’s first publication in 1980 Too Many Prisoners. At that time the prison population in England and Wales stood at 44,000, a level that the then Home Secretary described as “dangerously high”... With an imprisonment rate of 154 per 100,000 England and Wales has become the top incarcerator in Western Europe. Rates in more moderate France and Germany are 96 and 88 per 100,000. Fevered prison building, at £170,000 per place, is now set to propel us past most of our Eastern European neighbours. It is hoped that this review will prove helpful in allowing parliamentarians an opportunity to pause and reflect on both the pace and nature of change...

 

John Schmitt, Kris Warner, Sarika Gupta
# The High Budgetary Cost of Incarceration
Center for Economic and Policy Research CEPR June 2010
U.S. incarceration rates are also high by our own historical standards. From 1880 to 1970 incarceration rates ranged between about 100 and 200 per 100,000. From around 1980, however, the prison and jail population began to grow much more rapidly than the overall population, climbing from about 220 (per 100,000) in 1980, to 458 in 1990, to 683 in 2000, and finally to 753 by 2008... In 2008, federal, state, and local governments spent nearly $75 billion on corrections, with the large majority on incarceration. Figure 6 breaks down total corrections costs across the three levels of government and illustrates that by far the largest share of the costs of corrections are borne by state and local governments. State governments house about 60 percent of inmates and account for about the same share of total correction expenditures. Local governments hold about one third of all inmates and make not quite one third of total corrections spending. The federal government, which holds less than 10 percent of the inmate population, spends just under 10 percent of total national corrections expenditures.

 

Alicia Bannon, Mitali Nagrecha, Rebekah Diller | Brennan Center for Justice
# Criminal Justice Debt: A Barrier to Reentry
http://brennan.3cdn.net/ 2010
Criminal justice debt and collection practices are different in each state, but in our analysis of fifteen states’ practices, several themes emerged. Many of the problems described in this report arise from states’ failure to provide indigence waivers for criminal justice debt. States also consistently failed to consider the costs – both human and financial – of aggressive collection practices, including arrests, incarceration, the extension of probation terms, and the suspension of driver’s licenses. Several collections practices also raised serious constitutional concerns.

 

Florida Department of Corrections | Bureau of Research and Data Analysis
# 2009 Florida Prison Recidivism Study Releases From 2001 to 2008
www.dc.state.fl.us/ May 2010
This study finds that results for Florida are generally consistent with existing research of the factors that influence recidivism. The Bureau of Justice Statistics report, "Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994 (2002)" shows overall recidivism rates for releases from 15 different states. That report shows a 51.8% recidivism rate (return to prison for any reason within three years)for this group of inmates...

 

United Nations Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFEI)
# Effective Countermeasures against Overcrowding of Correctional Facilities

Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan March 2010
www.unafei.or.jp - unafei@moj.go.jp

- Sanction Policies and Alternative Measures to Incarceration – European Experiences with Intermediate and Alternative Criminal Penalties

- Overcrowding: Causes, Consequences and Reduction Strategies - Maintaining Standards, Decency and Human Rights in Overcrowded Times - Current Regime of Imprisonment in Brazil and Effective Countermeasures against Overcrowding of Correctional Facilities - Overcrowding of Prison Populations – The Nepalese Perspective - Sentencing and Alternative Punishment - Post-Sentencing Disposition and Treatment Measures

 

Jörg-Martin Jehle, Stefan Harrendorf (eds.) | Marcelo F. Aebi, Bruno Aubusson de Cavarlay, Gordon Barclay, Beata Gruszczyńska, Stefan Harrendorf, Markku Heiskanen, Vasilika Hysi, Véronique Jaquier, Jörg-Martin Jehle, Martin Killias, Chris Lewis, Giulia Mugellini, Ernesto U. Savona, Olena Shostko, Paul Smit, and Rannveig Þorisdottir
# Defining and Registering Criminal Offences and Measures Standards for a European Comparison
Göttingen Studies in Criminal Law and Justice - Volume 10
Universitätsverlag Göttingen 2010

The study presented in this book is a direct response to the needs for defining and registering criminal and judicial data on the European level. Based upon work done by the European Sourcebook experts group in creating the European Source-book of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics (ESB), the project intended to improve and complement the standards developed so far for definitions and statistical registration in four fields, in order to contribute to the picture of criminal justice in Europe. It utilized questionnaires filled by an established European network...

 

Louis Weber, Laurent Willemez
# Grand entretien avec Laurent Mucchielli. Le savant, l’expert et le politique :  la production de connaissances sur les délinquances
Savoir/Agir n° 14, décembre 2010
Pour prendre une métaphore que j’utilise souvent, le système pénal est un pêcheur qui utilise un filet dont les mailles ne cessent de se rétrécir, il attrape donc de plus en plus de petits poissons qui viennent rejoindre les gros qui y étaient déjà et y sont toujours. Mes travaux m’amènent à penser que, à côté d’un phénomène bien réel de ghettoïsation, c’est ce phénomène de judiciarisation qui est le processus principal travaillant aujourd’hui les questions de délinquance juvénile et de violences interpersonnelles en général, comme j’ai essayé de le prouver empiriquement et de le théoriser dans un article de Déviance et société qui constitue une étape, pour moi importante, dans mon travail de sociologue.

 

Jessica Zhang and Andrew Webster | Australian Bureau of Statistics
# An Analysis of Repeat Imprisonment Trends in Australia using Prisoner Census Data from 1994 to 2007
Commonwealth of Australia 2010
Reimprisonment was strongly associated with being young, being Indigenous or having been previously imprisoned  (that is, being a prisoner who had already served time in prison, prior to the prison episode from which they were released in 1994–1997 or 2001–2004). To a lesser extent reimprisonment was also associated with being male. Of all the jurisdictions, the Northern Territory had a particularly high rate of reimprisonment. This was due to the demographic characteristics of its prisoners – particularly being young and / or Indigenous.

 

Laurent Mucchielli
# Les techniques et les enjeux de la mesure de la délinquance
Savoir/Agir n°93, 2010
Les questions de sécurité figurent parmi les plus importantes dans les discours politiques et les rhétoriques électorales en France. Dans ces débats que répercutent fortement les médias, les statistiques servent généralement d’arguments d’autorité. Elles sont convoquées pour prouver le bien fondé de l’action d’un gouvernement, ou son échec selon ses opposants. Cela donne des « batailles de chiffres » auxquelles le citoyen ne comprend souvent pas grand-chose, qui n’éclairent guère le débat public et surtout permettent rarement d’évaluer correctement tant l’état des problèmes que l’efficacité des politiques publiques. On s’efforcera ici de clarifier les choses du point de vue de la construction et de l’usage des statistiques, en rappelant d’abord ce que nous appellerions volontiers trois « règles d’or » de l’analyse statistique en sciences humaines : 1) on ne peut rien dire d’un chiffre si l’on ignore comment il a été fabriqué ; 2) un seul chiffre ne saurait permettre de décrire ni mesurer un phénomène social complexe ; 3) les chiffres ne « parlent pas d’eux-mêmes », c’est nous qui les faisons parler.

 

Kathryn E. McCollister, Michael T. French, and Hai Fang
# The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation
NIH Public Access - Author Manuscript | Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 April 1; 108(1-2): 98–109.
Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crimecosting literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-ofillness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime.

 

Mark Sedra (ed)
# The Future of Security Sector Reform
The Centre for International Governance Innovation CIGI - Waterloo, Ontario 2010

Today’s understanding of the security sector draws on the widely accepted definitions of the OECD (2007a: 22), the European Commission (2006: 5) and the UN secretary-general (UN, 2008: 5).83 All refer to the security sector — or the security system — in its broad sense, encompassing not only traditional core elements of the security sector, such as the armed forces and police, but also the oversight mechanisms of these forces, including the courts, legislatures, correctional services and civil society, as well as non-state security actors such as militias and private security companies.

 

Gregory J. O'Meara | Marquette University Law School
# Compassion and the Public Interest: Wisconsin’s New Compassionate Release Legislation
Federal Sentencing Reporter, Vol. 23, No. I, october 2010
Just as Victor Hugo's fictional Jean Valjean could be largely forgotten in the bowels of prison, women and men sentenced to correctional facilities largely fall from consciousness unless or until benign neglect is disturbed by other factors. Today, that benign neglect in Wisconsin has been disturbed by the financial constraints of maintaining the current prison population. Between 2000 and 2007, Wisconsin's prison population increased by 14 percent. The State Corrections budget increased by 71 percent from 1999 to 2009... One product ofWisconsin's reconsideration is a recent  change in compassionate release standards for inmates in state correctional facilities...

 

Paul Heaton
# Hidden in Plain Sight. What Cost-of-Crime Research Can Tell Us About Investing in Police
RAND 2010
In this paper, we showed how the results in the literature on the costs of crime and the effects of police hiring are “hidden in plain sight” and can be used as inputs into fairly straightforward cost/benefit analyses. Applying that cost/benefit framework to several real-world police hiring and firing scenarios demonstrates that investments in police personnel generate net social benefits. In the case of police hiring in Los Angeles, this conclusion persists across a wide range of alternative modeling assumptions, which shows that the results are robust...

 

Centre international pour la prévention de la criminalité (CIPC)
# Rapport International Prévention de la Criminalité et Sécurité Quotidienne: Tendances et Perspectives
www.crime-prevention-intl.org/ 2010
La prévention de la criminalité est une notion vivante dont les contours varient selon le cadre institutionnel dans lequel elle est utilisée, selon les régions géographiques et les langues et selon les périodes. Nous avons rappelé dans notre premier Rapport international que notre Centre s’appuyait pour l’ensemble de ses activités sur la définition de la prévention retenue aux Principes directeurs des Nations Unies applicables à la prévention du crime qui « englobe des stratégies et mesures qui visent à réduire les risques d’infraction et les effets préjudiciables que ces dernières peuvent avoir sur les personnes et sur la société, y compris la peur du crime et ce, en s’attaquant à leurs multiples causes »

 

Anne Wyvekens
# La rétention de sûreté en France : une défense sociale en trompe-l’oeil (ou les habits neufs de l’empereur)
déviance et société 2010, vol. 34, n° 4, pp. 503-525
La législation pénale française n’a pendant longtemps été que modérément influencée par les théories positivistes. La loi du 25 février 2008 crée la rétention de sûreté, qualifiée de « révolution en droit pénal français ». Aboutissement d’une évolution placée sous le signe de la lutte contre la récidive, où la dangerosité et les mesures de sûreté tendent à supplanter les notions de responsabilité et de peine, elle ne représente pas pour autant la mise en oeuvre d’une politique moderne de défense sociale. La rupture évoquée, bien réelle sur le plan des principes, renvoie plutôt à une rhétorique, dissimulant mal la difficulté de répondre à la question soulevée en des termes autres que de neutralisation.

 

Erwin James
# Most offenders have low skills and prison is the place to put that right
The Guardian, Wednesday 3 February 2010

A report out today says education and training programmes should be an integral part of time served in prison and should be included in the sentencing process. Almost 90% of prisoners under the age of 21 and nearly two thirds of adult prisoners re-offend within two years – and the economic cost to society remains in the region of £11bn per annum...

 

RSA The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce | Rachel O'Brien
# The Learning Prison
www.thersa.org/ 2010
However, we argue that without a braver approach to enhancing prison’s ability to rehabilitate, we will continue to spend more on prison places at the expense of rehabilitation... We believe that rehabilitation is too di$cult and too important to leave prisons always ‘behind the curve’. A brave strategy on modernisation should ensure that the prison service is able to utilise the new tools and thinking we have at our disposal to best effect. Most notably, we argue that there are huge gains to be had in developing a technology strategy that better balances risk and benefits.

 

Giovanni Torrente
# Indulto. La verità, tutta la verità, nient'altro che la verità
www.innocentievasioni.net 2010

 

Dan Ovidiu Rusu, Andrea Muller-Fabian, Dorottya Domokos
# Women in Prison. A Theoretical Approach about Mothers Profile, Family Communication, and Parenting Programs
http://journals.usamvcluj.ro/ Bulletin UASVM Horticulture, 67(2)/2010
Women are a small minority of the prison population, but a minority that is growing at a disproportionate rate, their needs, and indeed their rights. Imprisonment impacts on women differently than on men.

 

House of Commons Justice Committee
# Cutting crime: the case for justice reinvestment. First Report of Session 2009–10
www.publications.parliament.uk/ 14 January 2010

 

Janet I. Warren, Shelly L. Jackson, Ann Booker Loper, Mandi L. Burnette
# Risk Markers for Sexual Predation and Victimization in Prison
www.ncjrs.gov/ U.S. Department of Justice - December 2009
Our data concerning sexual contact that was perceived by the recipient as coercive was higher than that found in a national survey conducted by the BJS. Assummarized in 5.9% of the male inmates reported contact sexual victimization by other inmates and 2.4% by prison staff. The female inmates reported comparable levels with 6.6% self‐reporting contactsexual victimization by other inmates and 2.7% by correctional staff. Further added to this were significantly higher levels of perceived non‐contact sexual victimization (12.5% by inmates and 6.6% by staff for males and 22.4% by inmates and 11.5% by staff for females). These data suggest that females experience and report significantly more victimization by other inmates through comments, looks and innuendoes than men.

 

European Forum for Urban Safety
# Innovative strategies for the prevention of re-offending. Practices and recommendations for local players
www.stop-reoffending.org/ 2009
The repetition of offences feeds European crime statistics in large part. The overall rise in prison populations is constant. Studies reveal that a limited number of persons commit three-fourths of offences in certain categories. Regardless of the organisation of criminal justice systems, re- ffending rates range between 50% and 70% across Europe...

 

Troy Allard, Anna Stewart, April Chrzanowski, James Ogilvie, Dan Birks, Simon Little
# The Use and Impact of Police Diversion for Reducing Indigenous Over-Representation
www.criminologyresearchcouncil.gov.au/ Report to the Criminology Research Council , October 2009
Limited evidence suggests that Indigenous young people are less likely to be diverted than non-Indigenous young people and that Indigenous young people are more likely to have recontact than non-Indigenous young people, regardless of the juvenile justice system response. Given that Indigenous over-representation is a perennial problem in the justice system...

 

Pierre Verluise | Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques IRIS

# Espace Atlantique et UE : quels États emprisonnent le plus ou le moins ?
Actualités Européennes n° 27 - Septembre 2009

Les États-Unis et l'Union européenne partagent nombre de valeurs et d'intérêts. Sur les 28 membres de l'Alliance atlantique, 21 sont membres de l'Union européenne. Pour autant, il existe de grandes disparités en ce qui concerne le taux d'incarcération. Aux États-Unis, ce sont 758 personnes sur 100 000 habitants qui se trouvent emprisonnées, en moyenne annuelle 2005-2007. Dans l'Union européenne, pour la même période, la moyenne reste bien inférieure : 123 personnes sur 100 000 habitants. Autrement dit, les États-Unis enferment 6 fois plus de personnes pour 100 000 habitants que l'Europe communautaire...
Entre 2005 et 2007, il y avait en moyenne 607 000 personnes en prison dans l'espace UE-27. Au sein de l'Europe communautaire,quels sont les pays qui emprisonnent le plus ou le moins ? LES PAYS EUROPÉENS QUI EMPRISONNENT LE PLUS Groupe 1, les pays qui emprisonnent le plus, entre 302 et 162 personnes pour 100 000 habitants. Il s'agit des États membres suivants, par ordre décroissant : Estonie (302 personnes emprisonnées pour 100 000 habitants) ; Lettonie (293) ; Lituanie (232) ; Pologne (228) ; République Tchèque (185) et Slovaquie (162). La composition de ce groupe appelle quelques observations.

 

National Prison Rape Elimination Commission
# Standards for the Prevention, Detection, Response, and Monitoring of Sexual Abuse in Adult Prisons and Jails
http://nicic.gov/ 2009
These parts explain the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission’s (NPREC) “nine findings on the problems of sexual abuse in confinement and select policies and practices that must be mandatory everywhere to remedy these problems” and follow an Executive Summary: Part I. Understanding and Preventing Sexual Abuse -- A Problem that Must Be Solved, Leadership Matters, Unequal Risk for Vulnerability and Victimization, and Strengthening Oversight Inside and Out; Part II. Responding to Victims and Perpetrators -- Reporting, Investigation, and Punishment and Treating Trauma; and Part III. Special Populations -- When Children Are Involved, the Next Frontier of Community Corrections, and Immigrants in Detection (On the Margins).

 

Management & Training Corporation MTC Institute
# Programs that Help Offenders Stay Out of Prison
www.mtctrains.com/ July 2009
Studies in several states have indicated that recidivism rates have declined where offenders have received proper education. 39 Furthermore, the literature has shown that educated prisoners are less likely to find themselves back in prison a second time if they complete an education program and are taught skills to successfully read and write. The literature also shows that in Ohio, while the overall recidivism rate was 40%, the recidivism rate for inmates enrolled in college was 18%...

 

Diana Brazzell, Anna Crayton, Debbie A. Mukamal, Amy L. Solomon, Nicole Lindahl
# From the Classroom to the Community. Exploring the Role of Education during Incarceration and Reentry
The Urban Institute, 2009
Education for current and former prisoners is a cost-effective solution to reducing reoffending and improving public safety. The effect of education on recidivism has been well-demonstrated, and even small reductions in reoffending can have a significant impact when spread across large numbers of participants.

 

Concepción Yagüe Olmos (coord.), Samuel Andujar Núñez, Luis Fernando Barrios Flores, Jesús Miguel Cáceres García, Francisco Lerín Pérez, Miguel Martín Casillas
# Análisis de la ancianidad en el medio penitenciario
Ministerio del Interior, 2009
A mediados del año 2007 en las prisiones españolas permanecían ingresadas 219 personas mayores de 70 años. Lo que socialmente se consideran ancianos. Pero para dar una mayor cobertura a este estudio hemos ampliado el objeto de esta investigación a las 1540 personas que traspasan la barrera de los 60 años. Tratamos de predecir los efectos del aumento paulatino de mayores encarcelados en nuestro sistema penitenciario como consecuencia, entre otras razones, de la mejora de la expectativa de vida de la sociedad española que provoca un imparable envejecimiento de la población general y un constante aumento de ancianos en las prisiones.

 

NIACE National Institute of Adult Continuing Education |  IFLL Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning
# Lifelong Learning and Crime: An Analysis of the Cost-effectiveness of In-prison Educational and Vocational Interventions
www.niace.org.uk/ IFLL Public Value Paper 2 - 2009
Without in-prison educational and vocational interventions, the total cost of offending associated with this cohort of offenders in their fi rst year postrelease would be approximately £2 billion. It is estimated that the introduction of inprison educational and vocational interventions would reduce this cost of re-offending by £0.5 billion.

 

Ioan Durnescu
# Some Reflections on Community Sanctions and Measures in Europe
Journal of Criminal Justice and Security year 11 no. 4, 2009
The article draws on data gathered from a recent survey commissioned by The Conférence Permanente Européenne de la Probation (better known as CEP) which is a panEuropean association of probation organizations. The purpose of this  study is to provide an inventory of CSM as it is used across Europe and, from this, to draw some conclusions and suggestions for development into the future. 

