PrismaCarcere 

 1499 documenti:

| i dati | immigrazione-racial profiling | attuarialism... carceral geography | privatizzazione |

| monitoraggio elettronico | Varie |

 

 

Esistono all'interno di ogni società istituzioni di carattere residuale, ancor meno utili ai fini della conservazione del sistema di quanto non lo sia l'appendice per l'uomo, ma che sopravvivono perché ormai dotate quasi di una vita istituzionale propria, che consente di superare la schiacciante evidenza della loro scarsa funzionalità sociale... Le carceri nel tardo Novecento sono degli ottimi esempi. (Lawrence Stone, Viaggio nella storia, 1981)

 



Magistratura Democratica
# Report visita al Carcere di Sollicciano
https://www.magistraturademocratica.it/ 1 dicembre 2022
Il carcere è uno dei luoghi in cui un paese democratico misura il suo tasso di aderenza ai diritti universali dell’uomo. È il fulcro in cui l’uso della forza, regolato dallo Stato nel processo, cerca il suo più difficile equilibrio con l’umanità del trattamento sanzionatorio e con la risposta rieducativa che la Costituzione affida alle pene.

Ministère de la Justice
# Statistique des établissements des personnes écrouées en France
http://www.justice.gouv.fr/ 1er novembre 2022

Amy D. Lauger, Michael B. Field
# Facility Characteristics of Sexual Victimization of Youth in Juvenile Facilities, 2018 – Statistical Tables
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ November 2022

Transcrime - Ernesto U. Savona, Marco Dugato, Edoardo Villa - Direzione Centrale della Polizia Criminale del Dipartimento della Pubblica Sicurezza, Ministero dell’Interno - Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile e di Comunità Ministero della Giustizia
# Le Gang Giovanili in Italia
https://www.transcrime.it/ Ottobre 2022

Alexandra Thompson, Susannah N. Tapp
# Criminal Victimization, 2021
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ September 2022
From 1993 to 2021, the rate of violent victimization declined from 79.8 to 16.5 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older. Violent victimization includes rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault. During the most recent 10-year period from 2012 to 2021, the rate of violent victimization declined from 26.1 to 16.5 victimizations per 1,000, despite an increase between 2015 and 2018. The overall violent victimization rate did not change between 2020 and 2021.

 

Mauro Palma
# Note e riflessioni sui suicidi in carcere
www.questionegiustizia.it/ 5 settembre 2022

 

Department of Justice
# More then 374,000 persons held in State and Federal Prisons tested positive for covid-19 in 2020-21
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ august 25, 2022

 

ACLU - Jennifer Turner et al.
# Captive Labor. Exploitation of Incarcerated Workers
American Civil Liberties Union and the University of Chicago Law School Global Human Rights Clinic

 

Connor Brooks, Sean E. Goodison,
# Federal Deaths in Custody and During Arrest, 2020 – Statistical Tables
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ July 2022

 

Camera dei Deputati

# Relazione annuale del Ministro della Giustizia al Parlamento sull’andamento dell’istituto della messa alla prova, trasmessa alle Presidenze della Camera e del Senato il 10 giugno 2022.

Roma, 10 giugno 2022

 

Associazione Antigone
# La calda estate delle carceri. Rapporto di metà anno sulle condizioni di detenzione in Italia
Roma. 28 luglio 2022

 

# Mauro Palma, Presentazione al Parlamento della Relazione 2022, Roma 20 giugno 2022

# Relazione annuale del Garante Nazionale dei diritti delle persone private della libertà personale
# Mappe e dati
Roma, 20 giugno 2022

 

Stefano Anastasia, Franco Corleone, Leonardo Fiorentini, Marco Perduca, Grazia Zuffa (a cura di)
# La sfida democratica - Tredicesimo Libro Bianco sulle Droghe
Edizione 2022 sui dati 2021 - Giugno 2022

 

Giovanni Fiandaca
# Pericoloso e desocializzante: nella realtà il carcere è il veleno e non la medicina (Intervista di Valentina Stella)
Il Dubbio, 2 maggio 2022

 

Ministère de la Justice
# Statistique des établissements des personnes écrouées en France
http://www.justice.gouv.fr/ 1er mai 2022

 

Ministero della Giustizia
# Misure cautelari personali e riparazione per ingiusta detenzione. Dati 2021 - Relazione al Parlamento ex L, 16 aprile 2015, n. 47
Aggiornamento Aprile 2022

 

Antigone
# Il carcere visto da dentro. XVIII Rapporto di Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione
https://www.antigone.it/ 28 Aprile 2022
In media vi è una percentuale pari a 2,37 reati per detenuto. Al 31 dicembre 2008 il numero di reati per detenuto era più basso di 1,97. Dunque diminuiscono i reati in generale, diminuiscono i detenuti in termini assoluti ma aumenta il numero medio di reati per persona. Al 31 dicembre 2021, dei detenuti presenti nelle carceri italiane, solo il 38% era alla prima carcerazione. Il restante 62% in carcere c’era già stato almeno un’altra volta. Il 18% c’era già stato in precedenza 5 o più volte. Tassi di recidiva dunque alti, su cui sarebbe utile che il ministero raccogliesse dati certi.

 

Commissione parlamentare di inchiesta sul femminicidio, nonché su ogni forma di violenza di genere
# La vittimizzazione secondaria delle donne che subiscono violenza e dei loro figli nei procedimenti che disciplinano l’affidamento e la responsabilità genitoriale
www.senato.it/l 20 aprile 2022

 

European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)
# 31st General Report. 1 January - 31 December 2021
Council of Europe, April 2022

102. The Committee considers that, for every prison, there should be an absolute upper limit for the number of prisoners (“numerus clausus”), in order to guarantee the minimum standard in terms of living space, namely 6m² per person in single cells and 4m² per person in multiple-occupancy cells (excluding the sanitary annexe). Thus, whenever a prison has reached that limit, appropriate steps must be taken by the relevant authorities to ensure that a person, who has been newly remanded in custody or sentenced to imprisonment, is offered acceptable conditions of detention (including in terms of living space).

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Edoardo Cocco, Lorena Molnar, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Space I - 2021 - Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics    # Key Findings
Council of Europe & University of Lausanne, 6 april 2022

 

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Health
# New Study Estimates Annual Cost of Incarcerating Adults Convicted of Child Sex Crimes Topped $5.4 Billion in 2021. The findings highlight financial cost of not preventing child sexual abuse
https://publichealth.jhu.edu/ March 25, 2022

The study estimates there were 127,282 incarcerated in 2021 in state prisons for sex offenses involving children, at an average annual cost of $34,191, for a total of $4.4 billion in spending at the state level. At the federal level, the study estimates there were 12,850 inmates incarcerated in federal prisons for child sex offenses in 2021, at an annual average cost per inmate of $39,521, a total of $508 million in spending. For the estimated 4,321 inmates with child victims in high-security sex offender civil commitment facilities, the study estimates an annual average cost per inmate of $139,489, a total of $538 million in annual spending after adjusting for individual cost fluctuations.

 

Rich Kluckow, Zhen Zeng
# Correctional Populations in the United States, 2020 – Statistical Tables
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ March 2022
At yearend 2020, an estimated 5,500,600 persons were under the supervision of adult correctional systems in the United States, 11% fewer than at the same time the previous year. This was the first time since 1996 that the total correctional population dropped to less than 5.6 million. About 1 in 47 adult U.S. residents (2.1%) were under some form of correctional supervision at the end of 2020, a decrease from 1 in 40 (2.5%) at the end of 2019.

 

Pietro Buffa
Confiteor penitenziario. Le opacità e le sconsiderate scelte che facilitano la violenza in carcere 
# 1/3 Quando la pietra delle immagini cade nello stagno dell’indifferenza (2 febbraio 2022)
# 2/3 Tra populismo giustizialista e corporativismo operante (4 marzo 2022)

# 3/3 La necessità di una riforma strutturale


https://dirittopenaleuomo.org/

 

Luigi Pagano, Claudia Pecorella
# Osservazioni a margine della Relazione finale della Commissione Ruotolo
https://sistemapenale.it/ 15 febbraio 2022

 

Rachel E. Morgan, Alexandra Thompson
# The Nation’s Two Crime Measures, 2011–2020
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ February 2022
During the 10-year period from 2011 to 2020, the NCVS (National Crime Victimization Survey) rate of violent crime (including rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault) declined from 22.6 to 16.4 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older. The rate increased from 2015 to 2018, then declined from 2018 to 2020. From 2011 to 2020, the NCVS rate of violent crime reported to police decreased from 11.1 to 6.6 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older, a decline of 40%...

 

Ignazio Juan Patrone (Comitato scientifico della Associazione Antigone)
# Delocalizzare i penitenziari e deportarvi i detenuti. La soluzione in salsa danese al sovraffollamento carcerario
www.questionegiustizia.it/ 3 febbraio 2022

 

Ministry of Justice
# Costs per place and costs per prisoner by individual prison
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/ 27 january 2022

 


# Pietro Curzio, Relazione sull'amministrazione della giustiza nell'anno 2021, Roma 21 gennaio 2022, www.cortedicassazione.it/ | # Sintesi
# Giovanni Salvi, Intervento nell’Assemblea generale della Corte sull’amministrazione della giustizia nell’anno 2021, Roma 21 gennaio 2022, www.cortedicassazione.it/ | # Sintesi

# Giuseppe Ondei - Relazione Sull’amministrazione della giustizia nel Distretto della Corte di Appello di Milano, https://www.corteappello.milano.it/ 22 gennaio 2022 | # Discorso

 

Relazione della ministra della giustizia Marta Cartabia sull'amministrazione della giustizia
# Inaugurazione Anno Giudiziario 2022 - Comunicazione al Senato della Repubblica e alla Camera dei Deputati
www.giustizia.it/ 19 gennaio 2022

 

Edmondo Bruti Liberati
# Carcere da riformare: bisogna renderlo più umano
Il Dubbio, 18 gennaio 2022

 

Gian Luigi Gatta*
# Servono più risorse per offrire alternative al carcere
Il Sole 24 Ore, 11 gennaio 2022

 

E. Ann Carson
# Prisoners in 2020 – Statistical Tables
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ December 2021

 

Todd D. Minton, Zhen Zeng
# Jail Inmates in 2020 – Statistical Tables
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ December 2021

 

Danielle Kaeble
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2020
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ December 2021

 

Lauren G. Beatty, Tracy L. Snell
# Profle of Prison Inmates, 2016
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ December 2021

 

# Commissione per l’innovazione del sistema penitenziario (Presidente Prof. Marco Ruotolo) - Relazione finale
Roma, 17 dicembre 2021
1. Composizione della Commissione, perimetro di azione e metodo di lavoro. – 2. I presupposti culturali del lavoro della Commissione. – 3. Le azioni possibili per l’innovazione del sistema penitenziario. Cenni e rinvio. – 4. Proposte per il miglioramento della quotidianità penitenziaria. – 4.1 Focus 1: gestione dell’ordine e della sicurezza. – 4.2 Focus 2: impiego delle tecnologie – 4.3 Focus 3: salute. – 4.4. Focus 4: lavoro e formazione professionale. – 4.5. Focus 5: tutela dei diritti. – 4.6 Focus 6: formazione del personale. – 5. Proposte di modifica al regolamento penitenziario per il miglioramento della qualità della vita nell’esecuzione penale. – 6. Proposte di modifica all’ordinamento penitenziario, al codice penale, al codice di procedura penale, al d.lgs. n. 286 del 1998 e alla l. n. 395 del 1990, per il miglioramento della qualità della vita nell’esecuzione penale. – 7. Proposte di direttive e circolari per il miglioramento della qualità della vita nell’esecuzione penale. – 8. Proposte di linee guida per la rimodulazione dei programmi di formazione del personale.

 

Kira Schacht
# How Europe’s prisons have fared in the Covid-19 pandemic
https://www.europeandatajournalism.eu/ 6 december 2021
Prisons make fertile breeding grounds for viruses, yet administrations have revealed little about Covid-19 cases, deaths and vaccinations in Europe’s prisons. Data from 32 countries show the pandemic’s impact on prisons... Outbreaks in prisons affect not only the people who are confined or working there, but also the surrounding communities. “It's not a totally closed environment... People come in and out every day. Not only staff, but also service providers, lawyers, and prisoners themselves. So, if you’re not protecting prisons, you’re not protecting the community.”

 

France - Ministère de la Justice
# Mesure de l'Incarceration. Indicateurs clés au 1 décembre 2021
http://www.justice.gouv.fr/ 1 décembre 2021
# Statistique des établissements des personnes écrouées en France
http://www.justice.gouv.fr/ 1 décembre 2021

 

Commissione Parlamentare di Inchiesta sul Femminicidio, nonché su ogni forma di violenza di genere
# Relazione su "La risposta giudiziaria ai femminicidi in Italia. Analisi delle indagini e delle sentenze. Il biennio 2017.2018"
Approvata il 18 novembre 2021 - https://sistemapenale.it/ 25nov21

 

Barbara Oudekerk, Danielle Kaeble,
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2019
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ July 2021
The number of adults on probation or parole in the United States decreased from 4,399,000 at year-end 2018 to 4,357,700 at year- end 2019. This 0.9% decline was solely driven by a reduction in probationers, who made up the majority (80%) of the community supervision population. During this period, the number of probationers fell from 3,540,000 to 3,492,900 (down 1.3%), while the number of parolees remained relatively steady, increasing slightly from 878,000 to 878,900 (up 0.1%). Among all adults in the U.S., about 1 in 59 were under some form of community supervision at year-end 2019.

 

Antigone. Per i diritti e le garanzie nel sistema penale
# A partire da Santa Maria Capua Vetere, numeri, storie, proposte per un nuovo sistema penitenziario. Rapporto di metà anno 2021
https://www.antigone.it/ 29 luglio 2021

 

Matthew R. Durose and Leonardo Antenangeli
# Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 34 States in 2012: A 5-Year Follow-Up Period (2012–2017)
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ July 2021
Among state prisoners released in 2012 across  34 states, 62% were arrested within 3 years, and 71% were arrested within 5 years. Among prisoners released in 2012 across 21 states with available data on persons returned to prison, 39% had either a parole or probation violation or an arrest for a new offense within 3 years that led to imprisonment, and 46% had a parole or probation violation or an arrest within 5 years that led to imprisonment.

 

Antigone
# L'isolamento penitenziario: norme, effetti sui detenuti, strumenti di monitoraggio. Manuale per i Meccanismo nazionali di prevenzione
www.antigone.it/ 2021

 

UNODC
# Nearly twelve million people imprisoned globally nearly one-third unsentenced with prisons overcrowded in half of all countries
www.unodc.org/ July 2021
At the end of 2019, an estimated 11.7 million persons were detained in prisons across the world. This is a population comparable in size to entire nations such as Bolivia, Burundi, Belgium, or Tunisia. • Since 2000, the population held in prison has increased by more than 25%. • Most persons detained in prison globally are men (93%) but - over the last 20 years – the number of women in prisons has increased at a faster pace (33% increase) than men (25% increase)....

 

Coordinamento Nazionale dei Magistrati di Sorveglianza - Conams

# Comunicato sui fatti del carcere di Santa Maria Capua Vetere

Roma, 5 luglio 2021

... riafferma l'altissimo valore non negoziabile della dignità di ogni persona umana e dell'nviolabilità dei corpi dei detenuti consacrata negli istituti millenari posti a fondamento dello Stato di diritto e della civiltà umana e giuridica...

 

Senato della Repubblica - Commissione parlamentare di inchiesta sul femminicidio, nonché su ogni forma di violenza di genere
# Rapporto sulla violenza di genere e domestica nella realtà giudiziaria. Analisi delle indagini condotte presso le procure della Repubblica, i tribunali ordinari, i tribunali di sorveglianza, il Consiglio superiore della magistratura, la Scuola superiore della magistratura, il Consiglio nazionale forense e gli ordini degli psicologi
www.senato.it/ Presentata il 23 giugno 2021

 

Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone private della libertà personale. Meccanismo nazionale di prevenzione della tortura e dei trattamenti o pene, crudeli, inumani o degradanti
# Presentazione della quinta relazione al Parlamento

# Relazione al Parlamento 2021 - Parte 1 (Pag. 1-216)
# Relazione al Parlamento 2021 - Parte 2 (Pag. 217-360)

# Mappe e Dati
www.garantenazionaleprivatiliberta.it/ 21 giugno 2021

 

Jacob Kang-Brown, Chase Montagnet, Jasmine Heiss
# People in Jail and Prison in Spring 2021
https://www.vera.org/ June 2021
The total number of people incarcerated in state and federal prisons and local jails in the United States dropped 14 percent from around 2.1 million in 2019 to 1.8 million by June 2020, declining a further 2 percent by March 2021. This represents a 23 percent decline from a peak of 2.3 million people in 2008. The incarceration rate in the United States, including state and federal prisons and local jails, was 537 people behind bars per 100,000 residents in early 2021. This is down from a peak of 760 per 100,000 in 2008

 

Garante nazionale delle persone detenute
# Scheda sulla Relazione al Parlamento 2021
Roma, 7 giugno 2021

 

Laura M. Maruschak, Jennifer Bronson, Mariel Alper
# Indicators of Mental Health Problems Reported by Prisoners: Survey of Prison Inmates, 2016
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ June 2021

 

Emily D. Buehler
# Sexual Victimization Reported by Adult Correctional Authorities, 2016–2018
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ June 2021

 

Ministère de la Justice
# Mesure de l'incarceration. Indicateurs clés au 1er juin 2021
http://www.justice.gouv.fr/ 1 juin 2021

 

European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
# 30th General Report of the CPT. 1 January - 31 December 2020
https://rm.coe.int/ 06.05.2021

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Edoardo Cocco, Lorena Molnar, Mélanie M. Tiago
# SPACE I - 2021 - Updated on 19 April 2022
# Sintesi - Updated on 6/04/2022

https://wp.unil.ch/

 

Ministero della Giustizia
# Misure cautelari personali e riparazione per ingiusta detenzione. Dati 2020 - Relazione al Parlamento ex L, 16 aprile 2015, n. 47
Aggiornamento Aprile 2021

 

Dipartimento per la Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna in misura alternativa alla detenzione. Analisi statistica dei dati - Anno 2020
http://www.centrostudinisida.it/ 25 marzo 2021

 

Nicola Carr
# Critical perspectives on desistance
Probation Journal, 2021, 68(2)

... Building on the concept of ‘recovery capital’, Best et al. identify that ‘justice capital’, which includes the resources of institutions available to support effective rehabilitation, reintegration, and desistance, can be a useful way to think about the way in which criminal justice institutions and practices can be oriented towards supporting desistance. Importantly, they also explore how negative forms of capital including the absence of procedural fairness and poor treatment and conditions, can diminish any attempts to support desistance...

 

Lois M. Davis, John Linton
# What Corrections Officials Need to Know to Partner with Colleges to Implement College Programs in Prisons
www.rand.org/ 2021
Incarcerated adults who participate in a correctional education program while in prison had a 13% point reduction in their risk of recidivating after being released from prison. Those who participate in in-prison college programs are roughly half as likely to recidivate...  For every dollar invested in prison education programs, taxpayers save, on average, between $4 and $5 in three-year reincarceration costs...

 

# Aebi, M. F., & Tiago, M. M. (2021). SPACE I - 2020 – Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: Prison populations. Strasbourg: Council of Europe (updated 8 march 2021)

# Marcelo F. Aebi and Mélanie M. Tiago, Prisons and Prisoners in Europe 2020: Key Findings of the SPACE I report, https://wp.unil.ch/ april 2021

 

Antigone
# Oltre il virus. XVII Rapporto di Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione
www.antigone.it/ 12 marzo 2021

 

Tommaso Miele | Corte dei Conti - Sezione giurisdizionale per la Regione Lazio
# Inaugurazione dell'anno giudiziario 2021
www.corteconti.it/ 25 febbraio 2021
Oggi la nostra società è permeata da un giustizialismo alimentato da una sorta di voglia di vendetta, di odio sociale, che si sta quasi affermando come fine ultimo della giustizia e che sta offuscando quei sacri principi di diritto scritti a caratteri cubitali nella nostra carta costituzionale... Oggi sembrano essersi smarriti quei sacri principi quali la presunzione di non colpevolezza, il principio secondo cui “onus probandi incumbit ei qui dicit” e non viceversa, perché l’esercizio della funzione giurisdizionale deve essere finalizzato alla affermazione della giustizia e all’accertamento della verità e non alla vendetta, al diritto del cittadino ad una giustizia rapida, efficiente e soprattutto giusta, al diritto ad un giusto processo, al diritto ad una ragionevole durata del processo

 

Isabella Merzagora
# Il femminicidio e l'idealismo pervertito
www.sistemapenale.it/ 24 febbraio 2021
Il “femminicidio”, oltre ad essere “una parola orrenda” [1], non è qualsiasi omicidio di donna bensì, come ebbe a spiegare Diana Russell coniando il neologismo nel 1992, l’omicidio di una donna per il fatto di essere donna[2], quindi per esempio l’uccisione della partner infedele, o anche solo disobbediente, o in procinto di lasciare un marito magari dopo anni e decenni di soperchierie e di violenze. Questo fenomeno negli ultimi anni non mostra aumenti di rilievo; rispetto ad anni fa è persino in diminuzione, anche se bisogna considerare la complessiva diminuzione degli omicidi avvenuta nel frattempo.

 

Giovanni Fiandaca
# Il governo ora affronti la questione carceraria
Il Foglio, 22 febbraio 2021      

L'emergenza sanitaria da rischio contagio-Covid, ha riacceso i riflettori sui persistenti problemi e sulle persistenti esigenze inevase del pianeta carcere: il concreto rischio di contagi diffusi a tutt'oggi deriva, infatti, dal riemerso sovraffollamento, dalle tipiche condizioni di vita carceraria e dalla stessa conformazione strutturale di alcune vecchie prigioni con spazi molto angusti, nonché dalla situazione igienica non sempre a norma, che impediscono un sufficiente distanziamento sociale e l'adozione di tutti gli altri dispositivi di prevenzione più facilmente accessibili alle persone in libertà...

 

Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone private della libertà personale
# Rapporto tematico sulle sezioni di Alta Sicurezza 2 (AS2)
www.garantenazionaleprivatiliberta.it/ 1 febbraio 2021
Il Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone private della libertà personale (Garante nazionale) ha visitato, nella sua composizione collegiale, tutte quelle Sezioni del sotto-circuito di Alta sicurezza 2 (As2) che sono attualmente caratterizzate dalla diversità delle categorie delle persone ristrette, relativamente al contesto del reato commesso. In particolare, nelle sezioni oggetto di visita sono compresenti persone detenute per reati commessi nel contesto delle azioni armate degli anni Settanta e Ottanta, persone detenute perché imputate o condannate per reati inquadrabili nel complessivo fenomeno del terrorismo internazionale legato a integralismo religioso e persone prevalentemente imputate e in alcuni casi condannate per recenti azioni di antagonismo politico anche di tipo anarchico.

 

Jacob Kang-Brown, Chase Montagnet, Jasmine Heiss
# People in Jail and Prison in 2020
https://www.vera.org/ january 2020

The United States saw an unprecedented drop in total incarceration between 2019 and 2020. Triggered by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and pressure from advocates to reduce incarceration, local jails drove the initial decline, although prisons also made reductions. From summer to fall 2020, prison populations declined further, but jails began to refill, showing the fragility of decarceration. Jails in rural counties saw the biggest initial drops, but still incarcerate people at double the rate of urban and suburban areas. The number of people incarcerated in state and federal prisons and local jails in the United States dropped from around 2.1 million in 2019 to 1.8 million by mid-2020—a 14 percent decrease.

 

Anita Tun
# Clementine Jacoby combats recidivism through nonprofit Recidiviz
www.stanforddaily.com/ January 27, 2021
Ultimately, states that utilized Recidiviz’s resources released approximately 40,000 people early; in North Dakota alone, the state’s prison population decreased by 25% in one month... Jacoby’s work with Recidiviz builds on the wave of support for criminal justice reform intensified by Black Lives Matter protests this spring and summer. Activists have noted that although Black Americans make up about 13% of the United States population, they comprise about 33% of the population of state and federal prisons. # Cicero Spotlight | Clementine Jacoby | Recidiviz, Mar 24, 2020

 

Joe Mullah, Safya Khan-Ruf (eds)
# State of Hate. Far-Right Extremism in Europe
www.hopenothate.org.uk/ 16 february 2021
2020 saw a dramatic increase in the number of people engaging with conspiracy theories during the Covid-19 Pandemic. Across Europe we’ve witnessed the birth of a number of conspiracy theory-driven protest groups that have taken to the streets, driven by a strongly anti-elite, anti-lockdown and anti- vaccine agenda. Responsibility for the spread of conspiracy theories partially lies with digital platforms and social media, which has helped false information of all kinds spread faster and more aggressively...

