1499 documenti:

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Esistono all'interno di ogni società istituzioni di carattere residuale, ancor meno utili ai fini della conservazione del sistema di quanto non lo sia l'appendice per l'uomo, ma che sopravvivono perché ormai dotate quasi di una vita istituzionale propria, che consente di superare la schiacciante evidenza della loro scarsa funzionalità sociale... Le carceri nel tardo Novecento sono degli ottimi esempi. (Lawrence Stone, Viaggio nella storia, 1981)



Nasrul Ismail, Andrew Forrester
# The state of English prisons and the urgent need for reform July 2020

The CPT report, and documented 63 328 incidents of self-harm in 2019—a record number—and a total that amounts to an increase of 63% since 2012... Incidents of assault increased by 53%... Episodes of prisoner on staff violenceincreased by 70%... The CPT recommended investing in smaller prisons, but the UK government resisted, instead planning further space to accommodate an additional 20 000 prisoners.5 Creating new space by building additional prisons will increase the prison population further, and such an approach is unlikely to improve prisoners’ health and wellbeing...

# CPT, Report to the United Kingdom Government on the visit to the United Kingdom carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) from 13 to 23 May 2019, 30 april 2020  # Executive Summary


Pietro Buffa
# Carcere e pandemia 1 luglio 2020
Nel frattempo il carcere, come gli ospizi, sono luoghi ove la strategia esterna delbdistanziamento non potrà essere mai applicata perché la nostra modernità democratica, via via, li ha già distanziati dalla società stessa e li affolla di scarti sociali frutto dell’incapacità di prendersi cura veramente dei problemi essenziali. Contenitori di disagio affrontato con l’allontanamento oggi saliti all’onor delle cronache per gli effetti che il virus ha avuto nelle R.S.A. e che potenzialmente poteva generare anche negli istituti di pena.


Marco Musumeci, Francesco Marelli
# How organized crime is expanding during the COVID-19 crisis 29 June 2020
Over the last century, organized crime has demonstrated a remarkable capacity to rapidly adapt to mutated social, political and economic conditions. While in some cases this adaptation was the result of a reactive response to improved legislation targeting their interests, in many others it was ignited by the pursuit of new possibilities for economic profit. Examples in this sense include how quickly criminal groups adapted to new scenarios created, for instance, by geopolitical changes, the integration of global markets or the generalized use of the world wide web as a marketplace for a variety of licit and illicit goods and services.


Garante Nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale
# Relazione al Parlamento 2020 Roma 26 giugno 2020


Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prisons and Prisoners in Europe in Pandemic Times: An evaluation of the short-term impact of the COVID-19 on prison populations Strasbourg and Lausanne: 18 June 2020

... More than 128,000 inmates were released in 20 member states as a preventive measure to reduce the spread of COVID-19: - The vast majority of these inmates (102,944) were released after 15th April in Turkey, a country that had until then the second biggest prison population in Europe. - The total numbers of releases, however, includes 10,188 inmates released in France, a country that reported all its releases and not only those related to the COVID-19 pandemic...


# Il carcere al tempo del Coronavirus. XVI Rapporto di Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione 22 maggio 2020


# UNODC, WHO, UNAIDS and OHCHR joint statement on COVID-19 in prisons and other closed settings 13 May 2020

We, the leaders of global health, human rights and development institutions, come together to urgently draw the attention of political leaders to the heightened vulnerability of prisoners and other people deprived of liberty to the COVID-19 pandemic, and urge them to take all appropriate public health measures in respect of this vulnerable population that is part of our communities.


Garante delle persone sottoposte a misure restrittive della libertà personale della Regione Campania
# Relazione annuale 2019
Maggio 2020


Talha Burki
# Prisons are “in no way equipped” to deal with COVID-19 Vol 395, May 2, 2020

... Iran announced the release of 85000 prisoners in March. France and Italy have reduced their prison populations by 10000 and 6000, respectively. Chile has let out 1300 low-risk offenders, and states across the USA are releasing varying numbers of prisoners. “There is absolutely no doubt that this crisis calls for reducing overcrowding and finding alternatives to prison for people in particular categories, definitely those in pretrial detention for non-violent offences”, Broner told The Lancet.


# Beyond the pandemic. How COVID-19 will shape the serious and organised crime landscape in the EU 30 April 2020
Europol expects the impact of the current crisis on serious and organised crime and terrorism to unfold in three phases, equivalent to the shortterm/immediate outlook, a mid-term and long-term perspective.... Drug markets are resilient and adaptable... The trafficking of cannabis, cocaine, and heroin has continued throughout the pandemic, albeit at lower levels than before. After the withdrawal of lockdown and quarantine measures across the EU, it is expected that regular supply will resume at pre-pandemic levels with little or no id- or long-term impact.


Sarah Figgatt
# Reentry Reforms Are More Critical Than Ever Amid the Coronavirus Pandemic April 30, 2020
Therefore, crime and recidivism rates are not a measure of one’s criminality, but rather the resources and supports to which they do, or do not, have access. Reforming the U.S. reentry system is an opportunity to eliminate the factors that perpetuate the cycle of incarceration for justice-involved people. Additionally, reentry reforms benefit not only justice-involved people but also the communities that they return to following incarceration. When formerly incarcerated people have access to social support programs, such as food assistance and health care, recidivism rates fall, keeping people out of prison and their communities safer. Especially now, with the threat of prison or jail COVID-19 outbreaks spilling over into the broader community, releasing people from correctional facilities and reforming the U.S. reentry system would improve the safety and health of all community members.


Guido Travaini, Palmina Caruso, Isabella Merzagora
# Crime in Italy at the time of the pandemic
Acta Biomed 2020; Vol. 91, N. 2: 199-203
Nothing is more dynamic than crime, able to rapidly adapt to the changes of society, while trying to take advantage of them. In other words, delinquency seems to follow the economic and social growth of modern societies, replicating their mechanisms.With regard to the data published so far, according to the Ministry of Interior, the overall number of crimes committed in Italy has dropped significantly in March


Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati 15 aprile 2020 Roma, 21 aprile 2020


E. Ann Carson
# Prisoners in 2018 April 2020
From the end of 2017 to the end of 2018, the total prison population in the United States declined from 1,489,200 to 1,465,200, a decrease of 24,000 prisoners. Tis was a 1.6% decline in the prison population and marked the fourth consecutive annual decrease of at least 1%. Te combined federal and state imprisonment rate, based on sentenced prisoners (those sentenced to more than one year), fell 2.4% from 2017 to 2018, declining from 441 to 431 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents. Across a decade, the imprisonment rate—the proportion of U.S. residents who are in prison—fell 15%, from 506 sentenced prisoners in 2008 to 431 in 2018 per 100,000 U.S. residents


Penal Reform International
# Global Prison Trends 2020 April 2020
Over 11 million people are imprisoned globally, the highest numberyet. Around 102 countries reported prison occupancy levels of over 110 per cent. The magnitude of issues and associated human rights violations stemming from over-imprisonment became clear in efforts to prevent and contain outbreaks of COVID-19 in prisons. Almost ten years since their adoption, the UN Bangkok Rules on women prisoners and non-custodial alternatives for women remain largely unimplemented. The global female prison population doubled in twenty years, yet justice systems and institutions remain largely designed for a homogeneous male population. Prohibition-based drug policies have driven prison populations up. Over 2 million people are in prison for drug-related offences, 0.5 million of them serving a sentence for drug possession for personal use.


The Editorial Board
# No One Deserves to Die of Covid-19 in Jail. But more than 100 inmates already have. April 23, 2020


Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prisons and Prisoners in Europe 2019: Key Findings of the SPACE I report April 2020


Council of Europe - Commissioner for Human Rights
# COVID-19 pandemic: urgent steps are needed to protect the rights of prisoners in Europe Strasbourg 06/04/2020


# Il Garante Nazionale nei giorni dell'emergenza Covid-19 3 aprile 2020


European Prison Observatory
# Covid-19: What is happening in european prisons? April 3rd 2020


Congressional Research Service
# Federal Prisoners and COVID-19: Background and Authorities to Grant Release April 2, 2020


Zhen Zeng
# Jail Inmates in 2018 March 2020
County and city jails in the United States held 738,400 inmates at midyear 2018 (table 1), a decline of 6% from 785,500 inmates held in 2008. Te midyear population remained relatively stable from 2011 to 2018. At midyear 2018, about one-third of jail inmates (248,500) were sentenced or awaiting sentencing on a conviction, while about two-thirds (490,000) were awaiting court action on a current charge or were held for other reasons.


Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) | OHCHR | WHO
# COVID-19: Focus on Persons Deprived of Their Liberty
27 March 2020


Michelle Bachelet
# Urgent action needed to prevent COVID-19 “rampaging through places of detention” Geneva, 25 March 2020


Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prison Populations. SPACE I - 2019
25 March 2020


Associazione Nazionale Magistrati
# L'ANM sulla situazione delle carceri 24 marzo 2020


Associazione Italiana dei Professori di Diritto Penale (AIPDP)
# Osservazioni e proposte del Consiglio direttivo AIPDP sull’emergenza carceraria da coronavirus, 23 marzo 2020

# Magistratura Democratica, Non aspettare, 23 marzo 2020

# Unione delle Camere Penali Italiane, Emergenza carcere: basta mistificazioni! 20 marzo 2020


Comitato europeo per la prevenzione della tortura e delle pene o trattamenti inumani o degradanti (CPT)

# Principi relativi al trattamento delle persone private della libertà personale nell’ambito della pandemia del coronavirus (COVID-19)

CPT/Inf(2020)13, pubblicato il 20 marzo 2020


Amanda Klonsky
# An Epicenter of the Pandemic Will Be Jails and Prisons, if Inaction Continues . The conditions inside, which are inhumane, are now a threat to any American with a jail in their county — meaning just about everyone. March 16, 2020


E. Ann Carson, Mary P. Cowhig
# Mortality in Local Jails, 2000-2016 – Statistical Tables
Bureau of Justice Statistic, February 2020


E. Ann Carson, Mary P. Cowhig
# Mortality in State and Federal Prisons, 2001-2016 – Statistical Tables
Bureau of Justice Statistic, February 2020


# Relazione sull'amministrazione della Giustizia nell'anno 2019 del Primo Presidente Giovanni Mammone

# Intervento sull'amministrazione della Giustizianell'anno 2019 del Procuratore generale Giovanni Salvi

# Comunicazioni del Ministro della giustizia sull'amministrazione della giustizia, ai sensi dell'articolo86 del regio decreto 30 gennaio 1941, n. 12, come modificato dall'articolo 2, comma 29, della legge 25 luglio 2005, n. 150.

# Sintesi della Relazione del Ministro sull’amministrazione della giustizia per l’anno 2019, ai sensi dell’art. 86, R.D. 30 gennaio 1941, n.12

# Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria, Relazione del Ministero sull’amministrazione della giustizia anno 2019 - Roma, gennaio 2020


Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità

# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati15 gennaio 2020

Roma, 22 gennaio 2020


Vincenzo Giglio
# La solitudine dei numeri ultimi. I dati delle carceri italiane e dei “mondi” affini
Diritto Penale e Uomo, gennaio 2020
L’universo carcerario è fatto di molte più cose di quelle rilevate, classificate e archiviate. Non è colpa dei numeri che non ci sono, la colpa è di chi avrebbe dovuto raccoglierli, avendone avvertito l’importanza, e invece non l’ha fatto. Per questa grave negligenza di sistema non sappiamo niente, certamente niente di preciso e significativo, su una moltitudine di aspetti della vita degli esseri umani ristretti che pure sono per loro tanto importanti quanto per gli individui liberi...


Erica L. Smith, Jessica Stroop
# Sexual Victimization Reported by Youth in Juvenile Facilities, 2018 December 2019
In 2018, an estimated 7.1% of youth in juvenile facilities reported being sexually victimized during the prior 12 months, down from 9.5% in 2012. This report defines sexual victimization as any forced or coerced sexual activity with another youth or any sexual activity with facility staff that takes place in a juvenile correctional facility. From 2012 to 2018, the percentage of youth reporting sexual victimization involving another youth declined from 2.5% to 1.9%, and the percentage reporting sexual victimization by facility staff declined from 7.7% to 5.8%.


European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights
# Criminal detention conditions in the European Union: rules and reality
Vienna, 11 dicembre 2019
Imagine suddenly losing control over your everyday life – and finding yourself in an environment devoid of free choice and privacy, but full of hostility and fear. This is a stark reality for many individuals in detention across the European Union. People who are detained – whether while awaiting trial or after conviction – are in many ways invisible. Subjected to a tightly controlled regimen, they have little say over when they eat, spend time outdoors, see a doctor, or even use the bathroom. As such, they are at particular risk of enduring fundamental rights violations.


Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna Analisi statistica dei dati - 15 novembre 2019 21 novembre 2019


Manfred Nowak
# United Nations Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty November 2019
For All Invisible and Forgotten Children Deprived of Liberty... More than 7 million children are suffering in various types of child-specific institutions, immigration detention centres, police custody, prisons and other places of detention.


République Française - Ministère de la justice
# Statistiques de la population détenue et écrouée

# Statistique des établissements des personnes écrouées en Francesituation au 1er octobre 2019 1er october 2019


Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati 15 ottobre 2019
Roma, 25 ottobre 2019


The European Prison Observatory
# Prisons in Europe. 2019 report on European prisons and penitentiary systems October 2019


The Sentencing Project
# U.S. Prison Population Trends: Massive Buildup and Modest Decline September 2019
By yearend 2017, 1.4 million people were imprisoned in the United States, a decline of 7% since the prison population reached its peak level in 2009. This follows a nearly 700% growth in the prison population between 1972 and 2009... Alaska (39% decline since 2006)• New Jersey (38% decline since 1999)• Vermont (35% decline since 2009)• Connecticut (33% decline since 2007)• New York (32% decline since 1999)... If states and the federal government maintain this pace of decarceration, it will take 72 years—until 2091—to cut the U.S. prison population in half.


Philippe Bensimon
# La récidive: talon d’Achille en matière criminelle
Délinquance, justice et autres questions de société, 4 sept.2019


Dipartimento per la giustizia minorile e di comunità

# Adulti in area penale esterna - Aggiornamento al 15 settembre 2019 18 settembre 2019


Ministero dell'Interno
# Dossier Viminale. Un anno di attività del Ministero dell'Interno. 1 agosto 2018 - 31 luglio 2019 15 agosto 2019


The Prison Reform Trust
# Prison_the facts. Bromley Briefings Summer 2019
The economic cost of black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) over-representation in our prison system is estimated to be £234 million a year.43Research has found a clear direct association between ethnic group and the odds of receiving a custodial sentence. Black people are 53%, Asian 55%, and other ethnic groups 81% more likely to be sent to prison for an indictable offence at the Crown Court, even when factoring in higher not-guilty plea rates.44The number of Muslim prisoners has more than doubled over the past 16 years. In 2002 there were 5,502 Muslims in prison, by 2018 this had risen to 12,894. They now account for 16% of the prison population but just 5% of the general population


UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
# Global Study on Homicide 2019 July 2019
The overall risk of suffering a violent death as a result of intentional homicide has been declining steadily for a quarter of a century. In 2017, there were 6.1 homicide victims per 100,000 population worldwide, compared with a rate of 7.4 in 1993. While gaps still remain in terms of the quality and availability of national data, these estimates are based on the latest and most comprehensive data submitted by Member States to UNODC up to 2017.


Ministère de la Justice
# Statistiques de la population détenue et écrouée - Mesure de l'incarceration 1er juillet 2019


Forum Nazionale Giovani
# L'universo dimenticato. Popolazione carceraria e condizione detentiva Luglio 2019


# Numeri e criticità delle carceri italiane nell'estate 2019 25 luglio 2019


Dipartimento per la giustizia minorile e di comunità

# Adulti in area penale esterna - Aggiornamento al 15 luglio 2019 18 luglio 2019


Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Minorenni e giovani adulti in carico ai Servizi minorili. Analisi statistica dei dati - 15 luglio 2019
Roma, 17 luglio 2019


Mariel Alper, Matthew R. Durose,

# Recidivism of Sex Ofenders Released from State Prison: A 9-Year Follow-Up (2005-14)
Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2019


Marcelo F. Aebi, Yuji Z. Hashimoto, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Probation and Prisons in Europe, 2018: Key Findings of the SPACE reports
Council of Europe. Annual Penal Statistics, Updated version: 20 May 2019

Marcelo F. Aebi, Yuji Z. Hashimoto
# Persons under the supervision of Probation Agencies. SPACE II - 2018
Council of Europe. Annual Penal Statistics, Updated version: Updated on 21 May 2019


Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati 15 maggio 2019


Ministero della Giustizia. Direzione Generale di Statistica e Analisi
Tribunali e uffici di sorveglianza per adulti
# Provvedimenti di concessione di misure 2013-2017
# Provvedimenti di revoca delle misure concesse 2013-2017
Ministero della Giustizia, maggio 2019


Associazione Antigone
# Il carcere secondo la Costituzione. XV rapporto di Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione
Roma, 16 maggio 2019


Jennifer Bronson, E. Ann Carson
# Prisoners in 2017 April 2019
The United States prison population declined from 1,508,129 at the end of 2016 to 1,489,363 at the end of 2017, a decrease of 1.2%. During the same period, the number of prisoners under the jurisdiction of federal correctional authorities decreased by 6,100 (down 3%), and the number of prisoners under the jurisdiction of state correctional authorities fell by 12,600 (down 1%). Te imprisonment rate for sentenced prisoners was the lowest since 1997, at 440 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents of all ages and 568 per 100,000 U.S. residents age 18 or older


CPT - European Committee for the Prevention of Tortureand Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
# 28th General Report of the CPT - 1 January - 31 December 2018
Council of Europe, April 2019


Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati Roma, 1 aprile 2019


Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prisons and Prisoners in Europe 2018: Key Findings of the SPACE I report
Université de Lausanne - Council of Europe


Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale
# Relazione al Parlamento 27 marzo 2019


Shadd Maruna, Ruth Mann
# Reconciling ‘Desistance’and ‘What Works’ February 2019
Both ‘what works’and ‘desistance’narratives are founded on a belief in what Maruna and King (2009) call ‘moral redeemability’. This is the assumption that people can change or that a person’s past is not his or her destiny. Under a moral redeemability belief system, ‘criminality’is not a permanent trait of individuals, but rather an adaptation to a person’s life circumstances that can be changed by altering thosecircumstances or self-understandings.


Ministry of Justice
# Offender Management Statistics Bulletin, England and Wales 31 January 2019


Mariel Alper, Lauren Glaze
# Source and Use of Firearms Involved in Crimes: Survey of Prison Inmates, 2016 January 2019
An estimated 287,400 prisoners had possessed a firearm during their offense. Among these, more than half (56%) had either stolen it (6%), found it at the scene of the crime (7%), or obtained it off the street or from the underground market (43%). Most of the remainder (25%) had obtained it from a family member or friend, or as a gift. Seven percent had purchased it under their own name from a licensed firearm dealer.


Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Adulti in area penale esterna. Analisi statistica dei dati 15 gennaio 2019 Roma, 28 gennaio 2019


Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale
Rapporto tematico sul regime detentivo speciale ex articolo 41-bis dell'Ordinamento Penitenziario (2016-2018) Roma. 7 gennaio 2019

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria: Osservazioni


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire, Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France. Situation au 1er janvier 2019


Rachel E. Morgan, Jennifer L. Truman
# Criminal Victimization, 2017
Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2018
From 1993 to 2017, the rate of violent victimization declined 74%, from 79.8 to 20.6 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older. Te survey indicated that the rate of violent victimization reported to police declined 73% during this period, from 33.8 to 9.2 victimizations reported to police per 1,000 persons age 12 or older...


Partito Radicale Nonviolento Transnazionale Transpartito
# Dossier carcere
Roma, 7 Dicembre 2018


Marcelo F. Aebi, Léa Berger-Kolopp, Christine Burkhardt, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prisons in Europe, 2005-2015 vol. 1      # vol. II Lausanne, 30 June 2018 – Updated on 29 November 2018


Danielle Kaeble
# Time Served in State Prison, 2016 November 2018
Persons released from state prisons in 2016 served an average of 46% of their maximum sentence length before their first release. The average sentence length for persons released for murder or non-negligent manslaughter in 2016 was more than three times the average sentence length of other violent offenses and more than five times the average sentence length of any non-violent offenses. Among broader categories, the percentage of maximum sentence that prisoners served was highest for violent offenses (54%) and lowest for drug (41%) and other unspecified (36%) offenses. For offenders first released from state prison in 2016, the average sentence length for drug offenses was 4.0 years  for possession and 6.7 years for trafficking, and the  average time served was 15 months for possession and  26 months for trafficking.


Shelley S. Hyland
# Body-Worn Cameras in Law Enforcement Agencies, 2016 November 2018
In 2016, nearly half (47%) of the 15,328 general-purpose law enforcement agencies in the United States had acquired body-worn cameras (BWCs). By comparison, 69% had dashboard cameras and 38% had personal audio recorders... About 80% of the largest local police departments (employing 500 or more full-time sworn officers) had acquired BWCs, and 70% had at least started placing the BWCs service. In comparison, about 31% of local police  departments employing only part-time sworn officers  had acquired BWCs and had placed BWCs in service.


Emilio Dolcini
# Carcere, problemi vecchi e nuovi Milano 5 novembre 2018
Il diritto penale ha una primaria funzione di garanzia del cittadino – anche di chi delinque – nei confronti dell’autorità pubblica; la Costituzione corrobora quella funzione di garanzia: garantisce il cittadino di fronte allo stesso diritto penale. Detto più semplicemente: la Costituzione indica una serie di cose che il legislatore non deve fare. Una sola volta la Costituzione ribalta questa prospettiva, prevedendo – in forma espressa – un obbligo di incriminazione. Così recita l’art. 13 co. 4: “È punita ogni violenza fisica e morale sulle persone comunque sottoposte a restrizioni di libertà”. Una previsione, dunque, con la quale, eccezionalmente, il Costituente anticipa valutazioni politico-criminali che normalmente sono rimesse al legislatore ordinario. Perché questa eccezionale anticipazione? Per ragioni storiche: per “la consapevolezza degli arbitri e delle violenze che, soprattutto da parte della polizia, erano stati perpetrati sotto il regime fascista”


Donatella Stasio
# La lezione di Dworkin: anche nella partita sulla sicurezza, la «briscola» è la tutela dei diritti fondamentali
Questione Giustizia, 30 ottobre 2018
Reati in calo, processi lenti, carceri affollate: un quadro che ci riporta indietro di dieci anni e riapre prospettive securitarie. Secondo il filosofo americano, il rispetto dei diritti umani non è un impiccio di cui liberarsi per placare la paura e riscuotere consensi


Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP
# Modifiche organizzative e gestionali della vita detentiva e aggressività. Una valutazione delle possibili relazioni intercorrenti
Ottobre 2018


# Projet de loi de programmation 2019-2022 et de réforme pour la justice : une réforme qui ne convainc pas Oct 2018


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire, Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France. Situation au 1er octobre 2018


Ministry of Justice
# Offender Management Statistics Bulletin, England and Wales. Quarterly April to June 2018. Prison population: 30 September 2018 Published 25 October 2018

83,005 prisoners in England and Wales as at 30 September 2018. The total prison population has decreased by 3%, compared with the same point in the previous year. 261,196 offenders on probation as at 30 June 2018. The number of offenders on probation at the end of June 2018 was stable (less than 1% decrease) compared to the same point in the previous year...


United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime - UNODC
# Introductory Handbook on the Prevention of Recidivism and the Social Reintegration of Offenders Vienna, 2018
At the level of the individual, recidivism is prevented when an offender desists from crime. “Desistance” refers to the process by which, with or without external intervention, offenders cease to engage in criminal conduct and maintain crime-free lives. A number of factors are associated with desistance from crime, such as the acquisition of new skills, full-time employment or significant life partnership. Changes in family and employment circumstances are key factors in accounting for desistance. However, while it seems plausible that desistance becomes less likely when problematic social circumstances increase, the causal relationship between these  factors and the absence of criminal behaviour are difficult to specify...


# Le Plan Pénitentiaire. Présentation Conseil des ministres du 12 septembre 2018


Lorena Allam, Calla Wahlquist and Nick Evershed
# The 147 dead: terrible toll of Indigenous deaths in custody spurs calls for reform. Exclusive: Guardian investigation of a decade of Indigenous deaths prompts calls for independent detention monitor Mon 27 Aug 2018
147 Indigenous people have died over the decade and 407 have died since the end of the royal commission into deaths in custody in 1991 Indigenous people are dying in custody from treatable medical conditions, and are much less likely than non-Indigenous people to receive the care they need -- Agencies such as police watch-houses, prisons and hospitals failed to follow all of their own procedures in 34% of cases where Indigenous people died, compared with 21% of cases for non-Indigenous people -- Mental health or cognitive impairment was a factor in 41% of all deaths in custody. But Indigenous people with a diagnosed mental health condition or cognitive impairment, such as a brain injury or foetal alcohol syndrome disorder, received the care they needed in just 53% of cases...