 

Elizabeth K. Drake, Steve Aos, Marna G. Miller
# Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Crime and Criminal Justice Costs: Implications in Washington State Public Policy Options
Victims and Offenders, 4:170-196, 2009
Our analysis of evidence-based and economically sound options for corrections indicates that there are ways to provide more cost-effective use of taxpayers’ monies. Serious crime is costly to victims and taxpayers; our economic analysis for Washington indicates that evidence-based—and reasonably priced— programs that achieve even relatively small reductions in crime can produce attractive returns on investment.

 

United Nations - General Assenbly  |  Vernor Muñoz
# Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Including the Right to Development. The right to education of persons in detention. Report of the Special Rapporteur on the right to education, Vernor Muñoz
www2.ohchr.org/ 2 April 2009
The Special Rapporteur recommends that authorities in charge of public education: (a) Make available to all detainees, whether sentenced or in remand, education programmes that would cover at least the curriculum of compulsory education at the primary and, if possible, at the secondary level also;  (b) Together with the institutions of detention, arrange comprehensive education programmes aimed at the development of the full potential of each detainee. These should aim also to minimize the negative impact of incarceration, improve prospects of reintegration, rehabilitation, self- steem and morale.

 

Patrice Corriveau

# La violence dans l’univers des gangs : du besoin de protection à la construction identitaire masculine
www.ipc.uOttawa.ca/ Revue de l'IPC [Institut pour la prévention de la criminalité], mars 2009
Or, étudier et comprendre les liens qui unissent les gangs de rue à la violence n’est pas si évident qu’il n’y parait de prime abord. D’une part, le concept de violence est en soi difficile à cerner, la violence des uns n’équivalant pas toujours à celle des autres... D’autre part, il n’existe aucun consensus entourant la définition de ce qu’est un gang de rue et sur les individus qui le composent. Le phénomène des gangs, son membership et la nature des activités qui en découlent, notamment l’usage de la violence, sont fluides, labiles...

 

Cahiers ADES

# Espaces d’enfermement, espaces clos. Colloque organisé par DOC’GEO  - Bordeaux  20 mai 2008
UMR ADES Mars 2009 - www.ades.cnrs.fr

Guy DI MEO - Espaces d’enfermement, espaces clos : l’esquisse d’une problématique | La prison : espace d’enfermement ou espace clos ? | Du camp à l’enfermement, de l’enfermement à la violence | L’enfermement symbolique

 

The Howard League for Penal Reform
# Do Better Do Less: The report of the Commission on English Prisons Today
www.howardleague.org 2009

Crisis now defines the core of the English and Welsh penal system. Despite a 42% decline in the amount of crime reported to the British Crime Survey since 1995 the prison population has soared to an all time high of almost 84,000 in 2008 (83,810 on 1 August 2008 - more than doubling since 1992) and overcrowding has reached record levels. Penal policy and the criminal justice system as a whole have been primarily responsible for driving up numbers. We have experienced over 15 years of intense criminal justice hyperactivity. This intense and punitive political activity has had the effect of encouraging a more fearful and insecure population. It has raised unrealistic expectations about the role prison can play in securing a safer society. Prisons have become the stand-in for a health and welfare system which is also failing. Prisons have become vast warehouses for the dumping of people with problems society has failed to deal with - those with mental health needs, with histories of neglect and abuse, with drug and alcohol addictions. The penal system is a huge drain on the public purse...

 

The International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy | Curt Taylor Griffiths, Danielle J. Murdoch
# Strategies and Best Practices against Overcrowding in Correctional Institutions
Vancouver, February 2009
Prison overcrowding can be most aptly defined as a situation in  which the numbers of persons confined in a prison are greater than the capacity of the prison to provide adequately for the physical and psychological needs of the confined persons. Overcrowding in prisons is a feature of many systems of criminal justice throughout the world and has significant implications  for governments, communities, prisoners, and their families...

 

Amy L. Solomon, Jenny W. L. Osborne, Laura Winterfield, Brian Elderbroom
# Putting Public Safety First. 13 Parole Supervision Strategies to Enhance Reentry Outcomes
The Urban Institut | Justice Policy Center December 2008

We believe parole administrators and practitioners have reached an important moment in time. The proposed strategies, if incorporated into the fabric of an agency’s culture and practice, will facilitate systemic and organizational change. The strategies represent the best thinking on sound supervision practice. In making this claim, we appreciate how hard engaging in change of this magnitude will be, and how difficult it is to accomplish meaningful and durable reforms in both policy and practice. We also acknowledge how much time it will actually take to evaluate the results and know whether the modifications in policies and strategies made a difference in the outcomes achieved. The challenges, however, are not insurmountable.

 

Amy L. Solomon, Jenny W. L. Osborne, Stefa F. LoBuglio, Jeff Mellow, Debbie A. Mukamal
# Life After Lockup: Improving Reentry from Jail to the Community
www.ncjrs.gov/ Urban Institute 2008
For the purposes of this report, reentry is defined as the process of leaving jail and returning to society. Virtually all inmates experience reentry, irrespective of their method of release or the presence of community supervision. “Transition” has also been used to describe the reentry process, and in this report we use the terms interchangeably.  Our assumption is that successful reentry strategies would translate into public safety gains, in the form of reduced recidivism, and the long-term reintegration of the formerly incarcerated individual. Successful reintegration outcomes would include  increased participation in social institutions such as the labor force, families, communities, schools, and religious institutions.  There are financial and social benefits associated with both public safety and reintegration improvements.  Reentry is not a program, not a form of supervision, not an option. 

 

Steven Raphael, Michael A. Stoll
# Why Are So Many Americans in Prison?
www.law.berkeley.edu/ Included in S. Raphael and M. Stoll (eds.) "Do Prisons Make Us Safer? The Benefits and Costs of the Prison Boom", 2008
For the fifty year period spanning the 1920s through the mid 1970s, the number of state and federal prisoners per 100,000 varied within a 10 to 20 unit band around a rate of approximately 110. Beginning in the mid 1970s, however, state prison populations grew at an unprecedented rate, nearly quadrupling between the mid 1970s and the present.  Concurrently, the rate of incarceration in local jails more than tripled.  Why are so many Americans incarcerated? Why did the incarceration rate increase so  much in so short a time period?

 

Institut Montaigne
# Comment rendre la prison (enfin) utile
 www.institutmontaigne.org -
Septembre 2008

... surpopulation des maisons d’arrêt entraîne des conditions de vie indignes pour les détenus etdes conditions de travail pour les surveillants très peu satisfaisantes. Alvaro GilRobles, Commissaire européen aux droits de l’homme, écrivait en 2005 au terme d’une enquête dans les prisons françaises : Une telle situation est inacceptable en soi… Au lieu de
conduire vers la réinsertion, [elle] pourrait endurcir la personne et provoquer sa révolte contre les règles de la société. En mai 2008, Thomas Hammarberg, successeur d’Alvaro Gil-Robles,confirmait cette inquiétude. Selon eux, les maisons d’arrêt pourraient être criminogènes. L’opinion publique oscille entre son désir profond de répression tenant à ce que les citoyens s’identifient aux victimes etune compassion périodique pour le triste sort fait aux détenus dont elle admet qu’ils peuvent même parfois être innocents… Elle ne s’intéresse pas, en tout cas pas assez, à l’efficacité du système pénal, à son coût économique, à son coût social, et ne semble pas être consciente de la contre-productivité d’efforts d’insertion insuffisants sur la sécurité des biens et des personnes. Instaurer progressivement un numerus clausus dans les maisons d’arrêt, qui, normalement, ne devraient accueillir que les détenus en attente de jugement – les prévenus –, ainsi que les condamnés dont le reliquat de peine n’excède pas un an lors de leur condamnation définitive.

 

Institut Montaigne
# Comment rendre la prison (enfin) utile.
Résumé

www.institutmontaigne.org - Septembre 2008

 

Estados Unidos Mexicanos - Gobierno Federal | Secretaria de Securidad Publica | Subsecretaria del Sistema Penitenciario Federal
# Estrategia Penitenciaria 2008-2012 - Diciembre 2008
http://www.redlece.org/
La población penitenciaria nacional actual es de 222,0731 internos, entre procesados y sentenciados, hombres y mujeres, acusados de delitos del fuero común y federal. De enero a noviembre de 2008 se incrementó en 9,232 la población penitenciaria en el país. 41% de los internos están sujetos a proceso: más de 90 mil individuos están en condiciones de prisión preventiva sin haber recibido sentencia. Tres cuartas partes de los internos en el país están acusados de cometer delitos del orden común. Dos terceras partes de los individuos internos, según las investigaciones de Guillermo Zepeda, están compurgando penas menores a 3 años, cometieron delitos no graves y no violentos y cuentan con un perfil de baja peligrosidad.

 

L. Volpini, T. Mannello, G. De Leo
# La valutazione del rischio di recidiva da parte degli autori di reato: una proposta
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, 2008 n. 1
Allo stato attuale della ricerca, la letteratura specialistica internazionalefatica a dare indicazioni univoche su quali siano i principali fattori di rischio per la recidiva nei reati violenti. I motivi di questa difficoltà sono da rintracciarsi in una pluralità di ragioni, tra cui: a) l’assenza di una definizione operativa condivisa del costrutto di “recidiva” nei casi di reati violenti causa confusione circa quali debbano essere i comportamenti oggetto di predizione, i fattori indicatori del loro futuro manifestarsi e le misure da adottare per rilevarli...

 

Jamie Bennett
# The social costs of dangerousness: prison and the dangerous classes
Centre for Crime and Justice Studies at King’s College London 2008

The prison population has exploded over the last 15 years, increasing from around 43,000 in the early 1990s to over 80,000. It is argued here that this increase can largely be accounted for as a result of the obsession with dangerousness. The expansion in imprisonment is particularly acute for life sentences and sentences of four years and more (Home Office, 2006b). The life sentence population has expanded from 3,000 in 1992 (Shute, 2006) to 9,659 at the end of May 2006 (NOMS, 2007), accounting for 12 per cent of the total prison population. This has resulted from a number of changes. First, there has been  an increase in the use of discretionary life sentencing and the  introduction of automatic life sentences for a second conviction for a violent or sexual offence, subsequently replaced by the indeterminate public protection sentence.

 

Lauren E. Glaze - Laura M. Maruschak | Bureau of Justice Statistics
U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs

# Parents in Prison and Their Minor Children

Special Report - August 2008, NCJ 222984
An estimated 809,800 prisoners of the 1,518,535 held in the nation’s prisons at midyear 2007 were parents of minor children, or children under age 18. Parents held in the nation’s prisons—52% of state inmates and 63% of federal inmates—reported having an estimated 1,706,600 minor children, accounting for 2.3% of the U.S. resident population under age 18... Between 1991 and midyear 2007, parents held in state and federal prisons increased by 79% (357,300 parents). Children of incarcerated parents increased by 80% (761,000 children), during this period (figure 1). The most rapid growth in the number of parents held in the nation’s prisons and their children occurred between 1991 and 1997 (both up 44%). From 1997 to midyear 2007, the number of parents and children continued to grow, but at a slower pace (both up 25%).

 

Lukas Muntingh
# Prisoner Re-Entry in Cape Town - An Exploratory Study
Civil Society Prison Reform Initiative (CSPRI) | CSPRI Research Paper No. 14 - 2008
Every month in South Africa approximately 6000 sentenced prisoners are released, some on parole and some on expiry of sentence. After serving their prison sentences it is society’s expectation that they will refrain from committing crime and be productive citizens. They are expected to find employment, rebuild relationships with their families and communities, and cease from engaging in certain activities and avoiding the risks that caused their imprisonment in the first instance. Unfortunately, it is the case that many released prisoners commit further offences and find their way  back to prison, some in a remarkably short period of time while others return after several years. There are no reliable recidivism statistics on South African offenders and whether such data will indeed enhance understanding is also debateable

 

Maria Francesca Cracolici, Teodora Erika Uberti
# Geographical distribution of crime in Italian provinces: A spatial econometric analysis
Nota di lavoro // Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei: KTHC, Knowledge, technology, human
capital, No. 2008,11
On the basis of Becker-Ehrlich model, a spatial cross-sectional model including deterrence, economic and socio-demographic variables has been performed to investigate the determinants of Italian crime for 1999 and 2003 and its “neighbouring” effects, measured in terms of geographical and relational proximity. The empirical results obtained by using different spatial weights matrices highlighted that socioeconomic variables have a relevant impact on crime activities, but their role changes enormously respect to crimes against person (murders) or against property (thefts, frauds and squeezes). It is worthy to notice that severity does not show the expected sign: its significant and positive sign should suggest that inflicting more severe punishments does not always constitute a deterrence to commit crime, but it works on the opposite direction.

 

The Israel Prison Service (IPS)
# IPS ID Card
www.ips.gov/ June 2008

The number of prisoners and persons remanded in custody in prisons has doubled over the last three years. In 2003, there were 12,000 prisoners in the IPS. Today, this number is in excess of 25,000. The number of employees and soldiers has also grown, from 3,800 in 2003 to about 8,000 in 2008. The tasks that face the organization have grown  exponentially. For the first time this year, soldiers in their compulsory service were recruited into the IPS.  As part of its transformation into a central prisons authority, the IPS  assumed responsibility in 2005 for prison facilities that were previously in the hands of the Israel Defense Forces and the Israel Police...

 

Molly Moore

# In France, Prisons Filled With Muslims
Washington Post Foreign Service - Tuesday, April 29, 2008

In France about 60 to 70 percent of all inmates in the country’s prison system are Muslim... In Britain, 11 percent of prisoners are Muslim in contrast to about 3 percent of all inhabitants, according to the Justice Ministry. Research by the Open Society Institute, an advocacy organization, shows that in the Netherlands 20 percent of adult prisoners and 26 percent of all juvenile offenders are Muslim; the country is about 5.5 percent Muslim. In Belgium, Muslims from Morocco and Turkey make up at least 16 percent of the prison population, compared with 2 percent of the general populace, the research found.

 

# Le "Washington Post" souligne la surreprésentation des musulmans dans les prisons françaises

Le Monde.fr | 29.04.2008

 

Gerald G. Gaes
# The Impact of Prison Education Programs on Post-Release Outcomes
www.jjay.cuny.edu/ February 18, 2008

If there are limitations to the potential impact of correctional education on reentry success, it may be because other offender needs may have to be addressed such as their drug dependence or lack of work skills. Education effects may be muted by these other unmet needs. However, education may be fundamental to other correctional goals. It may be a prerequisite to the success of many of the other kinds of prison rehabilitation programs. The more literate the inmate, the more he or she may benefit from all other forms of training. Thus, the link between correctional education and successful postrelease outcomes may have many paths which analysts do not consider when they evaluate education programs independent of its other influences.

 

Steven Raphael
# The employment prospects of ex-offenders
Focus Vol. 25, No. 2, Fall-Winter 2007–08
This essay has focused primarily on the adverse consequences of incarceration for the employment prospects and economic stability of ex-prisoners and, inevitably, of their families. Corrections and incarceration policies put in place over the last quarter century, I argue, have weighed disproportionately upon low-skilled minorities, especially blacks, and have seen diminishing returns to their increasingly heavy costs. Given the likely small effects of the current levels of incarceration on crime, there are other public investments that may fulfill the same purpose while providing many other social benefits.

 

Sebastian Roché
# La loi sur la récidive sera contreproductive
Telos | June 15, 2007 - www.telos-eu.com
Différentes dispositions légales se présentent comme un moyen de faire reculer la récidive, et notamment celle des mineurs. Ces dispositions ont été conçues pour augmenter le nombre de personnes incarcérées chez les mineurs, la prison étant donc présentée comme une réponse à la récidive. Malheureusement, les expériences étrangères infirment très largement cette hypothèse.

 

California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation Expert Panel on Adult Offender Reentry and Recidivism Reduction Programs
# Report to the California State Legislature: A Roadmap for Effective Offender Programming in California
June 29, 2007, Sacramento California
Research shows that correctional programs reduce recidivism by changing offender behavior. However, research also shows that to achieve positive outcomes, correctional agencies must provide rehabilitation programs to the appropriate participants in a manner consistent with evidence-based programming design. California has been offering rehabilitation programs to its adult offenders for over 50 years; yet California’s adult offender recidivism rate is one of the highest in the nation. Clearly something is wrong. Either something is preventing the programs from achieving their intended effects or something is wrong with the programs themselves. The Panel believes that both explanations are true. First, a combination of various factors has caused these programs to be less effective than they should be in reducing criminal behavior. These factors, which must be resolved before California can have any hope of achieving rehabilitation programming success, include dangerous overcrowding (that makes prisons unsafe and reduces space to run programs) and lack of incentives for offenders to participate in rehabilitation programming.

 

Jason Payne
# Recidivism in Australia: findings and future research
Australian Institute of Criminology 2007
This depiction of recidivism using different data sources illustrates the attrition that occurs at consecutive stages of the criminal justice system. It also illustrates how different data sources may affect our understanding of an individual’s recidivist behaviour.

 

Andrea Procaccini

# Le trasformazioni del welfare italiano nell’area penale: il caso dell’affidamento in prova al servizio sociale
Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II" 2007

Ci si dovrebbe interrogare sulle ragioni che hanno condotto ad assegnare alla pena la principale risposta alle più variegate condizioni d’insicurezza sociale. La variegata umanità che popola in stragrande maggioranza le carceri (migranti,tossicodipendenti) si trova in quelle condizioni anche grazie alla legislazione penale vigente, quindi nel tentativo di governare concretamente la penalità occorrerebbe ridiscutere e delimitare il campo di competenza del diritto penale, considerando che la sua competenza riguarda esclusivamente la tutela dei valori fondanti di un consorzio statale e non può essere gravata della presa in carico di comportamenti o azioni che dovrebbero riguardare altre sfere della società.

 

Alessandro Barbarino, Giovanni Mastrobuoni | Collegio Carlo Alberto
# The Incapacitation Effect of Incarceration: Evidence From Several Italian Collective Pardons
www.carloalberto.org | Working Paper No. 55 September 2007
Incarceration of criminals reduces crime through two main channels, deterrence and incapacitation. Because of a simultaneity between crime and incarceration–arrested criminals increase the prison population–it is difficult to measure these effects. This paper estimates the incapacitation effect on crime using a unique quasi-natural experiment, namely the recurrent collective pardoning between 1962 and 1995 of up to 35 percent of the Italian prison population. Since these pardons are enacted on a national level, unlike in Levitt (1996), we can control for the endogeneity of these laws that might be driven by criminals’ expectations: it is optimal to commit crimes shortly before a collective pardon gets enacted. This effect represents a deterrence effect, which, if not properly controlled for, would bias our IV estimates towards zero. The incapacitation effect is large and precisely estimated. The elasticity of crime with respect to prison population ranges, depending on the type of crime, between 0 and 49 percent. These numbers are increasing during our sample period, which suggests that habitual criminals are now more likely to be subject to pardons than in the past. A benefit-cost analysis suggests that pardons, seen as a short term solution to prison overcrowding, are inefficient.