 

Istat
# Autori e vittime di omicidio | Anni 2018-2019
www.istat.it/ 5 febbraio 2021
Omicidi in calo. Crescono quelli in famiglia: vittime soprattutto donne, uomini gli autori. Nel 2019 gli omicidi sono 315 (345 nel 2018): 204 uomini e 111 donne. Il 19,7% (di cui 17,6% maschi e 23,4% femmine) è composto da vittime straniere. Gli omicidi sono in calo fin dagli anni Novanta, soprattutto quelli dovuti alla criminalità organizzata (29 nel 2019, il 9,2% del totale). In ambito familiare o affettivo aumentano invece le vittime: 150 nel 2019 (47,5% del totale); 93 vittime sono donne (l’83,8% del totale degli omicidi femminili) Nei procedimenti giudiziari crescono gli imputati per omicidio in “contesti relazionali” (246 nel 2010, 271 nel 2018). 

 

# Pietro Curzio, Suprema Corte di Cassazione, Relazione sull’amministrazione della giustizia nell’anno 2020, Roma 29 gennaio 2021

# Giovanni Salvi, Procura generale della Corte suprema di cassazione, Intervento nell’Assemblea generale della Corte
sull’amministrazione della giustizia nell’anno 2020, Roma 29 gennaio 2021

# Relazione del Ministro sull’amministrazione della giustizia per l’anno 2020, ai sensi dell’art. 86, R.D. 30 gennaio 1941, n.12, Roma 29 gennaio 2021

# Nunzia Gatto, Procuratore Generale f.f. presso la Corte di Appello di Milano, Relazione sull’Amministrazione della Giustizia nel Distretto della Corte di Appello di Milano, 30 gennaio 2021

# Francesca Nanni, Procura Generale della Repubblica presso la Corte d’Appello di Milano, Intervento, Milano 30 gennaio 2021

 

Istat
# Delitti, imputati e vittime dei reati. Lacriminalità in Italia, attraverso una lettura integrata delle fonti sulla giustizia. Riedizione con dati aggiornati
www.istat.it/ 22 gennaio 2021
Il volume analizza la criminalità in Italia secondo una prospettiva multifonte che, grazie all’utilizzo a fini statistici di diverse fonti amministrative di polizia e di giustizia penale, consente una lettura integrata e fortemente articolata di un fenomeno caratterizzato da grande complessità. Tra i molti fenomeni criminosi, l’attenzione è qui posta maggiormente sui reati contro il patrimonio, sui reati informatici, su alcuni reati violenti e soprattutto sui soggetti che li compiono e le loro vittime. Le analisi approfondiscono gli aspetti territoriali e l’evoluzione nel tempo dei fenomeni, alla ricerca di connotazioni rilevanti, con un focus sulle caratteristiche socio-demografiche dei soggetti coinvolti, ma anche degli esiti giudiziari. Arricchiscono il volume due focus privilegiati, uno sui minorenni entrati nel percorso giudiziario penale, l’atro sui procedimenti e le condanne legate agli ecoreati.

 

Glauco Giostra
# Carceri, l'ingiusto prezzo di indecisioni calcolatrici
Avvenire, 29 novembre 2020
La questione carceraria aveva imboccato la giusta strada nella precedente legislatura: la maggioranza dell'epoca aveva meritoriamente promosso una riforma che intendeva responsabilizzare il condannato... La nuova, con un'operazione sciaguratamente ottusa, pensò bene di amputare la parte qualificante della riforma, immolandola sull'altare della "certezza della pena"; locuzione che in una stagione non lontana esprimeva una garanzia, mentre oggi suona come una minaccia di pena detentiva inalterabile, qualunque sia il cammino riabilitativo del condannato...

# Glauco Giostra, Disinnescare in modo sano la bomba-virus nelle carceri... Gli effetti della pandemia di Covid-19 sulla realtà dei penitenziari e le soluzioni possibili, Avvenire, 21 marzo 2020

 

Riccardo De Vito [Presidente di Magistratura democratica]
# Il carcere non è un posto sicuro: la pandemia dilaga, il governo riduca il sovraffollamento
Il Domani, 20 novembre 2020
Abbiamo bisogno di un carcere meno affollato per tutelare in maniera integrale la salute di chi è dentro. Anche dei detenuti più pericolosi, dei mafiosi, dei terroristi. Rinunciare a questo obiettivo ci porrebbe fuori dalla Costituzione, dalla democrazia, dalla civiltà. Una resa di questo tipo regalerebbe alla criminalità organizzata fiumi di consenso nel carcere e nei territori. Nelle galere, inoltre, coverebbe rancore anziché riflessione critica sul passato. Occorre far presto...

 

Sandra Berardi
# Carcere, covid e media: dall'emergenza sanitaria all'emergenza mafia.
www.intersezionale.com/ 13 novembre 2020

 

Associazione Avvocato di strada ODV
# Fine pena: la strada. Misure alternative e persone senza dimora
www.avvocatodistrada.it/ Novembre 2020
Di fatto, l’assenza di un’abitazione è di ostacolo sia nella fase pre-processuale per la scelta e l’applicazione delle misure cautelari, sia nella fase esecutiva della sanzione per trascorrere il periodo della pena al di fuori delle mura carcerarie... La relazione tra carcere e strada emerge anche per quanto riguarda i cosiddetti reati di povertà. È stato evidenziato, infatti, come non solo a livello italiano, ma anche internazionale, si stia diffondendo la criminalizzazione di condotte tipiche di persone che vivono in strada (come ad esempio dormire in un luogo pubblico o chiedere l’elemosina), attraverso l’uso di leggi e pratiche atte a limitare le loro attività e i loro movimenti. L’effetto finale è un trattamento altamente discriminatorio e ingiustificatamente punitivo verso le persone senza dimora.

 

Marcelo F. Aebi and Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prisons and Prisoners in Europe in Pandemic Times: An evaluation of the medium-term impact of the COVID-19 on prison populations
https://wp.unil.ch/ Strasbourg and Lausanne: 10 November 2020
In sum, the general trend observed in Europe is the following: The spread of the COVID-19 pandemic was accompanied by an overall decrease of European prison populations during the period of the lockdowns; that trend was stopped and, in several countries, reversed after the end of the lockdowns. The European trend can be explained combining three factors: A decrease in the activities of the criminal justice system... The release of inmates as a preventive measure to reduce the spread of COVID-19... The lockdowns produced a crime drop...

 

E. Ann Carson
# Prisoners in 2019
https://www.bjs.gov/ October 2020
At year-end 2019, an estimated 1,430,800 prisoners were under state or federal jurisdiction, a decrease of 2% from the 1,464,400 prisoners in 2018 and 11% from the peak of 1,615,500 prisoners in 2009. About 88% of all prisoners were under state jurisdiction and 12% were under BOP jurisdiction in 2019, with state prisoners accounting for 86% of the decline in the total prison population from 2018. By yearend 2019, the total prison population declined for the sixth consecutive year, and the federal prison population declined for the seventh consecutive year...

 

cepej
European judicial systems. CEPEJ Evaluation Report. 2020 Evaluation cycle (2018 data)
# Part 1 - Tables, graphs and analyses
# Part 2 - Country profiles
www.coe.int/ Strasbourg 22 october 2020

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago, Yuji Z. Hashimoto
# Space Project: 2020 Update - 10th PC-CP Plenary Meeting, 13-14 October 2020
https://rm.coe.int/ Strasbourg, 13 October 2020

 

Reuters
# Dying Inside. The Data Behind Jail Deaths in America
www.reuters.com/ October 2020
The U.S. government collects detailed data on who’s dying in which jails around the country – but won’t let anyone see it. So, Reuters conducted its own tally of fatalities in America’s biggest jails, pinpointing where suicide, botched healthcare and bad jailkeeping are claiming lives in a system with scant oversight

 

Rachel E. Morgan, Jennifer L. Truman
# Criminal Victimization, 2019
www.bjs.gov/ September 2020
After rising from 1.1 million in 2015 to 1.4 million in 2018, the number of persons who were victims of violent crime excluding simple assault dropped to 1.2 million in 2019. This is the first statistically significant decrease in the number of persons who were victims of violent crime excluding simple assault since 2015, and it corresponds with a decline in the number of victims of rape or sexual assault from 2018 to 2019.

 

Kelly Servick [Traduzione di Andrea Sparacino]
# Stati Uniti. Il virus offre un'opportunità per ripensare il carcere
Internazionale, 24 settembre 2020

I focolai negli istituti di pena evidenziano le disuguaglianze rispetto all'incidenza del virus. Tra gli afroamericani il tasso d'incarcerazione è più alto rispetto a quello tra i bianchi, e lo stesso vale per la durata delle condanne. Inoltre i detenuti presentano un tasso più elevato di malattie pregresse, un aspetto che li rende più esposti alle forme gravi di covid-19. Un altro elemento rilevante è il fatto che la salute dei detenuti è legata a quella della comunità che circonda i penitenziari. Il virus può entrare nelle strutture tramite i dipendenti (almeno 23mila persone che lavorano nelle carceri sono risultate positive) o essere portato dalle persone detenute per brevi periodi o trasferite da una struttura all'altra.

 

Lanfranco Caminiti
# Francia. La pandemia in carcere ha scoperchiato il velo: sistema crudele e malato
Il Dubbio, 10 settembre 2020
All'inizio del 2020, 35 penitenziari sono stati considerati dalla giustizia francese come luoghi in cui le persone sono esposte a condizioni non dignitose... un terzo del "parco prigioni" è oggi considerato fatiscente... La Francia è stata condannata 18 volte dalla Corte europea dei diritti dell'uomo, per le condizioni di detenzione che violano l'articolo 3 della Convenzione europea dei diritti dell'uomo (Cedu) che vieta la tortura e un trattamento disumano o degradante, e è stata "sollecitata" a adottare misure strutturali per porre fine al sovraffollamento delle carceri...

# Ministère de la justice – DAP | Mesure de l'incarceration - 1er juillet 2020

 

Ministero dell'Interno
# Dossier Viminale. Un anno di attività del Ministero dell'Interno
www.interno.gov.it/ 15 agosto 2020
Quest’anno, sui dati relativi al periodo di riferimento (1 agosto 2019 – 31 luglio 2020) incidono le limitazioni e i divieti imposti durante la fase acuta dell’emergenza sanitaria Covid-19 (9 marzo – 3 giugno 2020)...

 

Andrea Pugiotto
# Breve guida ragionata a un monstrum giuridico. Inumano, degradante, illegale. Il carcere duro va abolito. Il 41-bis, totem giustizialista fuori dalla Stato di diritto
www.ilriformista.it/ 14 agosto 2020
Non è più una norma giuridica, ma uno spartiacque tra chi è contro la criminalità organizzata e chi - per collusione o ignoranza del fenomeno o ingenuità compassionevole - non lo sarebbe abbastanza... Quando però una norma si eleva a simbolo, a lume votivo, svela la propria natura costituzionalmente borderline. Mi è già accaduto di dirlo, ma ripetere giova. Il simbolico e il diritto abitano mondi diversi: emotivo e irrazionale il primo, perché agìto da pulsioni profonde; ragionevole il secondo, perché frutto di scelte misurate e predeterminate.

 

Ministry of Justice
# HM Prison and Probation Service COVID-19 Official Statistics. Data to 7 August 2020
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/ Ministry of Justice, 14 august 2020

 

Antigone
# Il carcere alla prova della fase 2. Salute, tecnologia, spazi, vita interna
www.antigone.it/ 10 agosto 2020

 

Daniela Vigoni
# Il carcere e l’emergenza covid-19: le misure sollecitate dagli organismi internazionali
processopenaleegiustizia.it/ 23 luglio 2020
Sono evidenti i pericoli che derivano dalla pandemia di Coronavirus in una comunità artificiale, chiusa e regolata da rigide regole come il carcere, in cui si devono implementare ulteriori eccezionali disposizioni a tutela della salute nella prospettiva non solo individuale, dei singoli detenuti e del personale di settore, ma anche collettiva, della comunità penitenziaria e dell’intera popolazione. Coniugare sicurezza e salute è tanto più complicato nei Paesi in cui sovraffollamento carcerario e precarie situazioni igienico- anitarie aggravano le difficoltà concrete di mettere in atto le modalità di distanziamento: le misure di prevenzione, protezione e controllo, infatti, rischiano di comprimere i diritti dei detenuti, rendendoli ancor più vulnerabili ed esponendoli anche al pericolo di maltrattamenti.

 

Nicholas Chan | NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research
# The impact of COVID-19 measures on the size of the NSW adult prison population
www.bocsar.nsw.gov.au/ July 2020
Between 15 March and 10 May 2020 the NSW adult prison population decreased by 10.7% (1,508 people). Decreases in both the male and female custody population as well as the Aboriginal custody population were evident during this period. The majority of this decline was due to a drop in the remand population which fell by 21.2% (1,049 people). A smaller decline (6.1%) in the sentenced custody population was observed from 22 March The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with large falls in the NSW adult prison population. Most of this decline was due to a drop in remand receptions and increase in discharges to bail.

 

Cpt Comitato europeo per la prevenzione della tortura e delle pene o trattamenti inumani o degradanti
# Follow-up relativo alla situazione delle persone private della libertà personale nell’ambito dell’attuale pandemia di COVID-191
Strasbourg, 9 luglio 2020

 

Nasrul Ismail, Andrew Forrester
# The state of English prisons and the urgent need for reform
https://www.thelancet.com/ July 2020

The CPT report, and documented 63 328 incidents of self-harm in 2019—a record number—and a total that amounts to an increase of 63% since 2012... Incidents of assault increased by 53%... Episodes of prisoner on staff violenceincreased by 70%... The CPT recommended investing in smaller prisons, but the UK government resisted, instead planning further space to accommodate an additional 20 000 prisoners.5 Creating new space by building additional prisons will increase the prison population further, and such an approach is unlikely to improve prisoners’ health and wellbeing...

# CPT, Report to the United Kingdom Government on the visit to the United Kingdom carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) from 13 to 23 May 2019, 30 april 2020  # Executive Summary

 

Pietro Buffa
# Carcere e pandemia
https://dirittopenaleuomo.org/ 1 luglio 2020
Nel frattempo il carcere, come gli ospizi, sono luoghi ove la strategia esterna delbdistanziamento non potrà essere mai applicata perché la nostra modernità democratica, via via, li ha già distanziati dalla società stessa e li affolla di scarti sociali frutto dell’incapacità di prendersi cura veramente dei problemi essenziali. Contenitori di disagio affrontato con l’allontanamento oggi saliti all’onor delle cronache per gli effetti che il virus ha avuto nelle R.S.A. e che potenzialmente poteva generare anche negli istituti di pena.

 

Marco Musumeci, Francesco Marelli
# How organized crime is expanding during the COVID-19 crisis
http://unicri.it/ 29 June 2020
Over the last century, organized crime has demonstrated a remarkable capacity to rapidly adapt to mutated social, political and economic conditions. While in some cases this adaptation was the result of a reactive response to improved legislation targeting their interests, in many others it was ignited by the pursuit of new possibilities for economic profit. Examples in this sense include how quickly criminal groups adapted to new scenarios created, for instance, by geopolitical changes, the integration of global markets or the generalized use of the world wide web as a marketplace for a variety of licit and illicit goods and services.

 

Garante Nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale
# Relazione al Parlamento 2020
http://www.garantenazionaleprivatiliberta.it/ Roma 26 giugno 2020

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prisons and Prisoners in Europe in Pandemic Times: An evaluation of the short-term impact of the COVID-19 on prison populations
http://wp.unil.ch/space/ Strasbourg and Lausanne: 18 June 2020

... More than 128,000 inmates were released in 20 member states as a preventive measure to reduce the spread of COVID-19: - The vast majority of these inmates (102,944) were released after 15th April in Turkey, a country that had until then the second biggest prison population in Europe. - The total numbers of releases, however, includes 10,188 inmates released in France, a country that reported all its releases and not only those related to the COVID-19 pandemic...

 

Simone Lonati, Carlo Melzi d'Eril
# Così il coronavirus è rimasto fuori dal carcere
lavoce.info, 11 giugno 2020

 

Antigone
# Il carcere al tempo del Coronavirus. XVI Rapporto di Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione
www.antigone.it/ 22 maggio 2020

 

# UNODC, WHO, UNAIDS and OHCHR joint statement on COVID-19 in prisons and other closed settings
https://www.who.int/news-room/ 13 May 2020

We, the leaders of global health, human rights and development institutions, come together to urgently draw the attention of political leaders to the heightened vulnerability of prisoners and other people deprived of liberty to the COVID-19 pandemic, and urge them to take all appropriate public health measures in respect of this vulnerable population that is part of our communities.

 

J.J. Prescott, Benjamin Pyle, Sonja B. Starr
# Understanding Violent-Crime Recidivism
Notre Dame Law Review, Vol. 95, Issue 4, 2020
This Article attempts to provide a better understanding of violent-crime recidivism to encourage policymakers to engage with the idea of releasing earlier many individuals who are serving sentences for violent crimes. Our synthesis of the recidivism literature and our new empirical analysis suggest that this population, especially individuals with prior homicide convictions who are older at release, are unlikely to reoffend, although they are somewhat more likely to commit new violent crimes relative to those released after serving time  for nonviolent offenses.

 

Garante delle persone sottoposte a misure restrittive della libertà personale della Regione Campania
# Relazione annuale 2019
Maggio 2020

 

Talha Burki
# Prisons are “in no way equipped” to deal with COVID-19
www.thelancet.com/ Vol 395, May 2, 2020

... Iran announced the release of 85000 prisoners in March. France and Italy have reduced their prison populations by 10000 and 6000, respectively. Chile has let out 1300 low-risk offenders, and states across the USA are releasing varying numbers of prisoners. “There is absolutely no doubt that this crisis calls for reducing overcrowding and finding alternatives to prison for people in particular categories, definitely those in pretrial detention for non-violent offences”, Broner told The Lancet.

 

EUROPOL
# Beyond the pandemic. How COVID-19 will shape the serious and organised crime landscape in the EU
www.europol.europa.eu/ 30 April 2020
Europol expects the impact of the current crisis on serious and organised crime and terrorism to unfold in three phases, equivalent to the shortterm/immediate outlook, a mid-term and long-term perspective.... Drug markets are resilient and adaptable... The trafficking of cannabis, cocaine, and heroin has continued throughout the pandemic, albeit at lower levels than before. After the withdrawal of lockdown and quarantine measures across the EU, it is expected that regular supply will resume at pre-pandemic levels with little or no id- or long-term impact.

 

Sarah Figgatt
# Reentry Reforms Are More Critical Than Ever Amid the Coronavirus Pandemic
www.americanprogress.org/ April 30, 2020
Therefore, crime and recidivism rates are not a measure of one’s criminality, but rather the resources and supports to which they do, or do not, have access. Reforming the U.S. reentry system is an opportunity to eliminate the factors that perpetuate the cycle of incarceration for justice-involved people. Additionally, reentry reforms benefit not only justice-involved people but also the communities that they return to following incarceration. When formerly incarcerated people have access to social support programs, such as food assistance and health care, recidivism rates fall, keeping people out of prison and their communities safer. Especially now, with the threat of prison or jail COVID-19 outbreaks spilling over into the broader community, releasing people from correctional facilities and reforming the U.S. reentry system would improve the safety and health of all community members.

 

Guido Travaini, Palmina Caruso, Isabella Merzagora
# Crime in Italy at the time of the pandemic
Acta Biomed 2020; Vol. 91, N. 2: 199-203
Nothing is more dynamic than crime, able to rapidly adapt to the changes of society, while trying to take advantage of them. In other words, delinquency seems to follow the economic and social growth of modern societies, replicating their mechanisms.With regard to the data published so far, according to the Ministry of Interior, the overall number of crimes committed in Italy has dropped significantly in March

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati 15 aprile 2020
www.giustizia.it/ Roma, 21 aprile 2020

 

E. Ann Carson
# Prisoners in 2018
www.bjs.gov/ April 2020
From the end of 2017 to the end of 2018, the total prison population in the United States declined from 1,489,200 to 1,465,200, a decrease of 24,000 prisoners. Tis was a 1.6% decline in the prison population and marked the fourth consecutive annual decrease of at least 1%. Te combined federal and state imprisonment rate, based on sentenced prisoners (those sentenced to more than one year), fell 2.4% from 2017 to 2018, declining from 441 to 431 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents. Across a decade, the imprisonment rate—the proportion of U.S. residents who are in prison—fell 15%, from 506 sentenced prisoners in 2008 to 431 in 2018 per 100,000 U.S. residents

 

Penal Reform International
# Global Prison Trends 2020
https://cdn.penalreform.org/ April 2020
Over 11 million people are imprisoned globally, the highest numberyet. Around 102 countries reported prison occupancy levels of over 110 per cent. The magnitude of issues and associated human rights violations stemming from over-imprisonment became clear in efforts to prevent and contain outbreaks of COVID-19 in prisons. Almost ten years since their adoption, the UN Bangkok Rules on women prisoners and non-custodial alternatives for women remain largely unimplemented. The global female prison population doubled in twenty years, yet justice systems and institutions remain largely designed for a homogeneous male population. Prohibition-based drug policies have driven prison populations up. Over 2 million people are in prison for drug-related offences, 0.5 million of them serving a sentence for drug possession for personal use.

 

The Editorial Board
# No One Deserves to Die of Covid-19 in Jail. But more than 100 inmates already have.
www.nytimes.com/ April 23, 2020

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prisons and Prisoners in Europe 2019: Key Findings of the SPACE I report
http://wp.unil.ch/ April 2020

 

Council of Europe - Commissioner for Human Rights
# COVID-19 pandemic: urgent steps are needed to protect the rights of prisoners in Europe
www.coe.int/ Strasbourg 06/04/2020

 

# Il Garante Nazionale nei giorni dell'emergenza Covid-19
http://www.garantenazionaleprivatiliberta.it/ 3 aprile 2020

 

European Prison Observatory
# Covid-19: What is happening in european prisons?
http://www.prisonobservatory.org/ April 3rd 2020

 

Congressional Research Service
# Federal Prisoners and COVID-19: Background and Authorities to Grant Release
https://crsreports.congress.gov/ April 2, 2020

 

Zhen Zeng
# Jail Inmates in 2018
www.bjs.gov/ March 2020
County and city jails in the United States held 738,400 inmates at midyear 2018 (table 1), a decline of 6% from 785,500 inmates held in 2008. Te midyear population remained relatively stable from 2011 to 2018. At midyear 2018, about one-third of jail inmates (248,500) were sentenced or awaiting sentencing on a conviction, while about two-thirds (490,000) were awaiting court action on a current charge or were held for other reasons.

 

Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) | OHCHR | WHO
# COVID-19: Focus on Persons Deprived of Their Liberty
27 March 2020

 

Michelle Bachelet
# Urgent action needed to prevent COVID-19 “rampaging through places of detention”
www.ohchr.org/ Geneva, 25 March 2020

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prison Populations. SPACE I - 2019
25 March 2020

 

Associazione Nazionale Magistrati
# L'ANM sulla situazione delle carceri
www.associazionemagistrati.it/ 24 marzo 2020

 

Associazione Italiana dei Professori di Diritto Penale (AIPDP)
# Osservazioni e proposte del Consiglio direttivo AIPDP sull’emergenza carceraria da coronavirus, www.sistemapenale.it/ 23 marzo 2020

# Magistratura Democratica, Non aspettare, www.magistraturademocratica.it/ 23 marzo 2020

# Unione delle Camere Penali Italiane, Emergenza carcere: basta mistificazioni! www.camerepenali.it/ 20 marzo 2020

 

Comitato europeo per la prevenzione della tortura e delle pene o trattamenti inumani o degradanti (CPT)

# Principi relativi al trattamento delle persone private della libertà personale nell’ambito della pandemia del coronavirus (COVID-19)

CPT/Inf(2020)13, pubblicato il 20 marzo 2020

 

Amanda Klonsky
# An Epicenter of the Pandemic Will Be Jails and Prisons, if Inaction Continues . The conditions inside, which are inhumane, are now a threat to any American with a jail in their county — meaning just about everyone.
www.nytimes.com/ March 16, 2020

 

E. Ann Carson, Mary P. Cowhig
# Mortality in Local Jails, 2000-2016 – Statistical Tables
Bureau of Justice Statistic, February 2020

 

E. Ann Carson, Mary P. Cowhig
# Mortality in State and Federal Prisons, 2001-2016 – Statistical Tables
Bureau of Justice Statistic, February 2020

 

# Relazione sull'amministrazione della Giustizia nell'anno 2019 del Primo Presidente Giovanni Mammone

# Intervento sull'amministrazione della Giustizianell'anno 2019 del Procuratore generale Giovanni Salvi

# Comunicazioni del Ministro della giustizia sull'amministrazione della giustizia, ai sensi dell'articolo86 del regio decreto 30 gennaio 1941, n. 12, come modificato dall'articolo 2, comma 29, della legge 25 luglio 2005, n. 150.