Illinois Sentencing Policy Advisory Council (SPAC)
# The High Cost of Recidivism Summer 2018
If recidivism reduction strategies are successful, the savings generated become available for other uses — including more investment in programs that work within the criminal justice system, social service interventions that reduce the risk of future criminal behavior, and reentry programs for offenders returning to the community — that reduce the number of victimizations going forward. If recidivism is not addressed using research and cost-benefit analysis, the people of Illinois will continue to pay the high cost of maintaining the status quo


Ministry of Justice
# Guide to Offender Management Statistics England and Wales July 2018


Matthew Heeks, Sasha Reed, Mariam Tafsiri, Stuart Prince
# The economic and social costs of crime. Second edition Research Report 99, July 2018
The total costs of crime in England and Wales in the 2015/16 are estimated to be approximately £50bn for crimes against individuals and £9bn for crimes against businesses. Violent crimes make up the largest proportion of the total costs of individual crime – almost three quarters – but only one third of the number of crimes. This is mainly due to the higher physical and emotional costs to the victims of violent offences. These costs are particularly high for crimes that are more likely to result in emotional injuries, such as rape and violence with injury. The offence with the highest estimated unit cost is homicide (£ 3.2m). Rape (£39,360) has the highest estimated unit cost of non-fatal offences...


Georgina Sturge
# UK Prison Population Statistics, 23 July 2018
The prison population of England & Wales quadrupled in size between 1900 and 2017, with around half of this increase taking place since 1990. The Scottish prison population almost doubled in size since 1900 and rose 60% since 1990. The data series for Northern Ireland begins in 2000. Between 2000 and 2016/17 the prison population of Northern Ireland increased by 38%, although the prison population is currently at its lowest since 2010. To put the prison population in context, it is possible to calculate the number of prisoners per 100,000 people in the general population. At the most recent count there were: • 179 prisoners per 100,000 of the population in England and Wales in 2017 • 166 per 100,000 in Scotland (2016/17) and • 98 per 100,000 in Northern Ireland (2016/17).


Natasha A Ginnivan, Tony G Butler and Adrienne L Withall
# The rising health, social and economic costs of Australia’s ageing prisoner population ARC Centre of Excellence in Population Ageing Research - Working Paper 2018/6
The Australian prisoner population has experienced a dramatic increase in the number of older inmates over the past decade. Modelling presented in this paper shows that these trends are likely to continue over the next decade and that they will result in higher health costs of prisons under different imprisonment scenarios. Taking into consideration the continued rise in incarceration rates, our calculations show that health costs of prisoners could increase by anywhere between 17% to 90% depending on whether the increase of older prisoners continues as it has in the last decade


Jacques Bigot et François-Noël Buffet (Sénateurs)
# Rapport d'Information Fait au nom de la commission des lois constitutionnelles, de législation, du suffrage universel, du Règlement et d’administration générale sur la nature des peines, leur efficacitéet leur mise en œuvre 2018

Près de la moitié des peines principales prononcées en 2016 par les juridictions judiciaires étaient des peines d’emprisonnement : 287 511 peines d’emprisonnement pour 582 142 peines prononcées. Outre 203 300 peines d’amende, seulement 63 362 peines « alternatives » ou de substitution ont été prononcées à titre principal... La place centrale accordée à l’emprisonnement apparaît paradoxale au regard de la saturation de la chaine pénale et carcérale qui conduit à aménagerde nombreuses peines d’emprisonnement ferme et donc à ne pas les exécuter sous la forme prononcée par les juridictions ; cette déconnexion croissante, et illisible, entre le prononcé et l’exécution des peines d’emprisonnement avait déjà été dénoncée en 2017 par le rapport de la mission d’information de votre commission sur le redressement de la justice « Cinq ans pour sauver la justice ! ».


Censis - FederSicurezza
# 1° Rapporto sulla filiera della sicurezza in Italia Roma, 27 giugno 2018

Sul mercato della sicurezza... Lasciare troppo spazio alla libera iniziativa dei cittadini significherebbe, da un lato, incrementare le distanze sociali tra chi si può permettere i sistemi di difesa e chi no, e, dall’altro, andare incontro a pericolose derive giustizialiste della “sicurezza fai da te”...


U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs - Bureau of Justice Statistics
# PREA Data Collection Activities, 2018 June 2018


# La percezione della sicurezza, Anni 2015-2016 22 giugno 2018


Penal Reform International
# Global Prison Trends 2018 May 2018
Global Prison Trends 2018 is the fourth edition in Penal Reform International’s annual series, published in collaboration with the Thailand Institute of Justice. The report analyses trends in criminal justice and the use of imprisonment and, as in previous years, these show that while overall crime rates around the world have declined, the number of people in prison on any given day is rising... 2017   2016   2015


Cristina Rodríguez Yagüe
# Un análisis de las estrategias contra la sobrepoblación penitenciaria en España a la luz de los estándares europeos
Revista Electrónica de Ciencia Penal y Criminología, 20.05.2018
La tasa de encarcelamiento en nueve años pasa de estar en 114 internos por 100.000 habitantes a 173. Claramente es el año 2009 el que supone una inflexión, pues a partir de entonces comienza un descenso de la población penitenciaria en centros españoles pero siempre sin recuperar los niveles de comienzos de siglo. Lógicamente esa tasa de encarcelamiento repercute en la tasa de sobreocupación , que ha llegado a alcanzar niveles alarmantes en estos años. Actualmente veremos que, gracias a una importante política de creación de nuevos centros penitenciarios, la densidad de la población ha disminuido hasta situarse, por regla general, en unos parámetros aceptables


United Nations - Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
# Report on the twenty-seventh session (8 December 2017 and 14-18 May 2018)
United Nations • New York, 2018


Donatella Stasio
# Carcere e recidiva, l'offensiva contro le statistiche per fermare il cambiamento (vero) 28 maggio 2018
Dieci anni ci sono voluti per tentare di riconciliare questo Paese con la sua migliore tradizione democratica e il suo più fecondo riformismo degli anni ’70, ancorché rimasto sulla carta, per riavvicinarlo agli standard di civiltà giuridica europei, per riscattare l’infamia di una condanna per «trattamenti inumani e degradanti», per ridurre lo scarto esistente tra il cosiddetto sentire comune e il patrimonio di valori costituzionali che, quello sì, dovrebbe essere “comune” ma purtroppo non lo è...


Mariel Alper, Matthew R. Durose, Joshua Markman
# 2018 Update on Prisoner Recidivism: A 9-Year Follow-up Period (2005-2014)
Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2018
Five in 6 (83%) state prisoners released in 2005 across 30 states were arrested at least once during the 9 years following their release. The remaining 17% were not arrested after release during the 9-year follow-up period. About 4 in 9 (44%) prisoners released in 2005 were arrested at least once during their first year after release. About 1 in 3 (34%) were arrested during their third year after release, and nearly 1 in 4 (24%) were arrested during their ninth year.


The Council of Economic Advisers
# Returns on Investments in Recidivism-reducing Programs May 2018
CEA finds evidence that certain individual programs can reduce crime as well as reduce spending by lowering long-run incarceration costs. Programs that save at least one dollar in crime and incarceration costs for every dollar spent are deemed cost effective. More specifically, with a focus on rigorous studies of the programs that have been previously implemented, CEA finds that, on average, programs that address the prisoner’s mental health or substance abuse  problems may reduce the cost of crime by about $0.92 to $3.31 per taxpayer dollar spent on prison reform and long-run incarceration costs by $0.55 to $1.96, for a total return of $1.47 to $5.27 per taxpayer dollar


Jaeok Kim, Preeti Chauhan, Olive Lu, Meredith Patten
# Unpacking Pretrial Detention: An Examination of Patterns and Predictors of Readmissions
Criminal Justice Policy Review · May 2018
Recent estimates suggest that the number of individuals admitted to jails increased from 9.7 million in 1993 to 13.6 million in 2008. In 2015, there were 10.9 million individuals admitted to local jails in the United States and the average daily jail population was over 720,000. From 2005 to 2013, the number of unconvicted (i.e., pretrial) defendants held in local jails on any given day was over 450,000, and accounted for over 60% of the daily jail population. In New York City, which has one of the biggest jail systems in the country, approximately three quarters of admissions to the Department of Correction (DOC) in 2015 were for pretrial detention...


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire - Bureau des statistiques et des études (SDME - Me5)
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France. Situation au 1er mai 2018


Danielle Kaeble, Mary Cowhig
# Correctional Populations in the United States, 2016
Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2018
An estimated 6,613,500 persons were under the supervision of U.S. adult correctional systems on December 31, 2016. The adult correctional population consists of persons held in prisons and jails and persons on probation and parole. The correctional population decreased 0.9% from January 1, 2016, to December 31, 2016. From 2007 to 2016, the correctional population declined by an average of 1.2% annually, ranging from a decrease of 0.4% in 2008 to 2.1% in 2010. At year-end 2016, about 1 in 38 persons in the United States were under correctional supervision...


Mark Brown, Stuart Ross
# Mentoring, Social Capital and Desistance: A Study of Women Released from Prison
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology 43(1):31-50 · April 2010 
...First, drawing upon desistance theory it attempts to develop a theoretical underpinning for mentoring practice with ex-offenders that would identify appropriate targets for mentoring practice, including the development of social capital or connectedness. Part two of the article utilises data from research on a women’s mentoring program in Victoria, Australia, to understand how one key dimension of desistance — social capital — is recognised by women as a domain of need and those women’s perceptions of the way mentoring may deliver gains in social connectedness and capital.


Aurélie Stoll, Manon Jendly
# (Re)connaître les mécanismes de la désistance : un état des savoirs
Jusletter 30, April 2018
Alors qu’il est empiriquement attesté que la criminalité est essentiellement l’affaire d’adolescents et de jeunes adultes et que la grande majorité d’entre eux finit par abandonner cette vie problématique, il est intéressant de constater que la désistance est la composante de l’étude des carrières criminelles qui a jusqu’à présent reçu le moins d’attention. Entendue comme un processus qui mène progressivement à l’arrêt de conduites délinquantes, elle constitue un champ de connaissances pourtant particulièrement prometteur pour revisiter les pratiques d’intervention contemporaines déployées auprès de personnes judiciarisées.


Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor
# Using evidence to build a better justice system: The challenge of rising prison costs Auckland, New Zealand, 29 March 2018
The general context of prisons filling up with people on remand awaiting trial and of prisoners waiting longer for parole, relate to political decisions that ramp up being ‘tough on crime’ with no evidence of benefit. Beyond the incapacitation of a given individual (which keeps the general public ‘safe’ from that specific offender), prisons overall reduce public safety by their criminogenic effects (both on the individual and subsequent generations). Resources are overwhelmingly directed to those already in the criminal-justice system, not to the prevention of theirgetting there. Yet there is strong and compelling evidence that interventions for preschoolers and young children experiencing trauma and maltreatment, and showing challenging behaviours that underpin a pathway to offending, are effective. The younger the child at intervention, the more effective it is likely to be...


Jeffrey A. Butts, Vincent Schiraldi
# Recidivism Reconsidered: Preserving the Community Justice Mission of Community Corrections March 2018
Despite promising research on the potential for desistance-focused approaches to improve outcomes, community corrections agencies continue to rely on recidivism as the primary measure of their effectiveness... Our purpose in this discussion is not to end the use of recidivism as a justice system measure but to illustrate its limits and to encourage the development and use of more suitable measures — namely, positive outcomes related to the complex process of criminal desistance.


Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics
# Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago, Léa Berger-Kolopp, Christine Burkhardt , SPACE I 2016, Prison Populations

# Marcelo F Aebi, Julien Chopin, SPACE II 2016, Persons Serving Non-Custodial Sanctions and Measures in 2016, rev. 12.03.2018 20.03.2018

# Executive_summary_march2018


Robin S. Engel, Robert E. Worden, Nicholas Corsaro, Hannah D. McManus, Danielle Reynolds, Hannah Cochran, Gabrielle T. Isaza, Jennifer Calnon Cherkauskas | IACP/UC Center for Research and Policy
# Deconstructing the Power to Arrest: Lessons from Research March 15, 2018
It is a seemingly simple proposition that it is better for police to divert very low-risk offenders from the justice system, in which their involvement may have criminogenic effects, and to divert those with behavioral health and/or criminogenic needs away from the justice system and to ward supports and services that can better address their needs. It is not at all simple , however, to make that proposition a reality. Alternatives to arrest can take many different forms, not all of which are equally acceptable to street-level personnel. Well-founded diversion decisions require information thatofficers in the field typically lack and cannot easily acquire...


John F. Pfaff
# Criminal Punishment and the Politics of Place
Fordham Urban Law Journal, vol. XLV, 2018
The criminal justice system is not a single coherent “system,” but rather a somewhat—or sometimes extremely—chaotic collection of agencies, each responding to a unique set of incentives. And these incentives are, quite frequently, strongly shaped by who the constituents are, which is determined by where the constituents are. The two examples above highlight the need to account for place, and how thinking about where these agencies are helps us better understand what they are going to do,  and thus what sorts of reforms we may need to enact...


Zhen Zeng
# Jail Inmates in 2016 February 2018
At midyear 2016, about 740,700 inmates were confined in county and city jails in the United States. The midyear jail population (i.e., the number of inmates held in custody on the last weekday in June) remained relatively stable from 2011 to 2016 and below a peak of 785,500 in 2008, which was the highest count since 1982. There were 229 jail inmates per 100,000 U.S. esidents at midyear 2016, down from 259 per 100,000 residents at midyear 2007. Jails reported 10.6 million admissions during 2016, which was 14.5 times the size of the average daily population (ADP) in 2016 (731,300 inmates)...


Charles Falconer

# British justice is in flames. The MoJ’s fiddling is criminal. From prisons to probation and legal aid, the entire system is on the verge of collapse – and poor people bear the brunt. Act now, lord chancellor Tue 6 Feb 2018
No one who knows anything about the justice system doubts it is in crisis, that the crisis is unprecedented, that it is rendering the system unable to perform its most basic functions. And that the victims of this are poor people. The prisons are as dangerous as they have ever been in modern times to prison officers and prisoners alike. The probation service has ceased to function in the face of a misconceived privatisation.


Human Rights Watch
# “I Needed Help, Instead I Was Punished”. Abuse and Neglect of Prisoners with Disabilities in Australia February 6, 2018

The statistics on how overrepresented people with disabilities are in prison—and especially how overrepresented certain groups of people with disabilities are—call into question the fairness and effectiveness of Australia’s justice system. People with disabilities, particularly a cognitive or psychosocial disability, are overrepresented in the criminal justice system in Australia—comprising around 18 percent of the country’s population, but almost 50 percent of people entering prison.


John Gramlich
# 5 facts about crime in the U.S.A. January 30, 2018
The two most commonly cited sources of crime statistics in the U.S. both show a substantial decline in the violent crime rate since it peaked in the early 1990s. One is an annual report by the FBI of serious crimes reported to police in approximately 18,000 jurisdictions around the country. The other is an annual survey of more than 90,000 households conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, which asks Americans ages 12 and older whether they were victims of crime, regardless of whether they reported those crimes to the police.


Ministry of Justice
# Offender Management statistics quarterly, England and Wales. Quarter: July to September 2017, Prison population: 31 December 2017 25 January 2018

# Monthly Bulletin - December 2017


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire - Bureau des statistiques et des études (SDME - Me5)
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France. Situation au 1er janvier 2018


Amanda Y. Agan, Michael D. Makowsky
# The Minimum Wage, EITC, and Criminal Recidivism January 9, 2018
Every year, more than 600,000 men and women are released from U.S. prisons; nearly one-third will return to prison within three years. The probability these individuals returnto prison is in part determined by the labor market opportunities they face upon release In the market for low and unskilled labor, releasedprisoners are likely to be on the margin of employment and may be particularly sensitive tochanges in low-wage labor market policie... we estimate how two major low-wage labor market policies, the minimumwage and earned income tax credits (EITCs), impact the probability a recently releasedprisoner returns to prison. We exploit variations in the levels and existence of these poli-cies across states combined with microdata from nearly six million individual prison releaserecords from 2000 to 2014 across 42 states to understand how these policies impact recidivism.


E. Ann Carson
# Prisoners in 2016
Bureau of Justice Statistics, January 2018
The number of prisoners under state and federal jurisdiction at year-end 2016 (1,505,400) was a 7% decrease (down 110,100 prisoners) from 2009 when the U.S. prison population peaked. Federal prisoners made up 13% of the total U.S. prison population at year-end 2016 but accounted for 34% of the decline in the total prison population. The number of federal prisoners decreased from 196,500 in 2015 to 189,200 in 2016. This was the fourth consecutive year of population decline among federal prisoners.


Ames Grawert, James Cullen
# Crime in 2017: Updated Analysis
Brennan Center for Justice

The overall crime rate in the 30 largest cities in 2017 is estimated to decline slightly from the previous year, falling by 2.7 percent. If this trend holds, crime rates will remain near historic lows. The violent crime rate will also decrease slightly, by 1.1 percent, essentially remaining stable. Violent crime remains near the bottom of the nation’s 30-year downward trend. The 2017 murder rate in the 30 largest cities is estimated to decline by 5.6 percent. Large decreases this year in Chicago and Detroit, as well as small decreases in other cities, contributed to this decline.


European Union Agency for Law Enforcement Cooperation (Europol)
# Internet Organized Crime Threat Assessment (IOCTA) 2017 2017
This year’s report highlights how cybercrime continues to grow and evolve, taking new forms and directions, as demonstrated in some of the attacks of unprecedented scale of late 2016 and mid- 017.It further highlights the progressive convergence of cyber and serious and organised crime, supported by a professional underground service economy


# Crime and criminal justice statistics Data extracted in May 2017 23 jan 2018
The total number of prisoners across the EU-28 (excluding Belgium) rose slightly each year between 2008 and 2012, and then fell by 3.6 % in 2013 and by 3.5 % in 2014 and by 2.9 % in 2015. The prison population in 2015 was 6.4 % below what it had been in 2008. The number of prisoners with foreign citizenship (including other EU citizenship) rose somewhat faster in 2009 and 2010 across the EU-28 (excluding Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Malta and Sweden), but declined as from 2011. By 2015 it was 12.2 % below the 2008 level.


# Giovanni Mammone, Primo Presidente della Corte di cassazione, Relazione sull’amministrazione della Giustizia, 26 gennaio 2018

# Riccardo Fuzio, Procuratore generale della Corte suprema di cassazione , Intervento nell’Assemblea generale della Corte sull’amministrazione della giustizia nell’anno 2017, 26 gennaio 2018

# Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria, Inaugurazione Anno Giudiziario 2018
# Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile e di Comunità, Inaugurazione Anno Giudiziario 2018

# Marina Anna Tavassi, Presidente della Corte di Appello di Milano, Relazione sull’amministrazione della giustizia nel Distretto della Corte di Appello di Milano, 27 gennaio 2018


ACLU New Jersey
# A Vision to End Mass Incarceration in New Jersey December 2017
The United States and New Jersey face a mass incarceration crisis. Although New Jersey has seen a recent decline in its incarcerated population, close to 35,000 people are still housed in its prisons and jails. In fact, despite the recent decline, the size of New Jersey's prison population increased by 278 percent between 1975 and 2015.hetey


Florence De Bruyn, Annie Kensey
# 50 ans d’études quantitatives sur les récidives enregistrées Décembre 2017
Ce Travaux & Documents présente, sous forme de fiches synthétiques et récapitulatives les recherches quantitatives réalisées en France depuis 50 ans en matière de récidives délictuelle et criminelle, officiellement enregistrées et judiciairement sanctionnées, ainsi que quelques recherches menées à l’étranger qui ont attiré notre attention par leur originalité. Cependant, nous ne saurions présenter ces études sans évoquer à minima le contexte dans lequel elles ont pu être produites. Comment la récidive devient-elle un objet d’études et pourquoi ? Pourquoi et comment quantifier la « récidive » ? Quels besoins cette quantification tente-t-elle de satisfaire ?


Observatoire de la Récidive et de la Désistance
# Rapport annuel del l'observatoire de la recidive et de la desistance 2017
La désistance est, en revanche, un sujet relativement nouveau en France. Sa seule évocation soulève des interrogations. Sa définition vient d’être arrêtée et elle figurera très bientôt dans le dictionnaire comme étant : « le processus par lequel une personne sort de la délinquance ». Cette sortie de la délinquance, qui s’inscrit dans une dynamique, résulte de la conjugaison de nombreux facteurs, endogènes et exogènes et caractérise un changement de vie profond et durable.


Rachel E. Morgan, Grace Kena
# Criminal Victimization, 2016
Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2017
In 2016, about half (51%) of serious violent crimes, including rape or sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault, were reported to police. In comparison, 42% of all violent crimes and 36% of property crimes were reported to police. Rates of violent victimization, serious violent victimization, and property victimization were higher in urban areas than in  suburban and rural areas in 2016. The rate of violent victimization in urban areas was 29.9 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older, compared to 15.4 per 1,000 in suburban and 21.7 per 1,000 in rural areas...


William H. Pryor, Jr., Rachel E. Barkow, Charles R. Breyer, Danny C. Reeves, Zachary C. Bolitho, J. Patricia Wilson Smoot, Kenneth P. Cohen, Glenn R. Schmit, Kim Steven Hunt, Kim Steven Hunt, Billy Easley II,
# The Effects of Aging on Recidivism Among Federal Offenders United States Sentencing Commission; December 2017
Older offenders were substantially less likely than younger offenders to recidivate following release. Over an eight-year follow-up period, 13.4 percent of offenders age 65 or older at the time of release were rearrested compared to 67.6 percent of offenders younger than age 21 at the time of release. The pattern was consistent across age groupings, and recidivism measured by rearrest, reconviction, and reincarceration declined as age increased.


Andrew Bushnel
# Australia's Criminal Justice Costs: an International Comparison
Institute of Public Affairs, december 2017
Incarceration in Australia is growing rapidly. The 2016 adult incarceration rate was 208 per 100,000 adults, up 28 percent from 2006. There are now more than 36,000 prisoners, up 39 percent from a decade ago... Australian prisons are among the most expensive in the world. Among countries for which 2014 data is available, Australia had the fifth highest per prisoner annual prison cost. The cost of putting one person in prison for a year was $109,500. Only Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands and Luxembourg had higher costs.


Jessica Jacobson, Catherine Heard, Helen Fair | ICPR
# Prison. Evidence of its use and over-use from around the world
2017 Institute for Criminal Policy Research
Whether you would end up in prison is also affected by who you are. For example, Roma people make up around 40% of Hungary’s prison population, despite representing only 6% of the national population; and Indigenous people in Australia represent 27% of adult prisoners while making up around 2% of all adult Australians. Across the board, poor and marginalised communities are overrepresented in prisons.


Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Dati statistici 15 novembre 2017


Cédric Mathiot
# Non, les peines alternatives ne sont pas deux fois plus efficaces que la prison ferme 1 novembre 2017
... En raisonnant avec des personnes de profils comparables, le taux de condamnation à l’emprisonnement ferme des personnes condamnées à du SME (52%) est beaucoup plus proche de celui des sortants de prison (61%). Même chose si on regarde le taux de recondamnation simple : les sortants de prison ont été 72% à être recondamnés dans les cinq ans. Ils sont suivis de près par les condamnés à du SME (68%) ou à du sursis simple (62%). Ces chiffres montrent toujours que la prison ferme débouche davantage sur la récidive que les  peines non carcérales. Mais avec des chiffres moins spectaculaires. Mais plus honnêtes.


Observatoire de la récidive et de la désistance
# Rapport Annuel 2017 / 2017
La récidive et la désistance: notions distinctes, notions complexes. Celui qui récidive peut être sorti de la délinquance. Celui qui ne récidive pas peut ne pas être sorti de la délinquance. Contrairement à la récidive, la désistance (plus récente en France qu’à l’étranger) se définit d’une manière plus dynamique et processuelle. Une personne considérée comme récidiviste (du fait qu’elle soit condamnée à nouveau pour une infraction commise quelques mois auparavant) peut être sortie de la délinquance dans le sens où elle est maintenant « passée à autre chose », notamment en s’engageant dans une vie familiale ou dans un travail. A l’inverse, une personne considérée comme non-récidiviste n’est pas nécessairement sortie de la délinquance : elle peut continuer les activités délinquantes (et devenir plus performante) sans se faire arrêter par la police.


HM Inspectorate of Probation for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2017 (Introduced by HM Chief Inspector of Probation Dame Glenys Stacey) HM Inspectorate of Probation 2017
Yet in some CRCs, individuals meet with their probation worker in places that lack privacy, when sensitive and difficult conversations must take place. Some do not meet with their probation worker face-to face. Instead, they are supervised by telephone calls every six weeks or so from junior professional staff carrying 200 cases or more. I find it inexplicable that, under the banner of innovation, these developments were allowed...

[The Guardian...]


David J. Harding, Jeffrey D. Morenoff, Anh P. Nguyen, Shawn D. Bushway
# Short- and long-term effects of imprisonment on future felony convictions and prison admissions PNAS | October 17, 2017 | vol. 114 |no. 42
... Being sentenced to prison rather than probation increases the probability of imprisonment in the first 3 years after release from prison by 18 percentage points among nonwhites and 19 percentage points among whites. Further results show that such effects are driven primarily by imprisonment for technical violations of community supervision rather than new felony convictions. This suggests that more stringent postprison parole supervision (relative to probation supervision) increases imprisonment through the detection and punishment of low-level offending or violation behavior...