 

Arjan A. J. Blokland, Paul Nieuwbeerta
# Selectively Incapacitating Frequent Offenders: Costs and Benefits of Various Penal Scenarios
Journal of Quantitative Criminology, December 2007, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 327–353

 

M. Keith Chen, Jesse M. Shapiro
# Do Harsher Prison Conditions Reduce Recidivism? A Discontinuity-based Approach
http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/ April 16, 2007
We estimate the causal effect of prison conditions on recidivism rates by exploiting a discontinuity in the assignment of federal prisoners to security levels. Inmates housed in higher security levels are no less likely to recidivate than those housed in minimum security; if anything, our estimates suggest that harsher prison conditions lead to more post-release crime. Though small sample sizes limit the precision of our estimates, we argue that our findings may have important implications for prison policy, and that our methodology is likely to be applicable beyond the particular context we study.

 

Marc Baader, Evelyne Shea
Le travail pénitentiaire, un outil efficace de lutte contre la récidive ?
http://champpenal.revues.org/ Champ Pénal Vol. IV | 2007
Nous avons constaté que le taux de récidive baisse de manière significative, entre 20 et 50 points, pour les sortants de prison qui obtiennent un emploi stable mais que la grande majorité des ex-détenus n'appartient pas à cette catégorie. Les causes sont multiples, telles que le profil professionnel antérieur des détenus, les difficultés rencontrées à la sortie et les carences du travail et de la formation en prison, qui ne permettent pas de remédier aux handicaps socioprofessionnels des détenus.

 

Home Office
# The Corston Report. A report by baroness Jean Corston of a review of women with particular Vulnerabilities in the criminal justice system | The need for a distinct, radically different, visibly-led, strategic, proportionate, holistic, woman-centred, integrated approach
www.justice.gov.uk/ March 2007

There are many women in prison, either on remand or serving sentences for minor, non-violent offences, for whom prison is both disproportionate and inappropriate. Many of them suffer poor physical and mental health or substance abuse, or both. Large numbers have endured violent or sexual abuse or had chaotic childhoods. Many have been in care. I have concluded that we are rightly exercised about paedophiles, but seem to have little sympathy, understanding or interest in those who have been their victims, many of whom end up in prison. The tragic series of murders in Suffolk during December 2006 rightly focussed public attention on these women as women first and foremost - someone’s daughter, mother, girlfriend, then as victims – exploited by men, damaged by abuse and drug addiction. These are among the women whom society must support and help to establish themselves in the community. It seems to me that it is essential to do more to address issues connected with women’s offending before imprisonment becomes a serious option.

 

Jack Cunliffe, Adrian Shepherd
Re-offending of adults: results from the 2004 cohort
http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ Home Office Statistical Bulletin March 2007
In the Home Office’s PSA target, the starting point is offenders discharged from a custodial sentence and offenders starting community sentences. Data are obtained to calculate whether they re-offended during a two-year follow-up period and were subsequently convicted for this offence. This produces the actual proven re-offending rate. Separately, the ‘like-for-like’ predicted rate is calculated through a statistical model of the 2000 cohort. This is then compared to the actual rate. When the actual rate is lower than the predicted rate, there has been an improvement from the baseline period. The target is for the actual rate to be lower than the predicted rate by five per cent by 2006...

 

Fabrizio Leonardi

Le misure alternative alla detenzione tra reinserimento sociale ed abbattimento della recidiva

Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, 2007 n. 2

Dal confronto con la recidiva dei detenuti sembra che la finalità di reinserimento sia raggiunta in misura maggiore quando l'esecuzione della pena avviene all'esterno del carcere, come a confermare che la prisonizzazione, intesa quale adattamento al mondo informale penitenziario, comporta minori possibilità di risocializzazione. La tendenza maggiore a delinquere è stata riscontrata in chi ha attraversato un'esperienza carceraria mediante i dati sui reirigressi in carcere per la commissione di un nuovo reato. Sette condannati su dieci tra quelli scarcerati nel 1998 hanno fatto rientro in carcere una o più volte contro i due recidivi su dieci che hanno espiato la pena in misura alternativa alla detenzione.

 

Don Stemen

Reconsidering Incarceration: New Directions for Reducing Crime
Vera Institute of Justice - January 2007

... Question of whether or not further increases in incarceration offer the most effective and efficient strategy for combating crime. Additional research examined in this report reveals several other variables that have also been shown to have a relationship with lower crime rates. An increase in the number of police per capita, a reduction in unemployment, and increases in real wage rates and education have all been shown to be associated with lower rates of crime. Although these latter findings do not necessarily indicate a cause and effect relationship, they do suggest that policymakers with limited resources shouldweigh the modest benefits of more incarceration against potentially greater reductions in crime that might be realized from investing in other areas.

 

Barry Holman, Jason Ziedenberg
The Dangers of Detention: The Impact of Incarcerating Youth in Detention and Other Secure Facilities
www.justicepolicy.org/ November 28, 2006
The increased and unnecessary use of secure detention exposes troubled young people to an environment that more closely resembles adult prisons and jails than the kinds of community and family-based interventions proven to be most effective. Detention centers, said a former Deputy Mayor of New York of that city’s infamous Spofford facility, are “indistinguishable from a prison.” Commenting on New York’s detention centers, one Supreme Court Justice said that, “fairly viewed, pretrial detention of a juvenile gives rise to injuries comparable to those associated with the imprisonment of an adult.”

 

Jennifer Fahey, Cheryl Roberts, Len Engel
Employment of Ex-Offenders: Employer Perspectives
Crime and Justice Institute , October 31, 2006
Employment fills a vital need for most individuals; it provides income, social connection, and feelings of societal contribution and self worth. For exoffenders returning to the community after a period of incarceration, employment can make the difference between succeeding and returning to prison. Research shows that employment is associated with reduced recidivism. Yet ex-offenders face significant barriers to employment after release from prison. Barriers include employer attitudes toward individuals with criminal records, legal barriers, educational and financial obstacles, substance abuse and health issues, and lack of stable housing. 

 

Washington State Institute for Public Policy
Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Future Prison Construction, Criminal Justice Costs, and Crime Rates
www.pbpp.pa.gov/ October 2006

 

Elizabeth Piper Deschenes
Recidivism among Female Prisoners: Secondary Analysis of the 1994 BJS Recidivism Data Set
The National Institute of Justice, October 2006

Just as the type of incarceration offense differs significantly by gender, recidivism and criminal career patterns also differ significantly. As shown in this analysis of the BJS recidivism data, consistently, women offenders are more likely than the total sample to be doing time for a drug or property offense. Women in this sample also have less severe criminal histories than the total sample in terms of the number of prior arrests. On average, however, they serve less time in prison but are older at release than the total sample. These characteristics appear to have some impact on subsequent recidivism patterns as well. This secondary analysis shows that gender continues to be a salient factor in understanding—and addressing—postrelease recidivism.

 

Doris J. James and Lauren E. Glaze - BJS

Mental Health Problems of Prison  and Jail Inmates
Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report  - U.S. Department of Justice
September 2006

At midyear 2005 more than half of all prison and jail inmates had a mental health problem, including 705,600 inmates in State prisons, 78,800 in Federal prisons, and 479,900 in local jails. These estimates represented 56% of State prisoners, 45% of Federal prisoners, and 64% of jail inmates. The findings in this report were based on data from personal interviews with State and Federal prisoners in 2004 and local jail inmates in 2002.

 

Stop Prisoner Rape SPR
# In the Shadows. Sexual Violence in U.S. Detention Facilities. A Shadow Report to the U.N. Committee Against Torture
www.spr.org/ 2006

According to the best available research, one in five male inmates faces sexual assault behind bars. While estimated rates of sexual abuse at women’s prisons vary widely, at the worst  facilities, as many as one in four prisoners is victimized. The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) produced a report in July 2005, based solely on administrative records of reported incidents,  which found that 8,210 allegations of sexual assault were reported at prisons, jails, and juvenile facilities in 2004, of which nearly 2,100 were substantiated.

 

Rebecca L. Naser, Christy A. Visher
Family Members’ Experiences with Incarceration and Reentry
Western Criminology Review 7(2), 20–31 (2006)
This paper explores the impact of the incarceration and return of individuals from prison on their families, including relationships with intimate partners, adult family members, and children. Based on responses from 247 family members of Chicago-bound male prisoners interviewed several months after their imprisoned family members  were released, we describe the personal circumstances of the families of returning prisoners, the frequency and type of contact with the imprisoned family members, and the level of family support for the former prisoners after release.

 

Joan Petersilia

# Understanding California Corrections
California Policy Research Center | University of California 2006
California has the largest prison population of any state in the nation, with more than 168,000 inmates in 33
adult prisons, and the state’s annual correctional spending, including jails and probation, amounts to $8.92 billion.
Despite the high cost of corrections, fewer California prisoners participate in relevant treatment programs
than comparable states, and its inmate-to-officer ratio is considerably higher. California’s high recidivism rates are clearly unacceptable.However, when one defines recidivism equivalently across states, using the same follow-up period, and compares similarly serious offenders, only California’s technical parole violation rates are significantly higher. Its rates of new arrests and new criminal convictions are not the highest in the nation, nor are they markedly different from those found in many other large states.

 

Steve Aos, Marna Miller, Elizabeth Drake
# Evidence-Based Adult Corrections Programs: What Works and What Does Not
www.wsipp.wa.gov/ Washington State Institute for Public Policy, 2006
In recent years, public policy decision-makers throughout the United States have expressed  interest in adopting “evidence-based” criminal justice programs. Similar to the pursuit of evidence-based medicine, the goal is to improve the criminal justice system by implementing programs and policies that have been shown to work. Just as important, research findings can be used to eliminate programs that have failed to produce desired outcomes... 

 

Daniel P. Mears, Jamie Watson
# Towards a Fair and Balanced Assessment of Supermax Prisons
Justice Quarterly, vol. 23 number 2 (June 2006)
In the last two decades, supermaximum (“supermax”) security prisons—facilities that house inmates indefinitely in single cells for 23 hours per day, allow inmates minimal contact with others, and provide few if any services—have proliferated in the United States. Twenty years ago, there was one, a federal facility in Marion, Illinois. Today, the country has at least 57 supermax prisons that house approximately 20,000 inmates. Mears’ national survey of state prison wardens indicates that over 40 states now have supermaxes. This growth suggests that states view supermaxes as an effective strategy for improving their correctional systems. Yet, as many scholars have emphasized, we know little about these prisons, including their goals, unintended impacts, and operations...

 

Mark T. Berg, Matt DeLisi

# The correctional melting pot: Race, ethnicity, citizenship, and prison violence
Journal of Criminal Justice 34 (2006) 631–642
The United States prison population is becoming more diverse and comprised of increasingly more violent inmates. Although race has been cited as a risk factor for inmate violence, most prior research had narrowly investigated White/Black differences in inmate misconduct. Using a sample of 1,005 inmates from the southwestern U.S., the current study explored racial, ethnic, and citizenship correlates among male and female prisoners. Negative binomial regression models indicated that net of controls, Hispanics and Native Americans were the most violent male prisoners, while African Americans and Native Americans were the most violent female inmates. The current study was admittedly modest in scope; however, the  findings were couched within a broader, imperative sociological framework that lamented the increasing interplay between communities and prison and the role of prison as a social institution.

 

John J. Gibbons, Nicholas de B. Katzenbach | Vera Institute of Justice
# Confronting Confinement. A Report of the Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons
www.vera.org/ June 2006
Every day judges send thousands of men and women to jail or prison, but the public knows very little about the conditions of confinement and whether they are punishing in ways that no judge or jury ever intended; marked by the experience of rape, gang violence, abuse by officers, infectious disease, and never-ending solitary confinement. Unless the experience of incarceration becomes real through the confinement of a loved one or through a family member who works day-to-day in a correctional facility, jails and prisons and the people inside them are far removed from our daily concerns.

 

Claudio Gallardo, Jorge Núñez Vega | Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales - Sede Ecuador
# Una lectura cuantitativa del sistema de cárceles en Ecuador
www.flacso.org.ec | Quito 2006

En Equador has 35 carceles en 17 provincias de las que componen el pais, 10 son de varones, 4 de mujeres, 20 mixtas y 1 de detencion provisional; segun la region estan distribuidas, 14 en la costa, 19 en la sierra y 2 en el oriente. 53% de las personas privadas de libertad estan el la sierra, 45% en la costa, y solo 2% en el oriente...

 

Wendy Erisman, Jeanne Bayer Contardo
# Learning to Reduce Recidivism. A 50-state analysis of postsecondary correctional education policy
The Institute for Higher Education Policy, November 2005
Research provides strong evidence that postsecondary correctional education can improve conditions within correctional facilities, enhance prisoner self-esteem and prospects for employment after release from prison, and function as a cost-effective approach to reducing recidivism. Given the enormous number of people incarcerated in the United States, the vast majority of whom will someday be released and return to their communities, higher education for prisoners has considerable potential to help ensure that these formerly incarcerated people are equipped to build productive lives and remain out of prison.  

 

Julian V. Roberts
# Reducing the Use of Custody as a Sanction: A Review of Recent International Experiences
Judicial Studies Institute Journal, 5:2, 2005
Reducing the prison population in a safe and principled way is far from easy. It requires a concerted effort by all stakeholders, and cannot be accomplished through statutory reforms alone. The most effective way of achieving a transformation in the penal environment from custody to community entails a series of related initiatives, beginning at the political level. Politicians must demonstrate some leadership by fostering reforms that will change practices at the trial court level. The accumulating international literature reveals some specific strategies that have proved successful, and that policy changes can have an important influence on prison populations. What is needed now is a truly international “best practices” analysis; it is hoped that this brief survey will make a modest contribution in this regard.

 

Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies en République Démocratique du Congo (MONUC)
# Rapport sur les conditions de détention dans les prisons et cachots de la RDC
http://monusco.unmissions.org/ Octobre 2005
La visite des prisons et centres de détention constitue l’une des activités de surveillance du respect des Droits de l’homme en République Démocratique du Congo (RDC) menée par la  Section devenue Division des droits de l’homme (DDH) de la Mission de l’Organisation des Nations Unies en République Démocratique du Congo (MONUC). Ces visites sur les lieux de détention ont, entre autres, pour objectif de vérifier le respect des normes régissant les conditions matérielles dans lesquelles les personnes placées en détention doivent être incarcérées et qui reposent sur un principe de base : l’obligation de traiter les détenus avec dignité et humanité. Ce principe oblige au respect de règles minimales en matière de  séparation des catégories de détenus, locaux de détention, hygiène, alimentation, soins médicaux, information des détenus sur leurs droits, discipline et punitions, contact et communication avec le monde extérieur, travail, exercice physique, religion, surveillance des lieux de détention,  registres, etc.

 

Farhad Khosrokhavar
Les prisonniers musulmans en France
http://books.openedition.org/ CNRS Éditions, 2005

L’islam carcéral sera, dès les premières décennies du xxie siècle, un problème important dans les sociétés d’Europe occidentale. Déjà, on sait que, dans de nombreux pays européens, l’islam est la deuxième religion carcérale. En Grande-Bretagne, les statistiques disponibles montrent qu’il en est ainsi1. Dans d’autres États, le même constat s’impose : au Danemark, dans de nombreuses prisons de grandes villes en Allemagne, progressivement en Italie et aux Pays-Bas...

 

Barbara Bloom, Barbara Owen, Stephanie Covington
A Summary of Research, Practice, and Guiding Principles for Women Offenders
www.centerforgenderandjustice.org/ National Institute of Corrections May 2005
Women now represent a significant proportion of all offenders under criminal justice supervision in the United States. Numbering more than 1 million in 2001, women offenders make up 17 percent of all offenders under some form of correctional sanction... Gender-responsive means creating an environment through site selection, staff selection, program development, content, and material that reflects an understanding of the realities of women’s lives and addresses the issues of the participants. Gender-responsive approaches are multidimensional and are based on theoretical perspectives that acknowledge women’s pathways into the criminal justice system.

 

Charles B. A. Ubah
# An Examination of Academic, Policy and Social Considerations of Correctional Education and Offender Recidivism: Lessons for 21st Century Criminology
www.cjcj.org/ Justice Policy Journal, Volume 2 - No. 2 - Fall 2005
Correctional education programs, especially at the post-secondary level, are designed on the notion that a degree of inmate rehabilitation can be achieved through them, i.e., that inmates’ exposure to such education is a contributory factor to lowered recidivism. The theories that suggest this notion include, but are not limited to, moral development theory, social psychological development theory, and opportunity theory. These theories are also described as "optimistic perspective," and central to them, as they are articulated by penologists, criminologists, sociologists, educators, and public figures, is the assumption that, correctional educational programs can enhance the successful reintegration of certain individual inmates from the society of captives into the general society.

 

Gemma Harper, Chloë Chitty
# The impact of corrections on re-offending: a review of ‘what works’
Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate - February 2005
International evidence from systematic reviews of effective practice on reducing re-offending tends to support the use of cognitive-behavioural offending behaviour programmes and interventions with offenders. Current evidence in the UK is predominantly based on quasi-experimental or non-experimental evaluation studies, which make it difficult to attribute the outcomes to the effects of the treatment or intervention. More often than not, the results can be attributed to selection or other effects if not poor implementation. Outcome studies therefore need to be based on more effective research design.

 

Lise McKean, Charles Ransford
# Current Strategies for Reducing Recidivism
Center for Impact Research | thecommongood.org/ August 2004

Recidivism is the relapse into criminal activity and is generally measured by a former prisoner’s return to prison for a new offense. Rates of recidivism reflect the degree to which released inmates have been rehabilitated and the role correctional programs play in reintegrating prisoners into society. The rate of recidivism in the U.S. is estimated to be about two-thirds, which means that two-thirds of released inmates will be re- incarcerated within three years. High rates of recidivism result in tremendous costs both in terms of public safety and in tax dollars spent to arrest, prosecute, and incarcerate re-offenders. High rates of recidivism also lead to devastating social costs to the communities and families of offenders, as well as the personal costs to the offenders themselves. Due to these severe costs, programs for inmates and released inmates that reduce recidivism can be cost effective—even those that have modest rates of success.

 

Cathryn A. Chappell
# Post-Secondary Correctional Education and Recidivism: A Meta-Analysis of Research Conducted 1990-1999
The Journal of Correctional Education 55(2) • June 2004
This study demonstrates, using relevant studies reported from 1990 - 1999, that there is a positive correlation  (+.31) between post-secondary correctional education PSCE and recidivism reduction. These results are statistically significant.

 

Audrey Bazos, Jessica Hausman
# Correctional Education as a Crime Control Program
UCLA School of Public Policy and Social Research Department of Policy Studies, March 2004
Several studies have shown that prison education programs significantly reduce crime. Once correctional education participants are released, they are about 10 to 20 percent less likely to re-offend than the average released prisoner. This study compares the cost-effectiveness of these two crime control methods - educating prisoners and expanding prisons. One million dollars spent on correctional education prevents about 600 crimes, while that same money invested in incarceration prevents 350 crimes. Correctional education is almost twice as cost-effective as a crime control policy.

 

Steven D. Levitt
# Understanding Why Crime Fell in the 1990s: Four Factors that Explain the Decline and Six that Do Not
Journal of Economic Perspectives—Volume 18, Number 1—Winter 2004

The simplistic accounts of why crime fell offered by so-called experts to the media can be quite misleading. Of the eight reasons most frequently cited in newspapers, I conclude that only three of the factors are truly important. A fourth factor I consider important, legalized abortion, does not receive a single mention...