# Sintesi della Relazione del Ministro sull’amministrazione della giustizia per l’anno 2019, ai sensi dell’art. 86, R.D. 30 gennaio 1941, n.12

# Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria, Relazione del Ministero sull’amministrazione della giustizia anno 2019 - Roma, gennaio 2020

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità

# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati15 gennaio 2020

Roma, 22 gennaio 2020

 

Vincenzo Giglio
# La solitudine dei numeri ultimi. I dati delle carceri italiane e dei “mondi” affini
Diritto Penale e Uomo, gennaio 2020
L’universo carcerario è fatto di molte più cose di quelle rilevate, classificate e archiviate. Non è colpa dei numeri che non ci sono, la colpa è di chi avrebbe dovuto raccoglierli, avendone avvertito l’importanza, e invece non l’ha fatto. Per questa grave negligenza di sistema non sappiamo niente, certamente niente di preciso e significativo, su una moltitudine di aspetti della vita degli esseri umani ristretti che pure sono per loro tanto importanti quanto per gli individui liberi...

 

Denis Yukhnenko, Shivpriya Sridhar, Seena Fazel
# A systematic review of criminal recidivism rates worldwide: 3-year update
Open Research 2020
Released prisoners are at higher risk of criminal recidivism than those serving non-custodial sentences... Although most of these recidivism events are non-violent (property crimes, violation of post-release conditions, etc.), released prisoners also have an elevated risk of violent recidivism, which are much more impactful because of high associated physical and psychological morbidity  

 

Erica L. Smith, Jessica Stroop
# Sexual Victimization Reported by Youth in Juvenile Facilities, 2018
www.bjs.gov/ December 2019
In 2018, an estimated 7.1% of youth in juvenile facilities reported being sexually victimized during the prior 12 months, down from 9.5% in 2012. This report defines sexual victimization as any forced or coerced sexual activity with another youth or any sexual activity with facility staff that takes place in a juvenile correctional facility. From 2012 to 2018, the percentage of youth reporting sexual victimization involving another youth declined from 2.5% to 1.9%, and the percentage reporting sexual victimization by facility staff declined from 7.7% to 5.8%.

 

European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
# Criminal detention conditions in the European Union: rules and reality
Vienna, 11 dicembre 2019
Imagine suddenly losing control over your everyday life – and finding yourself in an environment devoid of free choice and privacy, but full of hostility and fear. This is a stark reality for many individuals in detention across the European Union. People who are detained – whether while awaiting trial or after conviction – are in many ways invisible. Subjected to a tightly controlled regimen, they have little say over when they eat, spend time outdoors, see a doctor, or even use the bathroom. As such, they are at particular risk of enduring fundamental rights violations.

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna Analisi statistica dei dati - 15 novembre 2019
www.giustizia.it/ 21 novembre 2019

 

Antoine Dulin
# La réinsertion des personnes détenues: l’affaire de tous et toutes
www.lecese.fr/ 26 novembre 2019
Pour l’Observatoire de la récidive et de la désistance, cette notion renvoie au « processus au cours duquel les activités délinquantes tendent à baisser, en termes de fréquence, de gravité, jusqu’à cesser». Elle est le résultat d’une interaction complexe, difficilement prévisible, entre de nombreux facteurs (psychologiques, cognitifs, mais aussi économiques et sociaux) qui sont autant de « tournants de l’existence».

 

Manfred Nowak
# United Nations Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty
https://www.ohchr.org/ November 2019
For All Invisible and Forgotten Children Deprived of Liberty... More than 7 million children are suffering in various types of child-specific institutions, immigration detention centres, police custody, prisons and other places of detention.

 

République Française - Ministère de la justice
# Statistiques de la population détenue et écrouée

# Statistique des établissements des personnes écrouées en France - situation au 1er octobre 2019
http://www.justice.gouv.fr/ 1er october 2019

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati 15 ottobre 2019
Roma, 25 ottobre 2019

 

The European Prison Observatory
# Prisons in Europe. 2019 report on European prisons and penitentiary systems
http://www.antigone.it/ October 2019

 

The Sentencing Project
# U.S. Prison Population Trends: Massive Buildup and Modest Decline
www.sentencingproject.org/ September 2019
By yearend 2017, 1.4 million people were imprisoned in the United States, a decline of 7% since the prison population reached its peak level in 2009. This follows a nearly 700% growth in the prison population between 1972 and 2009... Alaska (39% decline since 2006)• New Jersey (38% decline since 1999)• Vermont (35% decline since 2009)• Connecticut (33% decline since 2007)• New York (32% decline since 1999)... If states and the federal government maintain this pace of decarceration, it will take 72 years—until 2091—to cut the U.S. prison population in half.

 

Philippe Bensimon
# La récidive: talon d’Achille en matière criminelle
Délinquance, justice et autres questions de société, 4 sept.2019

 

Dipartimento per la giustizia minorile e di comunità

# Adulti in area penale esterna - Aggiornamento al 15 settembre 2019
www.giustizia.it/ 18 settembre 2019

 

Ministero dell'Interno
# Dossier Viminale. Un anno di attività del Ministero dell'Interno. 1 agosto 2018 - 31 luglio 2019
www.interno.gov.it/ 15 agosto 2019

 

The Prison Reform Trust
# Prison_the facts. Bromley Briefings Summer 2019
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/
The economic cost of black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) over-representation in our prison system is estimated to be £234 million a year.43Research has found a clear direct association between ethnic group and the odds of receiving a custodial sentence. Black people are 53%, Asian 55%, and other ethnic groups 81% more likely to be sent to prison for an indictable offence at the Crown Court, even when factoring in higher not-guilty plea rates.44The number of Muslim prisoners has more than doubled over the past 16 years. In 2002 there were 5,502 Muslims in prison, by 2018 this had risen to 12,894. They now account for 16% of the prison population but just 5% of the general population

 

David J Harding, Jeffrey D Morenoff, Anh P Nguyen, Shawn D Bushway, Ingrid A Binswanger
# A natural experiment study of the effects of imprisonment on violence in the community
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Nat Hum Behav. 2019 July

 

UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
# Global Study on Homicide 2019
www.unodc.org/ July 2019
The overall risk of suffering a violent death as a result of intentional homicide has been declining steadily for a quarter of a century. In 2017, there were 6.1 homicide victims per 100,000 population worldwide, compared with a rate of 7.4 in 1993. While gaps still remain in terms of the quality and availability of national data, these estimates are based on the latest and most comprehensive data submitted by Member States to UNODC up to 2017.

 

Ministère de la Justice
# Statistiques de la population détenue et écrouée - Mesure de l'incarceration
http://www.justice.gouv.fr/ 1er juillet 2019

 

Forum Nazionale Giovani
# L'universo dimenticato. Popolazione carceraria e condizione detentiva
www.forumnazionalegiovani.it/ Luglio 2019

 

Antigone
# Numeri e criticità delle carceri italiane nell'estate 2019
www.antigone.it/ 25 luglio 2019

 

Dipartimento per la giustizia minorile e di comunità

# Adulti in area penale esterna - Aggiornamento al 15 luglio 2019
www.giustizia.it/ 18 luglio 2019

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Minorenni e giovani adulti in carico ai Servizi minorili. Analisi statistica dei dati - 15 luglio 2019
Roma, 17 luglio 2019

 

Mariel Alper, Matthew R. Durose,

# Recidivism of Sex Ofenders Released from State Prison: A 9-Year Follow-Up (2005-14)
Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2019

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Yuji Z. Hashimoto, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Probation and Prisons in Europe, 2018: Key Findings of the SPACE reports
Council of Europe. Annual Penal Statistics, Updated version: 20 May 2019

Marcelo F. Aebi, Yuji Z. Hashimoto
# Persons under the supervision of Probation Agencies. SPACE II - 2018
Council of Europe. Annual Penal Statistics, Updated version: Updated on 21 May 2019

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati
www.giustizia.it/ 15 maggio 2019

 

Ministero della Giustizia. Direzione Generale di Statistica e Analisi
Tribunali e uffici di sorveglianza per adulti
# Provvedimenti di concessione di misure 2013-2017
# Provvedimenti di revoca delle misure concesse 2013-2017
Ministero della Giustizia, maggio 2019

 

Associazione Antigone
# Il carcere secondo la Costituzione. XV rapporto di Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione
Roma, 16 maggio 2019

 

Jennifer Bronson, E. Ann Carson
# Prisoners in 2017
www.bjs.gov/ April 2019
The United States prison population declined from 1,508,129 at the end of 2016 to 1,489,363 at the end of 2017, a decrease of 1.2%. During the same period, the number of prisoners under the jurisdiction of federal correctional authorities decreased by 6,100 (down 3%), and the number of prisoners under the jurisdiction of state correctional authorities fell by 12,600 (down 1%). Te imprisonment rate for sentenced prisoners was the lowest since 1997, at 440 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents of all ages and 568 per 100,000 U.S. residents age 18 or older

 

CPT - European Committee for the Prevention of Tortureand Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
# 28th General Report of the CPT - 1 January - 31 December 2018
Council of Europe, April 2019

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati
www.giustizia.it/ Roma, 1 aprile 2019

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prisons and Prisoners in Europe 2018: Key Findings of the SPACE I report
Université de Lausanne - Council of Europe

 

Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale
# Relazione al Parlamento
www.garantenazionaleprivatiliberta.it/ 27 marzo 2019

 

Shadd Maruna, Ruth Mann
# Reconciling ‘Desistance’and ‘What Works’
www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/ February 2019
Both ‘what works’and ‘desistance’narratives are founded on a belief in what Maruna and King (2009) call ‘moral redeemability’. This is the assumption that people can change or that a person’s past is not his or her destiny. Under a moral redeemability belief system, ‘criminality’is not a permanent trait of individuals, but rather an adaptation to a person’s life circumstances that can be changed by altering thosecircumstances or self-understandings.

 

Bailey Gray, Doug Smith, Allison Franklin
# Return To Nowhere. The Revolving Door Between Incarceration and Homelessness
Texas Criminal Justice Coalition, February 2019
Homelessness and justice system involvement are inextricably linked: People experiencing homelessness are 11 times more likely to face incarceration when compared to the general population, and formerly incarcerated individuals are almost 10 times more likely to be homeless than the general public. In fact, the rate of homelessness among adult state and federal prison inmates is four to six times the annual rate of homelessness in the general population.

 

Ministry of Justice
# Offender Management Statistics Bulletin, England and Wales
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/ 31 January 2019

 

Mariel Alper, Lauren Glaze
# Source and Use of Firearms Involved in Crimes: Survey of Prison Inmates, 2016
www.bjs.gov/ January 2019
An estimated 287,400 prisoners had possessed a firearm during their offense. Among these, more than half (56%) had either stolen it (6%), found it at the scene of the crime (7%), or obtained it off the street or from the underground market (43%). Most of the remainder (25%) had obtained it from a family member or friend, or as a gift. Seven percent had purchased it under their own name from a licensed firearm dealer.

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati 15 gennaio 2019
www.giustizia.it/ Roma, 28 gennaio 2019

 

Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale
Rapporto tematico sul regime detentivo speciale ex articolo 41-bis dell'Ordinamento Penitenziario (2016-2018)
www.garantenazionaleprivatiliberta.it/ Roma. 7 gennaio 2019

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria: Osservazioni

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire, Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France. Situation au 1er janvier 2019

 

Rachel E. Morgan, Jennifer L. Truman
# Criminal Victimization, 2017
Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2018
From 1993 to 2017, the rate of violent victimization declined 74%, from 79.8 to 20.6 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older. Te survey indicated that the rate of violent victimization reported to police declined 73% during this period, from 33.8 to 9.2 victimizations reported to police per 1,000 persons age 12 or older...

 

Giovanni Mastrobuoni, Daniele Terlizzese
# Leave the Door Open? Prison Conditions and Recidivism
www.carloalberto.org/ December 2018

 

Kristina Lugo, Roger Przybylski
# Estimating the Financial Costs of Crime Victimization. Final Report
Justice Research and Statistics Association - December 2018
Despite reductions in U.S. crime rates in recent decades, crime victimization continues to be a pressing problem with enormous societal costs. Currently available national estimates of victimization costs are in the hundreds of billions of dollars each year – equivalent to between 2 percent and 6 percent of the nation’s gross domestic product. Understanding the costs of victimization and the components that comprise them can help policymakers and practitioners use resources more efficiently.

 

Partito Radicale Nonviolento Transnazionale Transpartito
# Dossier carcere
Roma, 7 Dicembre 2018

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Léa Berger-Kolopp, Christine Burkhardt, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prisons in Europe, 2005-2015 vol. 1      # vol. II
https://wp.unil.ch/ Lausanne, 30 June 2018 – Updated on 29 November 2018

 

Danielle Kaeble
# Time Served in State Prison, 2016
www.bjs.gov/ November 2018
Persons released from state prisons in 2016 served an average of 46% of their maximum sentence length before their first release. The average sentence length for persons released for murder or non-negligent manslaughter in 2016 was more than three times the average sentence length of other violent offenses and more than five times the average sentence length of any non-violent offenses. Among broader categories, the percentage of maximum sentence that prisoners served was highest for violent offenses (54%) and lowest for drug (41%) and other unspecified (36%) offenses. For offenders first released from state prison in 2016, the average sentence length for drug offenses was 4.0 years  for possession and 6.7 years for trafficking, and the  average time served was 15 months for possession and  26 months for trafficking.

 

Shelley S. Hyland
# Body-Worn Cameras in Law Enforcement Agencies, 2016
www.bjs.gov/ November 2018
In 2016, nearly half (47%) of the 15,328 general-purpose law enforcement agencies in the United States had acquired body-worn cameras (BWCs). By comparison, 69% had dashboard cameras and 38% had personal audio recorders... About 80% of the largest local police departments (employing 500 or more full-time sworn officers) had acquired BWCs, and 70% had at least started placing the BWCs service. In comparison, about 31% of local police  departments employing only part-time sworn officers  had acquired BWCs and had placed BWCs in service.

 

Emilio Dolcini
# Carcere, problemi vecchi e nuovi
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ Milano 5 novembre 2018
Il diritto penale ha una primaria funzione di garanzia del cittadino – anche di chi delinque – nei confronti dell’autorità pubblica; la Costituzione corrobora quella funzione di garanzia: garantisce il cittadino di fronte allo stesso diritto penale. Detto più semplicemente: la Costituzione indica una serie di cose che il legislatore non deve fare. Una sola volta la Costituzione ribalta questa prospettiva, prevedendo – in forma espressa – un obbligo di incriminazione. Così recita l’art. 13 co. 4: “È punita ogni violenza fisica e morale sulle persone comunque sottoposte a restrizioni di libertà”. Una previsione, dunque, con la quale, eccezionalmente, il Costituente anticipa valutazioni politico-criminali che normalmente sono rimesse al legislatore ordinario. Perché questa eccezionale anticipazione? Per ragioni storiche: per “la consapevolezza degli arbitri e delle violenze che, soprattutto da parte della polizia, erano stati perpetrati sotto il regime fascista”

 

Donatella Stasio
# La lezione di Dworkin: anche nella partita sulla sicurezza, la «briscola» è la tutela dei diritti fondamentali
Questione Giustizia, 30 ottobre 2018
Reati in calo, processi lenti, carceri affollate: un quadro che ci riporta indietro di dieci anni e riapre prospettive securitarie. Secondo il filosofo americano, il rispetto dei diritti umani non è un impiccio di cui liberarsi per placare la paura e riscuotere consensi

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP
# Modifiche organizzative e gestionali della vita detentiva e aggressività. Una valutazione delle possibili relazioni intercorrenti
Ottobre 2018

 

# Projet de loi de programmation 2019-2022 et de réforme pour la justice : une réforme qui ne convainc pas
www.federationaddiction.fr/ Oct 2018

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire, Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France. Situation au 1er octobre 2018

 

Ministry of Justice
# Offender Management Statistics Bulletin, England and Wales. Quarterly April to June 2018. Prison population: 30 September 2018
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/ Published 25 October 2018

83,005 prisoners in England and Wales as at 30 September 2018. The total prison population has decreased by 3%, compared with the same point in the previous year. 261,196 offenders on probation as at 30 June 2018. The number of offenders on probation at the end of June 2018 was stable (less than 1% decrease) compared to the same point in the previous year...

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime - UNODC
# Introductory Handbook on the Prevention of Recidivism and the Social Reintegration of Offenders
www.unodc.org/ Vienna, 2018
At the level of the individual, recidivism is prevented when an offender desists from crime. “Desistance” refers to the process by which, with or without external intervention, offenders cease to engage in criminal conduct and maintain crime-free lives. A number of factors are associated with desistance from crime, such as the acquisition of new skills, full-time employment or significant life partnership. Changes in family and employment circumstances are key factors in accounting for desistance. However, while it seems plausible that desistance becomes less likely when problematic social circumstances increase, the causal relationship between these  factors and the absence of criminal behaviour are difficult to specify...

 

France
# Le Plan Pénitentiaire. Présentation
justice.gouv.fr/ Conseil des ministres du 12 septembre 2018

 

Lorena Allam, Calla Wahlquist and Nick Evershed
# The 147 dead: terrible toll of Indigenous deaths in custody spurs calls for reform. Exclusive: Guardian investigation of a decade of Indigenous deaths prompts calls for independent detention monitor
www.theguardian.com/ Mon 27 Aug 2018
147 Indigenous people have died over the decade and 407 have died since the end of the royal commission into deaths in custody in 1991 Indigenous people are dying in custody from treatable medical conditions, and are much less likely than non-Indigenous people to receive the care they need -- Agencies such as police watch-houses, prisons and hospitals failed to follow all of their own procedures in 34% of cases where Indigenous people died, compared with 21% of cases for non-Indigenous people -- Mental health or cognitive impairment was a factor in 41% of all deaths in custody. But Indigenous people with a diagnosed mental health condition or cognitive impairment, such as a brain injury or foetal alcohol syndrome disorder, received the care they needed in just 53% of cases...

 

Illinois Sentencing Policy Advisory Council (SPAC)
# The High Cost of Recidivism
www.icjia.state.il.us/ Summer 2018
If recidivism reduction strategies are successful, the savings generated become available for other uses — including more investment in programs that work within the criminal justice system, social service interventions that reduce the risk of future criminal behavior, and reentry programs for offenders returning to the community — that reduce the number of victimizations going forward. If recidivism is not addressed using research and cost-benefit analysis, the people of Illinois will continue to pay the high cost of maintaining the status quo

 

Ministry of Justice
# Guide to Offender Management Statistics England and Wales
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/ July 2018

 

Matthew Heeks, Sasha Reed, Mariam Tafsiri, Stuart Prince
# The economic and social costs of crime. Second edition
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/ Research Report 99, July 2018
The total costs of crime in England and Wales in the 2015/16 are estimated to be approximately £50bn for crimes against individuals and £9bn for crimes against businesses. Violent crimes make up the largest proportion of the total costs of individual crime – almost three quarters – but only one third of the number of crimes. This is mainly due to the higher physical and emotional costs to the victims of violent offences. These costs are particularly high for crimes that are more likely to result in emotional injuries, such as rape and violence with injury. The offence with the highest estimated unit cost is homicide (£ 3.2m). Rape (£39,360) has the highest estimated unit cost of non-fatal offences...

 

Georgina Sturge
# UK Prison Population Statistics
papers@parliament.uk, 23 July 2018
The prison population of England & Wales quadrupled in size between 1900 and 2017, with around half of this increase taking place since 1990. The Scottish prison population almost doubled in size since 1900 and rose 60% since 1990. The data series for Northern Ireland begins in 2000. Between 2000 and 2016/17 the prison population of Northern Ireland increased by 38%, although the prison population is currently at its lowest since 2010. To put the prison population in context, it is possible to calculate the number of prisoners per 100,000 people in the general population. At the most recent count there were: • 179 prisoners per 100,000 of the population in England and Wales in 2017 • 166 per 100,000 in Scotland (2016/17) and • 98 per 100,000 in Northern Ireland (2016/17).

 

Jacques Bigot et François-Noël Buffet (Sénateurs)
# Rapport d'Information Fait au nom de la commission des lois constitutionnelles, de législation, du suffrage universel, du Règlement et d’administration générale sur la nature des peines, leur efficacitéet leur mise en œuvre
http://www.senat.fr/ 2018

Près de la moitié des peines principales prononcées en 2016 par les juridictions judiciaires étaient des peines d’emprisonnement : 287 511 peines d’emprisonnement pour 582 142 peines prononcées. Outre 203 300 peines d’amende, seulement 63 362 peines « alternatives » ou de substitution ont été prononcées à titre principal... La place centrale accordée à l’emprisonnement apparaît paradoxale au regard de la saturation de la chaine pénale et carcérale qui conduit à aménagerde nombreuses peines d’emprisonnement ferme et donc à ne pas les exécuter sous la forme prononcée par les juridictions ; cette déconnexion croissante, et illisible, entre le prononcé et l’exécution des peines d’emprisonnement avait déjà été dénoncée en 2017 par le rapport de la mission d’information de votre commission sur le redressement de la justice « Cinq ans pour sauver la justice ! ».

 

Censis - FederSicurezza
# 1° Rapporto sulla filiera della sicurezza in Italia
www.censis.it/ Roma, 27 giugno 2018

Sul mercato della sicurezza... Lasciare troppo spazio alla libera iniziativa dei cittadini significherebbe, da un lato, incrementare le distanze sociali tra chi si può permettere i sistemi di difesa e chi no, e, dall’altro, andare incontro a pericolose derive giustizialiste della “sicurezza fai da te”...

 

U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs - Bureau of Justice Statistics
# PREA Data Collection Activities, 2018
www.bjs.gov/ June 2018

 

ISTAT
# La percezione della sicurezza, Anni 2015-2016
www.istat.it/ 22 giugno 2018

 

Penal Reform International
# Global Prison Trends 2018
www.penalreform.org/ May 2018
Global Prison Trends 2018 is the fourth edition in Penal Reform International’s annual series, published in collaboration with the Thailand Institute of Justice. The report analyses trends in criminal justice and the use of imprisonment and, as in previous years, these show that while overall crime rates around the world have declined, the number of people in prison on any given day is rising... 2017   2016   2015

 

Cristina Rodríguez Yagüe
# Un análisis de las estrategias contra la sobrepoblación penitenciaria en España a la luz de los estándares europeos
Revista Electrónica de Ciencia Penal y Criminología, 20.05.2018
La tasa de encarcelamiento en nueve años pasa de estar en 114 internos por 100.000 habitantes a 173. Claramente es el año 2009 el que supone una inflexión, pues a partir de entonces comienza un descenso de la población penitenciaria en centros españoles pero siempre sin recuperar los niveles de comienzos de siglo. Lógicamente esa tasa de encarcelamiento repercute en la tasa de sobreocupación , que ha llegado a alcanzar niveles alarmantes en estos años. Actualmente veremos que, gracias a una importante política de creación de nuevos centros penitenciarios, la densidad de la población ha disminuido hasta situarse, por regla general, en unos parámetros aceptables

 

United Nations - Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
# Report on the twenty-seventh session (8 December 2017 and 14-18 May 2018)
United Nations • New York, 2018

 

Elias Nosrati, Michael Ash, Michael Marmot, Martin McKee, Lawrence P King
# The association between income and life expectancy revisited: deindustrialization, incarceration and the widening health gap
International Journal of Epidemiology, 2018, 720–730
In the USA between 2001 and 2014, deindustrialization and incarceration subtracted roughly 2.5 years from the lifespan of the poor, pointing to their role as major health determinants. Future research must remain conscious of the upstream determinants and the political economy of public health. If public policy responses to growing health inequalities are to be effective, they must consider strengthening industrial policy and ending hyper-incarceration.

 

Donatella Stasio
# Carcere e recidiva, l'offensiva contro le statistiche per fermare il cambiamento (vero)
http://questionegiustizia.it/ 28 maggio 2018
Dieci anni ci sono voluti per tentare di riconciliare questo Paese con la sua migliore tradizione democratica e il suo più fecondo riformismo degli anni ’70, ancorché rimasto sulla carta, per riavvicinarlo agli standard di civiltà giuridica europei, per riscattare l’infamia di una condanna per «trattamenti inumani e degradanti», per ridurre lo scarto esistente tra il cosiddetto sentire comune e il patrimonio di valori costituzionali che, quello sì, dovrebbe essere “comune” ma purtroppo non lo è...

 

Mariel Alper, Matthew R. Durose, Joshua Markman
# 2018 Update on Prisoner Recidivism: A 9-Year Follow-up Period (2005-2014)
Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2018
Five in 6 (83%) state prisoners released in 2005 across 30 states were arrested at least once during the 9 years following their release. The remaining 17% were not arrested after release during the 9-year follow-up period. About 4 in 9 (44%) prisoners released in 2005 were arrested at least once during their first year after release. About 1 in 3 (34%) were arrested during their third year after release, and nearly 1 in 4 (24%) were arrested during their ninth year.