Prison Reform Trust
# Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile Autumn 2017
In 2016–17, two-thirds of prisons in England and Wales were overcrowded (79 of the 119 prisons). Nearly 21,000 people were held in overcrowded accommodation—almost a quarter of the prison population. The majority were doubling up in cells designed for one. This level of overcrowding has remained broadly unchanged for the last 14 years....


PEW Charitable Trusts
# Prison Health Care: Costs and Quality. How and why states strive for high-performing systems Oct 2017
On a typical day, state prisons house more than a million people, many of whom have extensive and communicable health ailments. The manner in which services are provided affects state budgets because of the expensive treatments for some common conditions, the downstream costs of delayed or inadequate care, and the legal and financial consequences of being found to violate inmates’ constitutional rights to “reasonably adequate” care. Moreover, with nearly all incarcerated individuals eventually returning to society, treatment and discharge planning—especially for those with a substance use disorder, mental illness, or infectious disease—play an important role in statewide anti- recidivism and public health efforts. Taken together, these realities call for the attention of policymakers and administrators.


Michela Finizio, # Ecco la mappa dei reati: 284 denunce ogni ora. Nel 2016 si conferma il calo generale dei delitti (7,4%), 9 ottobre 2017

Maurizio Fiasco, # Alt al mercato speculativo della paura, 9 ottobre 2017


Parlamento europeo | 2014-2019
# Sistemi carcerari e condizioni di detenzione. Risoluzione del Parlamento europeo del 5 ottobre 2017 sui sistemi carcerari e le condizioni di detenzione (2015/2062(INI)


DAP Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Circolare sull'organizzazione del circuito detentivo speciale previsto dall'art. 41 bis O.P.
2 ottobre 2017


Federico Olivo
# La recidiva nell'esecuzione penale: grande menzogna oppure ricerca da approfondire? Settembre 2017

... Peccato però che in Italia, nessuno, né il Parlamento, né il Governo, nemmeno il Ministro della Giustizia in carica, tuttora, abbiano minimamente idea del tasso effettivo di recidiva del sistema penale italiano.


Giacomo Di Gennaro, Riccardo Marselli (a cura di)
# Criminalità e sicurezza a Napoli. Secondo rapporto
Federico II University Press, Napoli 2017


David Roodman
# The impacts of incarceration on crime
Open Philanthropy Project, September 2017
My best estimate is that the best estimate of the impact of additional incarceration on crime in the United States today is zero. Incarceration can be thought of as affecting crime before, during, and after: before incarceration, in that stiffer sentences may deter offending; during, in that people inside prison cannot physically commit crime outside; and after, in that having been incarcerated may shift one’s chance of reoffending. The first is here called “deterrence,” the second “incapacitation,” and the third “aftereffects.” In short, incarceration’s “before” effect is mild or zero while the “after” cancels out the “during”.


Giorgio Alleva
# Audizione alla Commissione parlamentare di inchiesta sul femminicidio, nonché su ogni forma di violenza di genere
# Allegato Roma, 27 settembre 2017
In generale, la quota di straniere che dichiara di aver subito violenza fisica o sessuale è pressoché identica a quella delle donne italiane (31,3% – 644 mila donne, contro 31,5% – 6 milioni 144 mila donne). Si attestano sopra la media le donne moldave, che superano il 35 per cento (37,3%), le romene (33,9%) e le ucraine (33,2%), mentre le percentuali sono più basse della media fra le donne marocchine (21,7%), albanesi (18,8%) e cinesi (16,4%).


United States Government Accountability Office (GAO)
# Costs of Crime. Experts Report Challenges Estimating Costs and Suggest Improvements to Better Inform Policy Decisions September 2017


Laura Jaitman (ed)
# The Costs of Crime and Violence New Evidence and Insights in Latin America and the Caribbean 2017
What exactly are the social costs of crime and how can we measure them? These costs certainly include the direct costs as a result of crime: injury, damage, and loss. There are also costs in anticipation of crime, such as public and private expenditure on security. And there are costs in response to crime, such as the cost of the criminal justice system. We should also take into account other indirect or intangible costs such as changes in behavior due to the fear of crime or the costs to the families of victims. Indeed, there are probably many other consequences of crime that are costly and should be considered, including the possibility that what people are willing to pay to reduce crime may sometimes even be much higher than what the aggregate costs of crime to society actually turn out to be.


Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Dati Statistici - Aggiornamento 15 settembre 2017


Ronald D’Amico, Christian Geckeler, Hui Kim
# An Evaluation of Seven Second Chance Act Adult Demonstration Programs: Impact Findings at 18 Months September 2017
Being assigned to the program group did not reduce involvement with the criminal justice system in the 18 months after random assignment. Whether recidivism was measured using survey or administrative data, those in the program group were no less likely to be re-arrested, reconvicted, or re-incarcerated; their time to re-arrest or re-incarceration was no shorter; and they did not have fewer total days incarcerated (including time in both prisons and jails)....


Ames C. Grawert, James Cullen | Brennan Center for Justice
# Crime in 2017: A Preliminary Analysis September 6, 2017
- The overall crime rate in 2017 is projected to decrease slightly, by 1.8 percent. If this estimate holds, 2017 will have the second-lowest crime rate since 1990. - The violent crime rate is projected to decrease slightly, by 0.6 percent, essentially remaining stable. - The 2017 murder rate is projected to be 2.5 percent lower than last year. This year’s decline is driven primarily by decreases in Detroit (down 25.6 percent), Houston (down 20.5 percent), and New York (down 19.1 percent). Chicago’s murder rate is also projected to fall, by 2.4 percent...


# Delitti, imputati e vittime dei reati. Una lettura integrata delle fonti sulla criminalità e giustizia
Istituto nazionale di statistica, 2017


European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)
# Report to the Italian Government on the visit to Italy carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) from 8 to 21 April 2016  # Executive summary Strasbourg, 8 September 2017
The CPT recommends that the Italian authorities pursue their efforts to eradicate prison overcrowding. The CPT would like to be informed about the steps taken by the Italian authorities in order to curb the growth of the prison population registered since the beginning of 2016... The CPT is critical of the use of medical seclusion rooms for the prolonged isolation of inmates with self-harming and/or suicidal tendencies; notably, the potential it represents for physical ill-treatment, the degrading manner of its application (such as inmates being left in only their underwear), the absence of adequate monitoring by health-care staff and the inadequate recording of such measures...


Maartje van der Woude, Vanessa Barker, Joanne van der Leun
# Crimmigration in Europe
European Journal of Criminology 2017, Vol. 14(1)
Links between crime, security, migration and integration are far from new, but since the ‘asylum crisis’ of the 1990s they have become more established, resulting in a series of policy and legislative reforms targeting migrants in member  states. These developments, which are now rapidly accelerating, seem to fit into the broader trend for which scholars have coined the term crimmigration, the growing merger of crime control and immigration control...


Gianpiero Dalla Zuanna, Alessandra Minello
# Assassini di genere, 23.08.2017
L’Italia è il paese sviluppato dove le donne corrono il minor rischio di essere uccise. Infatti, nel periodo 2004-2015 ci sono stati in Italia 0,51 omicidi volontari ogni 100 mila donne residenti, contro una media di 1,23 nei trentadue paesi europei e nordamericani per cui si dispone di dati Unodc. Le differenze sono ampie. I paesi della ex-Urss e gli Usa sono quelli dove le donne sono più a rischio, con tassi quattro volte superiori rispetto all’Italia, mentre i più sicuri sono gli stati dell’Europa meridionale, con l’Italia al 32esimo e ultimo posto per tasso di omicidi. 


Prison Reform Trust
# Prison: the facts. Bromley Briefings Summer 2017
The prison system as a whole has been overcrowded in every year since 1994. Overcrowding affects whether activities, staff and other resources are available to reduce risk of reoffending, as well as distance from families and other support networks. At the end of May 2017, 76 of the 117 prisons in England and Wales were overcrowded—holding 9,496 people more than they were designed to. 20,995 people were held in overcrowded accommodation on average in 2015–6—nearly a quarter of the prison population. The majority were doubling up in cells designed for one. This level of overcrowding has remained broadly unchanged for the last 12 years.


Roy Walmsley | WPB | ICPR
# World Female Imprisonment List. Women and girls in penal institutions, including pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners - Fourth edition 2017
In around four-fifths of prison systems female prisoners constitute between 2 and 9% of the total prison population. Just nineteen systems have a higher percentage than that. The jurisdictions with the highest proportions are Hong Kong-China (20.8%), Laos (18.3%), Macau-China (15.4%), Qatar (14.7%), Kuwait (13.8%), Thailand (13.3%), Myanmar(12.3%), United Arab Emirates (11.7%) and South Sudan (10.9%) ...


Parliamentary Ombudsman
# Women in Prison. A thematic report about the conditions for female prisoners in Norway 2017
More than 200 women are held in Norwegian prisons at any time. This makes up 5.2 per cent of all inmates, which is somewhat above the average proportion of women in the total prison population in Europe. Globally, the number of women in prison has increased considerably over the past ten years, while it has remained relatively stable in Norway.


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France 1er août 2017


Senato della Repubblica - Ufficio Valutazione Impatto
# Oltre le sbarre La questione carceraria e 10 anni di politiche di contrasto al sovraffollamento cronico Luglio 2017


Associazione Antigone
# Pre-Rapporto 2017 sulle carceri 27 luglio 2017


Colson Center for Christian Worldview, the Ethics and Religious Liberty Commission, the National Association of Evangelicals, and Prison Fellowship
# Responding to Crime & Incarceration: A Call to the Church 2017


Don Stemen
# The Prison Paradox: More Incarceration Will Not Make Us Safer July 2017
Despite two decades of declining crime rates and a decade of efforts to reduce mass incarceration, some policymakers  continue to call for tougher sentences and greater use of incarceration to reduce crime. It may seem intuitive that increasing incarceration would further reduce crime: incarceration not only prevents future crimes by taking people who commit crime “out of circulation” (incapacitation), but it also may dissuade people from committing future crimes out of fear of punishment (deterrence). In reality, however, increasing incarceration rates has a minimal impact on reducing crime and entails significant costs...


European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)
# Public statement concerning Belgium
Strasbourg, 13 July 2017
However, for 12 years, the CPT has consistently expressed its deep concern regarding the serious consequences which can result from industrial action by prison staff in Belgium. These consequences have a direct impact (for prolonged periods) on the detention conditions, health and security of the persons placed under their responsibility. They entail, in particular, almost continuous confinement of inmates in cells in conditions already deemed intolerable, serious disruption in the distribution of their meals, a dramatic deterioration of their personal hygiene conditions and conditions in cells, frequent cancellation of daily outdoor exercise, serious restrictions on their access to health care and a virtual halt to their contacts with the outside world (including with lawyers)...


Frieder Dünkel
# European penology: The rise and fall of prison population rates in Europe in times of migrant crises and terrorism
European Journal of Criminology 2017, Vol. 14(6) 629–653
Research results testing the hypothesis that prison population rates are higher or increase if crime rates, particularly for serious crimes (which usually attract a custodial sentence), are high or increase are mixed. In some countries a confirming development was found (for example, Germany); in others, however, there was actually evidence of an inverse correlation: an increase in crime rates and decrease in prison populations, or, as in the USA and England & Wales, an increase in prison population rates and a decrease in crime. In recent years Aebi, Linde and Delgrande (2015) have found a positive correlation between the development of (serious) crime and prison population rates for some West European countries. Nevertheless, the correlations are rather weak and not always clear. There is, however, a stronger correlation between the fall in prison population rates and declining crime rates in some countries such as Germany and the Netherlands


David Crowe
# Measuring the cost of crime 8 june 2017


The Sentencing Project
# Trends in U.S. Corrections June 2017


Corrective Services, Australia
# Persons in Corrective Services


Giulia Mentasti,
# Carcere e sanzioni non detentive in Europa: i rapporti Space I e Space II 2015 25 maggio 2017

Quanto ai tipi di reato per i quali sono state pronunciate le condanne, al primo posto si collocano i reati connessi alle sostanze stupefacenti (18,7%), seguiti a breve distanza da furto (16,2%), omicidio (13,2%) e rapina (12,6%). Tra le informazioni più rilevanti, si segnalano: la durata media delle detenzioni, stabilizzata, come l’anno precedente, intorno ai sette mesi; il tasso medio di mortalità, che nel corso del 2014 è stato di 27 deceduti ogni 10.000 detenuti (un punto inferiore rispetto al precedente anno); tra le cause di morte, il suicidio è tuttora ampiamente presente, pur se in attenuazione rispetto al passato, con un tasso di 7,2 suicidi ogni 10.000 detenuti...


Chris Mai, Ram Subramanian
# The Price of Prisons: Examining State Spending Trends, 2010-2015
Vera Institute of Justice, May 2017
In 2015, among the 45 responding states, the total state expenditure on prisons was just under $43 billion. Because the size of states and state prison systems vary widely, there is likewise variation between each states’ total prison costs, ranging from $65 million in North Dakota, to more than $8 billion (a fifth of the total prison spending in the United States) in California—the largest state prison system in the country...


Penal Reform International
# Global Prison Trends 2017 May 2017
The Global Prison Trends 2017 report is the third in our annual series, and provides an overview of key developments in criminal justice and prison policy and practice over the past 12 months. It shows that the overall trend of a reduction in crime rates has continued over the past year. However, despite this, the world does not feel a safer place...

# Global Prison Trends 2016


Ashley Nellis | The Sentencing Project
# Still Life. America’s Increasing Use of Life and Long-Term Sentences May 2017
The number of people serving life sentences in U.S. prisons is at an all-time high. Nearly 162,000 people are serving a life sentence – one of every nine people in prison. An additional 44,311 individuals are serving “virtual life” sentences of 50 years or more. Incorporating this category of life sentence, the total population serving a life or virtual life sentence reached 206,268 in 2016. This represents 13.9 percent of the prison population, or one of every seven people behind bars.


Associazione Antigone
# XIII rapporto sulle condizioni di detenzione 25 maggio 2017


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France 1er mai 2017


Le Monde - Editorial
# La politique pénale et carcérale française est un échec 03.04.2017
Notre taux d’incarcération (98,3 détenus pour 100 000 habitants) n’est inférieur à la moyenne européenne que parce que celle-ci inclut des pays qui emprisonnent en masse (la Russie et la Turquie ). La vérité est plus brutale, telle que la décrivait le regretté Me Thierry Lévy : en France, la prison ne se limite pas à la privation de liberté. Dans notre entendement collectif, elle doit faire souffrir au-delà de l’enfermement.


Par M. Philippe Bas, Président-rapporteur, Mme Esther Benbassa, MM. Jacques Bigot, François-Noël Buffet, Mme Cécile Cukierman, MM. Jacques Mezard et François Zocchetto, Sénateurs
# Cinq ans pour sauver la justice! Rapport d'Information Fait au nom de la commission des lois constitutionnelles, de législation, du suffrage universel, du Règlement et d’administration générale par la mission d’information sur le redressement de la justice 4 avril 2017


European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
# 26th General Report of the CPT. 1 January - 31 December 2016
Council of Europe, April 2017


Senato della Repubblic a
# Emergenza carceri. Tra sovraffollamento cronico, condanne UE e legislazione svuota-penitenziari
Senato - Servizio Studi, N. 161 - aprile 2017
Il sovraffollamento carcerario sembra destinato ad affliggere, ciclicamente, il sistema penitenziario italiano... Ancora a marzo 2017, tuttavia, il Garante nazionale dei detenuti, nella sua relazione annuale al Parlamento, ha segnalato il permanere di criticità inaccettabili nel sistema penitenziario, soprattutto in relazione ai livelli di trattamento delle persone vulnerabili e malate, livelli «definibili appropriatamente con gli aggettivi “inumano” e “degradante”» utilizzati dalla CEDU...

# Damiano Aliprandi, Le donne delinquono meno degli uomini ma in carcere trovano condizioni peggiori, Il Dubbio, 6 aprile 2017


Zoé Lauwereys
# Prisons surpeuplées : ce que proposent les candidats à la présidentielle 31 mars 2017
La France a battu un nouveau record en 2017. Au 1er mars 2017, 69.430 personnes étaient détenues alors que les établissements pénitentiaires ont une capacité d’accueil de 58.664 places opérationnelles. Dans le même temps, la maison d’arrêt de Villepinte (Seine-Saint-Denis) se dit «dans l’impossibilité physique d’accueillir plus de détenus» avec un taux d’occupation de 201%.


Miikka Vuorela
# The historical criminal statistics of Finland 1842–2015 – a systematic comparison to Sweden
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice, March 2017
The purpose of the study is to illustrate the availability and significance of the long criminal justice time series in the Nordic countries and describe the long-term trends in crime and crime control in Finland and Sweden. As such, the article attempts to provide an overview of the Finnish criminality and control policy during the past 200 years. Due to the nature of the research questions, the following analysis will be a macro-level introduction to the trends in crime and criminal policy and their existing explanations. The article forms a part of a larger project aiming to the collection of available criminal justice statistics in the Nordic countries (excluding Iceland)...


Laurette Cretin, Odile Timbart, Maël Löwenbrück
# Une approche individualisée de la multi condamnation
Infostat Justice, n. 151, Mars 2017
Sur l’ensemble des personnes condamnées entre 2005 et 2014, 58 % ne présentent qu’une seule condamnation (mono condamnés) alors que 42 % en affichent plusieurs (multi condamnés). Parmi ces multi condamnés, les trois quarts ont deux, trois ou quatre condamnations (respectivement 43 %, 20 % et 12 %)... 


Le Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté | Adeline Hazan
# Rapport d’activité 2016     # Images 2017


Garante Nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale
# Relazione al Parlamento 2017
Roma 21 marzo 2017


Mark Motivans
# Federal Justice Statistics, 2013 -Statistical Tables
Bureau of Justice Statistics, March 2017


Peter Wagner, Bernadette Rabuy
# Mass Incarceration: The Whole Pie 2017 March 14, 2017
The American criminal justice system holds more than 2.3 million people in 1,719 state prisons, 102 federal prisons, 901 juvenile correctional facilities, 3,163 local jails, and 76 Indian Country jails as well as in military prisons, immigration detention facilities, civil commitment centers, and prisons in the  U.S. territories. And we go deeper to provide further detail on why people are locked up in all of those different types of facilities...


Julie Reitano - Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics
# Adult correctional statistics in Canada, 2015/2016 March 1, 2017

In 2015/2016, there were on average 120,568 adult offenders on a given day, in either custody or in a community program among the 11 reporting provinces and territories for which both custody and community data were available. This represents a rate of 438 offenders per 100,000 adult population, a decrease of 3% from the previous year and a decline of 16% compared to 2011/2012. In contrast, the number of adults charged with a crime by police in Canada increased 3% between 2014 and 2015. However, between 2011 and 2015, there was a 1% decline in the number of adults charged.  A large majority of adults (80%) under correctional supervision in the provinces and territories in 2015/2016 were under community supervision such as probation and conditional sentences. The remaining 20% were in custody.


Aaron Chalfin, Justin McCrary
# Criminal Deterrence: A Review of the Literature
Journal of Economic Literature 2017, 55(1), 5–48
We review economics research regarding the effect of police, punishments, and work on crime, with a particular focus on papers from the last twenty years. Evidence in favor of deterrence effects is mixed. While there is considerable evidence that crime is responsive to police and to the existence of attractive legitimate labor-market opportunities, there is far less evidence that crime responds to the severity of criminal sanctions. We discuss fruitful directions for future work and implications for public policy.


David Cole
# The Changing Politics of Crime and the Future of Mass Incarceration February 11, 2017
Today “smart on crime” has replaced “tough on crime.” Rather than simply being tougher than the next guy, politicians and government officials increasingly seek solutions that are based on evidence and reason rather than heated rhetoric and demagoguery. To that end, this project brings together a who’s who of experts in criminal law, and asks each contributor to offer both a concise diagnosis of the problems in their particular area of expertise and, more importantly, a prescription for practical reforms.


Office for National Statistics
# Focus on violent crime and sexual offences, England and Wales: year ending Mar 2016. Release 9 February 2017
Females were victims in 53% of violence against the person offences and 90% of rape offences recorded by the
police. Over a third (35%) of violence against the person offences against females were suspected to be committed by
an intimate partner, compared with 10% of violent offences against males. Of violence against the person offences recorded by the police, 16% were identified as alcohol-related, as were 9% of sexual offences.


Council of Europe
# Europe’s prison population falls, but there is no progress in tackling overcrowding, says annual Council of Europe survey
Press release - DC031(2017)
# SPACE I: report   # SPACE II: report


Demos & Pi e Osservatorio di Pavia per Fondazione Unipolis
# L’Europa sospesa tra inquietudine e speranza. Il decennio dell’incertezza globale. Rapporto sulla sicurezza e l’insicurezza sociale in Italia e in Europa. Significati, immagini e realtà. Percezione, rappresentazione sociale e mediatica della sicurezza Febbraio 2017


Massimo De Pascalis
# Come liberarsi della necessità del carcere. Uno sguardo alle detenzioni brevi ed altro
Ristretti Orizzonti, 22 febbraio 2017

Anche se sono state introdotte procedure per monitorare e garantire la fruibilità dello spazio minimo tollerabile determinato dalla Cedu, non possiamo non riconoscere che le politiche penitenziarie messe in campo stanno riproducendo gli stessi effetti che nella storia penitenziaria sono seguiti ad ogni indulto: al repentino abbassamento della popolazione detenuta segue un costante e progressivo aumento che ripropone sempre le stesse criticità di Sistema. Sovraffollamento, promiscuità, violazione dei diritti umani, precarie condizioni igienico sanitarie degli istituti, conflittualità diffuse...


Dan Bilefsky
# Dutch Get Creative to Solve a Prison Problem: Too Many Empty Cells Feb. 9, 2017
About a third of Dutch prison cells sit empty, according to the Ministry of Justice. Criminologists attribute the situation to a spectacular fall in crime over the past two decades and an approach to law enforcement that prefers rehabilitation to incarceration. “The Dutch have a deeply ingrained pragmatism when it comes to regulating law and order,” said René van Swaaningen, professor of criminology at Erasmus School of Law in Rotterdam, noting the country’s relatively liberal approach to “soft” drugs and prostitution. “Prisons are very expensive. Unlike the United States, where people tend to focus on the moral arguments for imprisonment, the Netherlands is more focused on what works and what is effective.” 


Roberto Cornelli, Oriana Binik, Massimiliano Dova, Annalisa Zamburlini
# ProbACTION- Promuovere il cambiamento culturale nell’ambito della giustizia
Fondazione Cariplo, gennaio 2017


Rosa Raffaelli | European Parliament - Civil Liberties
# Prison conditions in the Member States: selected European standards and best practices January 2017
In 2014, prisons across the EU were holding over half a million inmates, including both convicted persons, serving their final sentence, and persons accused of a crime. Living conditions in prisons are regulated by numerous laws and guidelines: from constitutional provisions to national criminal and penitentiary laws and international law principles. Relevant human rights provisions include, in particular, those protecting the right to personal liberty and clarifying the grounds on which it may be restricted (for instance Art. 5, ECHR; Art. 6, EU Charter of Fundamental Rights), and those prohibiting torture and other forms of inhumane and degrading treatment or punishment (Art. 3, ECHR; Art. 4, EU Charter).


Fabio Bartolomeo, Magda Bianco (eds) | Ministero della Giustizia - ItaliaDecide
# La performance del sistema giudiziaria italiano. Un confronto con i principali sistemi giudiziari europei gennaio 2017


Giovanni Canzio - Primo Presidente Corte Suprema di Cassazione

# Relazione sull’amministrazione della giustizia nell’anno 2016

Roma, 26 gennaio 2017

Pasquale Ciccolo - Procuratore generale della Corte suprema di cassazione, # Intervento nell’Assemblea generale della Corte sull’amministrazione della giustizia nell’anno 2016, Roma, 26 gennaio 2017

Marina Anna Tavassi Presidente della Corte di Appello di Milano, # Relazione sull’amministrazione della giustizia nel Distretto della Corte di Appello di Milano, Assemblea Generale – Milano, 28 gennaio 2017


Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Relazione del Ministero sull’amministrazione della giustizia anno 2016. Inaugurazione dell’Anno Giudiziario 2017
26 Gennaio 2017

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia minorile e di comunità
# Relazione del Ministero sull’amministrazione della giustizia anno 2016. Inaugurazione dell’Anno Giudiziario 2017
26 Gennaio 2017


# Comunicazioni sull’amministrazione della giustizia del Ministro Andrea Orlando -- Senato della Repubblica, 18 gennaio 2017
# Relazione del Ministero sull'amministrazione della giustizia Anno 2016 -- Inaugurazione dell'Anno Giudiziario 2017
# Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile e di Comunità


Observatoire International des Prisons O.I.P. – Section Belge
# Notice 2016. Pour le droit à la dignité des personnes détenues 2017

Le 7 août 2015, les détenus étaient 10.946. En 2014, on comptait 11.769 détenus, et en 2013, 11.732 détenus. La diminution de la population carcérale (qui n’est pas constante) nous parait s’expliquer essentiellemen par l’ouverture d’un hôpital pour internés (partenariat public/privé, environ 200 places) mais surtout par l’augmentation toujours constante des personnes placées sous surveillance électronique. Ils étaient 1.887 en moyenne par jour en 2015, pour 1.071 en 2013 ou encore 1.807 en 2014 (142 en 2001!). Le 7 mars 2016, le nombre de détenus en prison étaient de 11062. Il était de 10250 en octobre 2016...