 

IDEAS for an Open Society
# Justice Reinvestment
Open Society Institute, vol. 3, n. 3, November 2003

 

Richard Freeman
# Can We Close the Revolving Door?: Recidivism vs. Employment of Ex-Offenders in the U.S.
The Urban Institute Reentry Roundtable Discussion Paper | May 19–20, 2003 New York University Law School
Data on recidivism shows that the vast majority of prisoners are not rehabilitated in these ways. Two-thirds of released prisoners are re-arrested and one-half are re-incarcerated within 3 years of release from prison (Langan and Levin, 2002). Rates of recidivism necessarily rise thereafter, so that upwards of 75%–80% of released prisoners are likely to be re-arrested within a decade of release. For many men aged 20–40, the prison door is a revolving one. Commit serious crime; get arrested and incarcerated; spend some time in prison; get out; commit more crimes; get arrested and incarcerated; and so on. Fifty-six percent of state prisoners released in 1999 had one of more prior convictions; and 25% had three or more convictions. Not until men reach their mid-forties does the rate of re-arrest fall noticeably...

 

Harry J. Holzer, Steven Raphael, Michael A. Stoll

# Employment Barriers Facing Ex-Offenders
Employment Dimensions of Reentry: Understanding the Nexus between Prisoner Reentry and Work
Urban Institue Reentry Roundtable
- May 19–20, 2003
Over 600,000 people are now being released from prisons each year. Many suffer from a variety of serious difficulties as they attempt to reenter society. Among the most challenging situations they face is that of reentry into the labor market. Employment rates and earnings of exoffenders are low by almost any standard—though in most cases they were fairly low even before these (mostly) men were incarcerated. Low employment rates seem closely related to the very high recidivism rates observed among those released from prison.

 

Richard P. Seiter, Karen R. Kadela
Prisoner Reentry: What Works, What Does Not, and What Is Promising
CRIME & DELINQUENCY, Vol. 49 No. 3, July 2003 360-388
During the past decade, there has been a renewed interest in prisoner reentry. This is dueto a change in many of the factors surrounding the release of prisoners and their reentry to the community. These changes include a modification of sentencing from the use of parole to determinate release with fewer ex-offenders having supervision in the community, an increased emphasis on surveillance rather than assistance for those under supervision, less community stability and availability of community social service support, and dramatically larger numbers returning to the community. More releasees are being violated and returned to the community than ever before. Therefore, it is important to identify prisoner reentry programs that work. We define reentry, categorize reentry programs, and use the Maryland Scale of Scientific Method to determine the effectiveness of program categories.We conclude that many such categories are effective in aiding reentry and reducing recidivism.

 

Stephen J. Steurer, Linda G. Smith
# Education Reduces Crime, Three-State Recidivism Study - Executive Summary
www.ceanational.org/ 2003
Adult Basic Education (ABE) of felony offenders appears tobe a promising, but still unproven, crime reduction strategy. The premise behind ABE is that many inmates lack basic abilities in reading, writing, and mathematics and if these skills are increased, then offenders have a better chance of avoiding criminal behavior when released from prison. The Institute’s review of the national research literature found that this question has not been extensively or rigorously evaluated.

 

Thomas P. Bonczar
Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001
Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report August 2003
Nearly two-thirds of the 3.8 million increase in the number of adults ever incarcerated in prison between 1974 and 2001 occurred as a result of an increase in the rates of first incarceration. In 1974 the number of persons admitted to prison for the first time totaled 44 per 100,000 adult residents. By 2001 the rate had nearly tripled, reaching 129 first admissions per 100,000 adults....

 

Manuel Eisner
Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime
The University of Chicago 2003

Research on the history of crime from the thirteenth century until the end of the twentieth has burgeoned and has greatly increased understanding of historical trends in crime and crime control. Serious interpersonal violence decreased remarkably in Europe between the mid-sixteenth and the early twentieth centuries. Different long-term trajectories in the decline of homicide can be distinguished between various European regions.

 

Luigi Maria Solivetti | Dap
Il sistema penitenziario italiano. Dati e analisi

Prefazione di Giovanni Tamburino - Ministero della Giustizia, Roma 2003

In Europa occidentale vì sono stati nel 2000 in media circa 14 casi di suicidio in carcere per 10.000 detenuti. Ma nella popolazione generale europea occidentale !'indice medio di suicidi è stato negli ultimi anni pari a meno di 2 casi per 10.000 abitanti di sesso maschile ("). Inoltre, il carcere è una istituzione totale: questo concetto implica controllo, e ogni suicidio insinua un dubbio su come questo controllo è stato realizzato...

Se la presenza in carcere di soggetti a rischio costituisce un problema di rilievo, si deve al tempo stesso ricordare come la condizione di detenuto non ha carattere di omogeneità. In particolare, la condizione di detenzione come imputato presenta caratteristiche negative, per gli elementi di incertezza e di precarietà insiti in questa condizione, nonché per il fatto che normalmente "inizio della detenzione (che è momento di depressione e frustrazione) coincide con la posizione di imputato. Tutto ciò può influire sui tassi di suicidio. È del resto opinione diffusa che gli atti di suicidio coinvolgano soprattutto soggetti nella posizione di imputato e non coloro che si trovano in quella di condannato definitivo.

 

Mark A. Cunniff | US Department of Justice | National Institute of Corrections
Jail Crowding: Understanding Jail Population Dynamics
http://static.nicic.gov/ January 2002
Most jails routinely generate information on the “average” jail stay, which is between 10 and 20 days for most jail systems. The average stay, however, masks considerable variation for different segments of the jail population. For example, many persons booked into the jail for a new offense are released within 1 or 2 days of their arrest. These short-stay inmates represent a high-volume population but not a major source of demand for jail bed space. Short-stay inmates place much higher demand on the jail’s booking and release processes than on its bed space. An analysis of one jail system revealed that half the individuals booked into the jail stayed for fewer than 3 days, but this group consumed only 6 percent of the jail’s bed space. On the other hand, 11 percent of the individuals booked into the jail stayed for more than 30 days, but this group consumed 72 percent of the jail’s bed space...

 

Yuri Ivanovich Kalinin
The Russian penal system: past, present and future
A lecture delivered at King’s College, University of London
November 2002

This had led to these institutions being seriously overcrowded and prisoners not receiving the food, clothing, footwear, medicines and other basic necessities which they required. The situation was especially grim in remand prisons, where persons suspected and accused of having committed crimes are held while preliminary and judicial investigations are being carried out. Suffice it to say that in some of these institutions prisoners had no more than one square metre of living space each (although the established norm was four square metres). One consequence of this was that prisoners had to take it in turns to sleep.It is not surprising that in prisons and colonies infectious diseases spread easily, including such dangerous ones as tuberculosis and HIV/ AIDS.

 

Gilles Favarel-Garrigues
# Priorités et limites de la politique pénitentiaire en Russie
Critique internationale n°16 - juillet 2002
Nous avons à plusieurs reprises souligné la marge d’autonomie dont disposent les directeurs de prison et les directeurs régionaux de l’administration pénitentiaire, et la place qu’elle occupe dans la définition même de l’action publique. De fait, les décisions prises au niveau fédéral laissent aux directeurs locaux et régionaux le soin de changer par eux-mêmes, s’ils le souhaitent et le peuvent, les conditions de vie en prison, c’est-à-dire de mener leur propre politique pénitentiaire. Les plus belles histoires de réforme qu’évoquent les organisations non gouvernementales, celles qui montrent comment peuvent s’améliorer les conditions de détention et l’environnement carcéral à partir des ressources disponibles, s’écrivent actuellement au niveau d’un établissement, à l’initiative d’un directeur local, plus ou moins bien vu de sa hiérarchie.

 

Office of the Deputy Prime Minister | Social Exclusion Unit
# Reducing re-offending by ex-prisoners
hwww.bristol.ac.uk/ July 2002
... To reduce crime by providing constructive regimes which address offending behaviour, improve educational and work skills... The financial cost of re-offending by ex-prisoners, calculated from the overall costs of crime, is  staggering and widely felt. In terms of the cost to the criminal justice system of dealing with the consequences of crime, recorded crime alone committed by ex-prisoners comes to at least £11 billion per year. A reoffending ex-prisoner is likely to be responsible for crime costing the criminal justice system an average of £65,000. When re-offending leads to a further prison sentence, the costs soar. The average cost of a prison sentence imposed at a crown court is roughly £30,500, made up of court and other legal costs. The costs of actually keeping prisoners within prison vary significantly, but average £37,500 per year...

 

Paula Smith, Claire Goggin, Paul Gendreau
# Effets de l’incarcération et des sanctions intermédiaires sur la récidive : effets généraux et différences individuelles
Travaux publics et Services gouvernementaux Canada, 2002
Nos résultats montrent invariablement qu’elles n’ont pas pour effet de réduire la récidive... Les résultats pour la catégorie « incarcération longue ou brève » appellent plus de commentaires là où, dans l’ensemble, nous avons relevé un effet criminogène, avant et après pondération des degrés d’effet. Nous constatons aussi que l’effet criminogène augmente avec les différences de durée d’incarcération. Ces résultats semblent conforter la thèse de la prison comme « école du crime », puisque, sur le plan des degrés d’effet dans cette analyse particulière, les pourcentages relatifs aux délinquants à faible risque étaient très semblables.

 

Greg Heylin
# Evaluating Prisons, Prisoners and Others
Studies in Public Policy, Dublin 2001

Rather than prison itself being the failure, it might be characterised as a container of last resort for those whom society has failed or who have failed in society. As it is society which instils norms, it is unrealistic to expect prison alone to succeed where society has failed. The high cost of prison in human and monetary terms is also noted. Arising from these points, it is proposed that evaluation effort should be devoted in particular to preventative social programmes and to alternatives to prison, in addition to the evaluation of prison itself.

 

David P. Farrington
# Key Results from the First Forty Years of the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
Chapter for: Thornberry, T. P. and Krohn, M. D. (Eds.) Taking Stock of Delinquency: An Overview of Findings from Contemporary Longitudinal Studies, Revised 2001

 

Sénat - Session Ordinaire de 1999-2000
# Rapport de la commission d'enquete sur les conditions de détention dans les établissements pénitentiaires en France | Président M. Jean-Jacques Hyest - Rapporteur M. Guy-Pierre Cabanel
www.senat.fr/ Rapport remis à Monsieur le Président du Sénat le 28 juin 2000 - Dépòt publié au Journal officiel du 29 juin 2000 Annexe au procès-verbal de la séance du 29 juin 2000

 

David A. Anderson

# The Aggregate Burden of Crime
Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 42, No. 2. (Oct., 1999), pp. 611-642.
This study estimates the total annual cost of criminal behavior in the United States. While past research has typically focused on particular costs, regions, or crime categories, this general study estimates all of the direct and indirect costs of crime for the entire nation. In addition to aggregating expenses commonly associated with unlawful activity, it considers ancillary costs that have not yet been included in an overall formula for the cost of crime. Beyond the expenses of the legal system, victim losses, and crime-prevention agencies, the burden of crime encompasses the opportunity costs of victims', criminals', and prisoners' time; the fear of being victimized; and the cost of private deterrence. More accurate information on the repercussions of crime could guide our legal, political, and cultural stance toward crime and allow informed prioritization of programs that curtail criminal activity. The net annual burden of crime is found to exceed $1 trillion.

 

John Irwin PhD, Vincent Schiraldi, Jason Ziedenberg
# America’s One Million Nonviolent Prisoners
www.hawaii.edu/ Justice Policy Institute March 1999
Over the past two decades, no area of state government expenditures has increased as rapidly as prisons and jails. Justice Department data released on March 15, 1999 show that the number of prisoners in America has more than tripled over the last two decades from 500,000 to 1.8 million, with states like California and Texas experiencing eightfold prison population increases during that time. America's overall prison population now exceeds the combined populations of Alaska, North Dakota, and Wyoming. What is most disturbing about the prison population explosion is that the people being sent to prison are not the Ted Bundies, Charlie Mansons, and Timothy McVeighs - or even less sensationalized robbers, rapists, and murders - that the public imagines them to be. Most are defendants who have been found guilty of nonviolent and not particularly serious crimes that do not involve any features that agitate high levels of concern in the minds of the public. Too often, they are imprisoned under harsh mandatory sentencing schemes which were ostensibly aimed at the worst of the worse.

 

Human Rights Watch
# Prison Conditions in Indonesia
www.hrw.org/ August 1990

 

G. Vassalli, F. Ferracuti, G. Marbach
# Le proiezioni della popolazione penitenziaria italiana
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, nn. 2-3, 1983

 

Immigration Racial Profiling et al.

 

“Privati dei diritti umani garantiti dalla cittadinanza, si trovarono ad essere senza alcun diritto, schiuma della terra.”

H. Arendt, Le origini del totalitarismo, Milano 1996, p. 372

 

Marco Noci
# Tribunali e immigrati, verso il debutto per 26 sezioni specializzate
Il Sole 24 Ore, 26 aprile 2017

# Testo del decreto-legge 17 febbraio 2017, n. 13 (in Gazzetta Ufficiale - Serie generale - n. 40 del 17 febbraio 2017), coordinato con la legge di conversione 13 aprile 2017, n. 46 (in questa stessa Gazzetta Ufficiale - alla pag. 1) recante: «Disposizioni urgenti per l'accelerazione dei procedimenti in materia di protezione internazionale, nonche' per il contrasto dell'immigrazione illegale.». 

 

Baiguera Altieri Andrea
# Delinquenza percepita e delinquenza reale in Svizzera
Diritto internazionale, 19/04/2017

 

Emilio Sacerdoti
# Flussi migratori: ridurli si può, fermarli è impossibile
lavoce.info, 14.04.17
Le pressioni migratorie nel futuro, specie dai paesi dell’Africa subsahariana, continueranno a essere accentuate. Politiche che permettano un aumento del tasso di crescita del Pil e una riduzione del tasso di fecondità femminile, accompagnati da interventi internazionali per porre fine ai conflitti interni, possono aiutare a ridurle, ma non è realistico pensare a una loro eliminazione completa.

 

Damiano Aliprandi
# Quei rimpatri forzati senza rispetto per la dignità umana
Il Dubbio, 13 aprile 2017

 

Rivista di Psicodinamica Criminale

# Rifugiati e richiedenti asilo: diritti, procedure e sistemi di accoglienza

Rivista di psicodinamica Criminale, Anno X, n. 1 febbraio 2017

 

Corte dei Conti Europea
# La risposta dell’UE alla crisi dei rifugiati: il “sistema basato sui punti di crisi” (hotspot approach) - Relazione speciale
www.eca.europa.eu/ 21 marzo 2017
Nel maggio 2015 la Commissione ha introdotto un nuovo “sistema basato sui punti di crisi” (hotspot approach) al fine di assistere la Grecia e l’Italia nel far fronte all’improvviso drammatico aumento del numero di migranti irregolari in arrivo alle rispettive frontiere esterne. Nella presente relazione, la Corte conclude che, in entrambi i paesi, il sistema basato sui punti di crisi ha fatto sì che, alla fine del 2016 le strutture di accoglienza erano ancora inadeguate. Inoltre, vi era ancora una carenza di strutture adatte ad alloggiare minori non accompagnati e a trattare questi casi in linea con le norme internazionali.

 

eurostat
# Asylum in the EU Member States. 1.2 million first time asylum seekers registered in 2016. Syrians, Afghans and Iraqis continued to be the top citizenships
eurostat | newsrelease, 46/2017 - 16 march 2017

 

# Tribunale Milano: associare il termine “clandestini” ai richiedenti asilo è discriminatorio, 22 febbraio 2017

 

# Carta di Roma - 2008

# Linee-guida per l'applicazione della Carta di Roma. Strumenti di lavoro per un’informazione corretta sui temi dell’immigrazione e dell’asilo, 2014

 

Amnesty International
# Report 2016/17. The State of the World's Human Rights
www.amnesty.org/

 

FRONTEX
# Risk Analysis for 2017
http://frontex.europa.eu/ February 2017
In 2016, Member States reported 305 365 return decisions issued to third-country nationals as a result of an administrative  or judicial decision, which represented a 6.5% increase compared with 2015...

 

Carlo Lania, # Immigrazione, è scontro tra Canzio e il ministro Orlando, https://ilmanifesto.it/ 15 febbraio 2017
Giovanni Negri,
# Niente appello sui giudizi per i rifugiati, il Sole 24 Ore 15 febbraio 2017
«Pretendere la semplificazione e razionalizzazione delle procedure non può significare soppressione delle garanzie...».

 

Graham Durcan, Jessica Stubbs, Jed Boardman
# Immigration Removal Centres in England. A mental health needs analysis
www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/ January 2017
Research into the impact of detention has consistently highlighted that: • Immigration detention has a negative impact on mental health • The longer someone spends in detention, the more negative an impact it has upon their mental health • Depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder are the most common mental health problems A study conducted across four UK IRCs in 2009 found that four out of five detainees met a clinical threshold for depression.

 

Adriano Sofri
# Il fenomeno “epocale” è non capire
www.ilfoglio.it/ 6 Gennaio 2017

La migrazione “non è un’emergenza”, non è “un fenomeno contingente”, è “un fenomeno epocale”. Da quanto tempo queste espressioni sono diventate un luogo comune, ripetuto da ogni solenne cretino cui sia messo davanti un microfono o un foglietto di carta? Quattro anni, cinque anni, dieci? Abbastanza comunque perché si possa pretendere che anche l’ultimo dei cretini, avendo dichiarato “epocale” il “fenomeno”, se ne sia fatto un’idea ed eventualmente l’abbia misurata coi fatti per confermarla o smentirla e cambiarla e rimisurarla coi fatti...

 

Rachele Gonnelli
# Mauro Palma: «Basta logiche emergenziali e serve un controllo dei centri».
www.ilmanifesto.it/ 5 gennaio 2017

La nostra Africa. Mauro Palma, Garante dei detenuti, vuole poter ispezionare anche i Cas come Cona. Entro gennaio visiterà Hotspot e Cie. Ma negli Hub non c’è autorità a cui appellarsi... La gestione delle strutture per migranti è ancora legata a una logica emergenziale mentre si dovrebbe passare a una situazione strutturale, molto più definita. Serve un quadro normativo più solido, che preveda, ad esempio, la possibilità di appellarsi a una autorità terza. Non solo per quanto riguarda la domanda di asilo ma anche di fronte a condizioni indecorose di permanenza nei centri.

 

Errico Novi
# L'ex presidente della Consulta: cacciare i rifugiati non si può
Il Dubbio, 4 gennaio 2017
Cesare Mirabelli: "È difficilmente percorribile l'ipotesi di eliminare del tutto il ricorso in appello per chi chiede protezione internazionale: una norma del genere può urtare contro il principio di eguaglianza"...  si deve partire dall'articolo 10 della Costituzione, che garantisce l'asilo allo straniero al quale fosse negato l'esercizio delle libertà democratiche nel Paese d'origine. È un principio ispirato a una visione di solidarietà culturale, che riconosce il diritto alla libertà come uno dei  diritti umani fondamentali. A questo aggiungo che l'immigrazione economica è sì un atto distinguibile, ma non in modo  così drastico... Parliamo del diritto di vivere, che è evidentemente un diritto umano fondamentale: dietro l'immigrazione economica ci sono esigenze alimentari basilari.