 

The Council of Economic Advisers
# Returns on Investments in Recidivism-reducing Programs
www.whitehouse.gov/ May 2018
CEA finds evidence that certain individual programs can reduce crime as well as reduce spending by lowering long-run incarceration costs. Programs that save at least one dollar in crime and incarceration costs for every dollar spent are deemed cost effective. More specifically, with a focus on rigorous studies of the programs that have been previously implemented, CEA finds that, on average, programs that address the prisoner’s mental health or substance abuse  problems may reduce the cost of crime by about $0.92 to $3.31 per taxpayer dollar spent on prison reform and long-run incarceration costs by $0.55 to $1.96, for a total return of $1.47 to $5.27 per taxpayer dollar

 

HM Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2017–18 - Presented to Parliament pursuant to Section 5A of the Prison Act 1952 as amended by Section 57 of the Criminal Justice Act 1982.
www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/ 2018

 

Jaeok Kim, Preeti Chauhan, Olive Lu, Meredith Patten
# Unpacking Pretrial Detention: An Examination of Patterns and Predictors of Readmissions
Criminal Justice Policy Review · May 2018
Recent estimates suggest that the number of individuals admitted to jails increased from 9.7 million in 1993 to 13.6 million in 2008. In 2015, there were 10.9 million individuals admitted to local jails in the United States and the average daily jail population was over 720,000. From 2005 to 2013, the number of unconvicted (i.e., pretrial) defendants held in local jails on any given day was over 450,000, and accounted for over 60% of the daily jail population. In New York City, which has one of the biggest jail systems in the country, approximately three quarters of admissions to the Department of Correction (DOC) in 2015 were for pretrial detention...

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire - Bureau des statistiques et des études (SDME - Me5)
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France. Situation au 1er mai 2018
www.justice.gouv.fr

 

Danielle Kaeble, Mary Cowhig
# Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016
Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2018
An estimated 6,613,500 persons were under the supervision of U.S. adult correctional systems on December 31, 2016. The adult correctional population consists of persons held in prisons and jails and persons on probation and parole. The correctional population decreased 0.9% from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. From 2007 to 2016, the correctional population declined by an average of 1.2% annually, ranging from a decrease of 0.4% in 2008 to 2.1% in 2010. At year-end 2016, about 1 in 38 persons in the United States were under correctional supervision...

 

Mark Brown, Stuart Ross
# Mentoring, Social Capital and Desistance: A Study of Women Released from Prison
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 43(1):31-50 · April 2010 
...First, drawing upon desistance theory it attempts to develop a theoretical underpinning for mentoring practice with ex-offenders that would identify appropriate targets for mentoring practice, including the development of social capital or connectedness. Part two of the article utilises data from research on a women’s mentoring program in Victoria, Australia, to understand how one key dimension of desistance — social capital — is recognised by women as a domain of need and those women’s perceptions of the way mentoring may deliver gains in social connectedness and capital.

 

Aurélie Stoll, Manon Jendly
# (Re)connaître les mécanismes de la désistance : un état des savoirs
Jusletter 30, April 2018
Alors qu’il est empiriquement attesté que la criminalité est essentiellement l’affaire d’adolescents et de jeunes adultes et que la grande majorité d’entre eux finit par abandonner cette vie problématique, il est intéressant de constater que la désistance est la composante de l’étude des carrières criminelles qui a jusqu’à présent reçu le moins d’attention. Entendue comme un processus qui mène progressivement à l’arrêt de conduites délinquantes, elle constitue un champ de connaissances pourtant particulièrement prometteur pour revisiter les pratiques d’intervention contemporaines déployées auprès de personnes judiciarisées.

 

Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor
# Using evidence to build a better justice system: The challenge of rising prison costs
www.pmcsa.org.nz/ Auckland, New Zealand, 29 March 2018
The general context of prisons filling up with people on remand awaiting trial and of prisoners waiting longer for parole, relate to political decisions that ramp up being ‘tough on crime’ with no evidence of benefit. Beyond the incapacitation of a given individual (which keeps the general public ‘safe’ from that specific offender), prisons overall reduce public safety by their criminogenic effects (both on the individual and subsequent generations). Resources are overwhelmingly directed to those already in the criminal-justice system, not to the prevention of theirgetting there. Yet there is strong and compelling evidence that interventions for preschoolers and young children experiencing trauma and maltreatment, and showing challenging behaviours that underpin a pathway to offending, are effective. The younger the child at intervention, the more effective it is likely to be...

 

Jeffrey A. Butts, Vincent Schiraldi
# Recidivism Reconsidered: Preserving the Community Justice Mission of Community Corrections
www.hks.harvard.edu/ March 2018
Despite promising research on the potential for desistance-focused approaches to improve outcomes, community corrections agencies continue to rely on recidivism as the primary measure of their effectiveness... Our purpose in this discussion is not to end the use of recidivism as a justice system measure but to illustrate its limits and to encourage the development and use of more suitable measures — namely, positive outcomes related to the complex process of criminal desistance.

 

Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics
# Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago, Léa Berger-Kolopp, Christine Burkhardt , SPACE I 2016, Prison Populations

# Marcelo F Aebi, Julien Chopin, SPACE II 2016, Persons Serving Non-Custodial Sanctions and Measures in 2016, rev. 12.03.2018
www.coe.int/ 20.03.2018

# Executive_summary_march2018

 

Robin S. Engel, Robert E. Worden, Nicholas Corsaro, Hannah D. McManus, Danielle Reynolds, Hannah Cochran, Gabrielle T. Isaza, Jennifer Calnon Cherkauskas | IACP/UC Center for Research and Policy
# Deconstructing the Power to Arrest: Lessons from Research
www.theiacp.org/ March 15, 2018
It is a seemingly simple proposition that it is better for police to divert very low-risk offenders from the justice system, in which their involvement may have criminogenic effects, and to divert those with behavioral health and/or criminogenic needs away from the justice system and to ward supports and services that can better address their needs. It is not at all simple , however, to make that proposition a reality. Alternatives to arrest can take many different forms, not all of which are equally acceptable to street-level personnel. Well-founded diversion decisions require information thatofficers in the field typically lack and cannot easily acquire...

 

John F. Pfaff
# Criminal Punishment and the Politics of Place
Fordham Urban Law Journal, vol. XLV, 2018
The criminal justice system is not a single coherent “system,” but rather a somewhat—or sometimes extremely—chaotic collection of agencies, each responding to a unique set of incentives. And these incentives are, quite frequently, strongly shaped by who the constituents are, which is determined by where the constituents are. The two examples above highlight the need to account for place, and how thinking about where these agencies are helps us better understand what they are going to do,  and thus what sorts of reforms we may need to enact...

 

Zhen Zeng
# Jail Inmates in 2016
www.bjs.gov/ February 2018
At midyear 2016, about 740,700 inmates were confined in county and city jails in the United States. The midyear jail population (i.e., the number of inmates held in custody on the last weekday in June) remained relatively stable from 2011 to 2016 and below a peak of 785,500 in 2008, which was the highest count since 1982. There were 229 jail inmates per 100,000 U.S. esidents at midyear 2016, down from 259 per 100,000 residents at midyear 2007. Jails reported 10.6 million admissions during 2016, which was 14.5 times the size of the average daily population (ADP) in 2016 (731,300 inmates)...

 

Charles Falconer

# British justice is in flames. The MoJ’s fiddling is criminal. From prisons to probation and legal aid, the entire system is on the verge of collapse – and poor people bear the brunt. Act now, lord chancellor
www.theguardian.com/ Tue 6 Feb 2018
No one who knows anything about the justice system doubts it is in crisis, that the crisis is unprecedented, that it is rendering the system unable to perform its most basic functions. And that the victims of this are poor people. The prisons are as dangerous as they have ever been in modern times to prison officers and prisoners alike. The probation service has ceased to function in the face of a misconceived privatisation.

 

Human Rights Watch
# “I Needed Help, Instead I Was Punished”. Abuse and Neglect of Prisoners with Disabilities in Australia
www.hrw.org/ February 6, 2018

The statistics on how overrepresented people with disabilities are in prison—and especially how overrepresented certain groups of people with disabilities are—call into question the fairness and effectiveness of Australia’s justice system. People with disabilities, particularly a cognitive or psychosocial disability, are overrepresented in the criminal justice system in Australia—comprising around 18 percent of the country’s population, but almost 50 percent of people entering prison.

 

John Gramlich
# 5 facts about crime in the U.S.A.
www.pewresearch.org/ January 30, 2018
The two most commonly cited sources of crime statistics in the U.S. both show a substantial decline in the violent crime rate since it peaked in the early 1990s. One is an annual report by the FBI of serious crimes reported to police in approximately 18,000 jurisdictions around the country. The other is an annual survey of more than 90,000 households conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, which asks Americans ages 12 and older whether they were victims of crime, regardless of whether they reported those crimes to the police.

 

Ministry of Justice
# Offender Management statistics quarterly, England and Wales. Quarter: July to September 2017, Prison population: 31 December 2017
www.gov.uk/ 25 January 2018

# Monthly Bulletin - December 2017

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire - Bureau des statistiques et des études (SDME - Me5)
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France. Situation au 1er janvier 2018
www.justice.gouv.fr

 

Amanda Y. Agan, Michael D. Makowsky
# The Minimum Wage, EITC, and Criminal Recidivism
www.nakedcapitalism.com/ January 9, 2018
Every year, more than 600,000 men and women are released from U.S. prisons; nearly one-third will return to prison within three years. The probability these individuals returnto prison is in part determined by the labor market opportunities they face upon release In the market for low and unskilled labor, releasedprisoners are likely to be on the margin of employment and may be particularly sensitive tochanges in low-wage labor market policie... we estimate how two major low-wage labor market policies, the minimumwage and earned income tax credits (EITCs), impact the probability a recently releasedprisoner returns to prison. We exploit variations in the levels and existence of these poli-cies across states combined with microdata from nearly six million individual prison releaserecords from 2000 to 2014 across 42 states to understand how these policies impact recidivism.

 

E. Ann Carson
# Prisoners in 2016
Bureau of Justice Statistics, January 2018
The number of prisoners under state and federal jurisdiction at year-end 2016 (1,505,400) was a 7% decrease (down 110,100 prisoners) from 2009 when the U.S. prison population peaked. Federal prisoners made up 13% of the total U.S. prison population at year-end 2016 but accounted for 34% of the decline in the total prison population. The number of federal prisoners decreased from 196,500 in 2015 to 189,200 in 2016. This was the fourth consecutive year of population decline among federal prisoners.

 

Ames Grawert, James Cullen
# Crime in 2017: Updated Analysis
Brennan Center for Justice

The overall crime rate in the 30 largest cities in 2017 is estimated to decline slightly from the previous year, falling by 2.7 percent. If this trend holds, crime rates will remain near historic lows. The violent crime rate will also decrease slightly, by 1.1 percent, essentially remaining stable. Violent crime remains near the bottom of the nation’s 30-year downward trend. The 2017 murder rate in the 30 largest cities is estimated to decline by 5.6 percent. Large decreases this year in Chicago and Detroit, as well as small decreases in other cities, contributed to this decline.

 

European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation (Europol)
# Internet Organized Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA) 2017
www.europol.europa.eu/ 2017
This year’s report highlights how cybercrime continues to grow and evolve, taking new forms and directions, as demonstrated in some of the attacks of unprecedented scale of late 2016 and mid- 017.It further highlights the progressive convergence of cyber and serious and organised crime, supported by a professional underground service economy

 

Eurostat
# Crime and criminal justice statistics Data extracted in May 2017
ec.europa.eu/ 23 jan 2018
The total number of prisoners across the EU-28 (excluding Belgium) rose slightly each year between 2008 and 2012, and then fell by 3.6 % in 2013 and by 3.5 % in 2014 and by 2.9 % in 2015. The prison population in 2015 was 6.4 % below what it had been in 2008. The number of prisoners with foreign citizenship (including other EU citizenship) rose somewhat faster in 2009 and 2010 across the EU-28 (excluding Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Malta and Sweden), but declined as from 2011. By 2015 it was 12.2 % below the 2008 level.

 

# Giovanni Mammone, Primo Presidente della Corte di cassazione, Relazione sull’amministrazione della Giustizia, 26 gennaio 2018

# Riccardo Fuzio, Procuratore generale della Corte suprema di cassazione , Intervento nell’Assemblea generale della Corte sull’amministrazione della giustizia nell’anno 2017, 26 gennaio 2018

# Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria, Inaugurazione Anno Giudiziario 2018
# Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile e di Comunità, Inaugurazione Anno Giudiziario 2018

# Marina Anna Tavassi, Presidente della Corte di Appello di Milano, Relazione sull’amministrazione della giustizia nel Distretto della Corte di Appello di Milano, 27 gennaio 2018

 

ACLU New Jersey
# A Vision to End Mass Incarceration in New Jersey
www.issuelab.org/ December 2017
The United States and New Jersey face a mass incarceration crisis. Although New Jersey has seen a recent decline in its incarcerated population, close to 35,000 people are still housed in its prisons and jails. In fact, despite the recent decline, the size of New Jersey's prison population increased by 278 percent between 1975 and 2015.hetey

 

Florence De Bruyn, Annie Kensey
# 50 ans d’études quantitatives sur les récidives enregistrées
www.justice.gouv.fr/ Décembre 2017
Ce Travaux & Documents présente, sous forme de fiches synthétiques et récapitulatives les recherches quantitatives réalisées en France depuis 50 ans en matière de récidives délictuelle et criminelle, officiellement enregistrées et judiciairement sanctionnées, ainsi que quelques recherches menées à l’étranger qui ont attiré notre attention par leur originalité. Cependant, nous ne saurions présenter ces études sans évoquer à minima le contexte dans lequel elles ont pu être produites. Comment la récidive devient-elle un objet d’études et pourquoi ? Pourquoi et comment quantifier la « récidive » ? Quels besoins cette quantification tente-t-elle de satisfaire ?

 

Observatoire de la Récidive et de la Désistance
# Rapport annuel del l'observatoire de la recidive et de la desistance
www.justice.gouv.fr/ 2017
La désistance est, en revanche, un sujet relativement nouveau en France. Sa seule évocation soulève des interrogations. Sa définition vient d’être arrêtée et elle figurera très bientôt dans le dictionnaire comme étant : « le processus par lequel une personne sort de la délinquance ». Cette sortie de la délinquance, qui s’inscrit dans une dynamique, résulte de la conjugaison de nombreux facteurs, endogènes et exogènes et caractérise un changement de vie profond et durable.

 

Rachel E. Morgan, Grace Kena
# Criminal Victimization, 2016
Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2017
In 2016, about half (51%) of serious violent crimes, including rape or sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault, were reported to police. In comparison, 42% of all violent crimes and 36% of property crimes were reported to police. Rates of violent victimization, serious violent victimization, and property victimization were higher in urban areas than in  suburban and rural areas in 2016. The rate of violent victimization in urban areas was 29.9 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older, compared to 15.4 per 1,000 in suburban and 21.7 per 1,000 in rural areas...

 

William H. Pryor, Jr., Rachel E. Barkow, Charles R. Breyer, Danny C. Reeves, Zachary C. Bolitho, J. Patricia Wilson Smoot, Kenneth P. Cohen, Glenn R. Schmit, Kim Steven Hunt, Kim Steven Hunt, Billy Easley II,
# The Effects of Aging on Recidivism Among Federal Offenders
www.ussc.gov/ United States Sentencing Commission; December 2017
Older offenders were substantially less likely than younger offenders to recidivate following release. Over an eight-year follow-up period, 13.4 percent of offenders age 65 or older at the time of release were rearrested compared to 67.6 percent of offenders younger than age 21 at the time of release. The pattern was consistent across age groupings, and recidivism measured by rearrest, reconviction, and reincarceration declined as age increased.

 

Andrew Bushnel
# Australia's Criminal Justice Costs: an International Comparison
Institute of Public Affairs, december 2017
Incarceration in Australia is growing rapidly. The 2016 adult incarceration rate was 208 per 100,000 adults, up 28 percent from 2006. There are now more than 36,000 prisoners, up 39 percent from a decade ago... Australian prisons are among the most expensive in the world. Among countries for which 2014 data is available, Australia had the fifth highest per prisoner annual prison cost. The cost of putting one person in prison for a year was $109,500. Only Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands and Luxembourg had higher costs.

 

Jessica Jacobson, Catherine Heard, Helen Fair | ICPR
# Prison. Evidence of its use and over-use from around the world
2017 Institute for Criminal Policy Research
Whether you would end up in prison is also affected by who you are. For example, Roma people make up around 40% of Hungary’s prison population, despite representing only 6% of the national population; and Indigenous people in Australia represent 27% of adult prisoners while making up around 2% of all adult Australians. Across the board, poor and marginalised communities are overrepresented in prisons.

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Dati statistici
www.giustizia.it/ 15 novembre 2017

 

Cédric Mathiot
# Non, les peines alternatives ne sont pas deux fois plus efficaces que la prison ferme
www.liberation.fr/ 1 novembre 2017
... En raisonnant avec des personnes de profils comparables, le taux de condamnation à l’emprisonnement ferme des personnes condamnées à du SME (52%) est beaucoup plus proche de celui des sortants de prison (61%). Même chose si on regarde le taux de recondamnation simple : les sortants de prison ont été 72% à être recondamnés dans les cinq ans. Ils sont suivis de près par les condamnés à du SME (68%) ou à du sursis simple (62%). Ces chiffres montrent toujours que la prison ferme débouche davantage sur la récidive que les  peines non carcérales. Mais avec des chiffres moins spectaculaires. Mais plus honnêtes.

 

Observatoire de la récidive et de la désistance
# Rapport Annuel 2017
www.justice.gouv.fr / 2017
La récidive et la désistance: notions distinctes, notions complexes. Celui qui récidive peut être sorti de la délinquance. Celui qui ne récidive pas peut ne pas être sorti de la délinquance. Contrairement à la récidive, la désistance (plus récente en France qu’à l’étranger) se définit d’une manière plus dynamique et processuelle. Une personne considérée comme récidiviste (du fait qu’elle soit condamnée à nouveau pour une infraction commise quelques mois auparavant) peut être sortie de la délinquance dans le sens où elle est maintenant « passée à autre chose », notamment en s’engageant dans une vie familiale ou dans un travail. A l’inverse, une personne considérée comme non-récidiviste n’est pas nécessairement sortie de la délinquance : elle peut continuer les activités délinquantes (et devenir plus performante) sans se faire arrêter par la police.

 

HM Inspectorate of Probation for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2017 (Introduced by HM Chief Inspector of Probation Dame Glenys Stacey)
www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/ HM Inspectorate of Probation 2017
Yet in some CRCs, individuals meet with their probation worker in places that lack privacy, when sensitive and difficult conversations must take place. Some do not meet with their probation worker face-to face. Instead, they are supervised by telephone calls every six weeks or so from junior professional staff carrying 200 cases or more. I find it inexplicable that, under the banner of innovation, these developments were allowed...

[The Guardian...]

 

David J. Harding, Jeffrey D. Morenoff, Anh P. Nguyen, Shawn D. Bushway
# Short- and long-term effects of imprisonment on future felony convictions and prison admissions
http://www.pnas.org/ PNAS | October 17, 2017 | vol. 114 |no. 42
... Being sentenced to prison rather than probation increases the probability of imprisonment in the first 3 years after release from prison by 18 percentage points among nonwhites and 19 percentage points among whites. Further results show that such effects are driven primarily by imprisonment for technical violations of community supervision rather than new felony convictions. This suggests that more stringent postprison parole supervision (relative to probation supervision) increases imprisonment through the detection and punishment of low-level offending or violation behavior...

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ Autumn 2017
In 2016–17, two-thirds of prisons in England and Wales were overcrowded (79 of the 119 prisons). Nearly 21,000 people were held in overcrowded accommodation—almost a quarter of the prison population. The majority were doubling up in cells designed for one. This level of overcrowding has remained broadly unchanged for the last 14 years....

 

PEW Charitable Trusts
# Prison Health Care: Costs and Quality. How and why states strive for high-performing systems
www.pewtrusts.org/ Oct 2017
On a typical day, state prisons house more than a million people, many of whom have extensive and communicable health ailments. The manner in which services are provided affects state budgets because of the expensive treatments for some common conditions, the downstream costs of delayed or inadequate care, and the legal and financial consequences of being found to violate inmates’ constitutional rights to “reasonably adequate” care. Moreover, with nearly all incarcerated individuals eventually returning to society, treatment and discharge planning—especially for those with a substance use disorder, mental illness, or infectious disease—play an important role in statewide anti- recidivism and public health efforts. Taken together, these realities call for the attention of policymakers and administrators.

 

Michela Finizio, # Ecco la mappa dei reati: 284 denunce ogni ora. Nel 2016 si conferma il calo generale dei delitti (7,4%), ilsole24ore.it/ 9 ottobre 2017

Maurizio Fiasco, # Alt al mercato speculativo della paura, ilsole24ore.it/ 9 ottobre 2017

 

Parlamento europeo | 2014-2019
# Sistemi carcerari e condizioni di detenzione. Risoluzione del Parlamento europeo del 5 ottobre 2017 sui sistemi carcerari e le condizioni di detenzione (2015/2062(INI)
www.europarl.europa.eu/

 

DAP Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Circolare sull'organizzazione del circuito detentivo speciale previsto dall'art. 41 bis O.P.
2 ottobre 2017

 

Federico Olivo
# La recidiva nell'esecuzione penale: grande menzogna oppure ricerca da approfondire?
www.sappe.it/ Settembre 2017

... Peccato però che in Italia, nessuno, né il Parlamento, né il Governo, nemmeno il Ministro della Giustizia in carica, tuttora, abbiano minimamente idea del tasso effettivo di recidiva del sistema penale italiano.

 

Giacomo Di Gennaro, Riccardo Marselli (a cura di)
# Criminalità e sicurezza a Napoli. Secondo rapporto
Federico II University Press, Napoli 2017

 

David Roodman
# The impacts of incarceration on crime
Open Philanthropy Project, September 2017
My best estimate is that the best estimate of the impact of additional incarceration on crime in the United States today is zero. Incarceration can be thought of as affecting crime before, during, and after: before incarceration, in that stiffer sentences may deter offending; during, in that people inside prison cannot physically commit crime outside; and after, in that having been incarcerated may shift one’s chance of reoffending. The first is here called “deterrence,” the second “incapacitation,” and the third “aftereffects.” In short, incarceration’s “before” effect is mild or zero while the “after” cancels out the “during”.

 

Giorgio Alleva
# Audizione alla Commissione parlamentare di inchiesta sul femminicidio, nonché su ogni forma di violenza di genere
# Allegato

www.istat.it/ Roma, 27 settembre 2017
In generale, la quota di straniere che dichiara di aver subito violenza fisica o sessuale è pressoché identica a quella delle donne italiane (31,3% – 644 mila donne, contro 31,5% – 6 milioni 144 mila donne). Si attestano sopra la media le donne moldave, che superano il 35 per cento (37,3%), le romene (33,9%) e le ucraine (33,2%), mentre le percentuali sono più basse della media fra le donne marocchine (21,7%), albanesi (18,8%) e cinesi (16,4%).

 

United States Government Accountability Office (GAO)
# Costs of Crime. Experts Report Challenges Estimating Costs and Suggest Improvements to Better Inform Policy Decisions
www.gao.gov/ September 2017

 

Laura Jaitman (ed)
# The Costs of Crime and Violence New Evidence and Insights in Latin America and the Caribbean
https://publications.iadb.org/ 2017
What exactly are the social costs of crime and how can we measure them? These costs certainly include the direct costs as a result of crime: injury, damage, and loss. There are also costs in anticipation of crime, such as public and private expenditure on security. And there are costs in response to crime, such as the cost of the criminal justice system. We should also take into account other indirect or intangible costs such as changes in behavior due to the fear of crime or the costs to the families of victims. Indeed, there are probably many other consequences of crime that are costly and should be considered, including the possibility that what people are willing to pay to reduce crime may sometimes even be much higher than what the aggregate costs of crime to society actually turn out to be.

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Dati Statistici - Aggiornamento
www.giustizia.it/ 15 settembre 2017

 

Ronald D’Amico, Christian Geckeler, Hui Kim
# An Evaluation of Seven Second Chance Act Adult Demonstration Programs: Impact Findings at 18 Months
www.ncjrs.gov/ September 2017
Being assigned to the program group did not reduce involvement with the criminal justice system in the 18 months after random assignment. Whether recidivism was measured using survey or administrative data, those in the program group were no less likely to be re-arrested, reconvicted, or re-incarcerated; their time to re-arrest or re-incarceration was no shorter; and they did not have fewer total days incarcerated (including time in both prisons and jails)....