Ministère de l'Intérieur
# Insécurité et délinquance en 2016: premier bilan statistique Janvier 2017


Eileen Baldry, Sophie Russell
# The Booming Industry continued: Australian Prisons. A 2017 update 17 january 2017
There were 38,845 full time inmates (sentenced and unsentenced) in prisons in Australia on census date 30th June 2016, a rise of 6% over the previous year (ABS 2016). The most useful method of representing and comparing the number of prisoners over time is the rate per 100,000 of the adult population. Using this representation, the rate was 208 prisoners per 100,000 in 2015 (388 per 100,000 males and 33 per 100,000 females), an increase from 30 June 2004 when it was 159 per 100,000...


François-Xavier Gomez
# Au Brésil, les prisons surpeuplées sont une aubaine pour le crime organisé 7 janvier 2017
Fin 2014, il y avait 622 000 prisonniers dans le pays. Ce sont les derniers chiffres disponibles. La surpopulation atteint 167% en moyenne, et dans certains centres elle est très supérieure... Quelle serait la solution ? Une réforme du système judiciaire, l’application de peines de substitution à l’enfermement, de la liberté surveillée aux travaux d’intérêt général. Et une évolution de la législation sur les stupéfiants. La plupart des détentions concernent la possession de petites quantités de drogue...


Rachel Kleinfeld
# Reducing All Violent Deaths, Everywhere. Why the Data Must Improve
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, January 2017
At between 370,000 and 450,000 homicides annually over the past decade according to WHO and UNODC numbers, about three-quarters of violent deaths globally are homicides. To put it in perspective, more people are killed by homicide each year than the higher estimates for five years of the brutal war in Syria.


European Court of Human Rights
# Annual Report. 2016 Provisional version 2017


E. Ann Carson, Elizabeth Anderson
# Prisoners in 2015 December 2016
At yearend 2015, the United States had an estimated 1,526,800 prisoners under the jurisdiction of state and federal correctional authorities. This was the smallest U.S. prison population since 2005 (1,525,900 prisoners). The prison population decreased by more than 2% from the number of prisoners held in December 2014. This was the largest decline in the number of persons under the jurisdiction of state or federal correctional authorities since 1978...


Jeremy Travis, Preeti Chauhan, Ervin M. Balazon, Shannon Tomascak, Celina Cuevas, Olive Lu, Quinn O. Hood, Todd Warner, Adam G. Fera
# Trends in Admissions to the New York City Department of Correction, 1995-2015 December 13, 2016
A Vera Institute of Justice report found that annual admissions for jails nearly doubled between 1983 to 2013, growing from six million to 11.7 million. Further, they Bureau of Justice Statistics found that the number of admissions to local jails increased by 20 percent from 1999 to 2013... in February, 2015, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation launched the Safety and Justice Challenge. This initiative seeks to reduce over-incarceration by creating more effective local justice systems and reducing the population of jails. Sixteen counties, three cities, and one state are now participating in the Safety and Justice Challenge. These initiatives complement the ground-breaking work of the Obama Administration in focusing on pretrial justice issues, augmented by the White House data-driven initiative. On a conceptual and operational level, this new focus on pretrial justice and jail incarceration is linked to the parallel national discussion about ways to reduce prison populations...


James Austin, Lauren-Brooke Eisen, James Cullen, Jonathan Frank, Inimai Chettiar | Brennan Center for Justice
at New York University School of Law
# How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated? December 9, 2016
Of the 1.46 million state and federal prisoners, an estimated 39 percent (approximately 576,000 people) are incarcerated with little public safety rationale. They could be more appropriately sentenced to an alternative to prison or a shorter prison stay, with limited impact on public safety. If these prisoners were released, it would result in cost savings of nearly $20 billion per year, and almost $200 billion over 10 years. Alternatives to prison are likely more effective sentences for an estimated 364,000 lower-level offenders — about 25 percent of the current prison population. Research shows that prison does little to rehabilitate and can increase recidivism in such cases. Treatment, community service, or probation are more effective...


Danielle Kaeble, Lauren Glaze
# Correctional Populations in the United States, 2015 December 2016
At yearend 2015, an estimated 6,741,400 persons were under the supervision of U.S. adult correctional systems, about 115,600 fewer persons than yearend 2014. This was the first time since 2002 (6,730,900) that the correctional population fell below 6.8 million. The population declined by 1.7% during 2015, which was the largest decline since 2010 (down 2.1%). Additionally, the decrease was a change from a 3-year trend of stable annual rate declines of about 0.6% between 2012 and 2014. About 1 in 37 adults in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision at the end of 2015. 


Jamiles Lartey
# Quarter of inmates could have been spared prison without risk, study says Sun 11 Dec 2016
Study of 1.5 million prisoners finds that drug treatment, community service, probation or fines would have served as more effective sentences for many... A quarter of the US prison population, about 364,000 inmates, could have been spared imprisonment without meaningfully threatening public safety or increasing crime, according to a new study.


The Sentencing Project
# Repurposing: New Beginnings for Closed Prisons December 14, 2016
Since 2011, at least 22 states have closed or announced closures for 94 state prisons and juvenile facilities, resulting in the elimination of over 48,000 state prison beds1) and an estimated cost savings of over $345 million.2) The opportunity to downsize prison bed space has been brought about by declines in state prison populations as well as increasing challenges of managing older facilities. Reduced capacity has created the opportunity to repurpose closed prisons for a range of uses outside of the correctional system, including a movie studio, a distillery, and urban redevelopment.


Matthew Friedman, Ames Grawert, James Cullen | Brenna Center for Justice
# Crime in 2016: Updated Analysis December 2016

Crime: The overall crime rate in 2016 is projected to remain the same as in 2015, rising by 1.3 percent. Twelve cities are expected to see drops in crime. These decreases are offset by Chicago (rising 9.1 percent) and Charlotte (17.5 percent). Nationally, crime remains at an all-time low. • Violence: The violent crime rate is projected to rise slightly, by 5.5 percent, with half the increase driven by Los Angeles (up 13.3 percent†) and Chicago (up 16.2 percent†). Even so, violent crime remains near the bottom of the nation’s 30-year downward trend. • Murder: The murder rate is projected to rise by 13.1 percent this year, with nearly half of this increase attributable to Chicago alone (234 of 496 murders)...


Australian Bureau of Statistics
# Prisoners in Australia, 2016 08/12/2016


Benjamin Monnery
# Prison, reentry and recidivism: micro-econometric applications
Université Lumière Lyon 2 - Thèse de Doctorat (NR) de Sciences Economiques, 29 novembre 2016
Regarding the recidivism equation, the estimates for Fast-Track are large, negative and significant (except for the ± 5 years bandwidth) : focusing on the ± 3 years bandwith, the results suggest that experiencing incarceration through a fast-track procedure reduces probability of recidivism in the 5 years after release by 34% points on average.


The Commonwealth of Massachusetts
# Fine Time Massachusetts: Judges, Poor People, and Debtors’ Prison in the 21st Century
Massachusetts Senate, November 7, 2016


Wendy Sawyer # Punishing Poverty: The high cost of probation fees in Massachusetts, December 8, 2016
Probation service fees in Massachusetts cost probationers more than $20 million every year. People are placed on one of two tiers of probation: supervised and administrative, and they are currently charged $65 and $50 per month, respectively. With an average probation sentence of 17-20 months, a Massachusetts resident sentenced to probation is charged between $850$ 1,300 in monthly probation service fees alone — on top of many other court fines and fees.


James Austin, Gregory D. Squires
# The ‘Startling’ Link Between Low Interest Rates and Low Crime December 6, 2016
When interest rates go up, crime goes up. When interest rates go down, crime goes down... Crime rates are linked to social and economic pressures and structures. That is, they reflect and reinforce various social phenomena that are not subject simply to the choices that individuals make. Access to well-paying jobs, decent and affordable housing, adequate education, public transportation, healthy food, guaranteed health care, smaller and planned families are all factors that reduce stress. Interest rates constitute one of the best predictors of crime rates.


Daniel P. Mears, Joshua C. Cochran, William D. Bales, Avinash S. Bhat
# Recidivism and Time Served in Prison
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Volume 106 | Issue 1 Article 5, Winter 2016
We describe the data, which include information about 90,423 inmates who served varying lengths of time in Florida prisons, and the analyses, which rely on generalized propensity score modeling to address confounding and to estimate the functional form of the time served and recidivism relationship. Results of the analyses reveal a curvilinear relationship: greater time served initially increases recidivism but then, after approximately one year, decreases it, and, after approximately two years, exerts no effect; estimation of the effects associated with prison durations of more than five years are uncertain...


Rebecca Stone
# Desistance and Identity Repair: Redemption Narratives as Resistance to Stigma
Brit. J. Criminol., 56, 956-975, 2016
Recent research has examined the role of the narrative construction of identity in desistance from criminal offending and substance use. The narrative identity theory of desistance was developed with a population of male offenders. The present analysis explores the applicability of the theory to a sample of substance-using pregnant women and mothers, a highly stigmatized and increasingly criminalized group. The analysis of in-depth interview data reveals that desisting women constructed narrative identities that emphasized their moral agency and resisted the stigmatizing discourse surrounding substance-using mothers. The results support the narrative identity theory of desistance by demonstrating its applicability to a population for which the theory was not specifically designed and have implications for future research on identity theories of desistance as well as offender supervision practices.


Todd D. Minton, Zhen Zeng
# Jail Inmates in 2015 December 2016
The average daily population (ADP) of jail inmates in 2015 (721,300) remained stable from 2011 to 2015 after peaking in 2008 (776,600). The ADP jail population count is a fraction of the number of inmates flowing into jail each year. In 2015, there were 10.9 million admissions to jails. From 2008 to 2015, the volume of admissions to jails steadily declined. The number of admissions to jail in 2015 was nearly 15 times the size of ADP in 2015...


Danielle Kaeble and Thomas P. Bonczar
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2015 December 2016
At yearend 2015, an estimated 4,650,900 adults were under community supervision—a decrease of 62,300 offenders from yearend 2014. 1 About 1 in 53 adults in the United States was under community supervision at yearend 2015. This population includes adults on probation, parole, or any other post-prison supervision, with probationers accounting for the majority (81%) of adults under community supervision.


Illinois State Commission on Criminal Justice and Sentencing Reform
# Final Report (parts I & II) December 2016
While criminal punishment generally has a broad deterrent effect, research does not support the assumption that increasing prison sentences is an effective or efficient way to increase deterrence, particularly if sentences are already lengthy.27 Research also suggests that high rates of incarceration can weaken deterrence by making the experience of incarceration more common. This is particularly problematic for communities that experience both high levels of crime and incarceration. The risk to public safety is that when potential offenders see prison as a normal experience, the threat of incarceration has less power to deter


Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga
# Relazione sui dati relativi allo stato delle tossicodipendenze in Italia (Anno 2015 e primo semestre 2016)
Comunicata alla Presidenza del Senato il 6 dicembre 2016


John Attard
# Prison violence is the worst I have seen in my 30-year career 3 december 2016
In my 29 years of working for the prison service – now called the National Offender Management Service – I have seen many things, from truly stunning acts of compassion to extreme acts of violence. But the violence I have seen in the last four years is the worst I have witnessed. The impact has been stark: self-inflicted deaths have doubled, violence has increased, serious assaults on our staff are at their highest level for at least a decade and we have seen riots and prisoners escaping...


Ministry of Justice
# Prison Safety and Reform November 2016
Almost everyone we lock up will one day be released back into our communities. However, once released too many prisoners will go on to reoffend. Currently, almost half of all prisoners are reconvicted within a year of release. The cost of reoffending by former prisoners is estimated to  be up to £15 billion a year. n 2010 the National Audit Office estimated the cost to the economy of re-offending of those released from custody to be between £9 billion to £13.5 billion. We have subsequently uprated this figure to up to £15 billion to reflect 2016 prices...


# Stalking sulle donne. Anno 2014 24 novembre 2016
Tra le donne che hanno un ex partner si stima che il 21,5% delle 16-70enni (pari a 2 milioni 151 mila) abbia subito comportamenti persecutori da parte di un ex partner nell’arco della propria vita. Se si considerano le donne che hanno subito più volte gli atti persecutori queste sono il 15,3%, mentre quelle che hanno subito lo stalking nelle sue forme più gravi4 sono il 9,9%. Nell’arco della propria vita, lo stalking subito da parte di altre persone è invece del 10,3%, per un totale di circa 2 milioni 229mila donne. Complessivamente dunque sono circa 3 milioni 466 mila le donne che hanno subìto stalking da parte di un qualsiasi autore, pari al 16,1% delle donne. 


OSSIF - Associazione Bancaria Italiana ABI
# Rapporto intersettoriale sulla Criminalità predatoria. Rapine e furti in Banca e in altri settori esposti: Poste, Tabaccherie, Farmacie, Distribuzione Moderna, Esercizi commerciali, Distributori di carburante, Trasporto Valori Novembre 2016

Sulla base dei dati operativi del Dipartimento di Pubblica Sicurezza del Ministero dell’Interno, le rapine denunciate in Italia nel corso del 2015 sono state 34.9571, pari ad un decremento del 10,9% rispetto al 2014. Il dato conferma il calo dei reati che già aveva caratterizzato lo scorso anno (-10,3% rispetto al 2013)...


Associazione Openpolis
# Dentro o fuori. Il sistema penitenziario italiano tra vita in carcere e reinserimento sociale N. 9 novembre 2016


Senato della Repubblica - Commissione straordinaria per la tutela e la promozione dei diritti umani
# Audizione del Garante nazionale dei diritti delle persone detenute o private della libertà personale Resoconto sommario n. 105 del 08/11/2016
Mauro PALMA tra le criticità da segnala i trasferimenti dei detenuti poiché spesso non viene meno la continuità dei percorsi e dell'osservazione della persona detenuta... Emilia ROSSI, segnala gli aspetti sanitari, quelli del lavoro e le attività di socializzazione... che anche la gestione dei malati psichiatrici nelle carceri rappresenta una forte criticità poiché, ad esempio, i protocolli con le ASL non sempre vengono applicati.


Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Eventi critici negli Istituti Penitenziari - Anno 2015 novembre 2016


Giovanni Torrente
# La popolazione detenuta in Italia tra sforzi riduzionisti e nuove tentazioni populiste 27 ottobre 2016
1. La popolazione detenuta in Italia sino alla sentenza "Torreggiani". - 2. L'Italia del dopo Torreggiani e la diminuzione del numero di detenuti. - 3. Cosa ha reso possibile il processo di de-carcerizzazione? - 4. Verso un ritorno del populismo penale?


Jennifer L. Truman, Rachel E. Morgan
# Criminal Victimization, 2015 October 2016
In 2015, U.S. residents age 12 or older experienced an estimated 5.0 million violent victimizations,  according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). There was no statistically significant change in the rate of  overall violent crime, defined as rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault, from 2014 (20.1 victimizations per  1,000 persons age 12 and older) to 2015 (18.6 per 1,000). However, the rate of violent crime in 2015 was lower than in 2013 (23.2 per 1,000). From 1993 to 2015, the rate of violent crime declined from 79.8 to 18.6 victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older...


Nicolas Bocquet
# Les prisons provençales parmi les plus surpeuplées de France Jeudi 06/10/2016

Au 1er août 2016... 68 819 incarcérés pour un total de condamnées de 80 023 (11 204 non détenus : en surveillance électronique ou en placements extérieurs). Trop souvent pointée du doigt pour la surpopulation de ses prisons, en mars un rapport du Conseil de l’Europe plaçait la France en 7e position des pires pays européens. Les chiffres sont alarmants puisque que la moyenne de densité nationale est de 117,6% (différence entre la capacité et le nombre de détenus), soit 10 312 détenus en trop. Les données nous indiquent même, très officiellement, que les maisons d’arrêts françaises proposent 1 515 matelas au sol (soit une progression de 56% par rapport à 2015). La question se pose alors, où dorment les 8 797 détenus restants ?


Il Ministro della Giustizia

# Atto d'indirizzo politico-istituzionale per l'anno 2017 28 settembre 2016 | on line 13 ottobre 2016


Andrea Baiguera Altieri
# Devianza reale e devianza percepita in Occidente. Osservazioni generali 11 ottobre 2016

In buona sostanza, è controproducente creare o tentare di creare una società criminologicamente asettica, nella quale sia eliminata ogni minima forma di infrazione. L’ ossessione della repressione penale non tiene conto delle componenti etiche ed antropologiche delle devianze, che spesso non sono reati veri e propri, bensì gesti esasperati di rabbia, dolore e disperazione culturale ed interiore.


Philippe Robert
# Les paradoxes de la récidive Criminocorpus. Revue d'Histoire de la justice, des crimes et des peines, 2016
Toutes les études s’accordent pour constater que la fréquence et la rapidité de la récidive s’effondrent après 25-30 ans. Quand on parle de “carrière” délinquante, on imagine facilement qu’elle dure toute la vie. C’est, en fait, rare. Stephen Farrall parle d’une des rares certitudes de la recherche : statistiquement, la délinquance se concentre de manière disproportionnée sur deux décennies de la vie, entre dix et trente ans, avec un sommet vers la fin de la première. Est-ce à dire que l’adulte fait devient plus capable d’échapper à la perspicacité des institutions pénales ou que la délinquance concerne surtout une brève période de l’existence ? Seul le recours à des données extra-pénales – comme des enquêtes déclaratives de délinquance autoreportée – pourrait trancher entre ces deux acceptions.


Observatoire international des prisons
# Construction de prisons: droit dans le mur Conférence de presse 20/09/2016


Ministero dell'Interno
# Dal Viminale un anno di attività del Ministero dell'Interno 15 agosto 2016


Ministère de la Justice - Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France situation au 1er août 2016


Illinois Sentencing Policy Advisory Council
# Illinois Results First. A Cost-Benefit Tool for Illinois Criminal Justice Policymakers Summer 2016
Programs that reduce the risk that individuals released from prison will commit additional crimes create measureable outcomes in terms of less victimization, lower government costs, and other economic benefits. The critical question for policymakers is: Do the benefits of a program outweigh the costs? 


California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation
# 2015 Outcome Evaluation Report. An Examination of Offenders Released in Fiscal Year 2010-11 August 2016
Between July 1, 2010 and June 30, 2011 (Fiscal Year 2010-11), 95,690 offenders were released from a California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation  (CDCR) adult institution and tracked for three years following the date of their release. The three-year return to prison rate for the 95,690 offenders who comprise the Fiscal Year 2010-11 release cohort is 44.6 percent, which is a 9.7 percentage point decrease from the  Fiscal Year 2009-10 rate of 54.3 percent. Fiscal Year 2010-11 marks the fifth consecutive year  the three-year return-to-prison rate has declined and  is the most substantial decrease to-date


Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation State of California
# Monthly Report of Population As of Midnight July 31, 2016 August 1, 2016


Ministry of Justice - Offender Management Statistics Bulletin, England and Wales
# Quarterly January to March 2016 with Prison Population as at 30 June 2016 28 July 2016


Prison Reform Trust
# Bromley Briefings Summer 2016 2016


U.S. Department of Education, Policy and Program Studies Service
# State and Local Expenditures on Corrections and Education July 2016
The United States has only 5 percent of the world’s population but more than 20 percent of the world’s incarcerated population. Linkages exist between educational attainment and incarceration. For example, two-thirds of state prison inmates have not completed high school. Young black men between the ages of 20 and 24 ho do not have a high school diploma (or an equivalent credential) have a greater chance of being incarcerated than of being employed...


James Austin, Lauren-Brooke Eisen, James Cullen, Jonathan Frank
# How Many Americans Are Unnecessarily Incarcerated? Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law, 2016
America’s experiment in mass incarceration has failed. Of the 1.46 million state and federal prisoners, an estimated 39 percent (approximately 576,000 people) are incarcerated with little public safety rationale. They could be more appropriately sentenced to an alternative to prison or a shorter prison stay, with limited impact on public safety. If these prisoners were released, it would result in cost savings of nearly $20 billion per year, and almost $200 billion over 10 years. This sum is enough to employ 270,000 new police officers, 360,000 probation officers, or 327,000 school teachers. It is greater than the annual budgets of the United States Departments of Commerce and Labor combined.


Andrew Coyle, Catherine Heard, Helen Fair
# Current trends and practices in the use of imprisonment
International Review of the Red Cross (2016), 98 (3), 761–781.
Today, there are well over 10 million prisoners worldwide, of whom around half are in the United States, China, Russia and Brazil. The number is likely to be closer to 11 million, given that the World Prison Brief (a) holds no prisoner statistics for Eritrea, North Korea or Somalia, because of the difficulty of accessing data on these States, and (b) holds no data on some States’ remand or pretrial detainees – most significantly China’s – as these data are not published. This estimated 10 to 11 million does not include people detained in police or other administrative detention where there  has been no formal decision to chargeor prosecute.


# Pre-Rapporto 2016 sulle condizioni detentive 28 luglio 2016


Adam Taylor
# The Netherlands has a strange problem: Empty prisons
The Washington Post, July 8, 2016


Grahame Allen, Noel Dempsey
# Prison Population Statistics
House of Commons, Briefing Paper Number SN/SG/04334, 4 July 2016


European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice | Cepej
# European judicial systems Efficiency and quality of justice CEPEJ Studies No. 23 Edition 2016 (2014 data)


European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC) | Directorate General Human Rights and Rule of Law
# White paper on prison overcrowding. Strasbourg, 30 June 2016


Joshua A. Markman, Matthew R. Durose, Ramona R. Rantala, Andrew D. Tiedt
# Recidivism of Offenders Placed on Federal Community Supervision in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010 June 2016
During fiscal year 2005, approximately 43,000 offenders were placed on federal community supervision, including nearly a quarter (23%) who were directly sentenced to probation and more than three-quarters (77%) who began a term of supervised release following a prison sentence. Overall, 35% of these offenders were arrested within 3 years and 43% were arrested within 5 years of placement on community supervision.


Washington State Institute for Public Policy
# Correctional education (basic or post-secondary) in prison.
# Benefit-cost technical documentation June 2016


# Adult Criminal Justice, may 2015

# What Works and What Does Not? Benefit-Cost Findings from WSIPP, February 2015


Washington State Institute for Public Policy
# Benefit-cost technical documentation June 2016
WSIPP’s benefit-cost model is an integrated set of computational routines designed to produce three related benefit- cost summary statistics for each policy option we analyze: a net present value, a benefit-to-cost ratio, and a measure of risk associated with these bottom-line estimates. Each of the summary measures derives from the same set of estimated cash or resource flows over time. In simplest form, the model implements a standard economic calculation of the expected worth of an investment by computing the net present value of a stream of estimated benefits and costs that occur over time...


U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs - Bureau of Justice Statistics
# PREA Data Collection Activities, 2016 June 2016


Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze (EMCDDA)
# Relazione europea sulla droga. Tendenze e sviluppi
Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze, 2016
L’analisi qui presentata descrive un mercato europeo della droga che si conferma resiliente, con alcuni indicatori, per la cannabis e gli stimolanti in particolare, attualmente in ascesa. Nel complesso, dai dati relativi all’offerta si evince che la purezza o la potenza della maggior parte delle sostanze illecite sono elevate o in aumento. La maggioranza dei recenti dati relativi all’indagine sulla prevalenza mostra a sua volta modesti aumenti nel consumo stimato delle sostanze stupefacenti più comunemente assunte...


Franco Corleone, Stefano Anastasia, Leonardo Fiorentini (a cura di)
# 7° Libro Bianco sulla legge sulle droghe. Dopo UNGASS 2016. Un anno di cambiamento nel mondo. Proposte per superare lo stallo in Italia, in Parlamento e nel Paese  #  ... in pillole
La società della ragione - Forum Droghe - Antigone - CNCA | Collaborazione: CGIL, Comunità di San Benedetto al Porto, Gruppo Abele, Itaca, ITARDD, LegaCoopSociali, LILA, Associazione Luca Coscioni | Prima edizione - Giugno 2016


Marzio Barbagli
# Sempre meno omicidi in Italia 24giugno 2016

.... Il tasso più basso di sempre... Il numero di omicidi commessi nel nostro paese scende costantemente da 24 anni. Un cambiamento importante che dovrebbe rimettere in discussione idee molto diffuse sulla violenza nella società italiana, l’influenza della lunga crisi economica e il divario Nord-Sud. L’affermazione dello Stato


Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità | Maria Stefania Totaro, Viviana Condrò, Monica Nolfo, Irene Pergolini
# Analisi dei flussi di utenza dei Servizi della Giustizia Minorile. Anno 2015
Roma, giugno 2016


E. Ann Carson, William J. Sabol
# Aging of the State Prison Population, 1993–2013 May 2016
The number of prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year under the jurisdiction of state correctional authorities increased 55% over the past two decades, from 857,700 in 1993 to 1,325,300 in 2013. During the same period, the number of state prisoners age 55 or older increased 400%, from 3% of the total state prison population in 1993 to 10% in 2013. Between 1993 and 2003, the majority of the growth occurred among prisoners ages 40 to 54, while the number of those age 55 or older increased faster from 2003 to 2013. In 1993, the median age of prisoners was 30; by 2013, the median age was 36. The changing age structure in the U.S. state prison population has implications for the future management and care of inmates.