 

Annalisa Mangiaracina
# Hotspots e diritti: un binomio possibile?
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 9 dicembre 2016
Non appena il sistema “hotspot” è diventato operativo sono subito emersi numerosi profili problematici legati, principalmente, alla mancanza di una specifica disciplina normativa, essendo la materia affidata ad alcune circolari del Ministero dell’Interno, nonché, più di recente, alle Procedure Operative Standard (SOP) redatte dal medesimo organo8. Questa assenza di regolamentazione ha avuto delle ricadute in termini di violazioni di diritti fondamentali riconosciuti a livello sia nazionale sia sovranazionale, denunciate in diversi documenti, tra i quali il Rapporto sui centri di identificazione ed espulsione in Italia, redatto dalla Commissione straordinaria per la tutela e la promozione dei diritti umani del Senato della Repubblica9, per quanto riguarda l’hotspot di Lampedusa.

 

Fondazione ISMU (Iniziative e Studi sulla Multietnicità)
# Ventiduesimo rapporto sulle migrazioni 2016
www.ismu.org/ 1 dicembre 2016
Gli stranieri rappresentano il 9,58% della popolazione abitualmente residente in Italia. Tenendo conto delle acquisizioni di cittadinanza, nel 2015 i nuovi italiani sono 178mila (contro i 130mila del 2014 e i 60mila del 2012). I dati quindi indicano che la crescita c’è, accompagnata da maggiore stabilità e integrazione. Il fenomeno dell’irregolarità registra una leggera ripresa: al 1° gennaio 2016 Ismu stima che non abbiano un valido titolo di soggiorno 435mila immigrati (contro i 404mila alla stessa data dell’anno precedente). L’incidenza degli irregolari sul totale della popolazione straniera presente è del 7,4%.

 

Riforma
# Nessuna invasione islamica. I dati del Cesnur sulle minoranze presenti in Italia rivelano un quadro assai differente da quanto narrato dai grandi mezzi di comunicazione
www.riforma.it/ 11 novembre 2016

Massimo Introvigne, Pierluigi Zoccatelli # Il pluralismo religioso italiano nel contesto postmoderno, www.cesnur.com/ novembre 2016

 

Kimiko De Freitas-Tamura
# Britain’s Increase in Hate Crimes Is Tied to Changes in How They Are Reported
www.nytimes.com/ Nov. 5, 2016
In 2015, Britain recorded eight times as many hate crimes as the United States, which has five times as many people; that was 31 times the hate crimes reported in France and 88 times the total in Italy. The assaults extended to Muslim women, whose face veils were torn off. Blacks, Asians, gays and people with disabilities also reported abuse. Britain recorded 71,140 hate crimes in the 2015-16 financial year, ending in March. In July, the month after the referendum, the number of hate crimes recorded by the police was 41 percent higher than in July of last year, though they have fallen lately.

 

Magistratura Democratica - ASGI Associazione per gli Studi Giuridici sull'Immigrazione
# Diritto di asilo - Dovere di accoglienza. Osservazioni e proposte sulla ipotesi di riforma del procedimento
www.magistraturademocratica.it/ 4 novembre 2016
Le ragioni delle migrazioni sono molteplici e complesse: le guerre, i regimi dittatoriali e violenti, l’incremento demografico concentrato nelle zone più povere della terra, le operazioni di land grabbing e di estrazione intensiva di materie prime che tolgono la terra a chi prima ne ricavava il sostentamento, i mutamenti climatici, che già hanno fatto scomparire o hanno trasformato, impoverendoli, vasti territori e che nel 2050 si prevede determineranno 200 milioni di sfollati.6 Per queste cause, le migrazioni sono inarrestabili...

 

Armin Kapeller
# Stranieri: espulsioni, respingimenti, rimpatri assistiti, ritorni volontari, dati statistici - RFT
www.filodiritto.com/ 30 ottobre 2016

 

IDOS, in partenariato con Confronti e in collaborazione con l'UNAR
# Dossier Statistico Immigrazione
www.dossierimmigrazione.it/ ottobre 2016

 

Francesco Palazzo
# Immigrazione e criminalità. Una lettura di dati statistici
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 24 ottobre 2016
Particolarmente preoccupante, specie agli occhi dell’opinione pubblica e di alcune parti politiche, è il controverso rapporto tra immigrazione e criminalità. La ritenuta propensione a delinquere degli immigrati costituisce uno dei principali argomenti, se non il principale, sul quale si fonda la sempre più diffusa ostilità verso un fenomeno dalle dimensioni crescenti e dalle caratteristiche bibliche. Spesso si ha l’impressione che, come avviene più in generale per l’andamento della criminalità complessiva, i dati disponibili siano utilizzati con disinvoltura se non con spregiudicatezza...

 

Fondazione Leone Moressa
# L’impatto fiscale dell’immigrazione
www.fondazioneleonemoressa.org/ ottobre 2016

 

Istat
# Cittadini non comunitari: presenza, nuovi ingressi e acquisizioni di cittadinanza
www.istat.it/ 29 settembre 2016
In base ai dati forniti dal Ministero dell’Interno, al 1° gennaio 2016 sono regolarmente presenti in Italia 3.931.133 cittadini non comunitari, numero sostanzialmente stabile rispetto all’anno precedente.  I paesi più rappresentati sono: Marocco (510.450), Albania (482.959), Cina (333.986), Ucraina (240.141) e India (169.394).  La presenza non comunitaria risulta sempre più stabile sul territorio. Continuano infatti a crescere i soggiornanti di lungo periodo...

 

Corte di giustizia dell’Unione europea
# Sentenze nelle cause C-165/14 Alfredo Rendón Marín/Administración del Estado e C-304/14 Secretary of State for the Home Department/CS
Comunicato Stampa n. 95/16 - Lussemburgo, 13 settembre 2016
Il diritto dell’Unione non consente né di rifiutare in modo automatico un permesso di soggiorno a un cittadino di un paese non UE che ha l’affidamento esclusivo di un cittadino minorenne dell’UE, né di espellerlo dal territorio UE per il solo motivo che ha precedenti penali . Per poter essere adottata, una misura di espulsione deve essere proporzionata e basata sul comportamento personale del cittadino di un paese non UE e tale comportamento deve rappresentare una minaccia effettiva, attuale e sufficientemente grave per un interesse fondamentale della società dello Stato membro ospitante.

 

Roland G. Fryer
# An Empirical Analysis of Racial Differences in Police Use of Force    # Appendix
http://scholar.harvard.edu/ July 2016
On non-lethal uses of force, there are racial differences – sometimes quite large – in police use of force, even after accounting for a large set of controls designed to account for important contextual and behavioral factors at the time of the police-civilian interaction. Interestingly, as use of force increases from putting hands on a civilian to striking them with a baton, the overall probability of such an incident occurring decreases dramatically but the racial difference remains roughly constant.

 

ACAT
# Les Français et la torture
www.acatfrance.fr/ Avril 2016

 

Walk Free Foundation
# Global Slavery Index report
www.globalslaveryindex.org/ 2016

 

Amnesty International

# Report 2015-2016

www.amnesty.org/ 2016

 

Fondazione ISMU | Vincenzo Cesareo (ed)
# The Twenty-first Italian Report on Migrations 2015
www.ismu.org/ 2016
The phenomenon of migration in Italy is undergoing transformations to such an extent that it seems plausible to speak of the end of a cycle and the beginning of a new one. These dynamics are linked firstly to geopolitical transformations and conflicts taking place in regions of the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa; secondly, on the domestic front, to the considerable impact the economic crisis has had on the future growth prospects of the Italian labour market. From an analytical perspective, six points must be considered to outline this new scenario: a) the marked increase in migration flows, b) the sharp decrease in the number of people entering the country to seek work, c) the consolidation of family units, d) the overall increase in emigration from Italy, e) the significant presence of migrants from new EU countries in Italy, f) the importance of internal migration. 

 

NAGA Associazione Volontaria di Assistenza Socio-Sanitaria e per i Diritti di Cittadini Stranieri, Rom e Sinti - Onlus
# (Ben)Venuti! Indagine sul sistema di accoglienza dei richiedenti asilo a Milano e provincia
www.naga.it/ Aprile 2016

 

Benjamin G. Edelman, Michael Luca, Dan Svirsky
# Racial Discrimination in the Sharing Economy: Evidence from a Field Experiment
Harvard Business School NOM Unit Working Paper No. 16-069, January 6, 2016

 

Ruth Ellen Wasem
# Temporary Professional, Managerial, and Skilled Foreign Workers: Policy and Trends
www.fas.org/ January 13, 2016

Congress has an ongoing interest in regulating the immigration of professional, managerial, and skilled foreign workers to the United States. This workforce is seen by many as a catalyst of U.S. global economic competitiveness and is likewise considered a key element of the legislative options aimed at stimulating economic growth. The challenge central to the policy debate is facilitating the migration of professional, managerial, and skilled foreign workers without adversely affecting U.S. workers and U.S. students entering the labor market.

 

Associazione Carta di Roma | Osservatorio europeo per la sicurezza
# Notizie di confine. Terzo rapporto Carta di Roma 2015
www.cartadiroma.org/ 15 dicembre 2015
Il 2015 rappresenta un anno significativo per la visibilità del tema dell’immigrazione, con un incremento di notizie che va dal 70 al 180% sui quotidiani e con un record di servizi nei tg nazionali prime time: 3.437, il numero più alto registrato negli ultimi 11 anni. L’immigrazione ha avuto visibilità continua sia sulla carta stampata che in televisione, con picchi di attenzione in corrispondenza di particolari avvenimenti: in queste occasioni i quotidiani hanno dedicato all’argomento una media di 4/5 titoli al giorno in prima pagina, mentre per i telegiornali si contano circa 7 notizie per edizione.  Alla crescita esponenziale di visibilità televisiva del tema immigrazione non ha corrisposto un aumento della paura e dell’insicurezza nei confronti di migranti e profughi.

 

Cody T. Ross
# A Multi-Level Bayesian Analysis of Racial Bias in Police Shootings at the County-Level in the United States, 2011–2014
PLoS|ONE, 2015

Analysis of police shooting data as a function of county-level predictors suggests that racial bias in police shootings is most likely to emerge in police departments in larger metropolitan counties with low median incomes and a sizable portion of black residents, especially when there is high financial inequality in that county. There is no relationship between county-level racial bias in police shootings and crime rates (even race-specific crime rates), meaning that the racial bias observed in police shootings in this data set is not explainable as a response to local-level crime rates... 

 

IDOS - UNAR - Confronti
# Dossier Statistico Immigrazione 2015
www.dossierimmigrazione.it/ 29 ottobre 2015

Nel 2014 gli stranieri intercettati dalle forze dell’ordine in condizione irregolare sono stati 30.906 (dati del Ministero dell’Inter no) e di essi il 50,9% è stato effettivamente rimpatriato (15.726). l sistema di accoglienza italiano per i richiedenti e i titolari di protezione internazionale continua ad essere frammentato e comprende alla fine di luglio 2015: 4 Centri di primo soccorso e accoglienza (Cpsa); 10 di accoglienza per richiedenti asilo (Cara) e di accoglienza (Cda); la rete Sprar (Sistema di protezione per rifugiati e richiedenti asilo) e le strutture di accoglienza temporanea (Cas).  In particolare, le persone accolte dalla rete Sprar sono passate da 7.823 nel 2012 a 22.961 nel 2014. Tuttavia a giugno 2015 si trovava nelle strutture di tale rete solo il 25% dei 78mila richiedenti asilo e titolari di protezione internazionale accolti, mentre il 62% alloggiava in strutture di accoglienza temporanea.

# Gli stranieri? Delinquono di meno e commettono reati meno gravi degli italiani

 

Gordon H. Hanson, Matthew J. Slaughter
# High-Skilled Immigration and the Rise of STEM Occupations in US Employment
http://cep.lse.ac.uk/ September 2015

 

European Court of Human Rights | Cour Européenne des Droits de l'Homme
# Affaire Khlaifia et autres c. Italie
Strasbourg, 1er septembre 2015
Les 16 et 17 septembre 2011 les requérants quittèrent avec d’autres personnes la Tunisie à bord d’embarcations de fortune dans le but de rejoindre les côtes italiennes. Après plusieurs heures de navigation, les embarcations furent interceptées par les garde-côtes italiens, qui les escortèrent jusqu’au port de l’île de Lampedusa. Les requérants furent transférés au Centre d’accueil initial et d’hébergement sis à Contrada Imbriacola... | La Cour... 3. Dit, à l’unanimité, qu’il y a eu violation de l’article 5 § 1 de la Convention ; 4. Dit, à l’unanimité, qu’il y a eu violation de l’article 5 § 2 de la Convention ;  5. Dit, à l’unanimité, qu’il y a eu violation de l’article 5 § 4 de la Convention ;  6. Dit, par cinq voix contre deux, qu’il y a eu violation de l’article 3 de la Convention du fait des conditions d’accueil des requérants dans le CSPA de Contrada Imbriacola...

 

# Cassazione Penale, Sez. III, 14 settembre 2015 (ud. 23 giugno 2015), n. 36906
Ha rilevanza penale la condotta di chi propaganda di idee fondate sulla superiorità o sull’odio razziale o etnico... La sentenza ha ad oggetto la diffusione di un volantino di promozione elettorale che secondo il giudice d’appello propagandava idee fondate sulla superiorità di una razza rispetto alle altre e sull’odio razziale, facendo ricorso, in particolare, allo slogan “basta usurai -basta stranieri” con sottinteso, ma evi¬dente riferimento a persona di religione ebraica ed esplicito riferimento a persone di nazionalità non comunitaria e, sul retro del volantino, alla rappresentazione grafica esplicativa dello slogan di un’Italia assediata da soggetti di colore dediti allo spaccio di stupefacente, da un Abramo Lincoln attorniato da dollari, da un cinese produttore di merce scadente, da una donna e un bambino Rom sporchi e pronti a depredare e da un soggetto musulmano con una cintura formata da candelotti di dinamite pronti per un attentato terroristico.

Roberta La Terra, # Hate speech e discriminazione per motivi razziali in un recente approdo della Corte di Cassazione,
www.giurisprudenzapenale.com/ 4 ottobre 2015

 

OECD/European Union
# Indicators of Immigrant Integration 2015. Settling in
www.oecd.org/ OECD Publishing,  Paris, July 02, 2015

This joint publication by the OECD and the European Commission presents the first broad international comparison across all EU and OECD countries of the outcomes for immigrants and their children, through 27 indicators organised around five areas: Employment, education and skills, social inclusion, civic engagement and social cohesion. Three chapters present detailed contextual information (demographic and immigrant-specific) for immigrants and immigrant households. Two special chapters are dedicated to specific groups. The first group is that of young people with an immigrant background, whose outcomes are often seen as the benchmark for the success or failure of integration. The second group are third-country nationals in the European Union, who are the target of EU integration policy.

 

UK Parliament
# Modern Slavery Act - 2015 c. 30
# Explanatory Notes
www.legislation.gov.uk/ 2015

 

Kristina Kangaspunta | UNODC
# Researching hidden populations: approaches to and methodologies for generating data on trafficking in persons
www.unodc.org/ Forum on Crime and Society, vol. 8, 2015
‘Trafficking in persons’ shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs” (General Assembly resolution 55/25, annex II, article 3).

 

Mauro Ravarino
# L’infernale gabbia del Cie a Torino
# «Qui scatta la detenzione senza reato accertato»
http://ilmanifesto.info/ 09.08.2015

A proposito del Cie di Torino, l’11 aprile 2014 scadeva la convenzione stipulata nel triennio precedente con la Croce Rossa Italiana (persona giuridica pubblica), poi prorogata in attesa della conclusione della nuova gara. Che è stata aggiudicata all’unico concorrente: il raggruppamento temporaneo di imprese la società Gepsa Sa (mandatario) con sede legale a Rueil Malmaison Cedex (Francia) e l’associazione culturale Acuarinto (mandante) con sede legale ad Agrigento. «Non è stato, invece, reso pubblico» contesta l’avvocato Daniela Bauduin, «il contratto stipulato tra la prefettura di Torino e l’ente cui è stato aggiudicato l’appalto, la cui accessibilità risulta, al momento, sottoposta al vaglio del ministero dell’interno...

 

Enrico Di Pasquale, Andrea Stuppini, Chiara Tronchin
# Quanto costa l’accoglienza
www.lavoce.info/ 14.07.15
La percezione dell’opinione pubblica rispetto alla spesa dell’Italia per il mantenimento del sistema di accoglienza per richiedenti asilo appare fortemente squilibrata e sovrastimata: anche in situazioni di emergenza come nel 2011, peraltro assimilabile a quella attuale, la spesa italiana è in linea con quella degli altri paesi UE. In rapporto al numero di richiedenti asilo ospitati, anzi, la cifra pro-capite è inferiore rispetto a quanto garantito da Germania e Svezia.

 

# Audizione del guardasigilli Andrea Orlando in materia di immigrazione. Commissione Affari Costituzionali del Senato
www.giustizia.it/ 8 luglio 2015

 

James Singh Gill
# Permissibility of Colour and Racial Profiling
Western Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2015
Racial profiling in law enforcement is a contentious matter, particularly in light of U.S. police-citizen race tensions. The racial profiling debate has not been settled. Racial profiling proponents view it as a tool to effectively uncover criminal activity among certain racial groups. Critics find that racial profiling perpetuates racial stigmas and is largely inefficient as a policing tool. This article explores the ongoing debate and offers an overview of the Canadian judicial experience with racial profiling. The author proposes a middle-ground solution where racial profiling may be used under certain constraints imposed on law enforcement. The author suggests that the Crown provide justificatory evidence for the use of racial profiling when it is raised as a defence by the accused.

 

Kimberly Kindy, and reported by Julie Tate, Jennifer Jenkins, Steven Rich, Keith L. Alexander and Wesley Lowery
# Fatal police shootings in 2015 approaching 400 nationwide
www.washingtonpost.com/ May 30, 2015

About half the victims were white, half minority. But the demographics shifted sharply among the unarmed victims, two-thirds of whom were black or Hispanic. Overall, blacks were killed at three times the rate of whites or other minorities when adjusting by the population of the census tracts where the shootings occurred.

 

Maurizio Ambrosini
# Agenda per l’immigrazione Ue: la realtà dietro la retorica
lavoce.info 14.05.2015
... Persiste, anzitutto, la retorica dell’invasione e dei numeri ingestibili. Nella UE arrivano meno del 10 per cento dei rifugiati del mondo. Ma anche rispetto ai 191mila nuovi richiedenti registrati nell’Unione Europea nel 2014, e ai 170mila sbarcati in Italia, la proposta di accoglienza e redistribuzione di 40mila profughi tra 25 paesi dell’UE appare molto lontana dalle necessità...