 

Ames C. Grawert, James Cullen | Brennan Center for Justice
# Crime in 2017: A Preliminary Analysis
www.brennancenter.org/ September 6, 2017
- The overall crime rate in 2017 is projected to decrease slightly, by 1.8 percent. If this estimate holds, 2017 will have the second-lowest crime rate since 1990. - The violent crime rate is projected to decrease slightly, by 0.6 percent, essentially remaining stable. - The 2017 murder rate is projected to be 2.5 percent lower than last year. This year’s decline is driven primarily by decreases in Detroit (down 25.6 percent), Houston (down 20.5 percent), and New York (down 19.1 percent). Chicago’s murder rate is also projected to fall, by 2.4 percent...

 

ISTAT
# Delitti, imputati e vittime dei reati. Una lettura integrata delle fonti sulla criminalità e giustizia
Istituto nazionale di statistica, 2017

 

European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)
# Report to the Italian Government on the visit to Italy carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) from 8 to 21 April 2016  # Executive summary
https://rm.coe.int/ Strasbourg, 8 September 2017
The CPT recommends that the Italian authorities pursue their efforts to eradicate prison overcrowding. The CPT would like to be informed about the steps taken by the Italian authorities in order to curb the growth of the prison population registered since the beginning of 2016... The CPT is critical of the use of medical seclusion rooms for the prolonged isolation of inmates with self-harming and/or suicidal tendencies; notably, the potential it represents for physical ill-treatment, the degrading manner of its application (such as inmates being left in only their underwear), the absence of adequate monitoring by health-care staff and the inadequate recording of such measures...

 

Maartje van der Woude, Vanessa Barker, Joanne van der Leun
# Crimmigration in Europe
European Journal of Criminology 2017, Vol. 14(1)
Links between crime, security, migration and integration are far from new, but since the ‘asylum crisis’ of the 1990s they have become more established, resulting in a series of policy and legislative reforms targeting migrants in member  states. These developments, which are now rapidly accelerating, seem to fit into the broader trend for which scholars have coined the term crimmigration, the growing merger of crime control and immigration control...

 

Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna, Alessandra Minello
# Assassini di genere
lavoce.info, 23.08.2017
L’Italia è il paese sviluppato dove le donne corrono il minor rischio di essere uccise. Infatti, nel periodo 2004-2015 ci sono stati in Italia 0,51 omicidi volontari ogni 100 mila donne residenti, contro una media di 1,23 nei trentadue paesi europei e nordamericani per cui si dispone di dati Unodc. Le differenze sono ampie. I paesi della ex-Urss e gli Usa sono quelli dove le donne sono più a rischio, con tassi quattro volte superiori rispetto all’Italia, mentre i più sicuri sono gli stati dell’Europa meridionale, con l’Italia al 32esimo e ultimo posto per tasso di omicidi. 

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Prison: the facts. Bromley Briefings
www.thebromleytrust.org.uk/ Summer 2017
The prison system as a whole has been overcrowded in every year since 1994. Overcrowding affects whether activities, staff and other resources are available to reduce risk of reoffending, as well as distance from families and other support networks. At the end of May 2017, 76 of the 117 prisons in England and Wales were overcrowded—holding 9,496 people more than they were designed to. 20,995 people were held in overcrowded accommodation on average in 2015–6—nearly a quarter of the prison population. The majority were doubling up in cells designed for one. This level of overcrowding has remained broadly unchanged for the last 12 years.

 

Roy Walmsley | WPB | ICPR
# World Female Imprisonment List. Women and girls in penal institutions, including pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners - Fourth edition
www.prisonstudies.org/ 2017
In around four-fifths of prison systems female prisoners constitute between 2 and 9% of the total prison population. Just nineteen systems have a higher percentage than that. The jurisdictions with the highest proportions are Hong Kong-China (20.8%), Laos (18.3%), Macau-China (15.4%), Qatar (14.7%), Kuwait (13.8%), Thailand (13.3%), Myanmar(12.3%), United Arab Emirates (11.7%) and South Sudan (10.9%) ...

 

Parliamentary Ombudsman
# Women in Prison. A thematic report about the conditions for female prisoners in Norway
https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/ 2017
More than 200 women are held in Norwegian prisons at any time. This makes up 5.2 per cent of all inmates, which is somewhat above the average proportion of women in the total prison population in Europe. Globally, the number of women in prison has increased considerably over the past ten years, while it has remained relatively stable in Norway.

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France
www.justice.gouv.fr/ 1er août 2017

 

Senato della Repubblica - Ufficio Valutazione Impatto
# Oltre le sbarre La questione carceraria e 10 anni di politiche di contrasto al sovraffollamento cronico
www.senato.it/ Luglio 2017

 

Associazione Antigone
# Pre-Rapporto 2017 sulle carceri
www.associazioneantigone.it/ 27 luglio 2017

 

Colson Center for Christian Worldview, the Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission, the National Association of Evangelicals, and Prison Fellowship
# Responding to Crime & Incarceration: A Call to the Church
www.prisonfellowship.org/ 2017

 

Don Stemen
# The Prison Paradox: More Incarceration Will Not Make Us Safer
www.vera.org/ July 2017
Despite two decades of declining crime rates and a decade of efforts to reduce mass incarceration, some policymakers  continue to call for tougher sentences and greater use of incarceration to reduce crime. It may seem intuitive that increasing incarceration would further reduce crime: incarceration not only prevents future crimes by taking people who commit crime “out of circulation” (incapacitation), but it also may dissuade people from committing future crimes out of fear of punishment (deterrence). In reality, however, increasing incarceration rates has a minimal impact on reducing crime and entails significant costs...

 

European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)
# Public statement concerning Belgium
Strasbourg, 13 July 2017
However, for 12 years, the CPT has consistently expressed its deep concern regarding the serious consequences which can result from industrial action by prison staff in Belgium. These consequences have a direct impact (for prolonged periods) on the detention conditions, health and security of the persons placed under their responsibility. They entail, in particular, almost continuous confinement of inmates in cells in conditions already deemed intolerable, serious disruption in the distribution of their meals, a dramatic deterioration of their personal hygiene conditions and conditions in cells, frequent cancellation of daily outdoor exercise, serious restrictions on their access to health care and a virtual halt to their contacts with the outside world (including with lawyers)...

 

Frieder Dünkel
# European penology: The rise and fall of prison population rates in Europe in times of migrant crises and terrorism
European Journal of Criminology 2017, Vol. 14(6) 629–653
Research results testing the hypothesis that prison population rates are higher or increase if crime rates, particularly for serious crimes (which usually attract a custodial sentence), are high or increase are mixed. In some countries a confirming development was found (for example, Germany); in others, however, there was actually evidence of an inverse correlation: an increase in crime rates and decrease in prison populations, or, as in the USA and England & Wales, an increase in prison population rates and a decrease in crime. In recent years Aebi, Linde and Delgrande (2015) have found a positive correlation between the development of (serious) crime and prison population rates for some West European countries. Nevertheless, the correlations are rather weak and not always clear. There is, however, a stronger correlation between the fall in prison population rates and declining crime rates in some countries such as Germany and the Netherlands

 

David Crowe
# Measuring the cost of crime
https://igees.gov.ie/ 8 june 2017

 

The Sentencing Project
# Trends in U.S. Corrections
http://sentencingproject.org/ June 2017

 

Corrective Services, Australia
# Persons in Corrective Services
http://www.abs.gov.au/

 

Giulia Mentasti,
# Carcere e sanzioni non detentive in Europa: i rapporti Space I e Space II 2015
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 25 maggio 2017

Quanto ai tipi di reato per i quali sono state pronunciate le condanne, al primo posto si collocano i reati connessi alle sostanze stupefacenti (18,7%), seguiti a breve distanza da furto (16,2%), omicidio (13,2%) e rapina (12,6%). Tra le informazioni più rilevanti, si segnalano: la durata media delle detenzioni, stabilizzata, come l’anno precedente, intorno ai sette mesi; il tasso medio di mortalità, che nel corso del 2014 è stato di 27 deceduti ogni 10.000 detenuti (un punto inferiore rispetto al precedente anno); tra le cause di morte, il suicidio è tuttora ampiamente presente, pur se in attenuazione rispetto al passato, con un tasso di 7,2 suicidi ogni 10.000 detenuti...

 

Chris Mai, Ram Subramanian
# The Price of Prisons: Examining State Spending Trends, 2010-2015
Vera Institute of Justice, May 2017
In 2015, among the 45 responding states, the total state expenditure on prisons was just under $43 billion. Because the size of states and state prison systems vary widely, there is likewise variation between each states’ total prison costs, ranging from $65 million in North Dakota, to more than $8 billion (a fifth of the total prison spending in the United States) in California—the largest state prison system in the country...

 

Penal Reform International
# Global Prison Trends 2017
https://cdn.penalreform.org/ May 2017
The Global Prison Trends 2017 report is the third in our annual series, and provides an overview of key developments in criminal justice and prison policy and practice over the past 12 months. It shows that the overall trend of a reduction in crime rates has continued over the past year. However, despite this, the world does not feel a safer place...

# Global Prison Trends 2016

 

Ashley Nellis | The Sentencing Project
# Still Life. America’s Increasing Use of Life and Long-Term Sentences
www.sentencingproject.org/ May 2017
The number of people serving life sentences in U.S. prisons is at an all-time high. Nearly 162,000 people are serving a life sentence – one of every nine people in prison. An additional 44,311 individuals are serving “virtual life” sentences of 50 years or more. Incorporating this category of life sentence, the total population serving a life or virtual life sentence reached 206,268 in 2016. This represents 13.9 percent of the prison population, or one of every seven people behind bars.

 

Associazione Antigone
# XIII rapporto sulle condizioni di detenzione
www.associazioneantigone.it/ 25 maggio 2017

 

Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France
www.justice.gouv.fr/ 1er mai 2017

 

Le Monde - Editorial
# La politique pénale et carcérale française est un échec
www.lemonde.fr/ 03.04.2017
Notre taux d’incarcération (98,3 détenus pour 100 000 habitants) n’est inférieur à la moyenne européenne que parce que celle-ci inclut des pays qui emprisonnent en masse (la Russie et la Turquie ). La vérité est plus brutale, telle que la décrivait le regretté Me Thierry Lévy : en France, la prison ne se limite pas à la privation de liberté. Dans notre entendement collectif, elle doit faire souffrir au-delà de l’enfermement.

 

Par M. Philippe Bas, Président-rapporteur, Mme Esther Benbassa, MM. Jacques Bigot, François-Noël Buffet, Mme Cécile Cukierman, MM. Jacques Mezard et François Zocchetto, Sénateurs
# Cinq ans pour sauver la justice! Rapport d'Information Fait au nom de la commission des lois constitutionnelles, de législation, du suffrage universel, du Règlement et d’administration générale par la mission d’information sur le redressement de la justice
https://www.senat.fr/ 4 avril 2017

 

European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
# 26th General Report of the CPT. 1 January - 31 December 2016
Council of Europe, April 2017

 

Senato della Repubblic a
# Emergenza carceri. Tra sovraffollamento cronico, condanne UE e legislazione svuota-penitenziari
Senato - Servizio Studi, N. 161 - aprile 2017
Il sovraffollamento carcerario sembra destinato ad affliggere, ciclicamente, il sistema penitenziario italiano... Ancora a marzo 2017, tuttavia, il Garante nazionale dei detenuti, nella sua relazione annuale al Parlamento, ha segnalato il permanere di criticità inaccettabili nel sistema penitenziario, soprattutto in relazione ai livelli di trattamento delle persone vulnerabili e malate, livelli «definibili appropriatamente con gli aggettivi “inumano” e “degradante”» utilizzati dalla CEDU...

# Damiano Aliprandi, Le donne delinquono meno degli uomini ma in carcere trovano condizioni peggiori, Il Dubbio, 6 aprile 2017

 

Zoé Lauwereys
# Prisons surpeuplées : ce que proposent les candidats à la présidentielle
www.leparisien.fr/ 31 mars 2017
La France a battu un nouveau record en 2017. Au 1er mars 2017, 69.430 personnes étaient détenues alors que les établissements pénitentiaires ont une capacité d’accueil de 58.664 places opérationnelles. Dans le même temps, la maison d’arrêt de Villepinte (Seine-Saint-Denis) se dit «dans l’impossibilité physique d’accueillir plus de détenus» avec un taux d’occupation de 201%.

 

Miikka Vuorela
# The historical criminal statistics of Finland 1842–2015 – a systematic comparison to Sweden
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, March 2017
The purpose of the study is to illustrate the availability and significance of the long criminal justice time series in the Nordic countries and describe the long-term trends in crime and crime control in Finland and Sweden. As such, the article attempts to provide an overview of the Finnish criminality and control policy during the past 200 years. Due to the nature of the research questions, the following analysis will be a macro-level introduction to the trends in crime and criminal policy and their existing explanations. The article forms a part of a larger project aiming to the collection of available criminal justice statistics in the Nordic countries (excluding Iceland)...

 

Laurette Cretin, Odile Timbart, Maël Löwenbrück
# Une approche individualisée de la multi condamnation
Infostat Justice, n. 151, Mars 2017
Sur l’ensemble des personnes condamnées entre 2005 et 2014, 58 % ne présentent qu’une seule condamnation (mono condamnés) alors que 42 % en affichent plusieurs (multi condamnés). Parmi ces multi condamnés, les trois quarts ont deux, trois ou quatre condamnations (respectivement 43 %, 20 % et 12 %)... 

 

Le Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté | Adeline Hazan
# Rapport d’activité 2016     # Images
www.cglpl.fr/ 2017

 

Garante Nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale
# Relazione al Parlamento 2017
Roma 21 marzo 2017

 

Mark Motivans
# Federal Justice Statistics, 2013 -Statistical Tables
Bureau of Justice Statistics, March 2017

 

Peter Wagner, Bernadette Rabuy
# Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2017
www.prisonpolicy.org/ March 14, 2017
The American criminal justice system holds more than 2.3 million people in 1,719 state prisons, 102 federal prisons, 901 juvenile correctional facilities, 3,163 local jails, and 76 Indian Country jails as well as in military prisons, immigration detention facilities, civil commitment centers, and prisons in the  U.S. territories. And we go deeper to provide further detail on why people are locked up in all of those different types of facilities...

 

Julie Reitano - Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics
# Adult correctional statistics in Canada, 2015/2016
www.statcan.gc.ca/ March 1, 2017

In 2015/2016, there were on average 120,568 adult offenders on a given day, in either custody or in a community program among the 11 reporting provinces and territories for which both custody and community data were available. This represents a rate of 438 offenders per 100,000 adult population, a decrease of 3% from the previous year and a decline of 16% compared to 2011/2012. In contrast, the number of adults charged with a crime by police in Canada increased 3% between 2014 and 2015. However, between 2011 and 2015, there was a 1% decline in the number of adults charged.  A large majority of adults (80%) under correctional supervision in the provinces and territories in 2015/2016 were under community supervision such as probation and conditional sentences. The remaining 20% were in custody.

 

Aaron Chalfin, Justin McCrary
# Criminal Deterrence: A Review of the Literature
Journal of Economic Literature 2017, 55(1), 5–48
We review economics research regarding the effect of police, punishments, and work on crime, with a particular focus on papers from the last twenty years. Evidence in favor of deterrence effects is mixed. While there is considerable evidence that crime is responsive to police and to the existence of attractive legitimate labor-market opportunities, there is far less evidence that crime responds to the severity of criminal sanctions. We discuss fruitful directions for future work and implications for public policy.

 

David Cole
# The Changing Politics of Crime and the Future of Mass Incarceration
http://academyforjustice.org/ February 11, 2017
Today “smart on crime” has replaced “tough on crime.” Rather than simply being tougher than the next guy, politicians and government officials increasingly seek solutions that are based on evidence and reason rather than heated rhetoric and demagoguery. To that end, this project brings together a who’s who of experts in criminal law, and asks each contributor to offer both a concise diagnosis of the problems in their particular area of expertise and, more importantly, a prescription for practical reforms.

 

Office for National Statistics
# Focus on violent crime and sexual offences, England and Wales: year ending Mar 2016.
www.ons.gov.uk/ Release 9 February 2017
Females were victims in 53% of violence against the person offences and 90% of rape offences recorded by the
police. Over a third (35%) of violence against the person offences against females were suspected to be committed by
an intimate partner, compared with 10% of violent offences against males. Of violence against the person offences recorded by the police, 16% were identified as alcohol-related, as were 9% of sexual offences.

 

Council of Europe
# Europe’s prison population falls, but there is no progress in tackling overcrowding, says annual Council of Europe survey
Press release - DC031(2017)
# SPACE I: report   # SPACE II: report

 

Demos & Pi e Osservatorio di Pavia per Fondazione Unipolis
# L’Europa sospesa tra inquietudine e speranza. Il decennio dell’incertezza globale. Rapporto sulla sicurezza e l’insicurezza sociale in Italia e in Europa. Significati, immagini e realtà. Percezione, rappresentazione sociale e mediatica della sicurezza
www.demos.it/ Febbraio 2017

 

Massimo De Pascalis
# Come liberarsi della necessità del carcere. Uno sguardo alle detenzioni brevi ed altro
Ristretti Orizzonti, 22 febbraio 2017

Anche se sono state introdotte procedure per monitorare e garantire la fruibilità dello spazio minimo tollerabile determinato dalla Cedu, non possiamo non riconoscere che le politiche penitenziarie messe in campo stanno riproducendo gli stessi effetti che nella storia penitenziaria sono seguiti ad ogni indulto: al repentino abbassamento della popolazione detenuta segue un costante e progressivo aumento che ripropone sempre le stesse criticità di Sistema. Sovraffollamento, promiscuità, violazione dei diritti umani, precarie condizioni igienico sanitarie degli istituti, conflittualità diffuse...

 

Dan Bilefsky
# Dutch Get Creative to Solve a Prison Problem: Too Many Empty Cells
www.nytimes.com/ Feb. 9, 2017
About a third of Dutch prison cells sit empty, according to the Ministry of Justice. Criminologists attribute the situation to a spectacular fall in crime over the past two decades and an approach to law enforcement that prefers rehabilitation to incarceration. “The Dutch have a deeply ingrained pragmatism when it comes to regulating law and order,” said René van Swaaningen, professor of criminology at Erasmus School of Law in Rotterdam, noting the country’s relatively liberal approach to “soft” drugs and prostitution. “Prisons are very expensive. Unlike the United States, where people tend to focus on the moral arguments for imprisonment, the Netherlands is more focused on what works and what is effective.” 

 

Roberto Cornelli, Oriana Binik, Massimiliano Dova, Annalisa Zamburlini
# ProbACTION- Promuovere il cambiamento culturale nell’ambito della giustizia
Fondazione Cariplo, gennaio 2017

 

Rosa Raffaelli | European Parliament - Civil Liberties
# Prison conditions in the Member States: selected European standards and best practices
www.europarl.europa.eu/ January 2017
In 2014, prisons across the EU were holding over half a million inmates, including both convicted persons, serving their final sentence, and persons accused of a crime. Living conditions in prisons are regulated by numerous laws and guidelines: from constitutional provisions to national criminal and penitentiary laws and international law principles. Relevant human rights provisions include, in particular, those protecting the right to personal liberty and clarifying the grounds on which it may be restricted (for instance Art. 5, ECHR; Art. 6, EU Charter of Fundamental Rights), and those prohibiting torture and other forms of inhumane and degrading treatment or punishment (Art. 3, ECHR; Art. 4, EU Charter).

 

Fabio Bartolomeo, Magda Bianco (eds) | Ministero della Giustizia - ItaliaDecide
# La performance del sistema giudiziaria italiano. Un confronto con i principali sistemi giudiziari europei
www.italiadecide.it/ gennaio 2017

 

Giovanni Canzio - Primo Presidente Corte Suprema di Cassazione

# Relazione sull’amministrazione della giustizia nell’anno 2016

Roma, 26 gennaio 2017

Pasquale Ciccolo - Procuratore generale della Corte suprema di cassazione, # Intervento nell’Assemblea generale della Corte sull’amministrazione della giustizia nell’anno 2016, Roma, 26 gennaio 2017

Marina Anna Tavassi Presidente della Corte di Appello di Milano, # Relazione sull’amministrazione della giustizia nel Distretto della Corte di Appello di Milano, Assemblea Generale – Milano, 28 gennaio 2017

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Relazione del Ministero sull’amministrazione della giustizia anno 2016. Inaugurazione dell’Anno Giudiziario 2017
26 Gennaio 2017

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Relazione del Ministero sull’amministrazione della giustizia anno 2016. Inaugurazione dell’Anno Giudiziario 2017
26 Gennaio 2017

 

# Comunicazioni sull’amministrazione della giustizia del Ministro Andrea Orlando -- Senato della Repubblica, 18 gennaio 2017
# Relazione del Ministero sull'amministrazione della giustizia Anno 2016 -- Inaugurazione dell'Anno Giudiziario 2017
# Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile e di Comunità

 

Observatoire International des Prisons O.I.P. – Section Belge
# Notice 2016. Pour le droit à la dignité des personnes détenues
http://oipbelgique.be/ 2017

Le 7 août 2015, les détenus étaient 10.946. En 2014, on comptait 11.769 détenus, et en 2013, 11.732 détenus. La diminution de la population carcérale (qui n’est pas constante) nous parait s’expliquer essentiellemen par l’ouverture d’un hôpital pour internés (partenariat public/privé, environ 200 places) mais surtout par l’augmentation toujours constante des personnes placées sous surveillance électronique. Ils étaient 1.887 en moyenne par jour en 2015, pour 1.071 en 2013 ou encore 1.807 en 2014 (142 en 2001!). Le 7 mars 2016, le nombre de détenus en prison étaient de 11062. Il était de 10250 en octobre 2016...

 

Ministère de l'Intérieur
# Insécurité et délinquance en 2016: premier bilan statistique
www.interieur.gouv.fr/ Janvier 2017

 

Eileen Baldry, Sophie Russell
# The Booming Industry continued: Australian Prisons. A 2017 update
www.disabilityjustice.edu.au/ 17 january 2017
There were 38,845 full time inmates (sentenced and unsentenced) in prisons in Australia on census date 30th June 2016, a rise of 6% over the previous year (ABS 2016). The most useful method of representing and comparing the number of prisoners over time is the rate per 100,000 of the adult population. Using this representation, the rate was 208 prisoners per 100,000 in 2015 (388 per 100,000 males and 33 per 100,000 females), an increase from 30 June 2004 when it was 159 per 100,000...

 

François-Xavier Gomez
# Au Brésil, les prisons surpeuplées sont une aubaine pour le crime organisé
www.liberation.fr/ 7 janvier 2017
Fin 2014, il y avait 622 000 prisonniers dans le pays. Ce sont les derniers chiffres disponibles. La surpopulation atteint 167% en moyenne, et dans certains centres elle est très supérieure... Quelle serait la solution ? Une réforme du système judiciaire, l’application de peines de substitution à l’enfermement, de la liberté surveillée aux travaux d’intérêt général. Et une évolution de la législation sur les stupéfiants. La plupart des détentions concernent la possession de petites quantités de drogue...

 

Rachel Kleinfeld
# Reducing All Violent Deaths, Everywhere. Why the Data Must Improve
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, January 2017
At between 370,000 and 450,000 homicides annually over the past decade according to WHO and UNODC numbers, about three-quarters of violent deaths globally are homicides. To put it in perspective, more people are killed by homicide each year than the higher estimates for five years of the brutal war in Syria.

 

European Court of Human Rights
# Annual Report. 2016 Provisional version
www.echr.coe.int/ 2017

 

E. Ann Carson, Elizabeth Anderson
# Prisoners in 2015
www.bjs.gov/ December 2016
At yearend 2015, the United States had an estimated 1,526,800 prisoners under the jurisdiction of state and federal correctional authorities. This was the smallest U.S. prison population since 2005 (1,525,900 prisoners). The prison population decreased by more than 2% from the number of prisoners held in December 2014. This was the largest decline in the number of persons under the jurisdiction of state or federal correctional authorities since 1978...

 

Jeremy Travis, Preeti Chauhan, Ervin M. Balazon, Shannon Tomascak, Celina Cuevas, Olive Lu, Quinn O. Hood, Todd Warner, Adam G. Fera
# Trends in Admissions to the New York City Department of Correction, 1995-2015
http://misdemeanorjustice.org/ December 13, 2016
A Vera Institute of Justice report found that annual admissions for jails nearly doubled between 1983 to 2013, growing from six million to 11.7 million. Further, they Bureau of Justice Statistics found that the number of admissions to local jails increased by 20 percent from 1999 to 2013... in February, 2015, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation launched the Safety and Justice Challenge. This initiative seeks to reduce over-incarceration by creating more effective local justice systems and reducing the population of jails. Sixteen counties, three cities, and one state are now participating in the Safety and Justice Challenge. These initiatives complement the ground-breaking work of the Obama Administration in focusing on pretrial justice issues, augmented by the White House data-driven initiative. On a conceptual and operational level, this new focus on pretrial justice and jail incarceration is linked to the parallel national discussion about ways to reduce prison populations...