Fair Trials
# A Measure of Last Resort? The practice of pre-trial detention decision making in the EU 26 May 2016

Within the European Union, there are over 120,000 people being detained in pre-trial detention. That’s more than 1 in 5 people held in prison that haven’t yet been found guilty of any crime...


Ministero della Giustizia
# Analisi statistica dell'istituto della prescrizione in Italia

# Allegato A: La prescrizione nei distretti 7 maggio 2016


European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment CPT
# 25th General Report of the CPT | 1 January - 31 December 2015
Council of Europe, April 2016


Comité interministériel de prévention de la délinquance
# Prévention de la récidive. Guide pratique
La documentation Française, 2016


Jason Furman
# Economic Perspectives on Incarceration and the Criminal Justice System April 25, 2016


Sandeep Gopalan, Mirko Bagaric
# Progressive Alternatives to Imprisonment in an Increasingly Punitive (and Self-Defeating) Society
Seattle University Law Review, vol. 40:57, 2016


 Bureau of Justice Statistics | Zhen Zeng, Margaret Noonan, E. Ann Carson, Ingrid Binswanger, Patrick Blatchford, Hope Smiley-McDonald, Chris Ellis

# Assessing Inmate Cause of Death: Deaths in Custody Reporting Program and National Death Index April 2016

The Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) is an annual Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) data collection. The DCRP collects national, state, and incident-level data on persons who died while in the physical custody of the 50 state departments of corrections or the approximately 2,800 local adult jail jurisdictions nationwide. The DCRP began in 2000 under the Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-297), and it is the only national statistical collection to obtain comprehensive information about deaths in adult correctional facilities. BJS uses DCRP data to track national trends in the number and causes (or manners) of deaths occurring in state prison or local jail custody.


Stefano Cinotti, Beatrice Lippi, Salvatore Nasca, Susanna Rollino
# La messa alla prova in Toscana: analisi statistica dalla sua emanazione ad oggi
Uepe Toscana - Aprile 2016


Antigone - Per i diritti e le garanzie nel sistema penale
# Galere d'Italia XII - Rapporto di Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione 15 aprile 2016

# Caterina Pasolini, Carceri italiane sovraffollate e costose. E chi ha misure alternative non sgarra, La Repubblica, 16 aprile 2016


Senato della Repubblica - Commissione straordinaria per la tutela e la promozione dei diritti umani
# Rapporto sul Regime Detentivo Speciale. Indagine conoscitiva sul 41-bis Aprile 2016


Texas Department of Criminal Justice
# Offender Orientation Handbook April 2016
This handbook is designed to provide the offender population with general information along with a standard for acceptable behavior. Offenders who do not behave in an acceptable manner could be charged with a specific disciplinary offense. The disciplinary offenses are listed in the TDCJ Disciplinary Rules and Procedures for Offenders Handbook. The standards for acceptable behavior by offenders are listed in this handbook, apply to all offenders.


Executive Office of the President of the United States
# Economic Perspectives on Incarceration and the Criminal Justice System April 2016

To weigh the relative crime-reducing benefits of different policies, CEA conducted a “back-of-the-envelope” cost-benefit analysis of three policies: increasing the prison population, expanding the police force, and raising the minimum wage... In assessing each of these policy changes we bound the policy’s impact on crime drawing on estimates from leading studies. For the social cost of crime, we use a central estimate from the literature of $33,000 per crime, which subsumes the varying costs of different types of crime but facilitates straightforward and transparent calculations.


Julio César Magàn Zevallos
# Overcrowding in the Peruvian prison system
International Review of the Red Cross (2016), 98 (3), 851–858.
The prison population grew by almost 30,000 people in less than five years, a 60.9% increase. In other words, during this period the Peruvian prison system has had to accommodate 6,000 additional inmates each year. Although prison capacity has also increased over the same period, it has not expanded at the same rate as the prison population; the  percentage difference amounts to 128%, according to data from the Unit of Statistics at the Peruvian National Penitentiary Institute (Instituto Nacional Penitenciario, INPE).1 Just to maintain overcrowding at a stable level, the prison service would have to build a new 500-bed prison every month.


Emilio Dolcini
# L’Europa in cammino verso carceri meno affollate e meno lontane da accettabili standard di umanità 16 Marzo 2016
Al 1° settembre 2014 la popolazione penitenziaria in Europa consta di 1.600.324 persone (erano 1.679.217 nel 2013). Il tasso medio di carcerazione (numero di detenuti per 100.000 abitanti) - preferisco usare la dizione 'tasso medio', anche se propriamente si tratta della 'mediana', della quale il documento sottolinea la maggiore attendibilità rispetto alla 'media', in quanto non influenzata da valori molto alti o molto bassi - è 124 (era 134 nel 2013: la diminuzione è pari al 7%)...


Martine Herzog-Evans
# Law as an extrinsic responsivity factor: What’s just is what works!
European Journal of Probation, Vol. 8(3), 2016


United States Sentencing Commission | Patti B. Saris, Charles R. Breyer, Dabney L. Friedrich, Rachel E. Barkow, William H. Pryor, Michelle Morales, J. Patricia Wilson Smoot, Kenneth P. Cohen, Glenn R. Schmit
# Recidivism Among Federal Offenders: A Comprehensive Overview March 2016
Studies have repeatedly shown that older offenders at sentencing are at lower risk for reoffending, and the Commission’s research confirms these  findings.56 Offenders sentenced when younger than twenty-one had a 71.1 percent rearrest rate, compared to 14.0 percent of offenders who are sentenced after age sixty. Age at release also is associated with different rates of recidivism. Those released into the community who were below age twenty-one had the highest rearrest rate, 67.6 percent. Conversely, those oldest at age of release, over sixty years old, had the lowest  recidivism rate, 16.0 percent


Mia Bird, Sonya Tafoya, Ryken Grattet, Viet Nguyen
# How Has Proposition 47 Affected California’s Jail Population?
Public Policy Institute of California, 2016
Proposition 47 reduced the penalties associated with certain drug and property crimes by preventing prosecutors from charging these offenses as felonies in most cases. The proposition passed with strong support from California voters in November 2014. In the months that followed, jail populations declined sharply, driven primarily by a reduction in individuals being held or serving time for Prop 47 offenses. Based on a sample of California county jail systems, we estimate a 50 percent decline in the number of individuals being held or serving sentences for Prop 47 offenses. This change drove an overall decline in the jail population of 9 percent in the year following the proposition’s passage...


Frieder Dünkel
# The Rise and Fall of Prison Population Rates in Europe
European Society of Criminology, Nesletter, 2016/2

... And there is a great deal of uncertainty about future developments: the refugee problem could lead to a new wave of incarceration and the moderate crime policy development in some countries, such as Germany, could be reversed by terrorist acts and influence the penal climate...


Direzione Nazionale Antimafia e Antiterrorismo
# Relazione annuale sulle attività svolte dal Procuratore nazionale e dalla Direzione nazionale antimafia e antiterrorismo nonché sulle dinamiche e strategie della criminalità organizzata di tipo mafioso nel periodo 1° luglio 2014 – 30 giugno 2015 Febbraio 2016


Direzione Nazionale Antimafia # Relazione annuale sulle attività svolte dal Procuratore nazionale antimafia e dalla Direzione nazionale antimafia nonché sulle dinamiche e strategie della criminalità organizzata di tipo mafioso nel periodo 1° luglio 2013 – 30 giugno 2014 Gennaio 2015


Andrea Orlando # Comunicazioni del guardasigilli sull’amministrazione della giustizia - Roma, Camera dei Deputati - mercoledì 20 gennaio 2016

# Relazione del Ministero sull’amministrazione della giustizia anno 2015 - Inaugurazione dell’Anno Giudiziario 2016


DAP Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Situazione al 31 dicembre 2015 Statistiche

Detenuti presenti e capienza regolamentare degli istituti penitenziari per regione di detenzione - Detenuti presenti per posizione giuridica - Detenuti per classi di età - Tipologia di reato - Detenuti presenti e capienza regolamentare degli istituti penitenziari - Detenuti presenti condannati per pena inflitta e per pena residua - Misure alternative, lavoro di pubblica utilità, misure di sicurezza, sanzioni messa alla prova - Permessi premio concessi ai detenuti - Detenuti presenti stranieri per area geografica - Detenuti presenti per titolo di studio - Detenuti presenti per numero di figli - Detenuti presenti per regione di nascita - Detenuti presenti per regione di residenza


Kamala D. Harris | Attorney General California Department of JustiCe
# Homicide in California 2015
# Crime in California 2015 2015


# Annuario statistico italiano 2015. Giustizia, criminalità e sicurezza (Periodo di riferimento Anno 2014) 29 dicembre 2015


Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago, Christine Burkhardt
# SPACE I – Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: Prison populations. Survey 2014
Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 23 December 2015

Marcelo F. Aebi, Julien Chopin
# SPACE II - Council of Europe: Persons Serving Non-Custodial Sanctions and Measures in 2014
Strasbourg: Council of Europe, 15 December 2015      ...


Grazia Parisi, Gennaro Santoro, Alessio Scandurra
# La custodia cautelare: analisi delle misure alternative e del processo decisionale dell’autorità giudiziaria in Italia
Dicembre 2015


Robert E. Fay, Mamadou Diallo
# Developmental Estimates of Subnational Crime Rates Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey December 17, 2015
Developmental Estimates of Subnational Crime Rates Based on the National Crime Victimization Survey presents rates of violent and property crime victimization for the 50 states and select metropolitan statistical areas, generated using small-area estimation (SAE) methods. The report describes the statistical modeling approach used to produce state- evel estimates from the National Crime Victimization Survey data and auxiliary data sources. It compares SAE victimization rates for the 50 states from 1999 to 2013 to FBI crime rates from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program. It shows trends in criminal victimization rates for each state from 1999 to 2013. State-level estimates of intimate partner  violence are also presented.


Margaret Noonan, Ingrid A. Binswanger, Patrick J. Blatchford, Hope Smiley-McDonald, Chris Ellis
# Linking Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) and National Death Index (NDI) data: Assessing Cause of Death (COD) Data Reported to the DCRP 2015
The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) has collected, analyzed and reported on deaths in the U.S. correctional system annually since the passage of the Death in Custody Reporting Act (2000 DICRA, PL. 106-297) to address public concerns about the safety and humane treatment of suspects, defendants, and offenders while in contact with or under the control or supervision of criminal justice agencies. The 2000 DICRA required local jails, state prisons, and state, and local law enforcement agencies to report information on the circumstances of each death occurring while offenders were in custody or of persons in the process of arrest to the Department of Justice. The Deaths in Custody Reporting Program (DCRP) began in 2000.


European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)
# Living space per prisoner in prison establishments: CPT standards
Strasbourg, 15 December 2015
The CPT’s basic minimum standard for personal living space in prison establishments is: | 6m² of living space for a single-occupancy cell + sanitary facility | 4m² of living space per prisoner in a multiple-occupancy cell + fully-partitioned sanitary facility | at least 2m between the walls of the cell | at least 2.5m between the floor and the ceiling of the cell


William D. Bales, Catie Clark, Samuel Scaggs, David Ensley, Philip Coltharp, Alexa Singer, Thomas G. Blomberg
# An Assessment of the Effectiveness of Prison Work Release Programs on Post-Release Recidivism and Employment December 1, 2015
The Florida Department of Corrections (FDC) reports that 27% or nearly 1 in 3 inmates released from a Florida prison returns to custody within three years of release. The state of Florida spends an average of 2.1 billion dollars per year on corrections costs (FDC, 2013a). With a large number of inmates being rearrested after release from prison and the additional burden of high correctional costs, it is important to identify options that both reduce recidivism and lower correctional budget expenditures.


Todd D. Minton, Scott Ginder, Susan M. Brumbaugh, Hope Smiley-McDonald, Harley Rohloff | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Census of Jails: Population Changes, 1999–2013 December 2015

From 1999 to 2013, the number of inmates in local jails increased by 21%, from 605,943 to 731,570. During this period, the growth in the jail population was not steady, as the jail confined population peaked in 2008 at 785,533 then declined to its 2013 level.


Ministère de la Justice | Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France Situation au 1er décembre 2015


House of Commons Justice Committee
# Appointment of HM Chief Inspector of Prisons and HM Chief Inspector of Probation. Third Report of Session 2015–16 25 November 2015


Scott Graves
# Corrections Spending Through the State Budget Since 2007-08: Still High Despite Recent Reforms
California Budget & Policy Center, November 2015
California has substantially reduced the numbers of incarcerated adults and parolees from their peak levels in 2007. The number of adults incarcerated in state prisons or other facilities, which stood at 173,312 in mid-2007, fell to 128,900 by mid-2015, a nearly 26 percent reduction. The number of adults on parole – people who are under the supervision of state parole agents following release from prison – registered an even steeper decline, falling from 126,330 in mid-2007 to 45,473 in mid- 2015, a drop of 64 percent.


Danielle Kaeble, Laura M. Maruschak, Thomas P. Bonczar | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2014 November 2015
The small decline (down 1%) observed in the adult community corrections population was due to the drop in the probation population. The probation population declined from an estimated 3,910,600 offenders at yearend 2013 to 3,864,100 at yearend 2014, falling by about 46,500  offenders. The decline in the adult community corrections population was slightly offset by a small increase in the parole population, which grew from about 855,200 offenders at  yearend 2013 to 856,900 at yearend 2014.


Shelley Hyland, Ph.D., Lynn Langton, Ph.D., Elizabeth Davis | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Police Use of Nonfatal Force, 2002–11 November 2015
A greater percentage of persons who experienced the use of force (44%) had two or more contacts with police than those who did not experience force (28%). Blacks (14%) were more likely than Hispanics (5.9%), and slightly more than whites (6.9%) to experience nonfatal force during street stops. Blacks (1.4%) were twice as likely as whites (0.7%) to experience force during contacts involving a personal search.


The Sentencing Project
# Fewer Prisoners, Less Crime: A Tale of Three States November 2015
Although the pace of criminal justice reform has accelerated at both the federal and state levels in the past decade, current initiatives have had only a modest effect on the size of the prison population. But over this period, three states – New York, New Jersey, and California – have achieved prison population reductions in the range of 25%. They have also seen their crime rates generally decline at a faster pace than the national average.


Heather M. Harris
# Do Cellmates Matter? A Study of Prison Peer Effects under Essential Heterogeneity November 2015

The current study has sought to establish whether average prison peer effects can be held accountable for some portion of the failure of incarceration to reduce reoffending. The null average prison peer effects identified by the current study cannot account for prison effects that appear, on average, criminogenic. Within the null average prison peer effects estimated lies tremendous variation in marginal prison peer effects. Some MPPEs appear to exert significant criminogenic effects on reoffending. Others appear to exert crimino-suppressive effects. That substantial variation in the estimated marginal prison peer effects remained despite the inclusion of numerous controls suggests the potential for bias in previous peer effect estimates...


César Muñoz
# Pernambuco’s Privatized Prisons
Folha de São Paulo, October 20, 2015
Brazil’s prisons hold more than 607,000 people in facilities designed for about 377,000. Pernambuco’s prisons are the most overcrowded in the country, with three inmates for each official space.


Sam Taxy, Julie Samuels, and William Adams | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Drug Offenders in Federal Prison: Estimates of Characteristics Based on Linked Data October 2015
This study is based on 94,678 offenders in federal prison at fiscal yearend 2012 who were sentenced on a new U.S. district court commitment and whose most serious offense (as classified by the Federal Bureau of Prisons) was a drug offense. Almost all (99.5%) drug offenders in federal prison were serving sentences for drug trafficking. Cocaine (powder or crack) was the primary drug type for more than half (54%) of drug offenders in federal prison. Race of drug offenders varied greatly by drug type. Blacks were 88% of crack cocaine offenders, Hispanics or Latinos were 54% of powder cocaine offenders, and whites were 48% of methamphetamine offenders.


Stanford Law School
# Proposition 47 Progress Report: Year One Implementation October 2015

Since the enactment of Proposition 47 on November 14, 2014, the number of people incarcerated in California’s prisons and jails has decreased by approximately 13,000 inmates, helping alleviate crowding conditions in those institutions. Proposition 47 has also reduced the number of jail inmates released from custody early due to overcrowding and should generate over $150 million in state savings this fiscal year. County governments stand to save even more money: over $200 million annually, in aggregate.


Corte dei Conti - Sezione centrale di controllo sulla gestione delle Amministrazioni dello Stato
# L’attività del Commissario straordinario del governo per le problematiche connesse all’affollamento degli istituti carcerari Deliberazione 30 settembre 2015, n. 6/2015/G

Rispetto ai 462,769 ml assegnati nel periodo 2010-2014 appena 52,374 ml (l’11,32 per cento circa) risultano essere stati spesi. La differenza, di 410,395 ml, è stata rimessa... In ordine ai nuovi posti detentivi che avrebbero dovuto essere resi disponibili, si evidenza che i nuovi posti creati con i vari interventi immobiliari dei Commissari sono stati, alla fine del 2014, soltanto n. 4.415, molti di meno (il 37 per cento), dunque, rispetto alle menzionate previsioni corrette di n. 11.934, che dovrebbero raggiungere poi, entro il 2016, con successive ultimazioni di n. 1.768 posti, il totale di n. 6.183 (pari al 51,81 per cento delle suddette previsioni). E’ da ritenere che la messa a disposizione dei residui n. 5.751 posti potrebbe essere assicurata solo a partire dal 2017-2018.


Social News
# Carceri, comprese quelle autocostruite che ci isolano dalla realtà Settembre 2015


E. Ann Carson
# Prisoners in 2014
Bureau of Justice Statistics,September 2015
At yearend 2014, the United States held an estimated 1,561,500 prisoners in state and federal correctional facilities, a decrease of approximately 15,400 prisoners (down 1%) from December 31, 2013. A third (34%) of the decrease was due to fewer prisoners under the jurisdiction of the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), which declined for the second consecutive year. Prisoners sentenced to more than 1 year in state or federal prison declined by almost 1% (down 11,800 prison inmates) from yearend 2013 (1,520,400) to yearend 2014 (1,508,600). The number of prisoners housed in private facilities in the United States decreased by almost 2% in 2014 to 131,300 prison inmates...


Sandra Susan Smith
# Recidivism, Desistance, and Reentry: A Brief Review of the Literature
Department of Sociology | University of California-Berkeley, 2015
Whereas recidivism is the continuation of offending post sanction, desistance is now commonly conceptualized as the causal process by which criminal or deviant behavior stops. Empirically, however, desistance is typically measured as the failure to engage in criminal behavior, or the state of not offending, usually after a three-year period. But because desistance is a process and not a discrete event, it is best measured using longitudinal data that charts a gradual decline in criminal involvement.


Lucia Dalla Pellegrina, Margherita Saraceno
# Accesso alla giustizia in carcere: alcune evidenze basate su un “questionario fra pari”
Souq - Casa della Carità, Milano, 30 settembre 2015
L’accesso alla giustizia, nella sua accezione più generale, risulta limitato e difficile per i detenuti. Gli ostacoli al pieno accesso ai diritti fondamentali e di cittadinanza e i limiti alla risoluzione delle questioni legali colpiscono in prevalenza soggetti che sono già maggiormente vulnerabili perché stranieri o privi di una rete di supporto all’esterno del carcere quale, ad esempio, la famiglia. Benché gli istituti di detenzione organizzino servizi a supporto della risoluzione dei problemi legali e amministrativi dei reclusi, la detenzione rappresenta in sé il paradosso dell’essere “dentro il sistema giustizia” ed esserne al contempo esclusi.


Marwan Mohammed
# Sortir de la délinquance
Idées économiques et sociales, Septembre 2015, n° 181

Toutefois, dans de nombreuses recherches, il est possible de repérer un certain nombre de processus favorables à la désistance. Le premier facteur explicatif étant l’âge. Nous savons qu’hormis les jeunes souffrant de troubles spécifiques, les conduites transgressives s’affirment à la  préadolescence, s’intensifientnsuite pour atteindre un pic vers 15-17 ans (selon les territoires nationaux), se maintiennent à un niveau élevé jusqu’au tournant de la vingtaine avant de décroître... Dans nos sociétés salariales, l’occupation d’un emploi stable et satisfaisant est essentielle à la pérennisation de la désistance. Sortir d’une carrière délinquante s’effectue au regard d’un double mouvement, d’une dialectique entre l’usure (pression judiciaire, peines familiales, coûts psychologiques, humains, financiers, etc.) que provoquent de telles conduites et l’ouverture sociale, c’est-à-dire la possibilité de se projeter vers un statut social acceptable.


Magnus Lofstrom, Brandon Martin
# Public Safety Realignment: Impacts So Far PPIC Public Policy Institute of California, September 2015
Realignment—one of the most significant changes in California corrections in decades—is approaching the four-year mark. Prompted by a federal court mandate to reduce overcrowding in California’s expensive prison system, the reform was premised on the idea that locals can do a better job through increased use of evidence-based practices. Realignment shifted administrative and funding responsibility for many lower-level offenders from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation to county jail and probation systems. The reform was expected to lower incarceration rates, improve recidivism trends, and lower costs...


Caroline Touraut,

# L’administration pénitentiaire, 1945, 1975, 2015. Naissance des réformes, problématiques, actualité.Actes des Journées d’études internationales organisées par la Direction de l’administration pénitentiaire (DAP) 14 et 15 décembre 2015


Oliver Roeder, Lauren-Brooke Eisen, Julia Bowling (Foreword by Joseph E. Stiglitz)
# What Caused the Crime Decline? Brennan Center for Justice at New York University School of Law, 2015
Public and political pressure to effectively fight crime and improve public safety has been used to justify mass incarceration despite the economic, human, and moral toll. However, as this report finds, during the past two decades the approach of using incarceration as a one-size fits all punishment for crime has passed the point of diminishing returns to actually reduce crime. 


Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenzaria

# Misure alternative alla detenzione - I Semestre 2015 : 30 giugno 2015
Dati ripartiti per cittadinanza | Dati nazionali per tipologia | Dati ripartiti per età | Dati ripartiti per sesso | Dati ripartiti per zone geografiche | Dati ripartiti per tipologia reato | Misure alternative, lavoro di pubblica utilità, misure di sicurezza, sanzioni sostitutive e messa alla prova | Revoche 4 settembre 2015


Gustavo Robles, Gabriela Calderon, Beatriz Magaloni
# The Economic Consequences of Drug Trafficking Violence in Mexico August, 2015
The results from our instrumental variable regression show that an increase of 10 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants in a municipality is related to: a decrease in the proportion of people working by about 2 and 3 percentage points in the current and next quarter respectively; an increase in the proportion of unemployed people by about a 0.5 percentage points; a decrease in the proportion of people owning a business by about .4 percentage points; and a decrease in the proportion self-employed by about 0.5 percentage points. Moreover, an increase of one homicide per 100,000 inhabitants decreases the average municipal income by 1.2% in the current and following quarter...


Lila Kazemian
# Straight Lives. The Balance between Human Dignity, Public Safety, and Desistance from Crime
Research & Evaluation Center, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, August 2015
Desistance from crime is defined as a process involving a series of cognitive, social, and behavioral changes leading up to the cessation of criminal behavior. The value and importance of studying desistance, particularly for intervention efforts after the onset of offending, have been stressed abundantly in the literature. Predictors of desistance highlighted in the literature include the strength and quality of bonds to sources of informal social control, human agency and the development of a prosocial identity, expressing hope for the future, reduced associations with friends who engage in offending, increased interactions with prosocial coworkers, and reduced substance use...


Illinois Sentencing Policy Advisory Council
# Illinois Results First. The High Cost of Recidivism Summer 2015
If recidivism reduction strategies are successful, the savings generated become available for other uses—including more investment in programs that work within the criminal justice system, social service interventions that reduce the risk of future criminal behavior, and reentry programs for offenders returning to the community—that reduce the number of victimizations going forward. If recidivism is not addressed using research and cost-benefit analysis, the people of Illinois will continue to pay the high cost of maintaining the status quo


Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia Minorile
# Dati statitici - 15 agosto 2015

# La sospensione del processo e messa alla prova (art. 28 D.P.R. 448/88) - Anno 2014 Roma giugno 2015


Ministère de la Justice | Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle des personnes écrouées et détenues en France Situation au 1er juillet 2015


Ministero dell'Interno
# Dal Viminale. Un anno di attività del Ministero dell'Interno 15 agosto 2015

# Ministero dell'Interno, Calano i delitti commessi: variazioni % parziali 2014 - 2015, agosto 2015


Antigone in Carcere
# Pre-rapporto sulle condizioni di detenzione    

# Venti proposte... 30 luglio 2015


HM Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2014–15 - Presented to Parliament pursuant to Section 5A of the Prison Act 1952 as
amended by Section 57 of the Criminal Justice Act 1982 Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 14 July 2015

You were more likely to die in prison than five years ago. More prisoners were murdered, killed themselves, self-harmed and were victims of assaults than five years ago. There were more serious assaults and the number of assaults and serious assaults against staff also rose... Most deaths were from natural causes and the increase can, to some extent, be explained by the aging prison population. However, taking into account differences in age and gender, the mortality rate in prison remained significantly higher than that of the general population. 