 

Luca Masera
# Le conclusioni dell’Avvocato generale presso la Corte di giustizia UE nella causa relativa al delitto di illecito reingresso dello straniero espulso (art. 13 co. 13 TU imm.). Conclusioni dell'Avvocato generale Maciej Spuznar presentate il 28 aprile 2015 nella causa C-290/14, Celaj.
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 4 Maggio 2015

 

Roberto Saviano
# “Aiutarli a casa loro” che grande ipocrisia
http://espresso.repubblica.it/ 01 maggio 2015

 

Vincenzo Cesareo (ed) | Regione Lombardia | Éupolis Lombardia | Fondazione Ismu
# Rapporto 2014. Gli immigrati in Lombardia
Osservatorio Regionale per l’integrazione e la multietnicità - Ismu, 14 aprile 2015

Gian Carlo Blangiardo (ed) | Regione Lombardia | Éupolis Lombardia | Fondazione Ismu
# L'immigrazione straniera in Lombardia. La quattordicesima indagine regionale
Fondazione Ismu 14 aprile 2015

 

Associazione Centro Astalli
# Rapporto Annuale 2015
http://centroastalli.it/ Aprile 2015

 

Naga
# Curare (non) è permesso. Indagine sull’accesso alle cure per i cittadini stranieri irregolari negli ospedali milanesi
www.naga.it/ Aprile 2015

 

Antonio Ruggeri
# I diritti dei non cittadini tra modello costituzionale e politiche nazionali
www.giurcost.org/ 1 aprile 2015
Relazione al convegno su Metamorfosi della cittadinanza e diritti degli stranieri, Reggio Calabria 26-27 marzo 2015... Trattare della condizione del “non cittadino” – termine usualmente preferito a quello di “straniero“, a motivo della sua idoneità a comprendere in tutta la loro estensione i vari tipi di soggetti cui fa riferimento – equivale a dire, allo stesso tempo e di necessità, anche di quella del cittadino, tornando  così a riflettere su una nozione divenuta col tempo sempre più incerta e fatta oggetto di profondo ripensamento, persino nei suoi lineamenti essenziali.

 

ISMU
# Carceri, gli ergastolani sono lo 0,3% dei detenuti tra gli stranieri
Newsletter 54, marzo 2015

 

United States Department of Justice | Civil Rights Division
# Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department
www.justice.gov/ March 4, 2015
African Americans are disproportionately represented at nearly every stage of Ferguson law enforcement, from initial police contact to final disposition of a case in municipal court. While FPD’s data collection and retention practices are deficient in many respects, the data that is collected by FPD is sufficient to allow for meaningful and reliable analysis of racial disparities. This data—collected directly by police and court officials—reveals racial disparities that are substantial and consistent across a wide range of police and court enforcement actions.

 

Veronica Di Benedetto Montaccini, Giacomo Zandonini (foto di Stefano D'Amadio)
# Nel Cie di Ponte Galeria, a Roma, i migranti sono prigionieri due volte: della cella e degli psicofarmaci.
www.left.it/ 6 | 21 febbraio 2015

La metà degli "ospiti" assume psicofarmaci senza diagnosi esatta. La psicologa: «Lì dentro sono tutti malati»...

 

Franco Scarpa, Vittoria Bonagura
Gli stranieri e le misure di sicurezza
Febbraio 2015

... La detenzione prolungata, soprattutto nei casi di soggetti immigrati, risulta correlata alla mancanza di risorse sociali, vale a dire che si registra una maggiore difficoltà ad applicare misure alternative alla detenzione e alla possibilità di scontare ai domiciliari la propria pena. Gli esperti segnalano come tale condizione sia fonte per l’insorgenza di disturbi del comportamento e, nei casi più gravi, di forme di psicosi...

 

Fabienne Brion
# Esaminare la repressione con Marx: “drenaggio” degli immigrati e lotta alla sovrappopolazione carceraria
www.chartasporca.it/ 2 febbraio 2015
Agli “emigranti” – la cui condizione di partenza è quella di una scelta tra venire o contravvenire – la società capitalista sostituisce degli individui intrinsecamente “illegali” o “delinquenti” che, letteralmente, non possono «venire» (nel nostro continente) senza “contravvenire” (a qualche legge).

 

Patrizio Gonnella
# Detenuti stranieri in Italia. Norme, numeri e diritti
Roma, 3 febbraio 2015

 

Barbara Spinelli
# I Cie, zoo per umani ma senza erba
La Stampa, 23 dicembre 2014
Da lunedì 15 dicembre il Cie è amministrato dalla francese Gepsa, specializzata in carceri. L'agenzia ha vinto la gara perché ha promesso tagli al personale e diarie decurtate ai detenuti (2,5 euro al giorno)... Non hanno accesso a giornali. I gestori smentiscono, ma i detenuti sono esasperati perché di notte le luci al neon sono sempre accese. Di qui - anche - l'alto uso di sonniferi. Le tensioni s'alzano e scendono come maree, e a seconda del loro livello si dispiegano le forze d'ordine, manganelli in vista e pistole alla cinta. Entriamo nelle camerate, dove ci sono 8-10 letti in uno spazio che ne dovrebbe contenere quattro. Dentro  fa freddo come fuori; il riscaldamento è intermittente...

# Cie di Ponte Galeria: aprite quella gabbiail Manifesto, 23 dicembre 2014

 

Naga | Simone Cremaschi, Carlo Devillanova, Francesco Fasani, Tommaso Frattini
# Cittadini senza diritti. Rapporto Naga 2014. Stanno tutti bene
www.naga.it/ Dicembre 2014
Tra il 2009 e il 2013 il Naga ha ricevuto circa 15.000 nuovi utenti. Di questi poco meno di 1.700 sono cittadini bulgari o rumeni. Il restante 89% del campione è costituito da immigrati privi di regolare permesso di soggiorno e rappresenta una fonte d’informazione particolarmente ricca e assolutamente originale sull’universo dell’immigrazione irregolare a Milano, un universo che per sua stessa natura sfugge spesso a tentativi di misurazione e di descrizione. Questa componente del campione costituisce una delle più grandi banche dati esistenti sull’immigrazione irregolare. Un ulteriore eccezionale vantaggio dei dati Naga è che la rilevazione si estende ininterrottamente dal 2000, consentendo di studiare l’evoluzione nel tempo delle caratteristiche del campione.

 

Noris Morandi
# La condizione giuridica del richiedente asilo
www.fondazioneleonemoressa.org/ L'economia dell'immigrazione, novembre 2014

 

Damiano Aliprandi
# "Via dall'Italia", anche in cella è replicata la discriminazione dei migranti
Il Garantista, 16 novembre 2014
Per loro le garanzie di difesa sono meno tutelate: non possono quasi mai assicurarsi un avvocato di fiducia e devono ricorrere a quelli d'ufficio. Gli immigrati sono il capro espiatorio del disagio sociale che si vive nelle periferie abbandonate delle città.

 

Luca Masera
# Ridotto da 18 a 3 mesi il periodo massimo di trattenimento in un CIE: la libertà dei migranti irregolari non è più una bagattella?
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 10 Novembre 2014
Lo scorso 21 ottobre, la Camera ha approvato in via definitiva la Legge europea 2013 bis, che all'art. 3 contiene una riforma in tema di detenzione amministrativa per gli stranieri irregolari... Per la prima volta, da quando nel 1998 il Testo unico sull'immigrazione ha introdotto anche nel nostro ordinamento l'istituto della detenzione amministrativa per gli stranieri, il legislatore è intervenuto non per aumentare i limiti massimi della detenzione nei Centri di identificazione ed espulsione ma per ridurli, ed in maniera assai significativa. Con la riforma qui in commento si passa da un massimo di 18 mesi, introdotto nel 2011, ad un termine improrogabile di 3 mesi, o addirittura di soli 30 giorni, quando l'espellendo abbia già trascorso almeno 3 mesi in carcere

 

Cour Européenne des Droits de l'Homme - European Court of Human Rights

# Case of Tarakhel v. Switzerland
Strasbourg 4 November 2014

The Court... Holds, by fourteen votes to three, that there would be a violation of Article 3 of the Convention if the applicants were to be returned to Italy without the Swiss authorities having first obtained individual guarantees from the Italian authorities that the applicants would be taken charge of in a manner adapted to the age of the children and that the family would be kept together...

# Loredana Leo, A rischio i diritti umani dei richiedenti asilo in Italia: no al rinvio da un altro stato europeo, www.asgi.it 05/11/2014

 

Elisa D'Aveni
# L'esecuzione della pena nei confronti degli stranieri
Libera Università degli Studi Sociali Guido Carli 2013-2014

 

Giovanna Amato

# Mafie etniche, elaborazione e applicazione delle massime di esperienza: le criticità derivanti dall’interazione tra “diritto penale giurisprudenziale” e legalità
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 4 Novembre 2014
Il lavoro analizza le problematiche emergenti dall'applicazione dell'art. 416 bis c.p. alle c.d. mafie etniche. L'Autore si occupa principalmente di analizzare le conoscenze cui il giudice, quale interprete del caso concreto, può attingere per trovare conferma della reputazione criminale dell'organizzazione straniera giunta al suo vaglio. Attraverso un raffronto con la giurisprudenza sulle mafie classiche, l'Autore riflette sulla possibilità di introdurre, in questo specifico ambito di incriminazione, "nuove forme" di apporto delle scienze sociali.

 

Centro Studi e Ricerche IDOS
# L’immigrazione in Italia all’inizio del 2014

# Rapporto UNAR. Dalle discriminazioni ai diritti, Dossier statistico Immigrazione 2014
www.dossierimmigrazione.it/ 29 ottobre 2014
Anche la riflessione sulla devianza degli immigrati abbisogna di essere più rigorosamente basata sui dati statistici. Le denunce contro italiani sono passate da 467.345 nel 2004 a 642.992 nel 2012 (+37,6%), quelle contro stranieri da 224.515 a 290.902 (+29,6%); per di più, nello stesso periodo, i residenti italiani sono diminuiti, mentre quelli stranieri, pur essendo quasi raddoppiati (da 2.210.478 a 4.387.721), hanno visto diminuire la loro incidenza sul totale delle denunce.

 

Cour Européenne des Droits de l'Homme - European Court of Human Rights
# Affaire Sharifi et autres c. Italie et Grèce
Strasbourg, 21 octobre 2014

... non si possono applicare automaticamente gli accordi bilaterali, né si può invocare l’emergenza dovuta all’aumentato flusso di migranti da altri paesi, anzi le procedure d’asilo dovrebbero essere avviate subito all’arrivo in porto...

 

# Giulia Milizia, La CEDU detta i suoi comandamenti sull’immigrazione di massa | www.dirittoegiustizia.it/ 21 Ottobre 2014

 

Lunaria (a cura di) | Paola Andrisani, Sergio Bontempelli, Guido Caldiron, Serena Chiodo, Daniela Consoli, Giuseppe Faso, Grazia Naletto, Sara Nunzi, Enrico Pugliese, Annamaria Rivera, Maurizia Russo Spena, Duccio Zola
# Cronache di ordinario razzismo. Terzo Libro bianco sul razzismo in Italia

# Chronicles of Ordinary Racism. Third White Paper on Racism in Italy
www.lunaria.org/ 2014

 

La Cimade
# Étrangeres en prison. Á l'ombre du droit. Analyses et propositions pour mettre fin aux discriminations
Édité par La Cimade, Septembre 2014
Au 1er janvier 2014, 67 065 personnes étaient en prison. Environ 18 % de la population carcérale est de nationalité étrangère, à peu près 20 000 personnes étrangères passent donc par la prison dans l’année... Contrairement aux idées reçues, la double peine n’a pas été abolie par la loi du 26 novembre 2003. En réalité, cette loi a instauré un système complexe, qui distingue diverses catégories de personnes étrangères plus ou moins protégées contre une expulsion.

 

Commissione Straordinaria per la Tutela e la Promozione dei Diritti Umani
# Rapporto sui Centri di identificazione ed espulsione in Italia (luglio 2014)
www.senato.it/ Rapporto approvato dalla Commissione il 24 settembre 2014.
La natura controversa del trattenimento e i dubbi di incostituzionalità sollevati hanno dato luogo a un dibattito tra i giuristi sulla incidenza della misura sulla libertà personale e il suo rapporto con le garanzie previste dall’art. 13 della Costituzione italiana. Il legislatore ha sempre escluso l'equiparazione del Cie al carcere: il trattenimento inciderebbe solo sulla libertà di circolazione e soggiorno dello straniero, senza impattare sulla libertà personale. Tuttavia, lo straniero trattenuto...

# Maria Lombardi Stocchetti, I C.I.E. nel Rapporto della Commissione straordinaria del Senato per la tutela e la promozione dei diritti umani, www.penalecontemporaneo/ 7 gennaio 2015

 

World Heath Organization - Regional Office for Europe
# Sicily, Italy: Assessing health-system capacity to manage sudden large influxes of migrants. Joint report on a mission of the Regional Health Authority of Sicily and the WHO Regional Office for Europe, with the support of the Italian Ministry of Health
www.euro.who.int/ 2014
The health preparedness and response system for influxes of migrants in Sicily requires improvement in some aspects of overall management related to governance, health coordination and information management. Experienced human resources for health, tools and equipment are present. The lack of specific regional legislation and the absence of a mechanism for regular coordination and exchange of information between and within the Ministry of the Interior and Ministry of Health at regional, subregional and local levels, however, result in disparate and sometime inconsistent approaches.

 

GRETA Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings
# Report concerning the implementation of the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings by Italy | First evaluation round
www.coe.int/ Adopted on 4 July 2014 - Published on 22 September 2014
Italy is a country of destination and transit for victims of trafficking in human beings (THB). There is no data on the total number of victims of THB identified every year due to the absence of a uniform identification system, but the Department of Equal Opportunities gathers statistics on the  number of victims of THB who benefitted annually from assistance and social integration projects. According to these statistics, there were 1.955 assisted victims in 2011, 1.650 in 2012 and 925 in 2013. The majority of them were women (1.417 in 2011, 1.094 in 2012 and 650 in 2013). There were 446 male victims in 2011, 420 in 2012 and 230 in 2013. As for child victims, there were 63 in 2011, 114 in 2012 and 45 in 2013. The remaining victims were transgender adults.

 

Laura J. Hickman, Jennifer Wong, Marika Suttorp Booth
# Is Previous Removal from the United States a Marker for High Recidivism Risk? Results from a Nine-Year Follow-Up Study of Criminally-Involved Unauthorized Immigrants
www.rand.org/ August 2014

The present study examines the long term recidivism patterns of a group of unauthorized immigrants identified to be at high risk of recidivism. Using a sample of 517 male unauthorized immigrants, we used three measures of recidivism to assess nine-year rearrest differences between unauthorized immigrants who have and who have not been previously removed from the United States. Results indicate that prior removal was a significant risk marker for recidivism, with previously removed immigrants showing a higher likelihood of rearrest, a greater frequency of rearrest, and a more rapid time to first rearrest.

 

J.-M. Delarue
# Avis du Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté du 9 mai 2014 relatif à la situation des personnes étrangères détenues
Journal Officiel de la République Française, 3 juin 2014

Au 1er janvier 2014, 18,5 % des 77 883 personnes écrouées étaient de nationalité étrangère. Cette réalité appelle plusieurs précisions. En premier lieu, l’administration pénitentiaire ne publie pas de données sur la part d’étrangers dans les personnes effectivement hébergées (au nombre de 67 075, à la même date). Elle n’est vraisemblablement pas différente de celle des étrangers écroués. Il est possible qu’elle soit légèrement supérieure, en raison de plus grandes difficultés d’accès des étrangers qu’on peut supposer à l’aménagement des peines, comme on verra ci-après.

 

Luigi Pannarale (a cura di)
Passaggi di frontiera. Osservatorio sulla detenzione amministrativa degli immigrati e l’accoglienza dei richiedenti asilo in Puglia
www.altrodiritto.unifi.it/ Ed. Pacini 2014
La detenzione amministrativa degli stranieri è un istituto giovane nell’ordinamento giuridico italiano. Introdotto per la prima volta come misura eccezionale di natura temporanea nel 1995, è stato poi normalizzato a partire dal 1998, subendo tuttavia significative evoluzioni, così come notevoli trasformazioni hanno registrato anche le regole e gli standard per la creazione e la gestione dei centri destinati a “trattenere” gli stranieri in attesa di un’espulsione che di fatto si realizza soltanto in una minoranza di casi. Nel corso del tempo, la “normalizzazione” della detenzione amministrativa ha progressivamente distorto la funzione dei Centri di identificazione ed espulsione, finendo per trasformarli in una “pena accessoria”, spesso inutilmente afflittiva, destinata a vincere la comprensibile resistenza dei migranti ad abbandonare il loro progetto migratorio.

 

Pew Research Global Attitudes Project
# A Fragile Rebound for EU Image on Eve of European Parliament Elections.EU Favorability Rises, but Majorities Say Their Voice Is Not Heard in Brussels
http://www.pewglobal.org/ May 12, 2014
Views of minorities vary widely, both between countries and about specific minority populations. Roma are viewed unfavorably by a median of 50% of those surveyed, with Italians (85%) holding particularly negative sentiments. A median of 46% hold anti-Muslim views. Again it is Italians (63%) who see Muslims in the most negative light. And Jews are seen negatively by a median of 18%, with Greeks (47%) harboring the strongest anti-Jewish sentiment. Negative sentiments about all three groups are consistently more common among people on the ideological right.

 

United Nations General Assembly
# Report of the Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, Joy Ngozi Ezeilo - Addendum - Mission to Italy
www.ohchr.org/ 1 April 2014
The Special Rapporteur on trafficking in persons, especially women and children, visited Italy from 12 to 20 September 2013, at the invitation of the Government. In the present report, the Special Rapporteur highlights the country’s commitment to combating trafficking in persons, as evidenced by its legal framework on trafficking and its strong partnership with civil society organizations.

 

Eduardo Gianfrancesco
# Gli stranieri, i diritti costituzionali e le competenze di Stato e Regioni
www.amministrazioneincammino.luiss.it/ 7 marzo 2014
1. Il diritto degli stranieri: dal diritto di polizia al diritto costituzionale. Le premesse costituzionali. – 2. L’immigrazione tra materie e diritti (con spazi esigui per gli statuti regionali). – 3. La partecipazione degli stranieri alla vita della Regione. – 4. La diversità delle soluzioni regionali: un laboratorio per il legislatore statale e per l’interprete.

 

Kellie L. Robson
# The State of Personal Liberty in Australia after M47: A Risk Theory Analysis of Security Rights
Monash University Law Review (Vol 39, No 2) 2014
In Plaintiff M47/2012 v Director General of Security, the High Court of Australia unanimously applied a test of compatibility with human rights related statutory responsibilities to an impugned public interest criterion. A clear majority of the High Court appeared willing to consider whether the right to personal liberty in Australia has constitutional protections extending to refugees. This article applies Ulrich Beck’s risk theory to recent preventive, administrative detention of refugees under adverse security assessments to examine the relationship between liberty rights and the decision-makers responsible for assessing, and for managing, national security risk. Risk theory casts light on how the collective right to national security relies on respecting every individual’s right to liberty and security of person. The High Court’s formal, values-based method of statutory interpretation is endorsed as an effective accountability mechanism capable of protecting fundamental values expressive of human rights.