 

James Austin, Lauren-Brooke Eisen, James Cullen, Jonathan Frank, Inimai Chettiar | Brennan Center for Justice
at New York University School of Law
# How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated?
www.brennancenter.org/ December 9, 2016
Of the 1.46 million state and federal prisoners, an estimated 39 percent (approximately 576,000 people) are incarcerated with little public safety rationale. They could be more appropriately sentenced to an alternative to prison or a shorter prison stay, with limited impact on public safety. If these prisoners were released, it would result in cost savings of nearly $20 billion per year, and almost $200 billion over 10 years. Alternatives to prison are likely more effective sentences for an estimated 364,000 lower-level offenders — about 25 percent of the current prison population. Research shows that prison does little to rehabilitate and can increase recidivism in such cases. Treatment, community service, or probation are more effective...

 

Danielle Kaeble, Lauren Glaze
# Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015
www.bjs.gov/ December 2016
At yearend 2015, an estimated 6,741,400 persons were under the supervision of U.S. adult correctional systems, about 115,600 fewer persons than yearend 2014. This was the first time since 2002 (6,730,900) that the correctional population fell below 6.8 million. The population declined by 1.7% during 2015, which was the largest decline since 2010 (down 2.1%). Additionally, the decrease was a change from a 3-year trend of stable annual rate declines of about 0.6% between 2012 and 2014. About 1 in 37 adults in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision at the end of 2015. 

 

Jamiles Lartey
# Quarter of inmates could have been spared prison without risk, study says
www.theguardian.com/ Sun 11 Dec 2016
Study of 1.5 million prisoners finds that drug treatment, community service, probation or fines would have served as more effective sentences for many... A quarter of the US prison population, about 364,000 inmates, could have been spared imprisonment without meaningfully threatening public safety or increasing crime, according to a new study.

 

The Sentencing Project
# Repurposing: New Beginnings for Closed Prisons
www.sentencingproject.org/ December 14, 2016
Since 2011, at least 22 states have closed or announced closures for 94 state prisons and juvenile facilities, resulting in the elimination of over 48,000 state prison beds1) and an estimated cost savings of over $345 million.2) The opportunity to downsize prison bed space has been brought about by declines in state prison populations as well as increasing challenges of managing older facilities. Reduced capacity has created the opportunity to repurpose closed prisons for a range of uses outside of the correctional system, including a movie studio, a distillery, and urban redevelopment.

 

Matthew Friedman, Ames Grawert, James Cullen | Brenna Center for Justice
# Crime in 2016: Updated Analysis
www.brennancenter.org/ December 2016

Crime: The overall crime rate in 2016 is projected to remain the same as in 2015, rising by 1.3 percent. Twelve cities are expected to see drops in crime. These decreases are offset by Chicago (rising 9.1 percent) and Charlotte (17.5 percent). Nationally, crime remains at an all-time low. • Violence: The violent crime rate is projected to rise slightly, by 5.5 percent, with half the increase driven by Los Angeles (up 13.3 percent†) and Chicago (up 16.2 percent†). Even so, violent crime remains near the bottom of the nation’s 30-year downward trend. • Murder: The murder rate is projected to rise by 13.1 percent this year, with nearly half of this increase attributable to Chicago alone (234 of 496 murders)...

 

Australian Bureau of Statistics
# Prisoners in Australia, 2016
www.abs.gov.au/ 08/12/2016

 

Benjamin Monnery
# Prison, reentry and recidivism: micro-econometric applications
Université Lumière Lyon 2 - Thèse de Doctorat (NR) de Sciences Economiques, 29 novembre 2016
Regarding the recidivism equation, the estimates for Fast-Track are large, negative and significant (except for the ± 5 years bandwidth) : focusing on the ± 3 years bandwith, the results suggest that experiencing incarceration through a fast-track procedure reduces probability of recidivism in the 5 years after release by 34% points on average.

 

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts
# Fine Time Massachusetts: Judges, Poor People, and Debtors’ Prison in the 21st Century
Massachusetts Senate, November 7, 2016

 

Wendy Sawyer # Punishing Poverty: The high cost of probation fees in Massachusetts, www.prisonpolicy.org/ December 8, 2016
Probation service fees in Massachusetts cost probationers more than $20 million every year. People are placed on one of two tiers of probation: supervised and administrative, and they are currently charged $65 and $50 per month, respectively. With an average probation sentence of 17-20 months, a Massachusetts resident sentenced to probation is charged between $850$ 1,300 in monthly probation service fees alone — on top of many other court fines and fees.

 

James Austin, Gregory D. Squires
# The ‘Startling’ Link Between Low Interest Rates and Low Crime
https://thecrimereport.org/ December 6, 2016
When interest rates go up, crime goes up. When interest rates go down, crime goes down... Crime rates are linked to social and economic pressures and structures. That is, they reflect and reinforce various social phenomena that are not subject simply to the choices that individuals make. Access to well-paying jobs, decent and affordable housing, adequate education, public transportation, healthy food, guaranteed health care, smaller and planned families are all factors that reduce stress. Interest rates constitute one of the best predictors of crime rates.

 

Daniel P. Mears, Joshua C. Cochran, William D. Bales, Avinash S. Bhat
# Recidivism and Time Served in Prison
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Volume 106 | Issue 1 Article 5, Winter 2016
We describe the data, which include information about 90,423 inmates who served varying lengths of time in Florida prisons, and the analyses, which rely on generalized propensity score modeling to address confounding and to estimate the functional form of the time served and recidivism relationship. Results of the analyses reveal a curvilinear relationship: greater time served initially increases recidivism but then, after approximately one year, decreases it, and, after approximately two years, exerts no effect; estimation of the effects associated with prison durations of more than five years are uncertain...

 

Rebecca Stone
# Desistance and Identity Repair: Redemption Narratives as Resistance to Stigma
Brit. J. Criminol., 56, 956-975, 2016
Recent research has examined the role of the narrative construction of identity in desistance from criminal offending and substance use. The narrative identity theory of desistance was developed with a population of male offenders. The present analysis explores the applicability of the theory to a sample of substance-using pregnant women and mothers, a highly stigmatized and increasingly criminalized group. The analysis of in-depth interview data reveals that desisting women constructed narrative identities that emphasized their moral agency and resisted the stigmatizing discourse surrounding substance-using mothers. The results support the narrative identity theory of desistance by demonstrating its applicability to a population for which the theory was not specifically designed and have implications for future research on identity theories of desistance as well as offender supervision practices.

 

Todd D. Minton, Zhen Zeng
# Jail Inmates in 2015
www.bjs.gov/ December 2016
The average daily population (ADP) of jail inmates in 2015 (721,300) remained stable from 2011 to 2015 after peaking in 2008 (776,600). The ADP jail population count is a fraction of the number of inmates flowing into jail each year. In 2015, there were 10.9 million admissions to jails. From 2008 to 2015, the volume of admissions to jails steadily declined. The number of admissions to jail in 2015 was nearly 15 times the size of ADP in 2015...

 

Danielle Kaeble and Thomas P. Bonczar
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2015
www.bjs.gov/ December 2016
At yearend 2015, an estimated 4,650,900 adults were under community supervision—a decrease of 62,300 offenders from yearend 2014. 1 About 1 in 53 adults in the United States was under community supervision at yearend 2015. This population includes adults on probation, parole, or any other post-prison supervision, with probationers accounting for the majority (81%) of adults under community supervision.

 

Illinois State Commission on Criminal Justice and Sentencing Reform
# Final Report (parts I & II)
www.icjia.state.il.us/ December 2016
While criminal punishment generally has a broad deterrent effect, research does not support the assumption that increasing prison sentences is an effective or efficient way to increase deterrence, particularly if sentences are already lengthy.27 Research also suggests that high rates of incarceration can weaken deterrence by making the experience of incarceration more common. This is particularly problematic for communities that experience both high levels of crime and incarceration. The risk to public safety is that when potential offenders see prison as a normal experience, the threat of incarceration has less power to deter

 

Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga
# Relazione sui dati relativi allo stato delle tossicodipendenze in Italia (Anno 2015 e primo semestre 2016)
Comunicata alla Presidenza del Senato il 6 dicembre 2016

 

John Attard
# Prison violence is the worst I have seen in my 30-year career
www.theguardian.com/ 3 december 2016
In my 29 years of working for the prison service – now called the National Offender Management Service – I have seen many things, from truly stunning acts of compassion to extreme acts of violence. But the violence I have seen in the last four years is the worst I have witnessed. The impact has been stark: self-inflicted deaths have doubled, violence has increased, serious assaults on our staff are at their highest level for at least a decade and we have seen riots and prisoners escaping...

 

Ministry of Justice
# Prison Safety and Reform
www.gov.uk/government/publications/ November 2016
Almost everyone we lock up will one day be released back into our communities. However, once released too many prisoners will go on to reoffend. Currently, almost half of all prisoners are reconvicted within a year of release. The cost of reoffending by former prisoners is estimated to  be up to £15 billion a year. n 2010 the National Audit Office estimated the cost to the economy of re-offending of those released from custody to be between £9 billion to £13.5 billion. We have subsequently uprated this figure to up to £15 billion to reflect 2016 prices...

 

Istat
# Stalking sulle donne. Anno 2014
www.istat.it/ 24 novembre 2016
Tra le donne che hanno un ex partner si stima che il 21,5% delle 16-70enni (pari a 2 milioni 151 mila) abbia subito comportamenti persecutori da parte di un ex partner nell’arco della propria vita. Se si considerano le donne che hanno subito più volte gli atti persecutori queste sono il 15,3%, mentre quelle che hanno subito lo stalking nelle sue forme più gravi4 sono il 9,9%. Nell’arco della propria vita, lo stalking subito da parte di altre persone è invece del 10,3%, per un totale di circa 2 milioni 229mila donne. Complessivamente dunque sono circa 3 milioni 466 mila le donne che hanno subìto stalking da parte di un qualsiasi autore, pari al 16,1% delle donne. 

 

OSSIF - Associazione Bancaria Italiana ABI
# Rapporto intersettoriale sulla Criminalità predatoria. Rapine e furti in Banca e in altri settori esposti: Poste, Tabaccherie, Farmacie, Distribuzione Moderna, Esercizi commerciali, Distributori di carburante, Trasporto Valori
www.ossif.it/ Novembre 2016

Sulla base dei dati operativi del Dipartimento di Pubblica Sicurezza del Ministero dell’Interno, le rapine denunciate in Italia nel corso del 2015 sono state 34.9571, pari ad un decremento del 10,9% rispetto al 2014. Il dato conferma il calo dei reati che già aveva caratterizzato lo scorso anno (-10,3% rispetto al 2013)...

 

Associazione Openpolis
# Dentro o fuori. Il sistema penitenziario italiano tra vita in carcere e reinserimento sociale
www.openpolis.it/ N. 9 novembre 2016

 

Senato della Repubblica - Commissione straordinaria per la tutela e la promozione dei diritti umani
# Audizione del Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale
www.senato.it/ Resoconto sommario n. 105 del 08/11/2016
Mauro PALMA tra le criticità da segnala i trasferimenti dei detenuti poiché spesso non viene meno la continuità dei percorsi e dell'osservazione della persona detenuta... Emilia ROSSI, segnala gli aspetti sanitari, quelli del lavoro e le attività di socializzazione... che anche la gestione dei malati psichiatrici nelle carceri rappresenta una forte criticità poiché, ad esempio, i protocolli con le ASL non sempre vengono applicati.

 

Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Eventi critici negli Istituti Penitenziari - Anno 2015
www.giustizia.it/ novembre 2016

 

Giovanni Torrente
# La popolazione detenuta in Italia tra sforzi riduzionisti e nuove tentazioni populiste
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 27 ottobre 2016
1. La popolazione detenuta in Italia sino alla sentenza "Torreggiani". - 2. L'Italia del dopo Torreggiani e la diminuzione del numero di detenuti. - 3. Cosa ha reso possibile il processo di de-carcerizzazione? - 4. Verso un ritorno del populismo penale?

 

Jennifer L. Truman, Rachel E. Morgan
# Criminal Victimization, 2015
www.bjs.gov/ October 2016
In 2015, U.S. residents age 12 or older experienced an estimated 5.0 million violent victimizations,  according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). There was no statistically significant change in the rate of  overall violent crime, defined as rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault, from 2014 (20.1 victimizations per  1,000 persons age 12 and older) to 2015 (18.6 per 1,000). However, the rate of violent crime in 2015 was lower than in 2013 (23.2 per 1,000). From 1993 to 2015, the rate of violent crime declined from 79.8 to 18.6 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older...

 

Nicolas Bocquet
# Les prisons provençales parmi les plus surpeuplées de France
www.laprovence.com/ Jeudi 06/10/2016

Au 1er août 2016... 68 819 incarcérés pour un total de condamnées de 80 023 (11 204 non détenus : en surveillance électronique ou en placements extérieurs). Trop souvent pointée du doigt pour la surpopulation de ses prisons, en mars un rapport du Conseil de l’Europe plaçait la France en 7e position des pires pays européens. Les chiffres sont alarmants puisque que la moyenne de densité nationale est de 117,6% (différence entre la capacité et le nombre de détenus), soit 10 312 détenus en trop. Les données nous indiquent même, très officiellement, que les maisons d’arrêts françaises proposent 1 515 matelas au sol (soit une progression de 56% par rapport à 2015). La question se pose alors, où dorment les 8 797 détenus restants ?

 

Il Ministro della Giustizia

# Atto d'indirizzo politico-istituzionale per l'anno 2017

www.giustizia.it/ 28 settembre 2016 | on line 13 ottobre 2016

 

Andrea Baiguera Altieri
# Devianza reale e devianza percepita in Occidente. Osservazioni generali
www.diritto.it/ 11 ottobre 2016

In buona sostanza, è controproducente creare o tentare di creare una società criminologicamente asettica, nella quale sia eliminata ogni minima forma di infrazione. L’ ossessione della repressione penale non tiene conto delle componenti etiche ed antropologiche delle devianze, che spesso non sono reati veri e propri, bensì gesti esasperati di rabbia, dolore e disperazione culturale ed interiore.

 

Philippe Robert
# Les paradoxes de la récidive
http://journals.openedition.org/ Criminocorpus. Revue d'Histoire de la justice, des crimes et des peines, 2016
Toutes les études s’accordent pour constater que la fréquence et la rapidité de la récidive s’effondrent après 25-30 ans. Quand on parle de “carrière” délinquante, on imagine facilement qu’elle dure toute la vie. C’est, en fait, rare. Stephen Farrall parle d’une des rares certitudes de la recherche : statistiquement, la délinquance se concentre de manière disproportionnée sur deux décennies de la vie, entre dix et trente ans, avec un sommet vers la fin de la première. Est-ce à dire que l’adulte fait devient plus capable d’échapper à la perspicacité des institutions pénales ou que la délinquance concerne surtout une brève période de l’existence ? Seul le recours à des données extra-pénales – comme des enquêtes déclaratives de délinquance autoreportée – pourrait trancher entre ces deux acceptions.

 

Observatoire international des prisons
# Construction de prisons: droit dans le mur
https://oip.org/ Conférence de presse 20/09/2016
 

 

Ministero dell'Interno
# Dal Viminale un anno di attività del Ministero dell'Interno
www.interno.gov.it/ 15 agosto 2016

 

Ministère de la Justice - Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France
www.justice.gouv.fr/ situation au 1er août 2016

 

Illinois Sentencing Policy Advisory Council
# Illinois Results First. A Cost-Benefit Tool for Illinois Criminal Justice Policymakers
www.icjia.state.il.us/ Summer 2016
Programs that reduce the risk that individuals released from prison will commit additional crimes create measureable outcomes in terms of less victimization, lower government costs, and other economic benefits. The critical question for policymakers is: Do the benefits of a program outweigh the costs? 

 

California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation
# 2015 Outcome Evaluation Report. An Examination of Offenders Released in Fiscal Year 2010-11
http://www.cdcr.ca.gov/ August 2016
Between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011 (Fiscal Year 2010-11), 95,690 offenders were released from a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation  (CDCR) adult institution and tracked for three years following the date of their release. The three-year return to prison rate for the 95,690 offenders who comprise the Fiscal Year 2010-11 release cohort is 44.6 percent, which is a 9.7 percentage point decrease from the  Fiscal Year 2009-10 rate of 54.3 percent. Fiscal Year 2010-11 marks the fifth consecutive year  the three-year return-to-prison rate has declined and  is the most substantial decrease to-date

 

Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation State of California
# Monthly Report of Population As of Midnight July 31, 2016
www.cdcr.ca.gov/ August 1, 2016

 

Ministry of Justice - Offender Management Statistics Bulletin, England and Wales
# Quarterly January to March 2016 with Prison Population as at 30 June 2016 

www.gov.uk/ 28 July 2016

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Bromley Briefings Summer 2016
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ 2016

 

Best, David, Irving, James and Abertson, Katherine
# Recovery and desistance : what the emerging recovery movement in the alcohol and drug area can learn from models of desistance from offending
Addiction Theory and Research, 25, (1), 1-10, 2016

Desistance has been defined as a process involving 'the long term abstinence from criminal behaviour among those for whom offending had become a pattern of behaviour'. Desistance originated as a central component of life-course and criminal career criminology... Pathways out of offending, through attachment to stable employment, romantic, family relationships and the associated social status afforded to those persons transitioning from offending generated a new approach based on the mediating effects of informal social controls, social processes and social bonds...

 

U.S. Department of Education, Policy and Program Studies Service
# State and Local Expenditures on Corrections and Education
www2.ed.gov/ July 2016
The United States has only 5 percent of the world’s population but more than 20 percent of the world’s incarcerated population. Linkages exist between educational attainment and incarceration. For example, two-thirds of state prison inmates have not completed high school. Young black men between the ages of 20 and 24 ho do not have a high school diploma (or an equivalent credential) have a greater chance of being incarcerated than of being employed...

 

James Austin, Lauren-Brooke Eisen, James Cullen, Jonathan Frank
# How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated?
www.brennancenter.org/ Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law, 2016
America’s experiment in mass incarceration has failed. Of the 1.46 million state and federal prisoners, an estimated 39 percent (approximately 576,000 people) are incarcerated with little public safety rationale. They could be more appropriately sentenced to an alternative to prison or a shorter prison stay, with limited impact on public safety. If these prisoners were released, it would result in cost savings of nearly $20 billion per year, and almost $200 billion over 10 years. This sum is enough to employ 270,000 new police officers, 360,000 probation officers, or 327,000 school teachers. It is greater than the annual budgets of the United States Departments of Commerce and Labor combined.

 

Andrew Coyle, Catherine Heard, Helen Fair
# Current trends and practices in the use of imprisonment
International Review of the Red Cross (2016), 98 (3), 761–781.
Today, there are well over 10 million prisoners worldwide, of whom around half are in the United States, China, Russia and Brazil. The number is likely to be closer to 11 million, given that the World Prison Brief (a) holds no prisoner statistics for Eritrea, North Korea or Somalia, because of the difficulty of accessing data on these States, and (b) holds no data on some States’ remand or pretrial detainees – most significantly China’s – as these data are not published. This estimated 10 to 11 million does not include people detained in police or other administrative detention where there  has been no formal decision to chargeor prosecute.

 

Antigone
# Pre-Rapporto 2016 sulle condizioni detentive
www.associazioneantigone.it/ 28 luglio 2016

 

Adam Taylor
# The Netherlands has a strange problem: Empty prisons
The Washington Post, July 8, 2016

 

Grahame Allen, Noel Dempsey
# Prison Population Statistics
House of Commons, Briefing Paper Number SN/SG/04334, 4 July 2016

 

European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice | Cepej
# European judicial systems Efficiency and quality of justice
www.coe.int/ CEPEJ Studies No. 23 Edition 2016 (2014 data)

 

European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC) | Directorate General Human Rights and Rule of Law
# White paper on prison overcrowding.
www.coe.int/ Strasbourg, 30 June 2016

 

Joshua A. Markman, Matthew R. Durose, Ramona R. Rantala, Andrew D. Tiedt
# Recidivism of Offenders Placed on Federal Community Supervision in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010
www.bjs.gov/ June 2016
During fiscal year 2005, approximately 43,000 offenders were placed on federal community supervision, including nearly a quarter (23%) who were directly sentenced to probation and more than three-quarters (77%) who began a term of supervised release following a prison sentence. Overall, 35% of these offenders were arrested within 3 years and 43% were arrested within 5 years of placement on community supervision.

 

Washington State Institute for Public Policy
# Correctional education (basic or post-secondary) in prison.
# Benefit-cost technical documentation
www.wsipp.wa.gov/ June 2016

 

# Adult Criminal Justice, may 2015

# What Works and What Does Not? Benefit-Cost Findings from WSIPP, February 2015

 

Washington State Institute for Public Policy
# Benefit-cost technical documentation
www.wsipp.wa.gov/ June 2016
WSIPP’s benefit-cost model is an integrated set of computational routines designed to produce three related benefit- cost summary statistics for each policy option we analyze: a net present value, a benefit-to-cost ratio, and a measure of risk associated with these bottom-line estimates. Each of the summary measures derives from the same set of estimated cash or resource flows over time. In simplest form, the model implements a standard economic calculation of the expected worth of an investment by computing the net present value of a stream of estimated benefits and costs that occur over time...

 

U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs - Bureau of Justice Statistics
# PREA Data Collection Activities, 2016
www.bjs.gov/ June 2016

 

Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze (EMCDDA)
# Relazione europea sulla droga. Tendenze e sviluppi
Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze, 2016
L’analisi qui presentata descrive un mercato europeo della droga che si conferma resiliente, con alcuni indicatori, per la cannabis e gli stimolanti in particolare, attualmente in ascesa. Nel complesso, dai dati relativi all’offerta si evince che la purezza o la potenza della maggior parte delle sostanze illecite sono elevate o in aumento. La maggioranza dei recenti dati relativi all’indagine sulla prevalenza mostra a sua volta modesti aumenti nel consumo stimato delle sostanze stupefacenti più comunemente assunte...

 

Franco Corleone, Stefano Anastasia, Leonardo Fiorentini (a cura di)
# 7° Libro Bianco sulla legge sulle droghe. Dopo UNGASS 2016. Un anno di cambiamento nel mondo. Proposte per superare lo stallo in Italia, in Parlamento e nel Paese  #  ... in pillole
La società della ragione - Forum Droghe - Antigone - CNCA | Collaborazione: CGIL, Comunità di San Benedetto al Porto, Gruppo Abele, Itaca, ITARDD, LegaCoopSociali, LILA, Associazione Luca Coscioni | Prima edizione - Giugno 2016

 

Marzio Barbagli
# Sempre meno omicidi in Italia
www.lavoce.info/ 24giugno 2016

.... Il tasso più basso di sempre... Il numero di omicidi commessi nel nostro paese scende costantemente da 24 anni. Un cambiamento importante che dovrebbe rimettere in discussione idee molto diffuse sulla violenza nella società italiana, l’influenza della lunga crisi economica e il divario Nord-Sud. L’affermazione dello Stato

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità | Maria Stefania Totaro, Viviana Condrò, Monica Nolfo, Irene Pergolini
# Analisi dei flussi di utenza dei Servizi della Giustizia Minorile. Anno 2015
Roma, giugno 2016

 

E. Ann Carson, William J. Sabol
# Aging of the State Prison Population, 1993–2013
www.bjs.gov/ May 2016
The number of prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year under the jurisdiction of state correctional authorities increased 55% over the past two decades, from 857,700 in 1993 to 1,325,300 in 2013. During the same period, the number of state prisoners age 55 or older increased 400%, from 3% of the total state prison population in 1993 to 10% in 2013. Between 1993 and 2003, the majority of the growth occurred among prisoners ages 40 to 54, while the number of those age 55 or older increased faster from 2003 to 2013. In 1993, the median age of prisoners was 30; by 2013, the median age was 36. The changing age structure in the U.S. state prison population has implications for the future management and care of inmates.

 

Fair Trials
# A Measure of Last Resort? The practice of pre-trial detention decision making in the EU
www.fairtrials.org/ 26 May 2016

Within the European Union, there are over 120,000 people being detained in pre-trial detention. That’s more than 1 in 5 people held in prison that haven’t yet been found guilty of any crime...