Ministero della Giustizia | Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Relazione al Parlamento sullo stato di attuazione delle disposizioni di legge relative al lavoro dei detenuti ai sensi dell’art.20 ultimo comma della legge 26 luglio 1975 n.354. Anno 2014.

1° Luglio 2015


Gobierno de España | Ministerio del Interior
# Anuario Estadistico del Ministerio del Interior 2014 - Instituciones Penitenciarias Junio 2015


Stephen Farrall, Fergus McNeill
# Desistance Research and Criminal Justice Social Work 2015


The Economist
# Americans Prisons. The Right Choices Jun 20th 2015
No country in the world imprisons as many people as America does, or for so long. Across the array of state and federal prisons, local jails and immigration detention centres, some 2.3m people are locked up at any one time. America, with less than 5% of the world’s population, accounts for around 25% of the world’s prisoners. The system is particularly punishing towards black people and Hispanics, who are imprisoned at six times and twice the rates of whites respectively. A third of young black men can expect to be incarcerated at some point in their lives. The system is riddled with drugs, abuse and violence. Its cost to the American taxpayer is about $34,000 per inmate per year; the total bill is around $80 billion.


Australian Crime Commission
The Costs of Serious and Organised Crime in Australia 2013-14. Methodological Approach Commonwealth of Australia 2015 
Infographic...     Chris Dawson...
... includes, in its ‘Costs as a consequence of crime’ section, some elements that would have been considered quite ‘third-order’ impacts in early attempts to measure the costs of crime. Along with ‘traditional’ elements such as property losses and medical and mental health care costs, they include victims’ productivity losses, household services, lost school days, pain and suffering and lost quality of life, victim support services, tort claim expenses and ‘long-term consequences.’ ...


Seena Fazel, Achim Wolf
# A Systematic Review of Criminal Recidivism Rates Worldwide: Current Difficulties and Recommendations for Best Practice
PLoS ONE 10(6) 2015
Recidivism is a broad term that refers to relapse of criminal behaviour, which can include a range of outcomes, including rearrest, reconviction, and reimprisonment. We identified recidivism data for 18 countries. Of the 20 countries with the largest prison populations, only 2 reported repeat offending rates. The most commonly reported outcome was 2-year reconviction rates in prisoners. Sample selection and definitions of recidivism varied widely, and few countries were comparable. Recidivism data are currently not valid for international comparisons. Justice Departments should consider using the reporting guidelines developed in this paper to report their data.


Fondazione David Hume | A cura di Rossana Cima e Luca Ricolfi e con i contributi di Dario Di Pierro, Riccardo De Caria, Caterina Guidoni e Barbara Loera
# Criminalità in Italia, Dossier II, 2015
Fondazione DAVID HUME per Il Sole 24 ORE - 2015
Esiste una “insicurezza sommersa” legata alla microcriminalità. E tuttavia, le sensazioni di insicurezza dei cittadini dipendono in parte dai livelli oggettivi di pericolo ‒ quindi dall’effettivo peso dei reati e dell’illegalità nel contesto sociale ‒ e in parte sono invece collegate ai livelli di fiducia e di tranquillità economica e sociale che pervadono la nazione, nonché dal peso che i mezzi di comunicazione di massa danno alla criminalità. Quando un cittadino si sente insicuro, anche indipendentemente dalle condizioni oggettive di pericolosità del suo ambiente di vita, si comporta come se lo fosse.


# La violenza contro le donne dentro e fuori la famiglia. Anno 2014 5 giugno 2015
La violenza contro le donne è fenomeno ampio e diffuso. 6 milioni 788 mila donne hanno subìto nel corso della propria vita una qualche forma di violenza fisica o sessuale, il 31,5% delle donne tra i 16 e i 70 anni: il 20,2% ha subìto violenza fisica, il 21% violenza sessuale, il 5,4% forme più gravi di violenza sessuale come stupri e tentati stupri. Sono 652 mila le donne che hanno subìto stupri e 746 mila le vittime di tentati stupri.


United States Government Accountability Office
# Justice Could Better Measure Progress Addressing Incarceration Challenges June 2015
Department of Justice (DOJ) has implemented three key initiatives to address the federal incarceration challenges of  overcrowding, rising costs, and offender recidivism, which includes the return of offenders to prison after release. The Smart on Crime Initiative involves multiple DOJ components and has five key goals, one of which involves prioritizing the prosecution of the most seriouscases... DOJ’s Smart on Crime Initiative, new Clemency Initiative, and BOP’s RSD are positive steps in addressing long-standing federal incarceration challenges, and DOJ has taken some initial steps to measure its efforts in these areas.


Prison Reform Trust
# Why focus on reducing women’s imprisonment? 2015
Women in prison are highly likely to be victims as well as offenders. More than half (53%) report having experienced emotional, physical or sexual abuse as a child, compared to 27% of men. A similar proportion report having been victims of domestic violence. Both figures are likely to be an under-estimate. Women can become trapped in a vicious cycle of victimisation and criminal activity. Their situation can be worsened by poverty,
substance dependency or poor mental health. Leaving the relationship doesn’t guarantee that domestic violence will stop. The period when a  woman is planning or making her exit is often the most dangerous time for her and her children.


European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
# European Drug Report. Trends and Developments 2015


Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia Minorile
# Dati statitici - 31 maggio 2015
La criminalità minorile è connotata dalla prevalenza dei reati contro il patrimonio e, in particolare, dei reati di furto e rapina. Frequenti sono anche le violazioni delle disposizioni in materia di sostanze stupefacenti, mentre tra i reati contro la persona prevalgono le lesioni personali volontarie


Prison Reform Trust
# Prison: the facts. Bromley Briefings Summer 2015 May 2015


Ragnar Kristoffersen
# Relapse study in the correctional services of the Nordic countries. Key results and perspectives EuroVista, vol. 2, n. 3, 2015
The most important finding in this study is that it demonstrates that reoffending rates among different offender groups inside the correctional services is a reflection of national differences in the criminal sanction system and the dispersion and the proportion of offender groups serving in prison compared to those serving in the probation.


Christian Henrichson, Joshua Rinaldi, Ruth Delaney | VERA Institute of Justice
# The Price of Jails: Measuring the Taxpayer Cost of Local Incarceration May 2015
The jail is one of a community’s largest investments and its funding is drawn from the same sources that support public hospitals, schools, social services, roads, and many other essential functions of local government. It is exactly for this reason that counties and cities are well positioned to reinvest jail savings into programs and services that will help keep many people, especially those who are poor or have serious mental illness, from entering or staying in jail in the first place. And, in terms of public safety, this is a much better investment.


J. Richard Couzens, Tricia A. Bigelow
# Proposition 47. “The Safe Neighborhoods and Schools Act” May 2016


Boderick Bennet
# An Offender's Perspective of Correctional Education Programs in a Southeastern State Walden University, April 2015
The purpose of this multiple case study was to examine the lived experiences of 20 offenders involved in correctional education programs while incarcerated to explore their correctional education experience within the context of postincarceration employment. The theoretical foundation of this study was based on Bandura’s self-efficacy theory...


Lila Kazemian, Jeremy Travis
# Imperative for Inclusion of Long Termers and Lifers in Research and Policy
Criminology & Public Policy, Volume 14, Issue 2, 2015
Time in prison is assessed through two main indicators of success or failure: behaviors in prison (correctional risk) and postrelease outcomes (community risk). The concept of desistance, which we regard as a process involving a series of cognitive, social, and behavioral changes leading up to the cessation of criminal behavior, cuts across these two dimensions. Yet, the desistance literature has largely ignored changes that occur during periods of incarceration...


Penal Reform International
# Global Prison Trends 2015. Special Focus - Drugs and imprisonment 2015
Growing prison populations throughout the world (though not in every country) place an enormous financial burden on governments and at a great cost to the social cohesion of societies. It is estimated that more than 10.2 million people, including sentenced and pre-trial prisoners, were held in penal institutions worldwide. 144 out of every 100,000 people of the world were therefore in prison at that time. Prison populations are growing in all five continents. In the last 15 years the estimated world prison population has increased by some 25-30 per cent but at the same time the world population has risen by over 20 per cent. The world prison population rate has risen by about six per cent from 136 per 100,000 of the world population to the current rate of 144


Consiglio Regionale del Piemonte - Garante regionale delle persone sottoposte a misure restrittive della libertà personale
# Prima relazione annuale delle attività svolte 31 marzo 2015
Occorre però avere presente che le criticità ed illegalità del sistema penitenziario italiano non sono confinabili nel mero problema di sovraffollamento, ma anche e soprattutto riguardano l'efficacia del periodo di detenzione rispetto all'obiettivo, individuale e collettivo, della pena.


Jessica Benko
# The Radical Humaneness of Norway’s Halden Prison. The goal of the Norwegian penal system
is to get inmates out of it

New York Times, March 26, 2015


Annie Kensey
# Quelques considérations sur les récidives
Espaces et sociétés, 2015/3, n. 162
Le concept de désistance, exporté et importé du Canada, a été récemment introduit en France. Marwan Mohammed a employé le syntagme de « sorties de délinquance » qui nous semble le plus approprié... on relève que l’arrêt de la délinquance est le fait des individus eux-mêmes et de leurs capacités, mais aussi des contextes et ressources disponibles que les personnes (re)trouvent à leur sortie (accessibilité du marché du travail, opportunités d’emploi, famille, etc.).


Roger Abravanel, Stefano Proverbio, Fabio Bartolomeo | «Osservatorio per il monitoraggio degli effetti sull’economia delle riforme della giustizia»
# Misurare la performance dei tribunali Roma, 26 marzo 2015


Camera dei Deputati
# Relazione sullo svolgimento da parte dei detenuti di attività lavorative o di corsi di formazione professionale per qualifiche richieste da esigenze territoriali (anno 214)
Presentata dal Ministro della giustizia, 20 marzo 2015


Garante delle persone private della libertà personale | Regione Emilia-Romagna
# Relazione annuale delle attività svolte - 2014
Marzo 2015


Tapio Lappi-Seppälä
# Why Some Countries Cope with Use of Imprisonment? Explain Differences and Pondering the remedies March 2015


# I detenuti nelle carceri italiane - anno 2013 19 marzo 2015

Sia per chi è in attesa di una sentenza definitiva sia per i condannati il reato più frequente è la produzione e spaccio di stupefacenti, seguito dalla rapina e dal furto (Tavola 12). Per chi è in custodia cautelare, rispetto a chi è condannato, si collocano più in alto di qualche posizione nella graduatoria l’associazione di stampo mafioso, l’estorsione, e l’associazione per delinquere. Per effetto delle modifiche normative, gli imputati per il reato di produzione e spaccio di stupefacenti in carcere sono diminuiti dal 40,1% del 2011 al 35,9% del 2013.



Associazione Antigone
# XI Rapporto Nazionale sulle Condizioni di Detenzione 17 marzo 2015
I detenuti presenti al 28 febbraio 2015 sono 53.982. Il 31 dicembre 2014 erano 53.623. I detenuti nelle carceri europee sono 1 milione 737 mila. In calo di circa 100 mila unità rispetto all’anno precedente... Gli ingressi in carcere dalla libertà sono stati 50.217 nel 2014. Ben 92.800 nel 2008 in piena ondata securitaria (era Roberto Maroni il ministro degli Interni). Ovvero in sei anni sono diminuiti di 42.683 unità...



Ministero della Giustizia | Dipartimento dell’Organizzazione Giudiziaria
# Censimento speciale giustizia penale 14 marzo 2015
a) Relazione di Mario Barbuto (Capo del Dipartimento dell’Organizzazione Giudiziaria); b) Relazione del direttore generale della Direzione Statistiche Fabio Bartolomeo; c) Analisi dei flussi e delle pendenze nel settore penale a dicembre 2014; d) Elenco dei Tribunali italiani in ordine alfabetico con oltre 20 parametri; e) Elenchi speciali dei Tribunali in base agli indici più significativi; f) Elenco delle Corti d’Appello in base a 18 parametri; g) Elenco degli Uffici della Procura della Repubblica in ordine alfabetico con 15 parametri; h) Elenchi speciali delle Procure in base agli indici più significativi



European Commission
# The 2015 EU Justice Scoreboard Brussels, 09 March 2015
Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Central Bank, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions COM(2015) 116 final. The Justice Scoreboard contributes to identifying potential shortcomings and good practices and aims to present trends on the functioning of the national justice systems over time. While the Scoreboard presents comparative information on Member States’ justice systems based on a number of particular indicators, it is not intended to present an overall single ranking, or to promote any particular form of justice system


Ineke Pruin, Frieder Dünkel
# Better in Europe? European responses to young adult offending March 2015
The age-crime curve can be regarded as a universal phenomenon. Yet it is far from invariant; the age-crime curves tend to peak earlier if we look at police-recorded data compared to data on convictions. The reason for this lies partly in the time which lies between the offence and the conviction, and partly in diversion schemes for first-time offenders which limit the number of younger persons appearing before the courts. Further analyses have shown that age-crime curves vary for different offences, genders or ethnic groups – again, not in their patterns of rise, peak and fall, but with respect to their peak-ages. For example, the age-crime curve for violence tends to peak later than that for property crime. The differences between males and females reveal that the peak is earlier for female than for male suspects or convicts...


Brian A. Jackson, Joe Russo, John S. Hollywood, Dulani Woods, Richard Silberglitt,
George B. Drake, John S. Shaffer, Mikhail Zaydman, Brian G. Chow
# Fostering Innovation in Community and Institutional Corrections. Identifying High-Priority Technology and Other Needs for the U.S. Corrections Sector | | 2015
Meeting all of these goals requires innovation—changes in technologies, policies, training, and practices—to enable better performance. In the ideal case, innovations can help achieve multiple goals simultaneously. For example, recent RAND analysis of the effects of correctional education programs showed that they have the potential to reduce recidivism and that the money spent to carry out the programs was more than compensated by reductions in the number of offenders who would have otherwise returned to prison, saving states and localities significant costs of reincarceration. However, in other cases, innovation requires new technologies or organizational practices, and in an era of tight budgets, the resources necessary to make these innovations possible can be scarce.  


Duren Banks, Lance Couzens, Caroline Blanton, Devon Cribb
# Arrest-Related Deaths Program Assessment. Technical Report March 2015
RTI calculated the size of the law enforcement homicide population in the United States and the ARD ( Arrest-Related Deaths) program coverage using two methods to estimate the lower and upper bounds of ARD coverage. We found that over the study period from 2003 through 2009 and 2011, the ARD program captured, at best, 49% of all law enforcement homicides in the United States. The lower bound of ARD program coverage was estimated to be 36%. These findings indicate that the current ARD program methodology does not allow a census of all law enforcement homicides in the United States.


CEJFE: Centro de Estudios Jurídicos y Formación Especializada
# Tasa de reincidencia penitenciaria 2014. Área de Investigación y Formación Social y Criminológica Año 2015



Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

# Statistiche al 28 febbraio 2015
Detenuti presenti | Detenuti presenti per posizione giuridica | Detenuti stranieri distribuiti per nazionalità e sesso | Detenuti presenti e capienza regolamentare degli istituti penitenziari | Eventi critici negli istituti penitenziari - Serie storica degli anni: 1992-2014 | Misure alternative, lavoro di pubblica utilità, misure di sicurezza e sanzioni sostitutive - Anno 2014 | Misure alternative alla detenzione - Dati nazionali per tipologia - Anno 2014 | Condannati a misure alternative e ad altre misure - Dati ripartiti per tipologia reato - Anno 2014 | Misure alternative alla detenzione - Dati ripartiti per cittadinanza - Anno 2014

# Statistiche su detenute madri, lavoro e formazione professionale in carcere


Ministero della Giustizia | Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile
# Dati Statistici 28 febbraio 2015



Unipolis | Osservatorio Europeo sulla Sicurezza
# Nella "terra di mezzo" fra terrore globale e paure quotidiane. 8° Rapporto sulla sicurezza e l'insicurezza sociale in Italia e in Europa Febbraio 2015
Nonostante tutto, non si assiste alla drammatizzazione del sentimento sociale che avevamo osservato nel passato recente. Le paure non si traducono in Paura. Le incertezze non si condensano in una nube di Grande Incertezza, com’era avvenuto negli ultimi anni. Certo, il grado di insicurezza resta molto elevato. Le paure globali, l’inquietudine economica e il rifiuto della politica colpiscono la maggioranza della popolazione. Ma senza toccare i picchi osservati alla fine del 2012. E, comunque, si coglie qualche segno di scongelamento del clima d’opinione. Diciamo che prima era plumbeo, ora è divenuto grigio...


Timothy Williams
# Jails Have Become Warehouses for the Poor, Ill and Addicted, a Report Says Feb. 11, 2015

Jails across the country have become vast warehouses made up primarily of people too poor to post bail or too ill with mental health or drug problems to adequately care for themselves, according to a report issued Wednesday.


Ram Subramanian, Ruth Delaney, Stephen Roberts, Nancy Fishman, Peggy McGarry | Vera Institute of Justice
# Incarceration's Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America February 2015
There are more than 3,000 jails in the United States, holding 731,000 people on any given day—more than the population of Detroit and nearly as many people as live in San Francisco.1 This number, high as it may be, is only a one-day snapshot. In the course of a typical year, there are nearly 12 million jail admissions—equivalent to the populations of Los Angeles and New York City combined and nearly 19 times the annual admissions to state and federal prisons.


The Pew Charitable Trusts
# Most States Cut Imprisonment and Crime Jan 2015
Over the past five years, the majority of states have reduced their imprisonment rates while experiencing less crime. The relationship between incarceration and crime is complex, but states continue to show that it is possible to reduce both at the same time...


Joan Petersilia, Francis T. Cullen
# Liberal But Not Stupid: Meeting the Promise of Downsizing Prisons
Stanford Journal of Criminal Law and Policy 1 (2015)
Our call for a “criminology of downsizing” is thus an admonition to scholars to invent the knowledge and analytical tools needed to guide practical efforts to lower inmate populations. The creation of this criminology will not be achieved through platitudes, wishful thinking, and scholarship flowing only from armchairs and desktop computers. Easy solutions to downsizing do not exist. This essay thus is intended to be sobering, instructive, and directive...


Roberta Palmisano

# La detenzione femminile Roma, Gennaio 2015



European Court of Human Rights | Cour Européenne des Droits de l'Homme
# Analysis of statistics 2014 January 2015


Mark Motivans
# Federal Justice Statistics, 2011–2012
Bureau of Justice Statistics, January 2015
During fiscal year 2012, the number of suspects arrested for a federal offense declined to 172,248 after reaching a record 181,726 suspects in 2009. From 1994 to 2012, the number of suspects arrested by federal law enforcement more than doubled, from 80,450 in 1994 to 172,248 in 2012 ...


Zach Weissmueller
# California's 'Cruel and Unusual' Prisons. Despite court orders and ballot initiatives, Golden State prisons remain criminally overcrowded Jan. 31, 2015
"Drug policy is the major driver of mass incarceration, both in California and nationwide," says Lynne Lyman, California state director of the Drug Policy Alliance. She points to the massive increase in the state and federal prison population following the 1980s ramp-up of the war on drugs. In California prisons alone, there are more than 11,000 inmates incarcerated for drug-related crimes, accounting for almost 9 percent of the total prison population. More than half of those were sentenced under the three-strikes law.

# Sharon Bernstein, California's Prison Population Is Finally Down, But Will It Last? 01/29/2015

# Matt Sledge, California Voters Deal Blow To Prisons, Drug War, 11/05/2014


The PEW Charitable Trusts
# Growth in Federal Prison System Exceeds States’. Federal imprisonment rate, taxpayer costs soar as states curtail expansion, protect public safety Jan 2015
Between 1980 and 2013, the federal imprisonment rate increased 518 percent, from 11 inmates for every 100,000 U.S. residents to 68. During the same period, annual spending on the federal prison system rose 595 percent, from $970 million to more than $6.7 billion in inflation-adjusted dollars... Prison expenditures grew from 14 percent of the Justice Department’s total outlays to 23 percent, increasingly competing for resources with law enforcement and national security programs.


Ministère de la Justice - Direction de l'administration pénitentiaire
# Statistiques trimestrielles de la population prise en charge en milieu ouvert . Mouvements au cours du 4ième trimestre 2014 - Situation au 1er janvier 2015 2015



Andrea Orlando
# Intervento del guardasigilli Andrea Orlando sull’amministrazione della giustizia nel 2014
Camera dei Deputati, lunedì 19 gennaio 2015


Bernadette Rabuy, Peter Wagner
# Screening out Family Time: The for-profit video visitation industry in prisons and jails January 2015
Family contact is one of the surest ways to reduce the likelihood that an individual will re-offend after release, the technical term for which is “recidivism.” More contact between incarcerated people and their loved ones — whether in-person, by phone, by correspondence, or via video visitation — is clearly better for individuals, better for society, and even better for the facilities. As one Indiana prison official told a major correctional news service: “When they (prisoners) have that contact with the outside family they actually behave better here at the  facility.”


Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Presenze 31 dicembre 2014
# Misure alternative 31 dicembre 2014

# Detenuti italiani e stranieri presenti e capienze per istituto - aggiornamento al 31 dicembre 2014


ISTAT - Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile
# I giovani nelle strutture minorili della giustizia - Anno 2013 29 dicembre 2014
I minori sono nell’80% dei casi italiani e nell’89% maschi; tuttavia, sia la percentuale di femmine sia quella degli stranieri sul totale è aumentata tra il 2011 e il 2013. Più della metà dei ragazzi in carico ha un’età compresa tra 16 e17 anni (52,8%), il 22,9% ha 14-15 anni con una prevalenza di ragazze straniere, infine il 23,7% ha già compiuto i 18 anni2 (Prospetto 2 e Tavola 3). I 14-17enni presi in carico sono 15.315, pari allo 0,7% del totale della popolazione minorile residente in Italia in questa fascia di età.


# Annuario statistico italiano 2014. Giustizia criminalità e sicurezza. Periodo di riferimento Anno 2013 martedì 23 dicembre 2014


Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Eventi Critici negli Istituti Penitenziari. Anno 2014
Sezione Statistica dell’Ufficio per lo Sviluppo e la Gestione del Sistema Informativo Automatizzato, Statistica ed Automazione di supporto dipartimentale.


Lauren E. Glaze, Danielle Kaeble
# Correctional Populations in the United States, 2013
Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2014
An estimated 6,899,000 persons were under the supervision of adult correctional systems at yearend 2013, down from 6,940,500 at yearend 2012 (figure 1). The decrease of 41,500 offenders in 2013 resulted in the number of persons under correctional supervision falling below 6.9 million for the first time since 2003. The decline in the population during 2013 (down 0.6%) was less than 1% for the second consecutive year, down from 2.1% in 2010 when the fastest annual decline in the population was observed. About 1 in 35 adults in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision at yearend 2013. This rate was unchanged from 2012, when it dropped to the lowest rate observed since 1997.


Russell Smith, Penny Jorna, Josh Sweeney, Georgina Fuller
# Counting the costs of crime in Australia: A 2011 estimate
Research and public policy series No. 129. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology, 2014
In 2011, the total costs of crime in Australia were estimated to be $47.5b, or 3.4 percent of national GDP. Between 2001 and 2011, there has been an estimated 49.5 percent increase in total costs, although inflation increased by 33 percent during this period (RBA 2013). In terms of national GDP, the costs of crime have actually decreased by 1.1 percentage points over the deacde. Over the decade between 2001 and 2011, all categories of police-recorded crime declined, except assault, sexual assault and shop theft. Police recorded crime statistics for attempted murder, robbery, burglary  and vehicle theft all declined by at least 50 percent between 2001 and 2011.


# Aebi, M.F. & Delgrande, N. (2015). SPACE I – Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: Prison populations. Survey 2013. Strasbourg: Council of Europe

# Council of Europe | Annual Penal Statistics – SPACE II - 2013 | Strasbourg 14/05/2014


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France - situation au 1er décembre 2014


Ministero della Giustizia
# Report Situazione Penitenziaria Dicembre 2014

Nonostante la riduzione di circa 12.000 detenuti il numero dei soggetti trattati dal sistema penale è rimasto stabile...


Chiara Mancuso
# Uno sguardo 'oltremanica': strategie di contrasto del sovraffollamento carcerario nel modello inglese 16 Dicembre 2014

1. Premessa. - 2. Variazioni nel calcolo della popolazione penitenziaria inglese in relazione al sistema di misura adottato. - 3. Recenti interventi in materia penitenziaria: la custodia cautelare. - 4. Sentenze custodiali come rimedio residuale del sistema e generalizzato ricorso a misure alternative o sospensive della pena. - 5. Automatica operatività della scarcerazione preventiva come principio generale dell'esecuzione della pena. - 6. Interventi di edilizia penitenziaria e privatizzazione delle carceri.


Centro nazionale per il volontariato | Fondazione volontariato e partecipazione
# La Certezza Del Recupero. I costi del carcere e il valore delle misure alternative Dicembre 2014


Rachel E. Morgan, Britney J. Mason | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Crimes Against the Elderly, 2003–2013 november 2014
This report describes crimes against persons age 65 or older, by victim and incident characteristics. Data are from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS), and the U.S. Census Bureau. In 2003–13—  The rates of nonfatal violent crime (3.6 per 1,000 persons) and property crime (72.3 per 1,000) against elderly persons were lower than those of younger persons. 