 

Fondazione Leone Moressa
# Acquisizioni di cittadinanza: Italia ultima in Europa
www.fondazioneleonemoressa.org/ 7 febbraio 2014
Al 31 Dicembre 2011, i cittadini naturalizzati
Italiani residenti nel nostro Paese sono 670 mila. Confrontando le acquisizioni di cittadinanza nei Paesi UE nel 2011, l’Italia si colloca in quinta posizione con 56 mila naturalizzazioni. Osservando però l’indice di acquisizione della cittadinanza, l’Italia si trova molto al di sotto della media europea: mentre in Europa su 100 cittadini stranieri 3,7 acquisiscono la cittadinanza, in Italia solo 1,2. In Svezia sono 5,6 e in Portogallo 4,9 su 100.

 

La Carta di Lampedusa | Testo approvato a Lampedusa l’1 Febbraio 2014

Osservando come i dispositivi di respingimento formali e informali, le pratiche di identificazione, detenzione e confinamento, i percorsi autorizzati ma condizionati, e l’attribuzione di status differenziati, impediscano a chi migra di farlo con la libertà di scegliere dove arrivare e dove restare... La Carta di Lampedusa afferma che nessun essere umano, in nessun caso, può essere privato della libertà personale, e quindi confinato o detenuto, per il fatto di esercitare la libertà di muoversi dal luogo di nascita e/o di cittadinanza, o la libertà di vivere e di restare nel luogo in cui ha scelto di stabilirsi... La Carta di Lampedusa afferma la necessità dell’immediata abrogazione dell’istituto della detenzione amministrativa e la chiusura di tutti i centri, comunque denominati o configurati, e delle strutture di accoglienza contenitiva - siano essi legalmente istituiti secondo leggi vigenti, o semplici decreti e regolamenti, o informalmente preposti alla detenzione e al confinamento delle persone - e la conversione delle risorse fino ad ora destinate a questi luoghi a scopi sociali rivolti a tutti e a tutte.

 

Giovanni Mastrobuoni, Paolo Pinotti
# Legal Status and the Criminal Activity of Immigrants
Upjohn Institute Working Papers Upjohn Institute Working Papers January 2014 [First draft July 2011]

We exploit exogenous variation in legal status following the January 2007 European Union enlargement to estimate its effect on immigrant crime. We difference out unobserved timevarying factors by 1) comparing recidivism rates of immigrants from the “new” and “candidate” member countries and 2) using arrest data on foreign detainees released upon a mass clemency that occurred in Italy in August 2006. The timing of the two events allows us to set up a difference-in-differences strategy. Legal status leads to a 50 percent reduction in recidivism and explains one-half to two-thirds of the observed differences in crime rates between legal and illegal immigrants.

 

Mar Griera, Julia Martínez-Ariño
# The Accommodation of Religious Diversity in Prisons and Hospitals in Spain
RECODE Working Paper Series - n. 28 (2014)
First, at the state level, it is crucial to note the creation of the Fundación Pluralismo y Convivencia (Pluralism and Coexistence Foundation) by the Spanish government in 2004. The Foundación –whose board includes representatives of minority religions– is aimed at promoting the accommodation of religious diversity in Spanish society. One of the Foundación’s main initiatives in this matter is the publication of guidelines concerning religious assistance in hospitals, prisons (forthcoming) and the establishment of multi-faith rooms...

 

Fondazione Leone Moressa
# Carceri italiane: diminuiscono gli stranieri. Dal 2007 al 2013 è in progressivo calo la percentuale di detenuti stranieri,
mentre gli italiani commettono più reati: effetto della crisi?

http://www.fondazioneleonemoressa.org/ 10 gennaio 2014
Il 35% dei detenuti in Italia sono stranieri. I detenuti stranieri in Italia al 31.12.2013 sono 21.854 e rappresentano il 35% del totale detenuti. L’incidenza più elevata si registra nelle regioni del Nord: fra quelle con più di mille detenuti stranieri, la percentuale più alta si registra in Liguria (59%), Veneto (58%) e Toscana (54%). Nelle Regioni del Sud, invece, l’incidenza si attesta ovunque sotto la media nazionale. Furto e droga i principali delitti... Nella fascia 18-20 anni i detenuti stranieri sono il 60%, e rappresentano oltre la metà dei detenuti complessivi se si amplia il target fino ai 30 anni.

 

Nicholas G Procter, Diego De Leo, Louise Newman
# Suicide and self-harm prevention for people in immigration detention
MJA 199 (11) · 16 December 2013
Suicide is the leading cause of premature death for people in the Australian immigration detention network. Prolonged detention in poor conditions directly contributes to mental deterioration. What we do for asylum seekers while they are in detention has the potential to prevent future loss of  life. Optimal mental health promotion and suicide prevention strategies can help to prevent self-harm among detainees and help detainees reclaim their lives on release.

 

Luca Masera
# Il delitto di illecito reingresso dello straniero nel territorio dello Stato e la direttiva rimpatri
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 6 Novembre 2013
Il lavoro analizza il delitto di illecito reingresso dello straniero nel territorio dello Stato, che dopo la riforma del 2011 costituisce l’unica fattispecie legata all’irregolarità dell’ingresso o del soggiorno ancora punita con la sanzione detentiva, e sviluppa le ragioni per cui tale reato, contrariamente a quanto ritenuto dalla giurisprudenza della Cassazione, deve considerarsi incompatibile la direttiva 2008/115/CE (la c.d. direttiva rimpatri), prospettando i termini di un possibile rinvio pregiudiziale alla Corte di giustizia dell’Unione europea

 

Ivan Salvadori

# Le politiche penali dell'immigrazione in Spagna. Spunti per una riflessione comparata

www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 24 Ottobre 2013
1. Introduzione. - 2. Il reato di favoreggiamento dell'immigrazione irregolare (art. 318-bis CP sp.). - 2.1. Sulla mancata previsione di una «scriminante umanitaria». - 2.2. Il quadro sanzionatorio e le circostanze aggravanti. - 2.3. Il bene giuridico tutelato. - 3. Brevi cenni sugli illeciti amministrativi in materia di immigrazione irregolare. - 4. La tratta di persone a fini di sfruttamento sessuale prima della riforma del 2010 (art. 188, comma 2, CP sp.). - 5. Il nuovo reato di tratta di persone (art. 177-bis CP sp.). - 5.1. Circostanze aggravanti e responsabilità penale delle persone giuridiche per il reato di tratta di persone. - 6. L'espulsione giudiziaria dei cittadini extracomunitari irregolari. - 7. L'espulsione amministrativa quale sanzione sostitutiva della multa. - 7.1. L'espulsione amministrativa quale sanzione sostitutiva del processo penale. - 8. Il divieto di reingresso nel territorio spagnolo a seguito dell'espulsione giudiziaria. - 9. Il divieto di reingresso nel territorio spagnolo a seguito dell'espulsione amministrativa. - 10. Il trattenimento nei centri di «internamento» per stranieri. - 11. Considerazioni finali.

 

Joanna Parkin
# The Criminalisation of Migration in Europe. A State-of-the-Art of the Academic Literature and Research
CEPS Papers in Liberty and Security in Europe, No. 61 / October 2013

 

Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria | Gabriella Caputo, Daniela Di Mase
# Lo straniero in carcere - Dispense dell'Issp - n.2 - Il carcere degli stranieri: problematiche e aspetti gestionali nella pratica operativa della polizia penitenziaria. essere stranieri in carcere: profili di gestione e linee di intervento.
http://issp.bibliotechedap.it/ Data: 07/10/2013

 

Corte di giustizia dell'Unione europea
# Causa C‑378/12 | Nnamdi Onuekwere contro Secretary of State for the Home Department
http://curia.europa.eu/ 3 ottobre 2013
Un periodo di reclusione non può essere qualificato come «soggiorno legale» e non può dunque essere preso in considerazione nel calcolo del periodo di cinque anni richiesto ai fini dell’acquisizione di un diritto di soggiorno permanente... i periodi di soggiorno legale precedenti e successivi a un periodo di reclusione non possono essere sommati ai fini del calcolo dei cinque anni, dal momento che la reclusione ha interrotto il decorso di detto periodo.

 

Federica Toso
# La dimensione esterna della politica migratoria dell'UE
Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, 2013

 

Luca Masera

# Ilecito reingresso dello straniero e direttiva rimpatri al vaglio della Corte UE
# Corte Giustizia UE, Quarta sezione, sent. 19 settembre 2013, C-297/12, Filev e Osmani
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 26 Settembre 2013
C
on questa nuova sentenza la Corte di giustizia, in seguito ad una domanda di pronuncia pregiudiziale presentata da un giudice tedesco (il Pretore di Laufen), torna ad occuparsi dell'interpretazione della direttiva rimpatri (2008/115/CE) e dei suoi effetti sul diritto penale dell'immigrazione degli Stati membri. La sentenza ha in particolare ad oggetto l'interpretazione dell'art. 11 della direttiva relativo al divieto di reingresso, e risolve tre distinte questioni.

 

Giovanni Bianconi
«Noi, uomini-impronta digitale». Tra gli immigrati del centro d'identificazione di Gradisca dopo le rivolte dell'estate. Rinchiusi fino a un anno e mezzo perché per lo Stato non hanno un nome.
www.corriere.it/ 15 settembre 2013

 

Australian Government | Department of Immigration and Citizenship
Immigration Detention and Community Statistics Summary
www.immi.gov.au/ 31 August 2013
There were 8732 people in immigration detention facilities and alternative places of detention, including 6173 in immigration detention on the mainland and 2559 in immigration detention on Christmas Island as at 31 August 2013. Separately, 2739 people have been approved for a residence determination to live in the community.

 

The Sentencing Project
Report of The Sentencing Project to the United Nations Human Rights Committee. Regarding Racial Disparities in the United States Criminal Justice System
http://sentencingproject.org/

 

Walter Citti (ed)
La tutela civile contro le discriminazioni etnico-razziali e religiose. Guida alla normativa e alla giurisprudenza
www.asgi.it/ Associazione Studi Giuridici sull'Immigrazione, 31 Agosto 2013
Per quanto riguarda gli stranieri, il principio costituzionale di eguaglianza trova piena applicazione quando siano in questione i diritti inviolabili della persona umana garantiti dall’art. 2 Cost.. Tuttavia l’articolo 3 Cost. pone anche un limite di carattere generale che consente di censurare la previsione di trattamenti differenziati rispetto ai cittadini, quando tali trattamenti siano in astratto consentiti dalla diversità oggettiva delle situazioni regolate, allorchè la discriminazione legale risulti “manifestamente irragionevole” e comunque non giustificata da esigenze di protezione di valori di pari rango costituzionale.

 

Tito Boeri
Chi paga i pasti agli immigrati?
La Repubblica 23 agosto 2013

 

Dipartimento per gli affari di giustizia – Direzione generale della giustizia penale
# Monitoraggio della Legge 30 luglio 2002, n. 189 (c.d. Legge 'Bossi Fini'): "Modifica alla normativa in materia di immigrazione e di asilo" di cui al D.L.vo 25 luglio 1998, n. 286 "Testo Unico delle disposizioni concernenti la disciplina dell'immigrazione e norme sulla condizione dello straniero"
31 dicembre 2012 (aggiornamento luglio 2013)

 

Paolo Bricco

# All'immigrato serve integrazione. Il 10% degi illegali commette il 70% dei reati di tutti gli extracomunitari

Il Sole 24ore, 23 giugno 2013, p. 18

 

Vladimiro Polchi
# Immigrati, solo gli irregolari commettono più reati. La fondazione Debenedetti smonta i falsi miti: dopo le sanatorie diminuiscono i crimini
laRepubblica 22 giugno 2013, p. 19

 

Elisabetta Povoledo
# Italy’s Migrant Detention Centers Are Cruel, Rights Groups Say
The New York Times | June 5, 2013

Whatever the view of the centers, there is no doubt that they amount to a life of limbo. The “guests,” as they are officially known, are often bewildered by their predicament. Research by the Jesuit Refugee Service Europe found that in centers around the Continent, detainees “primarily suffer mentally, severe, psychological stress from not knowing when the detention will end,” Mr. Amaral said. It is worse, he said, than imprisonment, which has a fixed term.

 

Medici per i Diritti Umani MEDU | Alberto Barbieri, Cecilia Francini, Novella Mori, Mariarita Peca, Marie Aude Tavoso, Marco Zanchetta
# Arcipelago CIE. Indagine sui centri di identificazione ed espulsione italiani
www.mediciperidirittiumani.org/ Maggio 2013
L’indagine – realizzata da un gruppo di lavoro di Medici per i Diritti Umani composto da un coordinatore, quattro medici e otto operatori socio–legali – si è svolta nell’arco di un anno (febbraio 2012–febbraio 2013), durante il quale sono stati visitati tutti i centri di identificazione ed espulsione operativi in quel momento in Italia... Anche questa indagine conferma la presenza all’interno dei CIE di un alto numero di trattenuti
provenienti dal carcere, la cui identificazione sarebbe dovuta avvenire durante il periodo di espiazione della pena. Accade infatti che detenuti in condizioni d’irregolarità non siano identificati durante il periodo della permanenza in carcere, e allo scadere della pena, in luogo di essere rimpatriati, siano trasferiti nei centri di identificazione ed espulsione, dovendo così scontare un periodo aggiuntivo di trattenimento. A questo proposito non è stato possibile ottenere dei dati ufficiali ma soltanto delle stime – a volte non del tutto concordanti tra loro – da parte degli enti gestori e dei funzionari delle Prefetture (si veda Tabella 2). Si va dunque da alcuni centri in cui la presenza di ex–carcerati raggiungerebbe il 90% (Milano, Lamezia Terme)...

 

Human Rights Watch
# Turning Migrants into Criminals. The Harmful Impact of US Border Prosecutions
www.hrw.org | May 2013
Illegal entry and reentry to the United States are today the most prosecuted federal crimes. Although immigration enforcement is normally a civil law matter—involving fines and deportation—US officials claim that increased criminal prosecution is necessary to deter illegal immigration and keep dangerous criminals out of the country... Turning Migrants Into Criminals concludes thatthe currentfocus on criminal prosecution of immigration offenders is misguided and in many cases impinges on fundamental human rights. It urges US policymakers and officials to take steps to ensure that asylum seekers andnon-violentoffenders seeking to rejoin lovedones are notprosecuted. More generally,iturgespolicymakers to reassess the current prosecution-focused approach and ensure that government resources are being used effectively to protect public safety and advance US immigration objectives.

 

Laurent Mucchielli
# Délinquance et immigration: des préjugés à l’analyse
L’essor de la gendarmerie nationale, mai 2013
Le propre de l’idéologie comme de la croyance religieuse, c’est de ne retenir de la réalité que ce qui confirme ses préjugés. Le propre de l’analyse scientifique comme de toute rigueur professionnelle, est au contraire de restituer la réalité dans toute sa complexité, quitte à modifier nos idées si celles-ci s’avèrent trop simples. Depuis la fin du xixe siècle, le thème « délinquance et immigration » est au cœur des discours d’extrême droite. Mais il tend à se banaliser dans le débat public ces dernières années. L’argument couramment utilisé consiste à dire : « En prison, il y a surtout des Noirs et des Arabes », et à en déduire qu’il y a « quelque chose » (la culture, l’éducation, la religion...) qui relie la délinquance et l’immigration de façon substantielle. Voyons pourquoi c’est un bon exercice de réflexion sur les préjugés.

 

Lunaria

# Costi disumani. La spesa pubblica per il "contrasto all'immigrazione irregolare" (rapporto)
# Costi disumani. La spesa pubblica per il "contrasto all'immigrazione irregolare" (sintesi)
www.lunaria.org/ Maggio 2013
Dal 2005 al 2012 sono stati stanziati in Italia più di un miliardo e seicento milioni di euro per finanziare le politiche di contrasto all’immigrazione irregolare: una spesa pubblica significativa, largamente inefficiente e irrispettosa dei diritti umani fondamentali dei migranti. Il Rapporto di Lunaria ricostruisce e analizza in dettaglio i costi delle “politiche del rifiuto” e spiega perché è necessario e urgente invertire rotta.

 

Redattore Sociale

# Sono 1.906 gli immigrati in carcere per irregolarità dei documenti di soggiorno
Pubblicato il 06/05/13

 

United Nations General Assembly
# Report by the Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, François CrépeauAddendum - Mission to Italy (29 September–8 October 2012)
www.ohchr.org/ 30 April 2013

The Special Rapporteur is very concerned about the high number of ex-prisoners who are transferred from prison to CIEs. For example, at the CIE Ponte Galeria in Rome, a majority of detainees were in fact former prisoners who had served their prison sentences. The ex-prisoners were often unaware that they would be transferred to a CIE at the completion of their sentence, and often had no clear indication of how long they would be held there, with some being held for numerous months. The Special Rapporteur notes that a process of identification should be initiated at the beginning of any prison term, to avoid unnecessary detention in CIEs of prisoners.

 

Cour Européenne des Droits de l'Homme - European Court of Human Rights

# Samsam Mohammed Hussein and Others against the Netherlands and Italy
http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/ 2 April 2013

 

Hilde Tubex
# The Revival of Comparative Criminology in a Globalised World: Local Variances and Indigenous Over-representation
www.crimejusticejournal.com IJCJ&SD 2013 2(3): 55‐68

 

Matthew Freedman, Emily Owens, Sarah Bohn
# Immigration, Employment Opportunities, and Criminal Behavior
www.law.umich.edu/ March 2013

Immigrants have long been associated with lawlessness and criminality in the public mind. In spite of this perception, there is very little consistent evidence that the arrival of new immigrants, legal or illegal, is correlated with an increase in crime rates. One potentially important explanation for the mixed results on the relationship between immigration and crime is that there is no first-order relationship; the propensity of a new immigrant to engage in criminal behavior is a function of his or her ability to access jobs, housing, and other social services as well as his or her expected returns to and costs of committing crime.

 

Antigone
# La detenzione amministrativa degli stranieri. Esperienze in Europa
Antigone, anno VIII, n. 1/2013

A seguire le categorie vulnerabili, coloro che non dovrebbero essere lì ma vi sono per prassi o errore (come accade a volte per i minori) o per disposizioni di legge che in alcuni paesi europei (la Gran Bretagna è forse il caso paradigmatico) prevedono tout court la detenzione di minori e richiedenti asilo. Le violazioni dei diritti e la soluzione caso per caso. Anche in paesi che visti con occhi italiani paiono insospettabili, le violazioni dei diritti, la necessità di appellarsi quando possibile alle Corti superiori sono la realtà della detenzione amministrativa.

 

Marc Mauer
# The Changing Racial Dynamics of Women’s Incarceration
The Sentencing Project. Research and Advocacy for Reform - February 2013

In the first decade of the 21st century the United States began to experience a shift in the 30-year buildup to a world record prison system. Although the decade ended with an increased number of people in prison, the rate of growth overall was considerably below that of previous decades and since 2008 the overall number of people in state prisons has declined slightly each year... Dramatic shift in racial disparities among women – In 2000 black women were incarcerated in state and federal prisons at six times the rate of white women. By 2009 that ratio had declined by 53%, to 2.8:1. This shift was a result of both declining incarceration of African American women and rising incarceration of white women. The disparity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women declined by 16.7% during this period.