 

Ministero della Giustizia
# Analisi statistica dell'istituto della prescrizione in Italia

# Allegato A: La prescrizione nei distretti
www.giustizia.it/ 7 maggio 2016

 

European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment CPT
# 25th General Report of the CPT | 1 January - 31 December 2015
Council of Europe, April 2016

 

Comité interministériel de prévention de la délinquance
# Prévention de la récidive. Guide pratique
La documentation Française, 2016

 

Jason Furman
# Economic Perspectives on Incarceration and the Criminal Justice System
www.whitehouse.gov/ April 25, 2016

 

Sandeep Gopalan, Mirko Bagaric
# Progressive Alternatives to Imprisonment in an Increasingly Punitive (and Self-Defeating) Society
Seattle University Law Review, vol. 40:57, 2016

 

 Bureau of Justice Statistics | Zhen Zeng, Margaret Noonan, E. Ann Carson, Ingrid Binswanger, Patrick Blatchford, Hope Smiley-McDonald, Chris Ellis

# Assessing Inmate Cause of Death: Deaths in Custody Reporting Program and National Death Index

www.bjs.gov/ April 2016

The Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) is an annual Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) data collection. The DCRP collects national, state, and incident-level data on persons who died while in the physical custody of the 50 state departments of corrections or the approximately 2,800 local adult jail jurisdictions nationwide. The DCRP began in 2000 under the Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-297), and it is the only national statistical collection to obtain comprehensive information about deaths in adult correctional facilities. BJS uses DCRP data to track national trends in the number and causes (or manners) of deaths occurring in state prison or local jail custody.

 

Stefano Cinotti, Beatrice Lippi, Salvatore Nasca, Susanna Rollino
# La messa alla prova in Toscana: analisi statistica dalla sua emanazione ad oggi
Uepe Toscana - Aprile 2016

 

Antigone - Per i diritti e le garanzie nel sistema penale
# Galere d'Italia XII - Rapporto di Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione
www.associazioneantigone.it/ 15 aprile 2016

# Caterina Pasolini, Carceri italiane sovraffollate e costose. E chi ha misure alternative non sgarra, La Repubblica, 16 aprile 2016

 

Senato della Repubblica - Commissione straordinaria per la tutela e la promozione dei diritti umani
# Rapporto sul Regime Detentivo Speciale. Indagine conoscitiva sul 41-bis
www.senato.it/ Aprile 2016

 

Texas Department of Criminal Justice
# Offender Orientation Handbook
www.tdcj.state.tx.us/ April 2016
This handbook is designed to provide the offender population with general information along with a standard for acceptable behavior. Offenders who do not behave in an acceptable manner could be charged with a specific disciplinary offense. The disciplinary offenses are listed in the TDCJ Disciplinary Rules and Procedures for Offenders Handbook. The standards for acceptable behavior by offenders are listed in this handbook, apply to all offenders.

 

Executive Office of the President of the United States
# Economic Perspectives on Incarceration and the Criminal Justice System
www.whitehouse.gov/ April 2016

To weigh the relative crime-reducing benefits of different policies, CEA conducted a “back-of-the-envelope” cost-benefit analysis of three policies: increasing the prison population, expanding the police force, and raising the minimum wage... In assessing each of these policy changes we bound the policy’s impact on crime drawing on estimates from leading studies. For the social cost of crime, we use a central estimate from the literature of $33,000 per crime, which subsumes the varying costs of different types of crime but facilitates straightforward and transparent calculations.

 

Julio César Magàn Zevallos
# Overcrowding in the Peruvian prison system
International Review of the Red Cross (2016), 98 (3), 851–858.
The prison population grew by almost 30,000 people in less than five years, a 60.9% increase. In other words, during this period the Peruvian prison system has had to accommodate 6,000 additional inmates each year. Although prison capacity has also increased over the same period, it has not expanded at the same rate as the prison population; the  percentage difference amounts to 128%, according to data from the Unit of Statistics at the Peruvian National Penitentiary Institute (Instituto Nacional Penitenciario, INPE).1 Just to maintain overcrowding at a stable level, the prison service would have to build a new 500-bed prison every month.

 

Emilio Dolcini
# L’Europa in cammino verso carceri meno affollate e meno lontane da accettabili standard di umanità
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 16 Marzo 2016
Al 1° settembre 2014 la popolazione penitenziaria in Europa consta di 1.600.324 persone (erano 1.679.217 nel 2013). Il tasso medio di carcerazione (numero di detenuti per 100.000 abitanti) - preferisco usare la dizione 'tasso medio', anche se propriamente si tratta della 'mediana', della quale il documento sottolinea la maggiore attendibilità rispetto alla 'media', in quanto non influenzata da valori molto alti o molto bassi - è 124 (era 134 nel 2013: la diminuzione è pari al 7%)...

 

Martine Herzog-Evans
# Law as an extrinsic responsivity factor: What’s just is what works!
European Journal of Probation, Vol. 8(3), 2016

 

United States Sentencing Commission | Patti B. Saris, Charles R. Breyer, Dabney L. Friedrich, Rachel E. Barkow, William H. Pryor, Michelle Morales, J. Patricia Wilson Smoot, Kenneth P. Cohen, Glenn R. Schmit
# Recidivism Among Federal Offenders: A Comprehensive Overview
www.ussc.gov/ March 2016
Studies have repeatedly shown that older offenders at sentencing are at lower risk for reoffending, and the Commission’s research confirms these  findings.56 Offenders sentenced when younger than twenty-one had a 71.1 percent rearrest rate, compared to 14.0 percent of offenders who are sentenced after age sixty. Age at release also is associated with different rates of recidivism. Those released into the community who were below age twenty-one had the highest rearrest rate, 67.6 percent. Conversely, those oldest at age of release, over sixty years old, had the lowest  recidivism rate, 16.0 percent

 

Mia Bird, Sonya Tafoya, Ryken Grattet, Viet Nguyen
# How Has Proposition 47 Affected California’s Jail Population?
Public Policy Institute of California, 2016
Proposition 47 reduced the penalties associated with certain drug and property crimes by preventing prosecutors from charging these offenses as felonies in most cases. The proposition passed with strong support from California voters in November 2014. In the months that followed, jail populations declined sharply, driven primarily by a reduction in individuals being held or serving time for Prop 47 offenses. Based on a sample of California county jail systems, we estimate a 50 percent decline in the number of individuals being held or serving sentences for Prop 47 offenses. This change drove an overall decline in the jail population of 9 percent in the year following the proposition’s passage...

 

Frieder Dünkel
# The Rise and Fall of Prison Population Rates in Europe
European Society of Criminology, Nesletter, 2016/2

... And there is a great deal of uncertainty about future developments: the refugee problem could lead to a new wave of incarceration and the moderate crime policy development in some countries, such as Germany, could be reversed by terrorist acts and influence the penal climate...

 

Direzione Nazionale Antimafia e Antiterrorismo
# Relazione annuale sulle attività svolte dal Procuratore nazionale e dalla Direzione nazionale antimafia e antiterrorismo nonché sulle dinamiche e strategie della criminalità organizzata di tipo mafioso nel periodo 1° luglio 2014 – 30 giugno 2015 Febbraio 2016

 

Andrea Orlando # Comunicazioni del guardasigilli sull’amministrazione della giustizia - www.giustizia.it/ Roma, Camera dei Deputati - mercoledì 20 gennaio 2016

# Relazione del Ministero sull’amministrazione della giustizia anno 2015 - Inaugurazione dell’Anno Giudiziario 2016

 

DAP Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Situazione al 31 dicembre 2015

www.giustizia.it/ Statistiche

Detenuti presenti e capienza regolamentare degli istituti penitenziari per regione di detenzione - Detenuti presenti per posizione giuridica - Detenuti per classi di età - Tipologia di reato - Detenuti presenti e capienza regolamentare degli istituti penitenziari - Detenuti presenti condannati per pena inflitta e per pena residua - Misure alternative, lavoro di pubblica utilità, misure di sicurezza, sanzioni messa alla prova - Permessi premio concessi ai detenuti - Detenuti presenti stranieri per area geografica - Detenuti presenti per titolo di studio - Detenuti presenti per numero di figli - Detenuti presenti per regione di nascita - Detenuti presenti per regione di residenza

 

Kamala D. Harris | Attorney General California Department of JustiCe
# Homicide in California 2015
# Crime in California 2015
https://openjustice.doj.ca.gov/ 2015

 

Istat
# Annuario statistico italiano 2015. Giustizia, criminalità e sicurezza (Periodo di riferimento Anno 2014)
www.istat.it/ 29 dicembre 2015

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago, Christine Burkhardt
# SPACE I – Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: Prison populations. Survey 2014
Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 23 December 2015

Marcelo F. Aebi, Julien Chopin
# SPACE II - Council of Europe: Persons Serving Non-Custodial Sanctions and Measures in 2014
Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 15 December 2015      ...

 

Grazia Parisi, Gennaro Santoro, Alessio Scandurra
# La custodia cautelare: analisi delle misure alternative e del processo decisionale dell’autorità giudiziaria in Italia
Dicembre 2015

 

Robert E. Fay, Mamadou Diallo
# Developmental Estimates of Subnational Crime Rates Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey
www.bjs.gov/ December 17, 2015
Developmental Estimates of Subnational Crime Rates Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey presents rates of violent and property crime victimization for the 50 states and select metropolitan statistical areas, generated using small-area estimation (SAE) methods. The report describes the statistical modeling approach used to produce state- evel estimates from the National Crime Victimization Survey data and auxiliary data sources. It compares SAE victimization rates for the 50 states from 1999 to 2013 to FBI crime rates from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program. It shows trends in criminal victimization rates for each state from 1999 to 2013. State-level estimates of intimate partner  violence are also presented.

 

Margaret Noonan, Ingrid A. Binswanger, Patrick J. Blatchford, Hope Smiley-McDonald, Chris Ellis
# Linking Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) and National Death Index (NDI) data: Assessing Cause of Death (COD) Data Reported to the DCRP
http://sites.usa.gov/ 2015
The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) has collected, analyzed and reported on deaths in the U.S. correctional system annually since the passage of the Death in Custody Reporting Act (2000 DICRA, PL. 106-297) to address public concerns about the safety and humane treatment of suspects, defendants, and offenders while in contact with or under the control or supervision of criminal justice agencies. The 2000 DICRA required local jails, state prisons, and state, and local law enforcement agencies to report information on the circumstances of each death occurring while offenders were in custody or of persons in the process of arrest to the Department of Justice. The Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) began in 2000.

 

European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)
# Living space per prisoner in prison establishments: CPT standards
Strasbourg, 15 December 2015
The CPT’s basic minimum standard for personal living space in prison establishments is: | 6m² of living space for a single-occupancy cell + sanitary facility | 4m² of living space per prisoner in a multiple-occupancy cell + fully-partitioned sanitary facility | at least 2m between the walls of the cell | at least 2.5m between the floor and the ceiling of the cell

 

William D. Bales, Catie Clark, Samuel Scaggs, David Ensley, Philip Coltharp, Alexa Singer, Thomas G. Blomberg
# An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Prison Work Release Programs on Post-Release Recidivism and Employment
www.ncjrs.gov/ December 1, 2015
The Florida Department of Corrections (FDC) reports that 27% or nearly 1 in 3 inmates released from a Florida prison returns to custody within three years of release. The state of Florida spends an average of 2.1 billion dollars per year on corrections costs (FDC, 2013a). With a large number of inmates being rearrested after release from prison and the additional burden of high correctional costs, it is important to identify options that both reduce recidivism and lower correctional budget expenditures.

 

Todd D. Minton, Scott Ginder, Susan M. Brumbaugh, Hope Smiley-McDonald, Harley Rohloff | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Census of Jails: Population Changes, 1999–2013
www.bjs.gov/ December 2015

From 1999 to 2013, the number of inmates in local jails increased by 21%, from 605,943 to 731,570. During this period, the growth in the jail population was not steady, as the jail confined population peaked in 2008 at 785,533 then declined to its 2013 level.

 

Ministère de la Justice | Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France
www.justice.gouv.fr/ Situation au 1er décembre 2015

 

House of Commons Justice Committee
# Appointment of HM Chief Inspector of Prisons and HM Chief Inspector of Probation. Third Report of Session 2015–16
www.publications.parliament.uk/ 25 November 2015

 

Scott Graves
# Corrections Spending Through the State Budget Since 2007-08: Still High Despite Recent Reforms
California Budget & Policy Center, November 2015
California has substantially reduced the numbers of incarcerated adults and parolees from their peak levels in 2007. The number of adults incarcerated in state prisons or other facilities, which stood at 173,312 in mid-2007, fell to 128,900 by mid-2015, a nearly 26 percent reduction. The number of adults on parole – people who are under the supervision of state parole agents following release from prison – registered an even steeper decline, falling from 126,330 in mid-2007 to 45,473 in mid- 2015, a drop of 64 percent.

 

Danielle Kaeble, Laura M. Maruschak, Thomas P. Bonczar | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2014
www.bjs.gov/ November 2015
The small decline (down 1%) observed in the adult community corrections population was due to the drop in the probation population. The probation population declined from an estimated 3,910,600 offenders at yearend 2013 to 3,864,100 at yearend 2014, falling by about 46,500  offenders. The decline in the adult community corrections population was slightly offset by a small increase in the parole population, which grew from about 855,200 offenders at  yearend 2013 to 856,900 at yearend 2014.

 

Shelley Hyland, Ph.D., Lynn Langton, Ph.D., Elizabeth Davis | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Police Use of Nonfatal Force, 2002–11
www.bjs.gov/ November 2015
A greater percentage of persons who experienced the use of force (44%) had two or more contacts with police than those who did not experience force (28%). Blacks (14%) were more likely than Hispanics (5.9%), and slightly more than whites (6.9%) to experience nonfatal force during street stops. Blacks (1.4%) were twice as likely as whites (0.7%) to experience force during contacts involving a personal search.

 

The Sentencing Project
# Fewer Prisoners, Less Crime: A Tale of Three States
http://sentencingproject.org/ November 2015
Although the pace of criminal justice reform has accelerated at both the federal and state levels in the past decade, current initiatives have had only a modest effect on the size of the prison population. But over this period, three states – New York, New Jersey, and California – have achieved prison population reductions in the range of 25%. They have also seen their crime rates generally decline at a faster pace than the national average.

 

Heather M. Harris
# Do Cellmates Matter? A Study of Prison Peer Effects under Essential Heterogeneity
www.ncjrs.gov/ November 2015

The current study has sought to establish whether average prison peer effects can be held accountable for some portion of the failure of incarceration to reduce reoffending. The null average prison peer effects identified by the current study cannot account for prison effects that appear, on average, criminogenic. Within the null average prison peer effects estimated lies tremendous variation in marginal prison peer effects. Some MPPEs appear to exert significant criminogenic effects on reoffending. Others appear to exert crimino-suppressive effects. That substantial variation in the estimated marginal prison peer effects remained despite the inclusion of numerous controls suggests the potential for bias in previous peer effect estimates...

 

César Muñoz
# Pernambuco’s Privatized Prisons
Folha de São Paulo, October 20, 2015
Brazil’s prisons hold more than 607,000 people in facilities designed for about 377,000. Pernambuco’s prisons are the most overcrowded in the country, with three inmates for each official space.

 

Sam Taxy, Julie Samuels, and William Adams | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Drug Offenders in Federal Prison: Estimates of Characteristics Based on Linked Data
www.bjs.gov/ October 2015
This study is based on 94,678 offenders in federal prison at fiscal yearend 2012 who were sentenced on a new U.S. district court commitment and whose most serious offense (as classified by the Federal Bureau of Prisons) was a drug offense. Almost all (99.5%) drug offenders in federal prison were serving sentences for drug trafficking. Cocaine (powder or crack) was the primary drug type for more than half (54%) of drug offenders in federal prison. Race of drug offenders varied greatly by drug type. Blacks were 88% of crack cocaine offenders, Hispanics or Latinos were 54% of powder cocaine offenders, and whites were 48% of methamphetamine offenders.

 

Stanford Law School
# Proposition 47 Progress Report: Year One Implementation
www-cdn.law.stanford.edu/ October 2015

Since the enactment of Proposition 47 on November 14, 2014, the number of people incarcerated in California’s prisons and jails has decreased by approximately 13,000 inmates, helping alleviate crowding conditions in those institutions. Proposition 47 has also reduced the number of jail inmates released from custody early due to overcrowding and should generate over $150 million in state savings this fiscal year. County governments stand to save even more money: over $200 million annually, in aggregate.

 

Corte dei Conti - Sezione centrale di controllo sulla gestione delle Amministrazioni dello Stato
# L’attività del Commissario straordinario del governo per le problematiche connesse all’affollamento degli istituti carcerari
www.corteconti.it/ Deliberazione 30 settembre 2015, n. 6/2015/G

Rispetto ai 462,769 ml assegnati nel periodo 2010-2014 appena 52,374 ml (l’11,32 per cento circa) risultano essere stati spesi. La differenza, di 410,395 ml, è stata rimessa... In ordine ai nuovi posti detentivi che avrebbero dovuto essere resi disponibili, si evidenza che i nuovi posti creati con i vari interventi immobiliari dei Commissari sono stati, alla fine del 2014, soltanto n. 4.415, molti di meno (il 37 per cento), dunque, rispetto alle menzionate previsioni corrette di n. 11.934, che dovrebbero raggiungere poi, entro il 2016, con successive ultimazioni di n. 1.768 posti, il totale di n. 6.183 (pari al 51,81 per cento delle suddette previsioni). E’ da ritenere che la messa a disposizione dei residui n. 5.751 posti potrebbe essere assicurata solo a partire dal 2017-2018.

 

Social News
# Carceri, comprese quelle autocostruite che ci isolano dalla realtà
www.socialnews.it/ Settembre 2015

 

E. Ann Carson
# Prisoners in 2014
Bureau of Justice Statistics,September 2015
At yearend 2014, the United States held an estimated 1,561,500 prisoners in state and federal correctional facilities, a decrease of approximately 15,400 prisoners (down 1%) from December 31, 2013. A third (34%) of the decrease was due to fewer prisoners under the jurisdiction of the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), which declined for the second consecutive year. Prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year in state or federal prison declined by almost 1% (down 11,800 prison inmates) from yearend 2013 (1,520,400) to yearend 2014 (1,508,600). The number of prisoners housed in private facilities in the United States decreased by almost 2% in 2014 to 131,300 prison inmates...

 

Sandra Susan Smith
# Recidivism, Desistance, and Reentry: A Brief Review of the Literature
Department of Sociology | University of California-Berkeley, 2015
Whereas recidivism is the continuation of offending post sanction, desistance is now commonly conceptualized as the causal process by which criminal or deviant behavior stops. Empirically, however, desistance is typically measured as the failure to engage in criminal behavior, or the state of not offending, usually after a three-year period. But because desistance is a process and not a discrete event, it is best measured using longitudinal data that charts a gradual decline in criminal involvement.

 

Lucia Dalla Pellegrina, Margherita Saraceno
# Accesso alla giustizia in carcere: alcune evidenze basate su un “questionario fra pari”
Souq - Casa della Carità, Milano, 30 settembre 2015
L’accesso alla giustizia, nella sua accezione più generale, risulta limitato e difficile per i detenuti. Gli ostacoli al pieno accesso ai diritti fondamentali e di cittadinanza e i limiti alla risoluzione delle questioni legali colpiscono in prevalenza soggetti che sono già maggiormente vulnerabili perché stranieri o privi di una rete di supporto all’esterno del carcere quale, ad esempio, la famiglia. Benché gli istituti di detenzione organizzino servizi a supporto della risoluzione dei problemi legali e amministrativi dei reclusi, la detenzione rappresenta in sé il paradosso dell’essere “dentro il sistema giustizia” ed esserne al contempo esclusi.

 

Marwan Mohammed
# Sortir de la délinquance
Idées économiques et sociales, Septembre 2015, n° 181

Toutefois, dans de nombreuses recherches, il est possible de repérer un certain nombre de processus favorables à la désistance. Le premier facteur explicatif étant l’âge. Nous savons qu’hormis les jeunes souffrant de troubles spécifiques, les conduites transgressives s’affirment à la  préadolescence, s’intensifientnsuite pour atteindre un pic vers 15-17 ans (selon les territoires nationaux), se maintiennent à un niveau élevé jusqu’au tournant de la vingtaine avant de décroître... Dans nos sociétés salariales, l’occupation d’un emploi stable et satisfaisant est essentielle à la pérennisation de la désistance. Sortir d’une carrière délinquante s’effectue au regard d’un double mouvement, d’une dialectique entre l’usure (pression judiciaire, peines familiales, coûts psychologiques, humains, financiers, etc.) que provoquent de telles conduites et l’ouverture sociale, c’est-à-dire la possibilité de se projeter vers un statut social acceptable.

 

Magnus Lofstrom, Brandon Martin
# Public Safety Realignment: Impacts So Far
www.ppic.org/ PPIC Public Policy Institute of California, September 2015
Realignment—one of the most significant changes in California corrections in decades—is approaching the four-year mark. Prompted by a federal court mandate to reduce overcrowding in California’s expensive prison system, the reform was premised on the idea that locals can do a better job through increased use of evidence-based practices. Realignment shifted administrative and funding responsibility for many lower-level offenders from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation to county jail and probation systems. The reform was expected to lower incarceration rates, improve recidivism trends, and lower costs...

 

Caroline Touraut,

# L’administration pénitentiaire, 1945, 1975, 2015. Naissance des réformes, problématiques, actualité.Actes des Journées d’études internationales organisées par la Direction de l’administration pénitentiaire (DAP)

www.justice.gouv.fr/ 14 et 15 décembre 2015

 

Oliver Roeder, Lauren-Brooke Eisen, Julia Bowling (Foreword by Joseph E. Stiglitz)
# What Caused the Crime Decline?
www.brennancenter.org/ Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law, 2015
Public and political pressure to effectively fight crime and improve public safety has been used to justify mass incarceration despite the economic, human, and moral toll. However, as this report finds, during the past two decades the approach of using incarceration as a one-size fits all punishment for crime has passed the point of diminishing returns to actually reduce crime. 

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenzaria

# Misure alternative alla detenzione - I Semestre 2015 : 30 giugno 2015
Dati ripartiti per cittadinanza | Dati nazionali per tipologia | Dati ripartiti per età | Dati ripartiti per sesso | Dati ripartiti per zone geografiche | Dati ripartiti per tipologia reato | Misure alternative, lavoro di pubblica utilità, misure di sicurezza, sanzioni sostitutive e messa alla prova | Revoche

www.giustizia.it/ 4 settembre 2015

 

Gustavo Robles, Gabriela Calderon, Beatriz Magaloni
# The Economic Consequences of Drug Trafficking Violence in Mexico
https://cddrl.fsi.stanford.edu/ August, 2015
The results from our instrumental variable regression show that an increase of 10 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants in a municipality is related to: a decrease in the proportion of people working by about 2 and 3 percentage points in the current and next quarter respectively; an increase in the proportion of unemployed people by about a 0.5 percentage points; a decrease in the proportion of people owning a business by about .4 percentage points; and a decrease in the proportion self-employed by about 0.5 percentage points. Moreover, an increase of one homicide per 100,000 inhabitants decreases the average municipal income by 1.2% in the current and following quarter...

 

Lila Kazemian
# Straight Lives. The Balance between Human Dignity, Public Safety, and Desistance from Crime
Research & Evaluation Center, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, August 2015
Desistance from crime is defined as a process involving a series of cognitive, social, and behavioral changes leading up to the cessation of criminal behavior. The value and importance of studying desistance, particularly for intervention efforts after the onset of offending, have been stressed abundantly in the literature. Predictors of desistance highlighted in the literature include the strength and quality of bonds to sources of informal social control, human agency and the development of a prosocial identity, expressing hope for the future, reduced associations with friends who engage in offending, increased interactions with prosocial coworkers, and reduced substance use...

 

Illinois Sentencing Policy Advisory Council
# Illinois Results First. The High Cost of Recidivism
www.icjia.state.il.us/ Summer 2015
If recidivism reduction strategies are successful, the savings generated become available for other uses—including more investment in programs that work within the criminal justice system, social service interventions that reduce the risk of future criminal behavior, and reentry programs for offenders returning to the community—that reduce the number of victimizations going forward. If recidivism is not addressed using research and cost-benefit analysis, the people of Illinois will continue to pay the high cost of maintaining the status quo

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia Minorile
# Dati statitici - 15 agosto 2015
www.giustiziaminorile.it/

# La sospensione del processo e messa alla prova (art. 28 D.P.R. 448/88) - Anno 2014
www.giustiziaminorile.it/ Roma giugno 2015

 

Ministère de la Justice | Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France
www.justice.gouv.fr/ Situation au 1er juillet 2015

 

Ministero dell'Interno
# Dal Viminale. Un anno di attività del Ministero dell'Interno
www.interno.gov.it/ 15 agosto 2015

# Ministero dell'Interno, Calano i delitti commessi: variazioni % parziali 2014 - 2015, www.interno.gov.it/ agosto 2015

 

Antigone in Carcere
# Pre-rapporto sulle condizioni di detenzione    

# Venti proposte...
www.associazioneantigone.it/ 30 luglio 2015

 

HM Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2014–15 - Presented to Parliament pursuant to Section 5A of the Prison Act 1952 as
amended by Section 57 of the Criminal Justice Act 1982

www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/ Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 14 July 2015

You were more likely to die in prison than five years ago. More prisoners were murdered, killed themselves, self-harmed and were victims of assaults than five years ago. There were more serious assaults and the number of assaults and serious assaults against staff also rose... Most deaths were from natural causes and the increase can, to some extent, be explained by the aging prison population. However, taking into account differences in age and gender, the mortality rate in prison remained significantly higher than that of the general population. 