Patricia O'Brien
# The case for closing down women’s prisons 6 November 2014
...So what is the alternative to jailing women at the rate we do? In the UK, advocates propose community sentences for nonviolent offenders, and housing violent offenders in small custodial centers near their families. There is evidence these approaches can work in the US. Opportunities to test alternatives to prison are increasing across the states and some have demonstrated beneficial results for the women who participated. For example, state-funded Project Redeploy in Illinois...


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France situation au 1er novembre 2014


HM Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2013–14 21 october 2014

At the end of April 2013, the total prison population stood at 84,083 which was 96% of the usable operational capacity of 87,930. On 28 March 2014 the total population had unexpectedly increased above projections to 85,252 which was 99% of the usable operational capacity of 85,972.7 These population pressures had become particularly intense from the autumn of 2013..


European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations (HEUNI)
# European Sourcebook of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics 2014 (Fifth edition)


Giovanni Mastrobuoni, Daniele Terlizzese
# Rehabilitation and Recidivism: Evidence from an Open Prison
October 2014

We also find evidence that even for inmates who are not involved in work outside being exposed to prison conditions that emphasize responsibility and guarantee freedom of movement, conditions respectful of human dignity, productive use of time, are effective in reducing recidivism. Policies to that effect seem easier to implement, and are almost surely cost effective. Finally, we do not find robust evidence that peer effects are an important driver of our results. This suggests that scaling up the experience of Bollate, even by weakening somewhat the selection criteria, and adopting similar standards in other prisons, might not risk to undermine the positive results so far observed.

# Slides di sintesi - Milano marzo 2015


Office for National Statistics
# Crime in England and Wales, Year Ending June 2014 16 October 2014
Latest figures from the Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) show that, for the offences it covers, there were an estimated 7.1 million incidents of crime against households and resident adults (aged 16 and over) in England and Wales for the year ending June 2014. This represents a 16% decrease compared with the previous year’s survey, and is the lowest estimate since the survey began in 1981.


Erinn J. Herberman, Thomas P. Bonczar
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2013
Bureau of Justice Statistics, October 2014
At yearend 2013, an estimated 4,751,400 adults were under community supervision—a decline of about 29,900 offenders from yearend 2012. About 1 in 51 adults in the United States was under community supervision at yearend 2013. The community supervision population includes adults on probation, parole, or any other post-prison supervision.


Margaret E. Noonan, Scott Ginder

# Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000–2012 - Statistical Tables October 2014

Margaret E. Noonan, Scott Ginder
Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2011 - Statistical Tables Bureau of Justice Statistics, August 2013


E. Ann Carson | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Prisoners in 2013 September 2014
On December 31, 2013, the United States held an estimated 1,574,700 persons in state and federal prisons, an increase of approximately 4,300 prisoners (0.3%) from 2012. This was the first increase reported since the peak of 1,615,500 prisoners in 2009... Prisoners sentenced to more than a year under the jurisdiction of state or federal correctional authorities increased by 5,400 inmates from 2012 to 2013. However, the imprisonment rate for all prisoners sentenced to more than a year in state or federal facilities decreased by less than 1% between 2012 and 2013, from 480 prisoners per 100,000 U.S. residents in 2012 to 478 per 100,000 in 2013.

# Maria Lombardi Stocchetti, Il carcere negli U.S.A., oggi: una fotografia. Il Rapporto "Prisoners in 2013" (U.S. Department of Justice, 30.09.2014), www.penalecontemporaneo, 23 dicembre 2014


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire | Bureau des études et de la prospective
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France 1er septembre 2014


Florence de Bruyn, Annie Kensey
# Durées de détention plus longues, personnes détenues en plus grand nombre (2007-2013)
Cahiers d’études pénitentiaires et criminologiques, septembre 2014, n. 40


Jennifer L. Truman, Lynn Langton | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Criminal Victimization, 2013 September 2014
In 2013, U.S. residents age 12 or older experienced an estimated 6.1 million violent victimizations and 16.8 million property victimizations, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics’ (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). After two consecutive years of increases, the overall violent crime rate (which includes rape or sexual assault, robbery, aggravated assault, and simple assault) declined slightly, from 26.1 victimizations per 1,000 persons in 2012 to 23.2 per 1,000 in 2013.


Hans-Jörg Albrecht, Jörg-Martin Jehle (Eds.)
# National Reconviction Statistics and Studies in Europe
Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2014
Recidivism belongs to the main categories of criminology, crime policy and criminal justice. If the target of preventing offenders from reoffending is taken seriously crime policy should be measured by success of certain penal sanctions in terms of relapses. Also institutions that deal directly with crime and offenders need to get basic information on the consequences of their actions; particularly when decisions have to be based on a prognosis they should refer to general knowledge about offender groups at risk of reoffending. All these are reasons why – besides the conventional crime and criminal justice statistics, that don´t allow to follow further offending – representative recidivism studies are needed.


Governement of Western Australia | Office of the Inspector of Custodial Services
# Recidivism rates and the impact of treatment programs September 2014
Western Australia has high recidivism rates. On average over the past decade, 40 to 45 per cent of people have returned to prison within two years of being released.  Given Western Australia has a prisoner population of approximately 5000, a recidivism  rate of 40 per cent equates to approximately 2000 people returning to prison in under  two years. It costs, on average, around $120,000 per annum to keep one prisoner in  prison. Thus, for every ten prisoners who do not return to prison for just one year, the  projected saving in direct costs alone is over $1 million...


France - Ministère de la Justice
# Les chiffres-clés de la Justice
Ministère de la Justice 2014


Prisons and Probation Ombudsman for England and Wales | Nigel Newcomen
# Annual Report 2013–2014 September 2014

We were notified of 256 deaths in 2013–14 (17 of which were not investigated as they were outside our remit). We started 239 investigations, 48 (25%) more than last year.• There were 90 apparently self-inflicted deaths, 64% more than the previous year. • The major increase in self-inflicted deaths was among adult male prisoners. There were 6 self-inflicted deaths of those aged 18–21 years, an increase from 2 deaths last year, but the biggest rise was among 25- to 30-year-olds who accounted for 22 (24%) self-inflicted deaths (an increase from 8 last year). • 130 deaths were from natural causes (7% more than last year) and 9 were classified as ‘other non-natural’.


Regione del Veneto
# Giustizia, Legalità e Sicurezza: tessuto di tutti i diritti. Statistiche Flash
Anno 14 - Settembre 2014
I carcerati sono prevalentemente uomini, giovani e con un'istruzione medio-bassa. Gli stranieri nelle carceri venete sono il 58%, una percentuale importante, ma che in parte si spiega considerando che, rispetto agli italiani, gli stranieri riescono a usufruire meno delle misure alternative al carcere (a livello nazionale il 13% contro il 31% degli italiani), perché spesso sprovvisti dei requisiti per poterle chiedere, come un ambiente familiare idoneo, un alloggio e un lavoro adeguato.


Peter Wagner, Leah Sakala, Josh Begley
# States of Incarceration: The Global Context: World Incarceration Rates If Every U.S. State Were A Country 2014


Roy Walmsley
# World Pre-trial/Remand Imprisonment List (second edition)
ICPS International Centre for Prison Studies


Douglas N. Evans
# The Debt Penalty. Exposing the Financial Barriers to Offender Reintegration
John Jay College of Criminal Justice, August 2014

Financial debt associated with legal system involvement is a pressing issue that affects the criminal justice system, offenders, and taxpayers. Mere contact with the criminal justice system often results in fees and fines that increase with progression through the system. Criminal justice fines and fees punish offenders and are designed to generate revenue for legal systems that are operating on limited budgets. However, fines and fees often fail to accomplish this second goal because many offenders are too poor to pay them...


Linda Keena, Chris Simmons
# Rethink, Reform, Reenter: An Entrepreneurial Approach to Prison Programming
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 2014
This study highlights the need for more cognitive-based educational programming with prerelease inmates. These programs are an important first step in increasing employability. The findings suggest that a substantial number of inmates are willing to approach reentry in new ways. Not only did the participants grasp the concepts, they applied them. The evaluation showed the problem may not be that inmates are unable to find jobs, but illuminates poor preparation of inmates to reenter society. Perceived changes in personal and cognitive development helped these inmates secure gainful employment and they may now have the ambition to move forward from there


Todd D. Minton, Daniela Golinelli
# Jail Inmates at Midyear 2013 - Statistical Tables
Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2014 (Revised August 12, 2014)
The jail incarceration rate—the confined population per 100,000 U.S. residents—declined slightly between midyear 2012 (237 per 100,000) and 2013 (231 per 100,000). This decline continues a downward trend from a high of 259 jail inmates per 100,000 residents in 2007


Jeremy Travis, Bruce Western (eds)
# The Growth of Incarceration in the United States: Exploring Causes and Consequences The National Academies Press, 2014

After decades of stability from the 1920s to the early 1970s, the rate of imprisonment in the United States more than quadrupled during the last four decades. The U.S. penal population of 2.2 million adults is by far the largest in the world. Just under one-quarter of the world's prisoners are held in American prisons. The U.S. rate of incarceration, with nearly 1 out of every 100 adults in prison or jail, is 5 to 10 times higher than the rates in Western Europe and other democracies. The ...


FRA Europen Agency for Fundamental Rights
# Violence against women: an EU-wide survey Main results European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights, 2014
This report is based on interviews with 42,000 women across the 28 Member States of the European Union (EU). It shows that violence against women, and specifically gender-based violence that disproportionately affects women, is an extensive human rights abuse that the EU cannot afford to overlook... One in 10 women has experienced some form of sexual violence since the age of 15, and one in 20 has been raped. Just over one in five women has experienced physical and/or sexual violence from either a current or previous partner, and just over one in 10 women indicates that they have experienced some form of sexual violence by an adult before they were 15 years old. Yet, as an illustration, only 14 % of women reported their most serious incident of intimate partner violence to the police, and 13 % reported their most serious incident of non-partner violence to the police.


Michael Tonry
# Why Crime Rates Are Falling Throughout the Western World The University of Chicago, 2014
Crime rates have moved in parallel in Western societies since the late Middle Ages. Homicide rates declined from 20 to 100 per 100,000 population in western Europe to one per 100,000 in most Western countries by the beginning of the twentieth century. Crime rates in major cities and in countries fell from the early nineteenth century until the middle of the twentieth. From the 1960s to the 1990s, rates for violent and property crimes rose in all wealthy Western countries. Since then, rates in all have fallen precipitately for homicide, burglary, auto theft, and other property crimes...


Manuel Eisner
# From Swords to Words: Does Macro-Level Change in Self-Control Predict Long-Term Variation in Levels of Homicide?
The University of Chicago, 2014

Over the past decade the idea that Europe experienced a centuries-long decline in homicide, interrupted by recurrent surges and at different speeds in different parts of the continent, became widely acknowledged. So far explanations have relied mostly on anecdotal evidence, usually broadly relying on Norbert Elias’s theory of the “civilizing process.” One major general theory of large-scale fluctuations in homicide rates, selfcontrol theory, offers a wide range of hypotheses that can be tested with rigorous quantitative analyses. A number of macro-level indicators for societal efforts to promote civility, self-discipline, and long-sightedness have been examined and appear to be strongly associated with fluctuations in homicide rates over the past six centuries.


Ministero dell'Interno
# Dal Viminale. Un anno di attività del Ministero dell’Interno Roma, 15 agosto 2014


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire

# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France - situation au 1er août 2014

# Statistiques trimestrielles de la population prise en charge en milieu ouvert Situation au 1er avril 2014


Gobierno de España | Ministerio del Interior
# Anuario Estadistico del Ministerio del Interior 2013 - Instituciones Penitenciarias Julio 2014


England and Wales - Ministry of Justice
# Offender Management Statistics Quarterly – January to March 2014
Statistics bulletin - 31 July 2014


Todd D. Minton
# Jails in Indian Country, 2013
Bureau of Justice Statistics, July 2014
At midyear 2013, a total of 2,287 inmates were confined in Indian country jails—a 3.3% decrease from the 2,364 inmates confined at midyear 2012. |  The number of inmates admitted into Indian country jails during June 2013 (10,977) was five times the size of the average daily population (2,141). |  Since 2010, about 31% of inmates in Indian country jails have been confined for a violent offense, a decline from about 39% in each year between midyear 2004 and 2009. |  Nearly 2 in 10 inmates were held for public intoxication at midyear 2013.


Equipo de Fallecimientos en Prision - Observatorio de Carceles Federales - PPN
# Informe Estadistico sobre Muertes en Prision Julio de 2014

(Argentina) Este documento presenta los resultados de la aplicación del Procedimiento para la Investigación y Documentación de Fallecimientos en Prisión, ante cada muerte de detenidos bajo custodia del SPF registrada, desde el 1º de enero de 2009 hasta el 30 de junio de 2014.


Observatoire national de la délinquance et des réponses pénales ONDRP
# Criminalité et délinquance enregistrées en juin 2014 07.2014


Tribunale di Sorveglianza di Messina
# Ordinanza del 16 luglio 2014
Sollevata questione di legittimità costituzionale in merito ai nuovi criteri di accertamento della pericolosità sociale del seminfermo di mente: «non costituisce elemento idoneo a supportare il giudizio di pericolosità sociale la sola mancanza di programmi terapeutici individuali»


Roy Walmsley
# World Pre-trial/Remand Imprisonment List (second edition) 18.06.2014
Two and a half million people in pre-trial detention and other forms of remand imprisonment are recorded in this List. In addition it is believed that there are about 250,000 such prisoners in China and, taking account of those in the countries on which official information is unavailable and of those pre-trial detainees in police facilities who are omitted from national totals, there will be close to three million held in pre-trial detention and other forms of remand imprisonment throughout the world.


Ministére de la Justice
# Prévention de la récidive et individualisation des peines. Chiffres-clés 2014
Alors que 61% des sortants de prison sont réincarcérés dans les 5 ans, seules 32% des personnes condamnées à une peine d’emprisonnement avec sursis mise à l’épreuve sont recondamnées à la prison ferme. Le choix de la peine en fonction du profil des personnes au moment du jugement est avancé pour contester ces résultats. Or, ces études se fondent sur de grands échantillons de population et les plus avancées mettent en place des dispositifs statistiques à partir de nombreux critères (antécédents judiciaires, âge, nationalité, etc.) pour prendre en compte cet effet de sélection par le juge. Leurs conclusions vont dans le même sens et affirment que les peines alternatives sont effectivement plus efficaces que la prison pour prévenir la récidive.


Philip Milburn, Ludovic Jamet
# Prévention de la récidive : les services de probation et d’insertion français dans la tourmente »,
Champ pénal/Penal field, Vol. XI | 2014
Les services de probation français et leurs acteurs ont connu des évolutions majeures au cours des quinze dernières années, notamment depuis que les agents ont vu leur statut d« éducateur pénitentiaire » de l’administration pénitentiaire évoluer vers celui de « Conseillers pénitentiaires  d’insertion et de probation et d’insertion » (CPIP), dont la relation hiérarchique avec les juges d’application des peines (JAP) a été supprimée. Des transformations plus récentes, moins statutaires mais davantage organisationnelles, contribuent à faire évoluer encore la réalité de leur activité, voire de leurs missions. Le début de ce changement peut être situé en 2005, lorsque ce secteur d’action publique pénale fut renommé « prévention de la récidive ».


Carrie Pettus-Davis, Matthew W. Epperson
# From Mass Incarceration to Smart Decarceration Center for Social Development, CSD Working Papers No. 14-31, 2014
A prolonged era of mass incarceration has led to staggering rates of imprisonment in the United States, particularly among some of the most vulnerable and marginalized groups. Given the rising social and economic costs of imprisonment and tight public budgets, this trend is beginning to reverse... Smart Decarceration will be proactive, transdisciplinary, and empirically driven. Effective decarceration will be occurring when (1) the incarcerated population in U.S. jails and prisons is substantially decreased; ( 2) e xisting racial and economic disparities in the criminal justice system are redressed; and (3) public safety and public health are maximized...


Istat - Cnel
# Rapporto Bes 2014: il benessere equo e sostenibile in Italia giugno 2014
I reati da cui si può ricavare un guadagno economico (furti, rapine, truffe, estorsioni, spaccio di sostanze stupefacenti, usura, ricettazione, ecc.) sono aumentati a partire dal 2010, mentre diminuiscono i reati a carattere non economico, fatta eccezione per l’aumento delle lesioni e delle minacce denunciate nel 2011 e nel 2012. Tra i reati denunciati sono, in particolare, i furti in abitazione ad avere avuto un’impennata nel 2012, con un aumento del 40% rispetto al 2010. Si riducono ulteriormente, invece, gli omicidi, sebbene solo tra gli uomini e non tra le donne. Dal 2011 diminuisce anche la percezione di sicurezza, soprattutto per le donne, così come aumenta la percezione del rischio della zona in cui si vive da parte delle famiglie, in particolare nel 2013.


National Reentry Resource Center
# Reducing Recidivism: States Deliver Results June 8, 2014
Efforts to reduce recidivism are grounded in the ability to accurately and consistently collect and analyze various forms of data. To that end, states have developed increasingly sophisticated and comprehensive recidivism tracking methods. By improving the accuracy and consistency of data collection, using more timely measures, and expanding the types of recidivism metrics that are tracked as well as the populations to which these metrics are applied, states are now better positioned to understand and respond to recidivism trends. This brief highlights seven states in which recidivism has significantly decreased according to several different measures. These same states have also experienced reductions in violent crime rates over the last decade. The recidivism data included in this brief is not meant to be compared state by state; it is meant to show individual examples of state successes across various recidivism measures.


Jesenia M. Pizarro, Kristen M. Zgoba, Sabrina Haugebrook
# Supermax and Recidivism: An Examination of the Recidivism Covariates Among a Sample of Supermax Ex-Inmates
The Prison Journal, Vol. 94(2) 180–197, 2014
The findings show that when compared with ex-supermax inmates who did not recidivate, those who did were younger, more likely to be serving time for a drug offense, and had a history of prior incarcerations and disciplinary infractions while incarcerated. Time to recidivate, however, was significantly predicted by gang membership, length of sentence, and prior substance abuse history


Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP
# Detenuti lavoranti alle dipendenze dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria - Situazione al 30 giugno 2014 - Serie storica semestrale degli anni: 1991 - 2014 -


Martin Maximino
# The effects of prison education programs: Research findings June 3, 2014
The overall “meta-analytic findings indicate that participation in correctional education programs is associated with a 13 percentage-point reduction in the risk of reincarceration three years following release. Thus, correctional education programs appear to far exceed the break-even point in reducing the risk of reincarceration.


Steven Raphael
# The New Scarlet Letter? Negotiating the U.S. Labor Market with a Criminal Record
W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2014

I explore the labor market prospects of the growing population of former prison inmates in the United States. In particular, I document the specific challenges created by the characteristics of this population and the common hiring and screening practices of U.S. employers. In addition, I discuss various policy efforts to improve the employment prospects and limit the future criminal activity of former prison inmates either through improving the skills and qualifications of these job seekers or through the provision of incentives to employers to hire such individuals.


Ministero della Giustizia - Direzione Generale di Satistica
# STALKING. Indagine statistica attraverso la lettura dei fascicoli dei procedimenti definiti con sentenze di primo grado
Roma, Giugno 2014
Dall’indagine statistica emerge che il 92% dei processi trae origine da una denuncia della persona offesa, il gran parte delle volte raccolta dall’autorità di PG. In 7 casi su 100 la querela è stata conseguente all’arresto o fermo dell’imputato in flagranza del reato di stalking o di reato connesso...


Brigitte Poulailler, Mael Theulière, Odile Timbart
# Le travail d'intérêt général, 30 ans après sa création
Infostat Justice (Bulletin d’information statistique), n. 129, Juin 2014
Le nombre de TIG prononcés a doublé en 20 ans, mais semble se stabiliser depuis 2005, il représente 4 % de l'ensemble des peines prononcées chaque année. Il est deux fois plus fréquent en matière de vols-recels et trois fois plus en matière d'outrages ou de dégradations. Les condamnés qui bénéficient de cette peine sont nettement plus jeunes que pour les autres peines (24 ans en moyenne)...


Council of State Governments Justice Center
# Reducing Recidivism: States Deliver Results New York: Council of State Governments Justice Center, June 2014
Research shows that correctional programs with the greatest impact on recidivism sort individuals based on their risk of reoffending. Risk and need assessment tools examine both static (historical and/or demographic) and dynamic (changeable) criminogenic needs (also known as criminogenic risk factors) that research has shown to be associated with criminal behavior and make someone more likely to reoffend. The assessment produces a risk score that allows programs to sort individuals based on risk levels in a consistent and reliable manner, tailor interventions, and prioritize resources for those who are at higher risk of reoffending.


Dipartimento Giustizia Minorile
# Dati Statistici - 31 Maggio 2014
L’utenza dei Servizi minorili è prevalentemente maschile; le ragazze sono soprattutto di nazionalità straniera e provengono dall’area dell’ex Jugoslavia e dalla Romania.  La criminalità minorile è connotata dalla prevalenza dei reati contro il patrimonio e, in particolare, dei reati di furto e rapina. Frequenti sono anche le violazioni delle disposizioni in materia di sostanze stupefacenti, mentre tra i reati contro la persona prevalgono le lesioni personali volontarie.


# Prévention de la recidve et individualisation de la peine_ chiffres clés Réforme pénale : chiffres clés – mai 2014

> 0,4% des infractions en cause sont des crimes, 93,9% des délits > Les infractions routières représentent 36,2% des délits > L’emprisonnement ferme réprime 1 délit sur 5 > Les peines de substitution représentent 11% des réponses pénales > 96% des peines d’emprisonnement ferme prononcées contre les délits sont des  peines inférieures à 3 ans, 78% des peines inférieures à 1 an  > La durée moyenne de la partie ferme des peines prononcées en matière de délit  est de 7,7 mois


Melissa S. Kearney, Benjamin H. Harris, Elisa Jácome, and Lucie Parker
# Ten Economic Facts about Crime and Incarceration in the United States
The Hamilton Project, May 2014
1. Crime rates have steadily declined over the past twenty-five years. 2. Low-income individuals are more likely than higher-income individuals to be victims of crime. 3. The majority of criminal offenders are younger than age thirty. 4. Disadvantaged youths engage in riskier criminal behavior. 5. Federal and state policies have driven up the incarceration rate over the past thirty years. 6. The U.S. incarceration rate is more than six times that of the typical OECD nation. 7. There is nearly a 70 percent chance that an African American man without a high school diploma will be imprisoned by his mid-thirties. 8.Per capita expenditures on corrections more than tripled over the past thirty years. 9. By their fourteenth birthday, African American children whose fathers do not have a high school diploma are more likely than not to see their fathers incarcerated. 10. Juvenile incarceration can have lasting impacts on a young person’s future.


Ministero degli Affari Esteri
# Annuario Statistico 2014
SISTAN Sistema Statistico Nazionale 2014


Andrea Orlando

# L'Europa ci osserva, ma la mia è una riforma totale. Intervista a cura di Eleonora Martini
Il Manifesto, 29 maggio 2014
Facciamo chiarezza sui numeri? I posti disponibili sono circa 40 mila, come sostengono i Radicali e Antigone, o più di 44 mila, come sostiene il Dap? Il dato su cui metto la mano sul fuoco è il numero di detenuti, che sono incontrovertibilmente scesi di circa 7 mila unità dai tempi della sentenza Torreggiani e di quasi 10 mila dai 69 mila del 2010. Mentre è molto più difficile avere un dato certo sui posti effettivamente disponibili, un numero che varia in funzione della momentanea disponibilità delle strutture penitenziarie, ma mi sento di dire che siamo significativamente oltre 40 mila. Anche se su questo capitolo i risultati dei nostri sforzi non sono ancora soddisfacenti.


# Carceri disumane. Non si fermi lo sguardo europeo
Roma, 27 maggio 2014


Glauco Giostra
# La politica della paura che affolla le nostre carceri
Pagina99, 25 maggio 2014


Radicali Italiani | Rita Bernardini, Laura Arconti, Deborah Cianfanelli
# Caso Torreggiani e altri contro Italia (No. 43517/09). Informazioni messe a disposizione da Radicali Italiani in virtù dell’art. 9 comma 2 del Regolamento del Comitato dei Ministri per la sorveglianza dell’esecuzione delle sentenze e dei
termini di conciliazione amichevoli

Maggio 2014


Council of Europe | Unil Université de Lausanne |  Institut de criminologie et de droit pénal | Marcelo F. Aebi, Natalia Delgrande
# SPACE I – Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics: Prison populations.
Strasbourg: Council of Europe, April 2014
# SPACE I 2012 Executive Summary, April 2014

# SPACE II: Persons Serving Non-Custodial Sanctions and Measures in 2012 - Survey 2012
Strasbourg, 29 April 2014


Matteo De Longis
# Il problema del sovraffollamento nelle carceri persiste: pubblicato il report del Consiglio d'Europa Diritti Umani in Italia, Venerdì, 16 Maggio 2014


Rémi Josnin
# Une approche statistique de la récidive des personnes condamnées
Infostat Justice (Bulletin d’information statistique), n. 127, Avril 2014
Le fait de récidiver et la rapidité avec laquelle un condamné va récidiver sont influencés par deux facteurs majeurs :  l’âge et la présence d’antécédents judiciaires. Plus un condamné est jeune (moins de 26 ans), plus il aura de risques de récidiver et plus il le fera rapidement. De même, un condamné déjà récidiviste sera aussi plus enclin et plus prompt à récidiver. La récidive des personnes condamnées est par ailleurs influencée par la nature de l’infraction qu’elles commettent. La condamnation en récidive sanctionne souvent (38 %) le même type d’infraction que la condamnation initiale


Matthew R. Durose, Alexia D. Cooper, Howard N. Snyder
# Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 States in 2005: Patterns from 2005 to 2010 Bureau of Justice Statistics, April 2014

About two-thirds (67.8%) of released prisoners were arrested for a new crime within 3 years, and three-quarters (76.6%) were arrested within 5 years. Within 5 years of release, 82.1% of property offenders were arrested for a new crime, compared to 76.9% of drug offenders, 73.6% of public order offenders, and 71.3% of violent offenders. More than a third (36.8%) of all prisoners who were arrested within 5 years of release were arrested within the first 6 months after release, with more than half (56.7%) arrested by the end of the first year...