 

Ruth D. Peterson, Lauren J. Krivo, John Hagan
# Inequalities of Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America

in Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013

Taken together, the fine set of chapters in this volume offer keen and varied insights into the ways in which race and ethnicity permeate views and actions of crime and the criminal justice system in the United States. The meaning of race and ethnicity in crime and criminal justice is important but underinvestigated. Indeed, progress in expanding knowledge in this area has been hampered by a lack of a coherent approach and a failure to put forth race and ethnicity as core concerns in their own right rather than as simply dichotomous independent variables in analyses of aggregate and survey data. The papers in this volume offer correctives to these limited approaches... the chapters herein offer starting places for a more holistic approach to the study of race/ethnicity, crime, and criminal justice that centers analyses in the positioning of groups within society

 

Kubrin, Charis E.

# Immigration and Crime

in Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013

Historically, immigrants have disproportionately taken the blame for many of cociety's problems. It is claimed that they steal jobs from hard-working native-born Americans, they drain America's health care and educational resources, and perhaps most problematically, they cause higher crime rates. This blame is often based on fales assumptions and stereotypes.

 

Ross L. Matsueda, Kevin Dralulich, Charis E. Kubrin
# Race and Neighborhood Codes of Violence

in Francis T. Cullen and Pamela Wilcox (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Criminological Theory. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013

Contributors explore a key mechanism that has been argued to link race/ethnic with violent crime—cultural codes of violence. They use data for Seattle to capture neighborhood codes, as distinct from individual codes, of violence, and investigate whether variation in these codes exist across African American, Latino, and Asian communities.

 

Sergio Briguglio

# Norme su immigrazione, asilo, cittadinanza e tratta

www.stranieriinitalia.it/ 1 gennaio 2013

 

# Treatment of migrants and asylum-seekers in Calais and French overseas territories denounced by national Ombudsman and European Court of Human Rights
www.statewatch.org/ 19.12.2012

Inappropriate police intervention on sites where food and medical care are provided by humanitarian organisations - The arrest of asylum-seekers to check their identity, in breach of the right to free circulation for all people legally staying in the country - The arbitrary eviction of migrants from informal settlements or unoccupied buildings in breach of legal procedures - Police harassment and violence against migrants and migrant rights activists, especially the inappropriate use of tear gas during operations

 

Cecilia Valbonesi
# Il Reato di Immigrazione Clandestina nell’Ordinamento Italiano fra “Diritto Penale del Nemico” e “Multiculturalismo”
Revista de Estudios Jurídicos nº 12/2012

L’incriminazione della condizione soggettiva di migrante costituirebbe quindi una violazione del principio di uguaglianza, il quale non tollera discriminazioni nella formulazione e nella applicazione di sanzioni, soprattutto se legate ad una mera condizione del soggetto reo. La “differenza soggettiva” fra il fatto del clandestino ed il fatto di chiunque altro, non ha alcun riscontro ai fini della valutazione della gravità della condotta. Anticipando un profilo critico che sarà oggetto di riflessione nel corso della trattazione, si può sin da ora evidenziare come l’incriminazione della condizione di migrante irregolare sanzioni un “modo di essere” dell’autore, non sintomatico di una effettiva pericolosità sociale, piuttosto che un fatto offensivo da questi compiuto, con tutti i corollari che ne derivano...

 

Ruth Ellen Wasem
# Immigration of Foreign Nationals with Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Degrees
www.fas.org/ November 26, 2012
Although the United States remains the leading host country for international students in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) fields, the global competition for talent has intensified. A record number of STEM graduates—both U.S. residents and foreign nationals—are entering the U.S. labor market, and there is a renewed focus on creating additional immigration pathways for foreign professional workers in STEM fields. Current law sets an annual worldwide level of 140,000 employment-based admissions, which includes the spouses and children in addition to the principal (i.e., qualifying) aliens. “STEM visa” is shorthand for an expedited immigration avenue that enables foreign nationals with graduate degrees in STEM fields to adjust to legal permanent resident (LPR) status without waiting in the queue of numerically limited LPR visas. The fundamental policy question is should the United States create additional pathways for STEM graduates to remain in the United States permanently?

 

Salvatore Palidda
# Più di venti anni di sviluppo economico dell’Unione Europea grazie alle migrazioni interne e internazionali in cambio di ?
Seminario internazionale di studi "La migrazione in Unione Europea tra mercato del lavoro, diritti e sicurezza", Palermo, 8 - 10 novembre 2012

Quello che si sperimenta sulla pelle degli immigrati finisce per colpire buona parte dei nazionali10. Oggi, assai spesso, le vittime di incidenti sul lavoro, malattie professionali, molestie sessuali, abusi di potere, supersfruttamento, violenze e razzismi non sono tutelate e neanche soccorse dalle polizie mentre è frequente che rom e immigrati siano oggetto di umiliazioni se non addirittura vere e proprie persecuzioni (e ciò sia con governi di destra che con governi di sinistra ... basta pensare la Francia e anche l’Italia). La lotta per i diritti universali e quindi le tutele dei più deboli è una lotta di tutti e non solo per i rom e gli immigrati.

 

Fondazione ISMU (Iniziative e studi sulla multietnicità)
# XVIII rapporto sulle migrazioni 2012 (Tabelle)
www.ismu.org/ 2012

Al 1° gennaio 2012 per la prima volta in Italia la crescita della presenza straniera è sostanzialmente pari a zero. Nel complesso si registrano infatti circa 27mila presenze in più rispetto al 1° gennaio 2011, che in termini percentuali si traduce in un incremento dello 0,5%. Un vero e proprio crollo rispetto al 2008-2009, anni in cui ancora si calcolavano aumenti annui di 500mila unità. Il numero degli immigrati presenti in Italia quindi è rimasto pressoché invariato: se al 1° gennaio 2011 si contavano 5 milioni e 403mila unità (regolari e non), a distanza di un anno se ne contano 5 milioni e 430mila.... Criminalità e devianza degli immigrati: Tab. 1 - Italiani e stranieri denunciati e arrestati/fermati per vari tipi di reato. Valori assoluti e percentuali. Anni 2010-2011

 

# XVII rapporto sulle migrazioni 2011 (Tabelle)

 

Ministero della Giustizia DAP

# La radicalizzazione del terrorismo islamico. Elementi per uno studio del fenomeno di proselitismo in carcere

Istituto Superiore di Studi Penitenziari - Quaderni ISSP n. 9, Giugno 2012

La giustizia, nell’ottica islamica, non si raggiunge attraverso la violenza o la prevaricazione, ma attraverso lo sforzo interiore e personale di ciascuno, attraverso mezzi leciti ed istruttivi che possano spingere gli uomini alla conoscenza, alla perfezione, per quanto possibile. Jihad significa lavorare molto per realizzare ciò che e’ giusto: il Corano lo nomina 33 volte, ed ogni volta esso ha un significato differente, ora riferito  ad un concetto come la fede, ora al pentimento, alle azioni buone, all’emigrazione per la causa di Dio.

 

Luciana Goisis
# Giustizia penale e discriminazione razziale. Il soggetto “altro” dinanzi al diritto penale e alla criminologia. Atto I: Il contributo della criminologia.
Diritto Penale Contemporaneo,
19 Ottobre 2012
Sommario: Parte I - Le idee. - 1. Premessa. I termini del dibattito negli ordinamenti nord-americani ed europei. - 2. Teorie criminologiche su razza e criminalità: paradigma del consenso v. teorie del conflitto. - parte II - La verifica empirica. - 3. Alcune distinzioni preliminari tratte dal diritto antidiscriminatorio. - 4. Le indagini empiriche. - 4.1. La ricerca sulla sentencing disparity. L'esperienza dei Paesi di common law. - 4.2. Il caso della pena di morte e la capital sentencing disparity. - 5. Uno sguardo allo stato del dibattito criminologico nei Paesi di civil law. - 6. Conclusioni. Una lezione di criminologia comparata e una indicazione al legislatore italiano

 

Isabella Mastropasqua, Raffaele Bracalenti, Maria Maddalena Leogrande (eds)
# "Seconda chance". Prevenzione del rischio di recidiva per i minori stranieri presenti nel circuito penale
www.iprs.it/ iprs Istituto psicanalitico per le Ricerche Sociali, ottobre 2012

L’immigrazione rompe le famiglie; disperde i figli, anche i più giovani e li espone, da soli, alla necessità di ricostruire un mondo amico, compito difficile in cui non pochi falliscono; ma l’immigrazione spezza con violenza anche le generazioni, lasciando genitori e figli più incomprensibili gli uni agli altri. L’immigrazione, inoltre, promette molto e concede poco: i sognati approdi nella ricchezza e nell’agiatezza risultano molto più prosaicamente difficili vite spese nel tentativo di raggiungere condizioni appena accettabili. Quando si giunge si è sempre gli ultimi della scala sociale e la salita non avviene attraverso comodi ascensori sociali, ma grazie ad una lotta e una competizione dura e senza esclusione di colpi. Non sorprende quindi che minori di prima e seconda generazione, seppur per ragioni diverse, paiano più esposti al rischio di delinquere, ma soprattutto paiano più esposti al rischio di commettere altri crimini dopo un primo reato...

 

Angelo Marletta
# Detenzione "amministrativa" dello straniero e riserva di giurisdizione in materia di libertà personale
Criminalia 2012
1. Le parole e le cose: “trattenimento”, “detenzione amministrativa”, “riserva di giurisdizione”. – 2. Alcune riflessioni sui contenuti necessari del controllo giurisdizionale. - 2.1 Un controllo negletto: la verifica della legittimità del provvedimento espulsivo presupposto. - 2.2 Controlli necessari: a) le “esigenze” legittimanti la detenzione amministrativa. - 2.3 segue: b) il rischio di fuga tra presunzioni iuris et de iure ed accertamento in concreto. - 2.4 segue: c) il principio di proporzionalità ed il comma 2-bis dell’art. 19 T.U. Imm. nell’ottica «caso per caso». – 3. Il controllo sulla detenzione in itinere. - 3.1 Mutamento dei presupposti, “riesame” a richiesta e revoca anticipata della detenzione. - 3.2 Il controllo in sede di proroga sul diligente espletamento delle attività amministrative legittimanti la detenzione. – 4. Conclusioni.

 

Elena Valentina Zonca
# Multiculturalismo e protezione sociale dei "non cittadini". Uno studio comparativo della giurisprudenza costituzionale italiana e francese
www.gruppodipisa.it/ 2012
Se la mancanza di cittadinanza non pregiudica i diritti fondamentali dei soggetti presenti in un determinato territorio, riconosciuti sulla base del principio costituzionale di eguaglianza, tuttavia lo stesso potrebbe non avvenire in relazione agli interventi pubblici in materia di assistenza e sicurezza sociale – attualmente in forte crisi – che incidono necessariamente sulla solidarietà e l’integrazione tra cittadini e “non cittadini”. Occorre, dunque, chiedersi in che modo le scelte normative nazionali possano contemperare l’esigenza di integrazione e protezione sociale degli stranieri presenti su un determinato territorio con la mancanza della cittadinanza nazionale o europea.

 

Stephanie J. Silverman,  Ruchi Hajela

# “Immigration Detention in the UK.” Migration Observatory briefing
COMPAS, University of Oxford, UK, 2012

The Migration Observatory - Based at the Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS) at the University of Oxford, the Migration Observatory provides independent,  authoritative, evidence-based analysis of data on migration and migrants in the UK, to inform media, public and policy debates, and to generate high quality research on international migration and public policy issues. The Observatory’s analysis involves experts from a wide range of disciplines and departments at the University of Oxford.

 

Tito Boeri, Marta De Philippis, Eleonora Patacchini, Michele Pellizzari
# Moving to Segregation: Evidence from 8 Italian Cities
Institute for the Study of Labor IZA DP No. 6834 - September 2012
We use a new dataset and a novel identification strategy to analyze the effects of residential segregation on the employment of migrants in 8 Italian cities. Our data, which are representative of the population of both legal and illegal migrants, allow us to measure segregation at the very local level (the block) and include measures of house prices, commuting costs and migrants’ linguistic ability. We find evidence that migrants who reside in areas with a high concentration of non-Italians are less likely to be employed compared to similar migrants who reside in less segregated areas. In our preferred specification, a 10 percentage points increase in residential segregation reduces the probability of being employed by 7 percentage points or about 8% over the average. Additionally, we also show that this effect emerges only above a critical threshold of 15-20% of migrants over the total local population, below which there is no statistically detectable effect. The negative externality associated with residential segregation arises only for the employment prospects of immigrants, whether legal or illegal. We do not find evidence of either spatial mismatch or skill bias as potential explanations of this effect. Statistical discrimination by native employers is the remaining suspect.

 

Gian Luigi Gatta
Immigrati, carcere e diritto penale
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ Maggio 2012
Testo della lezione svolta il 10 maggio 2012 presso il carcere di Bollate (seconda casa di reclusione di Milano), alla presenza congiunta di un gruppo di detenuti e di studenti della Facoltà di Giurisprudenza dell’Università degli Studi di Milano

 

Mario L. Barnes, Robert S. Chang
# Analyzing Stops, Citations, and Searches in Washington and Beyond
Seattle University Law Review, Vol. 35:673, 2012
Racial disproportionality in the criminal justice system is a fact. But the fact of racial disproportionality is the beginning and not the end of the conversation. The fact that blacks are overrepresented in stop, arrest, charge, pretrial detention, conviction, and incarceration statistics demonstrates only correlation and not causation. A number of commentators caution that disproportionality and the overrepresentation of blacks, Native-Americans, and Hispanics in Washington State’s prisons do not prove racial discrimination... This Article seeks to examine more closely the disproportionality with regard to traffic stops, citations, and searches. We focus on three reports produced by a team of researchers from Washington State University (WSU) that examine Washington State Patrol traffic stops, citations, and searches

 

UNHCR ASGI SPRAR Ministero dell'Interno
# La tutela dei richiedenti asilo. Manuale giuridico per l’operatore
www.asgi.it/ 2012

Il presente Manuale non può affrontare in modo esaustivo la complessa tematica relativa alla nozione di asilo costituzionale. In questa sede ci si limita a ricordare che la giurisprudenza (Cassazione, sezioni unite sentenze n. 4674/97 e n. 907/99; Cassazione, sez. I n. 8423/04 ) ha stabilito che l’asilo costituzionale è un diritto soggettivo perfetto, il cui riconoscimento può essere richiesto direttamente innanzi al giudice ordinario, seppure in assenza di una normativa che ne definisca i contenuti.

 

Antonio Accetturo, Francesco Manaresi, Sauro Mocetti and Elisabetta Olivieri
# Don’t stand so close to me: the urban impact of immigration
Banca d'Italia | Working papers Number 866 - April 2012
We examine the impact of immigration on the residential market within urban areas. We develop a spatial equilibrium model that shows how the effect of an immigrant inflow in a district affects local housing prices through changes in how natives perceive the quality of their local amenities and how this influences their mobility. Predictions of the model are tested using a novel dataset on housing prices and population variables at the district level for a sample of 20 large Italian cities. To address endogeneity problems we adopt an instrumental variable strategy which uses historical enclaves of immigrants across districts to predict current settlements. We find that immigration raises average housing prices at the city level; however it reduces price growth in a district affected by an inflow vis-à-vis the rest of the city. This pattern is driven by the natives’ flight from immigrant-dense districts towards other areas of the city. These findings are consistent with native preferences to live in predominantly native areas.

 

République française - CNCDH Commission Nationale Consultative des Droits de l'Homme

# Rapport sur la lutte contre le racisme 2012

Publié le 21 mars 2013 par CPDH

 

Assfam, Forum Réfugiés, France terre d'asile, La Cimade, Ordre de Malte
# Rapport 2011 sur les centres et locaux de rétention administrative
http://www.lacimade.org/ 20 novembre 2012

En 2011 le gouvernement a procédé à un durcissement de la rétention, sous prétexte d’une nécessaire transposition de la directive « retour ». L’allongement à 45 jours de la durée maximale et surtout le recul du contrôle du juge judiciaire au 5ème jour de la rétention au lieu du 2ème, entraient en vigueur en juillet. Ces nouveaux outils au service de la politique du chiffre ont permis à l’administration dès l’été 2011 d’augmenter nettement le nombre de placements dans tous les centres de rétention. Ce recul de l’intervention des juges est en contradiction avec les principes fondamentaux des lois de la République. Comment justifier en effet, dans un État de droit, que le contrôle du juge judicaire, garant de la régularité de la procédure et du respect des droits et libertés fondamentales, soit considéré comme un obstacle à l’éloignement qualifié d’« efficace » ?

 

Gian Luigi Gatta
# Immigrati, carcere e diritto penale
www.penalecontemporaneo maggio 2012
1. Gli stranieri come ‘clienti privilegiati’ delle carceri italiane: i numeri. – 2. I possibili fattori che fanno dello straniero il ‘cliente privilegiato’ del carcere. – 3. Un carcere ad hoc per gli stranieri: il C.I.E. quale ‘galera amministrativa’ non assistita dalle garanzie del diritto, del processo e dell’esecuzione penale. – 4. Una sanzione penale ad hoc per gli stranieri: l’espulsione dal territorio dello Stato. – 5. Le recenti scelte politico-criminali in materia di contrasto alla criminalità degli immigrati e all’immigrazione ‘clandestina’. – 6. Una parziale decarcerizzazione, a favore degli extracomunitari, per effetto del diritto dell’Unione europea. – 7. Un obiettivo per l’agenda politica: rimuovere la sproporzione tra detenuti stranieri e italiani.

 

Alberto di Martino
La disciplina dei C.I.E. è incostituzionale. Un pamphlet
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 11 Maggio 2012
La questione nodale è dunque che quel trattenimento è effettuato in strutture apposite – i CIE, appunto: si legga innanzi tutto cemento armato, gabbie di ferro, filo spinato, videosorveglianza, sorveglianza armata – la cui disciplina, allo stato attuale della normativa italiana, è incostituzionale per le ragioni che saranno snocciolate qui di séguito, a mo’ di pamphlet piuttosto che di saggio accademico

 

Brian Bell, Stephen Machin

The Crime - Immigration Nexus: Evidence from Recent Research

CESifo DICE Report 1/2012

... Where attachment is low (e.g. asylum seekers in the UK) or labour market opportunities are poor (e.g. low wage migrants in the US), an impact on crime can be detected. On the other hand, when labour market attachment is strong no such crime impact can be found. These findings are in line with the way in which the orthodox economic model of crime can be used to think about possible immigration impacts on crime...

 

Luigi Manconi, Stefano Anastasia (a cura di) | LarticoloTre
# Lampedusa non è un’isola. Profughi e migranti alle porte dell’Italia
www.protezionecivile.gov.it/ Associazione A Buon Diritto Onlus giugno 2012

I dati che presentiamo sono il risultato, tra l’altro, di un lungo e impegnativo lavoro sulle fonti che si è giovato, in misura rilevante, del contributo  dell’Osservatorio per la sicurezza contro gli atti discriminatori (OSCAD) presso la Polizia di Stato e dell’Ufficio nazionale antidiscriminazioni razziali (UNAR) presso la Presidenza del Consiglio dei ministri, Dipartimento per le Pari Opportunità.

 

Guido Corso
# La disciplina dell’immigrazione tra diritti fondamentali e discrezionalità del legislatore nella giurisprudenza costituzionale
www.cortecostituzionale.it/ Roma, 26 ottobre 2012

Sommario: 1. – La condizione giuridica dello straniero. 2. – Politica dell’im