 

Ministero della Giustizia | Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Relazione al Parlamento sullo stato di attuazione delle disposizioni di legge relative al lavoro dei detenuti ai sensi dell’art.20 ultimo comma della legge 26 luglio 1975 n.354. Anno 2014.

1° Luglio 2015

 

Gobierno de España | Ministerio del Interior
# Anuario Estadistico del Ministerio del Interior 2014 - Instituciones Penitenciarias
www.interior.gob.es/ Junio 2015

 

Stephen Farrall, Fergus McNeill
# Desistance Research and Criminal Justice Social Work
www.cep-probation.org/ 2015

 

The Economist
# Americans Prisons. The Right Choices
www.economist.com/ Jun 20th 2015
No country in the world imprisons as many people as America does, or for so long. Across the array of state and federal prisons, local jails and immigration detention centres, some 2.3m people are locked up at any one time. America, with less than 5% of the world’s population, accounts for around 25% of the world’s prisoners. The system is particularly punishing towards black people and Hispanics, who are imprisoned at six times and twice the rates of whites respectively. A third of young black men can expect to be incarcerated at some point in their lives. The system is riddled with drugs, abuse and violence. Its cost to the American taxpayer is about $34,000 per inmate per year; the total bill is around $80 billion.

 

Australian Crime Commission
The Costs of Serious and Organised Crime in Australia 2013-14. Methodological Approach
www.acic.gov.au/ Commonwealth of Australia 2015 
Infographic...     Chris Dawson...
... includes, in its ‘Costs as a consequence of crime’ section, some elements that would have been considered quite ‘third-order’ impacts in early attempts to measure the costs of crime. Along with ‘traditional’ elements such as property losses and medical and mental health care costs, they include victims’ productivity losses, household services, lost school days, pain and suffering and lost quality of life, victim support services, tort claim expenses and ‘long-term consequences.’ ...

 

Seena Fazel, Achim Wolf
# A Systematic Review of Criminal Recidivism Rates Worldwide: Current Difficulties and Recommendations for Best Practice
PLoS ONE 10(6) 2015
Recidivism is a broad term that refers to relapse of criminal behaviour, which can include a range of outcomes, including rearrest, reconviction, and reimprisonment. We identified recidivism data for 18 countries. Of the 20 countries with the largest prison populations, only 2 reported repeat offending rates. The most commonly reported outcome was 2-year reconviction rates in prisoners. Sample selection and definitions of recidivism varied widely, and few countries were comparable. Recidivism data are currently not valid for international comparisons. Justice Departments should consider using the reporting guidelines developed in this paper to report their data.

 

Fondazione David Hume | A cura di Rossana Cima e Luca Ricolfi e con i contributi di Dario Di Pierro, Riccardo De Caria, Caterina Guidoni e Barbara Loera
# Criminalità in Italia, Dossier II, 2015
Fondazione DAVID HUME per Il Sole 24 ORE - 2015
Esiste una “insicurezza sommersa” legata alla microcriminalità. E tuttavia, le sensazioni di insicurezza dei cittadini dipendono in parte dai livelli oggettivi di pericolo ‒ quindi dall’effettivo peso dei reati e dell’illegalità nel contesto sociale ‒ e in parte sono invece collegate ai livelli di fiducia e di tranquillità economica e sociale che pervadono la nazione, nonché dal peso che i mezzi di comunicazione di massa danno alla criminalità. Quando un cittadino si sente insicuro, anche indipendentemente dalle condizioni oggettive di pericolosità del suo ambiente di vita, si comporta come se lo fosse.

 

ISTAT
# La violenza contro le donne dentro e fuori la famiglia. Anno 2014
www.istat.it/ 5 giugno 2015
La violenza contro le donne è fenomeno ampio e diffuso. 6 milioni 788 mila donne hanno subìto nel corso della propria vita una qualche forma di violenza fisica o sessuale, il 31,5% delle donne tra i 16 e i 70 anni: il 20,2% ha subìto violenza fisica, il 21% violenza sessuale, il 5,4% forme più gravi di violenza sessuale come stupri e tentati stupri. Sono 652 mila le donne che hanno subìto stupri e 746 mila le vittime di tentati stupri.

 

United States Government Accountability Office
# Justice Could Better Measure Progress Addressing Incarceration Challenges
www.gao.gov/ June 2015
Department of Justice (DOJ) has implemented three key initiatives to address the federal incarceration challenges of  overcrowding, rising costs, and offender recidivism, which includes the return of offenders to prison after release. The Smart on Crime Initiative involves multiple DOJ components and has five key goals, one of which involves prioritizing the prosecution of the most seriouscases... DOJ’s Smart on Crime Initiative, new Clemency Initiative, and BOP’s RSD are positive steps in addressing long-standing federal incarceration challenges, and DOJ has taken some initial steps to measure its efforts in these areas.

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Why focus on reducing women’s imprisonment?
http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ 2015
Women in prison are highly likely to be victims as well as offenders. More than half (53%) report having experienced emotional, physical or sexual abuse as a child, compared to 27% of men. A similar proportion report having been victims of domestic violence. Both figures are likely to be an under-estimate. Women can become trapped in a vicious cycle of victimisation and criminal activity. Their situation can be worsened by poverty,
substance dependency or poor mental health. Leaving the relationship doesn’t guarantee that domestic violence will stop. The period when a  woman is planning or making her exit is often the most dangerous time for her and her children.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
# European Drug Report. Trends and Developments
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ 2015

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia Minorile
# Dati statitici - 31 maggio 2015
www.giustiziaminorile.it/
La criminalità minorile è connotata dalla prevalenza dei reati contro il patrimonio e, in particolare, dei reati di furto e rapina. Frequenti sono anche le violazioni delle disposizioni in materia di sostanze stupefacenti, mentre tra i reati contro la persona prevalgono le lesioni personali volontarie

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Prison: the facts. Bromley Briefings Summer 2015
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ May 2015

 

Ragnar Kristoffersen
# Relapse study in the correctional services of the Nordic countries. Key results and perspectives
http://euro-vista.org/ EuroVista, vol. 2, n. 3, 2015
The most important finding in this study is that it demonstrates that reoffending rates among different offender groups inside the correctional services is a reflection of national differences in the criminal sanction system and the dispersion and the proportion of offender groups serving in prison compared to those serving in the probation.

 

Christian Henrichson, Joshua Rinaldi, Ruth Delaney | VERA Institute of Justice
# The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration
www.safetyandjusticechallenge.org/ May 2015
The jail is one of a community’s largest investments and its funding is drawn from the same sources that support public hospitals, schools, social services, roads, and many other essential functions of local government. It is exactly for this reason that counties and cities are well positioned to reinvest jail savings into programs and services that will help keep many people, especially those who are poor or have serious mental illness, from entering or staying in jail in the first place. And, in terms of public safety, this is a much better investment.

 

J. Richard Couzens, Tricia A. Bigelow
# Proposition 47. “The Safe Neighborhoods and Schools Act”
www.courts.ca.gov/ May 2016

 

Boderick Bennet
# An Offender's Perspective of Correctional Education Programs in a Southeastern State
http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/ Walden University, April 2015
The purpose of this multiple case study was to examine the lived experiences of 20 offenders involved in correctional education programs while incarcerated to explore their correctional education experience within the context of postincarceration employment. The theoretical foundation of this study was based on Bandura’s self-efficacy theory...

 

Lila Kazemian, Jeremy Travis
# Imperative for Inclusion of Long Termers and Lifers in Research and Policy
Criminology & Public Policy, Volume 14, Issue 2, 2015
Time in prison is assessed through two main indicators of success or failure: behaviors in prison (correctional risk) and postrelease outcomes (community risk). The concept of desistance, which we regard as a process involving a series of cognitive, social, and behavioral changes leading up to the cessation of criminal behavior, cuts across these two dimensions. Yet, the desistance literature has largely ignored changes that occur during periods of incarceration...

 

Penal Reform International
# Global Prison Trends 2015. Special Focus - Drugs and imprisonment
www.penalreform.org/ 2015
Growing prison populations throughout the world (though not in every country) place an enormous financial burden on governments and at a great cost to the social cohesion of societies. It is estimated that more than 10.2 million people, including sentenced and pre-trial prisoners, were held in penal institutions worldwide. 144 out of every 100,000 people of the world were therefore in prison at that time. Prison populations are growing in all five continents. In the last 15 years the estimated world prison population has increased by some 25-30 per cent but at the same time the world population has risen by over 20 per cent. The world prison population rate has risen by about six per cent from 136 per 100,000 of the world population to the current rate of 144

 

Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte - Garante regionale delle persone sottoposte a misure restrittive della libertà personale
# Prima relazione annuale delle attività svolte
http://www.cr.piemonte.it/ 31 marzo 2015
Occorre però avere presente che le criticità ed illegalità del sistema penitenziario italiano non sono confinabili nel mero problema di sovraffollamento, ma anche e soprattutto riguardano l'efficacia del periodo di detenzione rispetto all'obiettivo, individuale e collettivo, della pena.

 

Jessica Benko
# The Radical Humaneness of Norway’s Halden Prison. The goal of the Norwegian penal system
is to get inmates out of it

New York Times, March 26, 2015

 

Annie Kensey
# Quelques considérations sur les récidives
Espaces et sociétés, 2015/3, n. 162
Le concept de désistance, exporté et importé du Canada, a été récemment introduit en France. Marwan Mohammed a employé le syntagme de « sorties de délinquance » qui nous semble le plus approprié... on relève que l’arrêt de la délinquance est le fait des individus eux-mêmes et de leurs capacités, mais aussi des contextes et ressources disponibles que les personnes (re)trouvent à leur sortie (accessibilité du marché du travail, opportunités d’emploi, famille, etc.).

 

Roger Abravanel, Stefano Proverbio, Fabio Bartolomeo | «Osservatorio per il monitoraggio degli effetti sull’economia delle riforme della giustizia»
# Misurare la performance dei tribunali
www.giustizia.it/ Roma, 26 marzo 2015

 

Camera dei Deputati
# Relazione sullo svolgimento da parte dei detenuti di attività lavorative o di corsi di formazione professionale per qualifiche richieste da esigenze territoriali (anno 214)
Presentata dal Ministro della giustizia, 20 marzo 2015

 

Garante delle persone private della libertà personale | Regione Emilia-Romagna
# Relazione annuale delle attività svolte - 2014
Marzo 2015

 

Tapio Lappi-Seppälä
# Why Some Countries Cope with Use of Imprisonment? Explain Differences and Pondering the remedies
http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ March 2015

 

Istat
# I detenuti nelle carceri italiane - anno 2013
www.istat.it/ 19 marzo 2015

Sia per chi è in attesa di una sentenza definitiva sia per i condannati il reato più frequente è la produzione e spaccio di stupefacenti, seguito dalla rapina e dal furto (Tavola 12). Per chi è in custodia cautelare, rispetto a chi è condannato, si collocano più in alto di qualche posizione nella graduatoria l’associazione di stampo mafioso, l’estorsione, e l’associazione per delinquere. Per effetto delle modifiche normative, gli imputati per il reato di produzione e spaccio di stupefacenti in carcere sono diminuiti dal 40,1% del 2011 al 35,9% del 2013.

 

 

Associazione Antigone
# XI Rapporto Nazionale sulle Condizioni di Detenzione
www.osservatorioantigone.it/ 17 marzo 2015
I detenuti presenti al 28 febbraio 2015 sono 53.982. Il 31 dicembre 2014 erano 53.623. I detenuti nelle carceri europee sono 1 milione 737 mila. In calo di circa 100 mila unità rispetto all’anno precedente... Gli ingressi in carcere dalla libertà sono stati 50.217 nel 2014. Ben 92.800 nel 2008 in piena ondata securitaria (era Roberto Maroni il ministro degli Interni). Ovvero in sei anni sono diminuiti di 42.683 unità...

 

 

Ministero della Giustizia | Dipartimento dell’Organizzazione Giudiziaria
# Censimento speciale giustizia penale
www.giustizia.it/ 14 marzo 2015
a) Relazione di Mario Barbuto (Capo del Dipartimento dell’Organizzazione Giudiziaria); b) Relazione del direttore generale della Direzione Statistiche Fabio Bartolomeo; c) Analisi dei flussi e delle pendenze nel settore penale a dicembre 2014; d) Elenco dei Tribunali italiani in ordine alfabetico con oltre 20 parametri; e) Elenchi speciali dei Tribunali in base agli indici più significativi; f) Elenco delle Corti d’Appello in base a 18 parametri; g) Elenco degli Uffici della Procura della Repubblica in ordine alfabetico con 15 parametri; h) Elenchi speciali delle Procure in base agli indici più significativi

 

 

European Commission
# The 2015 EU Justice Scoreboard
http://ec.europa.eu/ Brussels, 09 March 2015
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Central Bank, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions COM(2015) 116 final. The Justice Scoreboard contributes to identifying potential shortcomings and good practices and aims to present trends on the functioning of the national justice systems over time. While the Scoreboard presents comparative information on Member States’ justice systems based on a number of particular indicators, it is not intended to present an overall single ranking, or to promote any particular form of justice system

 

Ineke Pruin, Frieder Dünkel
# Better in Europe? European responses to young adult offending
www.barrowcadbury.org.uk/ March 2015
The age-crime curve can be regarded as a universal phenomenon. Yet it is far from invariant; the age-crime curves tend to peak earlier if we look at police-recorded data compared to data on convictions. The reason for this lies partly in the time which lies between the offence and the conviction, and partly in diversion schemes for first-time offenders which limit the number of younger persons appearing before the courts. Further analyses have shown that age-crime curves vary for different offences, genders or ethnic groups – again, not in their patterns of rise, peak and fall, but with respect to their peak-ages. For example, the age-crime curve for violence tends to peak later than that for property crime. The differences between males and females reveal that the peak is earlier for female than for male suspects or convicts...

 

Brian A. Jackson, Joe Russo, John S. Hollywood, Dulani Woods, Richard Silberglitt,
George B. Drake, John S. Shaffer, Mikhail Zaydman, Brian G. Chow
# Fostering Innovation in Community and Institutional Corrections. Identifying High-Priority Technology and Other Needs for the U.S. Corrections Sector
www.ncjrs.gov | www.rand.org | 2015
Meeting all of these goals requires innovation—changes in technologies, policies, training, and practices—to enable better performance. In the ideal case, innovations can help achieve multiple goals simultaneously. For example, recent RAND analysis of the effects of correctional education programs showed that they have the potential to reduce recidivism and that the money spent to carry out the programs was more than compensated by reductions in the number of offenders who would have otherwise returned to prison, saving states and localities significant costs of reincarceration. However, in other cases, innovation requires new technologies or organizational practices, and in an era of tight budgets, the resources necessary to make these innovations possible can be scarce.  

 

Duren Banks, Lance Couzens, Caroline Blanton, Devon Cribb
# Arrest-Related Deaths Program Assessment. Technical Report
www.bjs.gov/ March 2015
RTI calculated the size of the law enforcement homicide population in the United States and the ARD ( Arrest-Related Deaths) program coverage using two methods to estimate the lower and upper bounds of ARD coverage. We found that over the study period from 2003 through 2009 and 2011, the ARD program captured, at best, 49% of all law enforcement homicides in the United States. The lower bound of ARD program coverage was estimated to be 36%. These findings indicate that the current ARD program methodology does not allow a census of all law enforcement homicides in the United States.

 

CEJFE: Centro de Estudios Jurídicos y Formación Especializada
# Tasa de reincidencia penitenciaria 2014. Área de Investigación y Formación Social y Criminológica
www.recercat.cat/ Año 2015

 

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Statistiche al 28 febbraio 2015

www.giustizia.it
Detenuti presenti | Detenuti presenti per posizione giuridica | Detenuti stranieri distribuiti per nazionalità e sesso | Detenuti presenti e capienza regolamentare degli istituti penitenziari | Eventi critici negli istituti penitenziari - Serie storica degli anni: 1992-2014 | Misure alternative, lavoro di pubblica utilità, misure di sicurezza e sanzioni sostitutive - Anno 2014 | Misure alternative alla detenzione - Dati nazionali per tipologia - Anno 2014 | Condannati a misure alternative e ad altre misure - Dati ripartiti per tipologia reato - Anno 2014 | Misure alternative alla detenzione - Dati ripartiti per cittadinanza - Anno 2014

# Statistiche su detenute madri, lavoro e formazione professionale in carcere

 

Ministero della Giustizia | Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile
# Dati Statistici
www.giustizia.it/ 28 febbraio 2015

 

 

Unipolis | Osservatorio Europeo sulla Sicurezza
# Nella "terra di mezzo" fra terrore globale e paure quotidiane. 8° Rapporto sulla sicurezza e l'insicurezza sociale in Italia e in Europa
www.fondazioneunipolis.org/ Febbraio 2015
Nonostante tutto, non si assiste alla drammatizzazione del sentimento sociale che avevamo osservato nel passato recente. Le paure non si traducono in Paura. Le incertezze non si condensano in una nube di Grande Incertezza, com’era avvenuto negli ultimi anni. Certo, il grado di insicurezza resta molto elevato. Le paure globali, l’inquietudine economica e il rifiuto della politica colpiscono la maggioranza della popolazione. Ma senza toccare i picchi osservati alla fine del 2012. E, comunque, si coglie qualche segno di scongelamento del clima d’opinione. Diciamo che prima era plumbeo, ora è divenuto grigio...

 

Timothy Williams
# Jails Have Become Warehouses for the Poor, Ill and Addicted, a Report Says
www.nytimes.com/ Feb. 11, 2015

Jails across the country have become vast warehouses made up primarily of people too poor to post bail or too ill with mental health or drug problems to adequately care for themselves, according to a report issued Wednesday.

 

Ram Subramanian, Ruth Delaney, Stephen Roberts, Nancy Fishman, Peggy McGarry | Vera Institute of Justice
# Incarceration's Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America
http://www.vera.org/ February 2015
There are more than 3,000 jails in the United States, holding 731,000 people on any given day—more than the population of Detroit and nearly as many people as live in San Francisco.1 This number, high as it may be, is only a one-day snapshot. In the course of a typical year, there are nearly 12 million jail admissions—equivalent to the populations of Los Angeles and New York City combined and nearly 19 times the annual admissions to state and federal prisons.

 

The Pew Charitable Trusts
# Most States Cut Imprisonment and Crime
www.pewtrusts.org/ Jan 2015
Over the past five years, the majority of states have reduced their imprisonment rates while experiencing less crime. The relationship between incarceration and crime is complex, but states continue to show that it is possible to reduce both at the same time...

 

Joan Petersilia, Francis T. Cullen
# Liberal But Not Stupid: Meeting the Promise of Downsizing Prisons
Stanford Journal of Criminal Law and Policy 1 (2015)
Our call for a “criminology of downsizing” is thus an admonition to scholars to invent the knowledge and analytical tools needed to guide practical efforts to lower inmate populations. The creation of this criminology will not be achieved through platitudes, wishful thinking, and scholarship flowing only from armchairs and desktop computers. Easy solutions to downsizing do not exist. This essay thus is intended to be sobering, instructive, and directive...

 

Roberta Palmisano

# La detenzione femminile

www.giustizia.it/ Roma, Gennaio 2015

 

 

European Court of Human Rights | Cour Européenne des Droits de l'Homme
# Analysis of statistics 2014
http://www.echr.coe.int/ January 2015

 

Mark Motivans
# Federal Justice Statistics, 2011–2012
Bureau of Justice Statistics, January 2015
During fiscal year 2012, the number of suspects arrested for a federal offense declined to 172,248 after reaching a record 181,726 suspects in 2009. From 1994 to 2012, the number of suspects arrested by federal law enforcement more than doubled, from 80,450 in 1994 to 172,248 in 2012 ...

 

Zach Weissmueller
# California's 'Cruel and Unusual' Prisons. Despite court orders and ballot initiatives, Golden State prisons remain criminally overcrowded
http://reason.com/ Jan. 31, 2015
"Drug policy is the major driver of mass incarceration, both in California and nationwide," says Lynne Lyman, California state director of the Drug Policy Alliance. She points to the massive increase in the state and federal prison population following the 1980s ramp-up of the war on drugs. In California prisons alone, there are more than 11,000 inmates incarcerated for drug-related crimes, accounting for almost 9 percent of the total prison population. More than half of those were sentenced under the three-strikes law.

# Sharon Bernstein, California's Prison Population Is Finally Down, But Will It Last? www.huffingtonpost.com/ 01/29/2015

# Matt Sledge, California Voters Deal Blow To Prisons, Drug War, www.huffingtonpost.com/ 11/05/2014

 

The PEW Charitable Trusts
# Growth in Federal Prison System Exceeds States’. Federal imprisonment rate, taxpayer costs soar as states curtail expansion, protect public safety
www.pewtrusts.org/ Jan 2015
Between 1980 and 2013, the federal imprisonment rate increased 518 percent, from 11 inmates for every 100,000 U.S. residents to 68. During the same period, annual spending on the federal prison system rose 595 percent, from $970 million to more than $6.7 billion in inflation-adjusted dollars... Prison expenditures grew from 14 percent of the Justice Department’s total outlays to 23 percent, increasingly competing for resources with law enforcement and national security programs.

 

Ministère de la Justice - Direction de l'administration pénitentiaire
# Statistiques trimestrielles de la population prise en charge en milieu ouvert . Mouvements au cours du 4ième trimestre 2014 - Situation au 1er janvier 2015
www.justice.gouv.fr/ 2015

 

 

Andrea Orlando
# Intervento del guardasigilli Andrea Orlando sull’amministrazione della giustizia nel 2014
Camera dei Deputati, lunedì 19 gennaio 2015

 

Bernadette Rabuy, Peter Wagner
# Screening out Family Time: The for-profit video visitation industry in prisons and jails
http://static.prisonpolicy.org/ January 2015
Family contact is one of the surest ways to reduce the likelihood that an individual will re-offend after release, the technical term for which is “recidivism.” More contact between incarcerated people and their loved ones — whether in-person, by phone, by correspondence, or via video visitation — is clearly better for individuals, better for society, and even better for the facilities. As one Indiana prison official told a major correctional news service: “When they (prisoners) have that contact with the outside family they actually behave better here at the  facility.”

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Presenze 31 dicembre 2014
# Misure alternative 31 dicembre 2014

# Detenuti italiani e stranieri presenti e capienze per istituto - aggiornamento al 31 dicembre 2014
www.giustizia.it

 

ISTAT - Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile
# I giovani nelle strutture minorili della giustizia - Anno 2013
www.istat.it/ 29 dicembre 2014
I minori sono nell’80% dei casi italiani e nell’89% maschi; tuttavia, sia la percentuale di femmine sia quella degli stranieri sul totale è aumentata tra il 2011 e il 2013. Più della metà dei ragazzi in carico ha un’età compresa tra 16 e17 anni (52,8%), il 22,9% ha 14-15 anni con una prevalenza di ragazze straniere, infine il 23,7% ha già compiuto i 18 anni2 (Prospetto 2 e Tavola 3). I 14-17enni presi in carico sono 15.315, pari allo 0,7% del totale della popolazione minorile residente in Italia in questa fascia di età.

 

Istat
# Annuario statistico italiano 2014. Giustizia criminalità e sicurezza. Periodo di riferimento Anno 2013
www.istat.it/ martedì 23 dicembre 2014

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Eventi Critici negli Istituti Penitenziari. Anno 2014
Sezione Statistica dell’Ufficio per lo Sviluppo e la Gestione del Sistema Informativo Automatizzato, Statistica ed Automazione di supporto dipartimentale.

 

Lauren E. Glaze, Danielle Kaeble
# Correctional Populations in the United States, 2013
Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2014
An estimated 6,899,000 persons were under the supervision of adult correctional systems at yearend 2013, down from 6,940,500 at yearend 2012 (figure 1). The decrease of 41,500 offenders in 2013 resulted in the number of persons under correctional supervision falling below 6.9 million for the first time since 2003. The decline in the population during 2013 (down 0.6%) was less than 1% for the second consecutive year, down from 2.1% in 2010 when the fastest annual decline in the population was observed. About 1 in 35 adults in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision at yearend 2013. This rate was unchanged from 2012, when it dropped to the lowest rate observed since 1997.

 

Marcelo F Aebi, Natalia Delgrande, Yann Marguet
# Have community sanctions and measures widened the net of the European criminal justice systems?
Punishment & Society, 2015, Vol. 17(5) 575–597
The results show that both the number of persons serving community sanctions and the number of inmates have continuously increased in almost all European countries during the period studied. A comparison with the evolution of crime rates shows that the latter cannot explain such trends and suggests that, instead of being alternatives to imprisonment, community sanctions have contributed to widening the net of the European criminal justice systems.