# Audizione del Ministro della Giustizia Andrea Orlando in Commissione Giustizia del Senato della Repubblica 23 Aprile 2014

Se anche ci si volesse disinteressare della condizione inflitta ad uomini e donne, se pure si volesse ignorare il richiamo che viene da giurisdizioni internazionali alle quali abbiamo volontariamente aderito, è impossibile rimuovere un dato: il nostro è un sistema costoso che non produce sicurezza se lo si compara con gli altri sistemi del nostro continente.


B'Tselem - The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories

# Statistics on Palestinians in the custody of the Israeli security forces April 2014
At the end of April 2014, 5,021 Palestinian security detainees and prisoners were held in Israeli prisons, 373 of them from the Gaza Strip. An additional 1,333 Palestinians were held in Israel Prison Service facilities for being in Israel illegally, 21 of them from the Gaza Strip. The IPS considers these Palestinians – both detainees and prisoners – criminal offenders.

# Statistics on Palestinians in the custody of the Israeli security forces 1 jan 2014


J. M. Delarue | Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté
# Recommandations en urgence du Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté du 26 mars 2014 relatives au quartier des mineurs de la maison d’arrêt de Villeneuve-lès-Maguelone
Journal Officiel de la République Francaise, 23 avril 2014


HM Inspectorate of Probattion

# Inspection of Adult Offending Work. An aggregate report on the first six inspections: a focus on violent offending HMI Probation April 2014
In these inspections we have focused on the quality of work in cases where the primary offence is one of violence. Nationally, work with those who have offended violently forms a significant part of the caseload of Probation Trusts; around 40% are identified as having an index (principal) offence involving violence. This rises to around 43% when robbery is included – robbery is categorised separately  by the National Offender Management Service. By contrast, work with those who offend sexually forms only a small percentage of the national caseload. This aggregate report draws on the data from those inspections, where we examined 437 cases


Ministry of Justice
# Progress of Action Plan Submitted to the Department for the Execution of Judgements of the ECHR (Judgment Torreggiani and others v/Italy 43517/09)
Service de l'execution des arrets de la CEDH - DH-DD(2014)471 - 03 Avr. 2014 |
Distributed at the request of Italy


Garante delle persone private della libertà personale | Regione Emilia-Romagna
# Relazione annuale delle attività svolte - 2013
Marzo 2014


Annie Kensey
# Statistiques pénitentiaires et parc carcéral, entre désencombrement et suroccupation
Criminocorpus. Revue d'Histoire de la justice, des crimes et des peines, mars 2014
La tendance générale à l’augmentation du nombre de personnes détenues s’accompagne cependant d’une tendance inverse du nombre des entrées en détention (tableau 3). Cela signifie que l’indicateur de durée moyenne de détention a considérablement augmenté, passant de 8,6 mois en 2007 à 11,5 mois en 2013, soit 3 mois de plus en 6 ans.


Lois M. Davis, Jennifer L. Steele, Robert Bozick, Malcolm Williams, Susan Turner, Jeremy N. V. Miles, Jessica Saunders, Paul S. Steinberg
# Correctional Education in the United States. How Effective Is It, and How Can We Move the Field Forward? 2014
• Correctional education (CE) improves the chances that adult inmates released from prison will not return and may improve their chances of postrelease employment. • Adult CE programs can be cost-effective when it comes to recidivism, yielding about five dollars on average in cost savings for each dollar spent. • Several of the evaluated CE programs for incarcerated juveniles show promise; the field is ripe for larger-scale randomized trials...

# Second Chance Act of 2007: Community Safety Through Recidivism Prevention


Lois M. Davis, Jennifer L. Steele, Robert Bozick, Malcolm V. Williams, Susan Turner, Jeremy N. V. Miles, Jessica Saunders, Paul S. Steinberg
# How Effective Is Correctional Education, and Where Do We Go from Here? The Results of a Comprehensive Evaluation 2014
The results of the meta-analysis are truly encouraging. Confirming the results of previous  meta-analyses—while using more (and more recent) studies and an even more rigorous approach to selecting and evaluating them than in the past—the study show that correctional education for incarcerated adults reduces the risk of post-release reincarceration (by 13 percentage points) and does so cost-effectively (a savings of five dollars on reincarceration costs for every dollar spent on correctional education). And when it comes to post-release employment for adults—another  outcome key to successful reentry—researchers find that correctional education may increase such employment.


Open Society Foundation
# Presumption of Guilt: The Global Overuse of Pretrial Detention 2014
The global overuse of pretrial detention is a massive, if largely unnoticed, form of human rights abuse. It directly affects at least 15 million people each year, many of whom will wait months or even years—in conditions worse than those experienced by sentenced prisoners—for their day in court... excessive and arbitrary pretrial detention is not just a human rights violation, but also the nexus of other abuses and ill effects. The overuse of pretrial detention is linked to torture, corruption, and the spread of disease; it stunts economic development and undermines the rule of law...


Sabine Cessou
# Prisons across Europe: lessons to be learned from UK's neighbours. 29 april 2014
Prison populations have fallen in the Netherlands, Sweden and Germany but elsewhere it is a mixed picture. The Netherlands has more prison staff than prisoners. Sweden is shutting down jails because prisoner numbers have fallen by 10% in under a decade. In Germany, the decline is even starker: a fall of almost 20% since 2005...


Luca Rinaldi
# Il mondo dietro le sbarre. Più di 10 milioni di detenuti nel mondo, in Africa circa il 90% è in attesa di giudizio, 13 aprile 2014
Sono milioni i detenuti nel mondo. Secondo i dati raccolti dall’International Centre of Prison Studies,
sarebbero poco più di dieci milioni. Le strutture carcerarie maggiormente affollate sono quelle africane, dove si toccano picchi di 500 detenuti per 100 posti disponibili. Tra i Paesi europei invece, secondo gli ultimi dati disponibili del Consiglio d’Europa [4], trovano i primi posti della classifica per affollamento delle carceri Cipro, Serbia e Italia (dato medio, circa 140 detenuti ogni 100 posti disponibili), seguiti da Ungheria e Grecia.


Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP

# Detenuti presenti - aggiornamento al 31 marzo 2014 1 aprile 2014

# Misure alternative, lavoro di pubblica utilità, misure di sicurezza e sanzioni sostitutive - Dati al 31 marzo 2014 1 aprile 2014


Senato - Commissioni 2^ (Giustizia) e 14^ (Politiche dell'Unione Europea) e II (Giustizia) della Camera dei Deputati)
# Audizione di membri della Commissione libertà civili, giustizia e affari interni del Parlamento europeo
Mercoledì 27 marzo 2014

Stiamo affrontando il problema del sovraffollamento non soltanto per gli effetti che produce e che produrrà la sentenza Torreggiani come sentenza pilota, ma che in realtà deriva da altre condanne (si pensi alla sentenza Sulejmanovic di qualche tempo fa), ma perché ci obbliga l'articolo 27 della nostra Costituzione, che non solo ci impone di ragionare intorno allo spazio da dedicare a ciascun detenuto, come fa la sentenza Torreggiani, ma soprattutto ci induce a ragionare sulla funzione della pena, quella rieducativa e risocializzante.


Carolyn W. Deady
# Incarceration and Recidivism: Lessons from Abroad March 2014
Over 50% of prisoners in the United States will be back in jail within three years of their release. Looking at recidivism in a sample of other countries, the U.S. rate does not appear exceptional. prisoners in the United States are often incarcerated for a lot longer than in other countries. For instance, burglars in the United States serve an average of 16 months in prison compared with 5 months in Canada and 7 months in England. With an emphasis on punishment rather than rehabilitation, U.S. prisoners are often released with no better skills to cope in society and are offered little support after their release, increasing the chances of reoffending. 


Policy Department C: Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs - European Parliament | Alessandro Davoli, Rosa Raffaelli
# Background information for the LIBE delegation to Italy on the situation of prisons – 26-28 March 2014 (Manuscript completed in march 2014)
Prison overcrowding is not only the result of higher crime rates or improved effectiveness in investigating crimes and sanctioning perpetrators. The problem is also related to the excessive length of criminal proceedings and the subsequent pre-trial detention and, above all, it is related to the insufficient use of non-custodial measures.  It is important to underline that the fight against overcrowding in prisons is not only a matter of achieving better material conditions, but also of giving offenders good and human conditions respecting their dignity, with a view to achieving an effective rehabilitation, thus reducing the risk of recidivism with certain positive consequences in terms of increased social security.


# Global Study on Homicide 2013. Trends, Contexts, Data March 2014


Council of Europe - CPT | European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment
# Report to the Croatian Government on the visit to Croatia carried out by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT) from 19 to 27 September 2012 Strasbourg, 18 March 2014


# Council of Europe anti-torture committee calls on Croatia to reduce prison overcrowding - Press release 18 march 2014

In a report published today on its last visit to Croatia, the Council of Europe’s anti-torture committee ( CPT) has called on the authorities to improve material conditions in prisons and to reduce overcrowding, notably at the Zagreb County Prison, which was 225% over its 400 bed capacity...


European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice - Commission européenne pour l'efficacité de la justice (CEPEJ)
# Study on the functioning of judicial systems in the EU Member States Strasbourg, 14 March 2014
Italy: Total annual approved public budget allocated to all courts (including prosecution and legal aid) per capita: 76,65 euros. This ratio is higher than the EU average of 62,22 euros per capita and higher than the EU median of 47,43 euros per capita. According to 2012 data, the number of professional judges sitting in courts in Italy is 6 347, which is 5 % less  than in 2010. This represents 11 judges per 100 000 inhabitants (less than the EU median of 19 judges per 100 000 inhabitants). In Italy, there are 226 202 lawyers (this category does not include the legal advisors), which is 7% more than in 2010.  This data represents 379 lawyers (without legal advisers) per 100 000 inhabitants (higher than the EU  median of 106 lawyers per 100 000 inhabitants) and 35,6 lawyers per professional judges. 


European Commission - Directorate-General for Justice # The EU Justice Scoreboard: A tool to promote effective justice and growth, 2013


Peter Wagner, Leah Sakala
# A Prison Policy Initiative briefing March 12, 2014
More than 2.4 million people in 1,719 state prisons, 102 federal prisons, 2,259 juvenile correctional facilities, 3,283 local jails, and 79 Indian Country jails as well as in military prisons, immigration detention facilities, civil commitment centers, and prisons in the U.S. territories... In addition to the 688,000 people released from prisons each year, almost 12 million people cycle through local jails each year...


# J. F. | Minneapolis, America's prison population | Who, what, where and why, Mar 13th 2014


# Italia: suicidi e decessi dei detenuti: 2000-2014 (9 marzo)


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire | Bureau des études et de la prospective (PMJ5)
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France Situation au 1er mars 2014


Charlie Bishop | OxPolicy
# Politics Behind Bars. The Effect of Political Engagement on Prisoners 2.28.2014
The current prison population is 85,389.2 This is up from 84,424 prisoners 12 months ago.3 This is an imprisonment rate of 149 prisoners per 100,000 people.4 4.6% of prisoners are female and 95.4% are male.5 Prisons are operating at 99% operational capacity. 1% of prisoners are under the age of 18. 46.9% of adults are reconvicted within one year of being released. If they are serving a sentence of less than 12 months this increases to 58.5%. There is little variation between sexes. 58% of young people (aged 18-20) are reconvicted within one year. This figure is higher again for children (aged 10-17) at 72.3%.


Paolo Buonanno, Francesco Drago and Roberto Galbiati
# How much should we trust crime statistics? A comparison between EU and US LIEPP Working Paper, February 2014, nº19
Measuring crime is a challenging and crucial task since it is a necessary condition for a correct assessment its determinants and then for the formulation of crime control policies. In a cross-country framework, there are several issues to consider. First, reported crimes underestimate the true (unobserved) number of committed crimes. This fact may be a source of bias in inferential analysis. In particular, measurement error can bias the estimates of the effect of those determinants of criminal activity that are correlated with the extent of under reporting... 


Fondazione Leone Moressa

# Carceri italiane: 3 su 4 sono sovraffollate 21 febbraio 2014

Le carceri sovraffollate in Italia sono 156 su 205 (76%). In molti casi i detenuti ospitati sono più del doppio rispetto alla capienza dell’istituto. Guida questa classifica Modena (con 556 detenuti su 221 posti disponibili), seguita da Busto Arsizio (397 su 167) e dal carcere femminile di Pozzuoli (209 detenute su 89 posti). Di contro, molti istituti italiani ospitano un numero di detenuti molto inferiore rispetto alla propria capienza: la più alta percentuale di “posti liberi” si registra a Gorizia (73%), Arezzo (82%) e Crotone (93%).


España | Ministerio del Interior
# Numero de internos en los centros penitenciarios. Evolucion semanal 21.02.2014


Giulia Cella
# Presa in carico dei soggetti devianti (detenuti, internati, persone sottoposte a misure alternative) e terzo settore Lo stato attuale nel territorio regionale dell’Emilia-Romagna
Ufficio del Garante per le persone private della libertà personale della Regione Emilia‐Romagna - Dipartimento di Scienze giuridiche dell’Università di Bologna, Gennaio 2014
C’è chi sostiene che le misure alternative rappresentano forse uno strumento di decarcerizzazione, ma non costituiscono un mezzo attivo di reinserimento sociale perché la loro efficacia sarebbe prevalentemente dipendente dall’entità effettiva del capitale sociale del condannato. Si può anche convenire sul punto, ma questo non toglie validità ad un elemento decisivo: allo stato attuale del nostro sistema penale disponiamo di questa “scatola degli attrezzi”. Le misure alternative costituiscono, oggi, l’unica alternativa alla carcerizzazione che non si traduca, molto semplicemente, nella mera rinuncia dello Stato all’esercizio dello jus puniendi.


Lynne Lyman
# Governor Brown Given Another Chance to Offer Real Solutions to Prison Overcrowding in California 02/12/2014

When LA Times reporter Paige St. John tweeted that private prison industry leader Corrections Corporation of America's (CCA) stock took a nose dive after the federal judges announced they would give California two additional years to reduce the state prison population to 137 percent of design capacity...


Urban Institute | Nancy LaVigne, Samuel Bieler, Lindsey Cramer, Helen Ho, Cybele Kotonias, Deborah Mayer, David McClure, Laura Pacifici, Erika Parks, Bryce Peterson, Julie Samuels
# Justice Reinvestment Initiative State Assessment Report January 2014
Probationers and parolees were returning to jail and prison for failing to comply with the terms of community supervision, either by committing new crimes or by violating the terms of their release. Justice system analysis in 17 JRI states found that the revocation of supervision was a key population and cost driver. In some JRI (Justice Reinvestment Initiative) states, a substantial portion of revocations—sometimes more than half—was for technical violations rather than new crimes.


DAP Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenzaria

# Quadro statistico al 31 dicembre 2013 | # Serie storica 1991-2013 -|- | gennaio 2014

- Detenuti presenti - 31 dicembre 2013  ...per posizione giuridica  Ingressi dalla libertà  Detenuti condannati per pena inflitta ... per pena residua  Detenuti italiani e stranieri presenti e capienze per istituto  Indice di affollamento, per Istituto  Legge 199/2010   Permessi premio  Detenuti per area di provenienza  Detenuti stranieri presenti - Detenuti per tipologia di reato... per stato civile... per classi di età... per titolo di studio... Detenuti per numero di figli   Detenuti per regionedi nascita...  per regione di residenza  Numero di suicidi, per Istituto  Confronto con Dossier “Morire di carcere” - Anno 2013  Numero di tentati suicidi, per Istituto  Numero di atti autolesionistici, per Istituto - Anno 2013


Pierre V. Tournier
# Temps passé sous écrou, temps passé en détention (2001-2012) - Estimations - Janvier 2014
Au-delà de ces effectifs à une date donnée (statistique de stock), nous publions régulièrement, dans le tableau de bord d’OPALE, des données de flux d’entrées sous écrou et un indicateur de la durée moyenne du placement sous écrou. Nous avons introduit cet indicateur, dans le champ pénal, au début des 1980. Il est calculé à partir de la formule fondamentale en analyse démographique : P = E x d


Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria
# Le Moschee negli Istituti di Pena
Sezione III – Analisi e Monitoraggi 2013

Sulla base delle nazionalità di appartenenza dei soggetti si è potuto, inoltre, stimare che circa 13.500 provengono da Paesi tradizionalmente di religione musulmana... Attraverso una verifica più approfondita si è constatato che, dei detenuti di origine musulmana, ben 8.732 sarebbero osservanti, ossia effettuano la preghiera secondo i precetti della propria religione, mentre 4.768 sembrerebbero non interessarsene. Dei detenuti osservanti è risultato che 181 svolgono la funzione di Imam e pertanto conducono la preghiera, 29 si sono posti in evidenza come promotori di iniziative riguardanti l’esercizio del culto e 19 i sono detenuti convertiti all’islam durante la detenzione.



Lauren E. Glaze, Erinn J. Herberman
# Correctional Populations in the United States, 2012
Bureau of Justice Statistics December 2013
At yearend 2012, the combined U.S. adult correctional systems supervised about 6,937,600 offenders, down by about 51,000 offenders during the year (figure 1). The decrease observed during 2012 marked the fourth consecutive year of decline in the correctional population. However, this was the smallest decrease (down 0.7%) since the correctional population first declined in 2009, reversing a three-year trend of increasing rates of decline that started in 2009 and continued through 2011. About 1 in every 35 adult residents in the United States was under some form of correctional supervision at yearend 2012, the lowest rate observed since 1997.


Laura M. Maruschak, Thomas P. Bonczar | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Probation and Parole in the United States, 2012 December 2013
During 2012, the number of adults under community supervision declined for the fourth consecutive year. At yearend 2012, an estimated 4,781,300 adults were under community supervision, down 40,500 offenders from the beginning of the year. About 1 in 50 adults in the United States was under community supervision at yearend 2012. The community supervision population includes adults on probation, parole, or any other post-prison supervision.


Erica L. Smith, Alexia Cooper | U.S. Department of Justice | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Homicide in the U.S. Known to Law Enforcement, 2011 December 2013
In 2011, an estimated 14,610 persons were victims of homicide in the United States, according to FBI data on homicides known to state and local law enforcement . This is the lowest number of homicide victims since 1968, and marks the fifth consecutive year of decline. The homicide rate in 2011 was 4.7 homicides per 100,000 persons, the lowest level since 1963. This homicide rate was also 54% below its peak of 10.2 per 100,000 persons in 1980 and 17% below the rate in 2002 (5.6 homicides per 100,000).


E. Ann Carson, Daniela Golinelli (BJS Statisticians)
# Prisoners in 2012. Trends in Admissions and Releases, 1991–2012 Bureau of Justice Statistics, December 2013
Between 1978 and 2009, the number of prisoners held in federal and state facilities in the United States increased almost 430%, from 294,400 on December 31, 1978, to 1,555,600 on December 31, 2009. This growth occurred because the number of prison admissions exceeded the number of releases from state prisons each year. However, in 2009, prison releases exceeded  admissions for the first time in more than 31 years, beginning the decline in the total yearend prison population. Admissions to state and federal prisons declined by 118,900 offenders (down 16.3%) between  2009 and 2012. In 2012, the number of admissions (609,800) was the lowest since 1999, representing a 9.2% decline (down 61,800 offenders) from 2011.


Marie Crétenot
# From national practices to European guidelines: interesting initiatives in prisons management
European Prison Observatory. Detention conditions in the European Union, december 2013
The European Prison Observatory (EPO) was launched in Rome in February 2013 and operates in 8 countries (France, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Latvia, Poland, Portugal, Spain). Through quantitative and qualitative analysis, the EPO monitors and analyses the present conditions of the different national prison systems and the related systems of alternatives to detention in Europe, comparing these conditions to the international norms and standards relevant for the protections of inmates’ fundamental rights, particularly the European Prison Rules (EPR) of the Council of Europe


Fondazione Giovanni Michelucci | Garante regionale delle persone sottoposte a misure restrittive
della libertà personale della Toscana
# Il carcere al tempo della crisi
Consiglio regionale della Toscana - Firenze, dicembre 2013
Alessandro Margara: Punti interrogativi | Franco Corleone: Si sa tutto, non si fa nulla | Mauro Palma: La tutela dei diritti fondamentali in carcere | Jonathan Simon: I diritti fondamentali e lo Stato penale: le Corti possono fermare la carcerazione di massa? | Richard Garside: Strategie per fermare la crescita della popolazione detenuta nel Regno Unito | Iñaki Rivera Beiras, Monica Aranda Ocaña: Il carcere in Spagna al tempo della crisi | Nils Christie: La riparazione dopo le atrocità. È possibile? | Marella Santangelo: L’architettura del carcere. Tendenze attuali e stato dell’arte | Massimo Pavarini: Dalla Repubblica della decarcerizzazione alla distribuzione selettiva della sicurezza | Melissa Costagli: Gli Standard del CPT e la detenzione in Toscana | Saverio Migliori, Alessio Scandurra: I numeri della detenzione in Italia e in Toscana | Commissione ministeriale per le questioni penitenziarie: Relazione al Ministro di Giustizia sugli interventi in atto e gli interventi da programmare | Comitato Nazionale di Bioetica: La salute dentro le mura | Messaggio alle Camere del Presidente della Repubblica sulla questione carceraria


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France - situation au 1er décembre 2013


# Statistiques trimestrielles de la population prise en charge en milieu ouvert Situation au 1er juillet 2013



# Annuario statistico italiano 2013 - Giustizia 19 dicembre 2013

I reati più comuni (il condannato che ha commesso più delitti è stato classificato secondo quello per cui la Legge prevede la pena più grave) sono stati anche per il 2011 il furto e i delitti in materia di sostanze stupefacenti (12,6 e 11,1 per cento rispettivamente, percentuali sostanzialmente invariate rispetto al 2010). Per l’80,4 per cento dei condannati la sentenza ha previsto la pena della reclusione (ed eventualmente una sanzione pecuniaria), mentre nel rimanente 19,6 per cento dei casi è stata comminata solo una multa. Tra i condannati per delitto iscritti nell’anno 2011, circa la metà (49.0 per cento) aveva precedenti penali, dato anche questo sostanzialmente invariato rispetto al 2010...


# Quanto Costa il Silenzio? Indagine nazionale sui costi economici e sociali della violenza contro le donne 2013
Sommando il totale dei costi stimati dell’amministrazione della giustizia civile, penale e minorile con quello per la detenzione carceraria, il totale dei costi giudiziari per la violenza contro le donne ammonta a 421,3 milioni di Euro. 


Antigone - Per i diritti e le garanzie nel sistema penale
# X Rapporto Nazionale sulle Condizioni di Detenzione - L'Europa ci guarda
Edizioni Gruppo Abele 2013

Capienza regolamentare: 47.649 posti. Da tempo Antigone sostiene però che il numero effettivo dei posti disponibili sia decisamente inferiore, intorno ai 37.000, dato ora confermato dalla stessa Ministra Cancellieri: “Questa storia del numero dei posti letto in carcere è tutta vera, avete  ragione voi. Sono effettivamente meno”. Sovraffollamento: 134,4%, ovvero in 100 posti sarebbero detenute più di 134 persone. È uno dei valori più alti in Europa, ma se si fa riferimento alla capienza effettiva stimata da Antigone, e confermata dalla Ministra, questa percentuale schizza ad oltre il 173%...


Vladimiro Polchi
# Carceri, "Una macchina costosa indifferente di fronte al suo fallimento" con meno posti letto di quelli dichiarati 19 dicembre 2013


California Department of Corrections And Rehabilitation
# Realignment Report. An Examination of Offenders Released from State Prison in the First Year of Public Safety Realignment Office of Research December 2013

California’s Public Safety Realignment Act of 2011 transferred jurisdiction and funding for managing lower-level criminal offenders from the State to the counties. Under Realignment, for example, certain offenders began serving their felony sentences in jail rather than prison. Realignment also changed California’s system of community corrections.


Australian Bureau of Statistics
# Prisoners 5 Dec 2013
Prisoners selected characteristics by selected most serious offence/charge - selected characteristics, 1997–2013 - age by sex - most serious offence/charge and sex by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status ... most serious offence/charge by legal status and sex - most serious offence/charge by legal status, prior imprisonment and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status | Sentenced Prisoners sex by most serious offence, 2003–2013 ... most serious offence by sentence length ... Unsentenced Prisoners most serious charge by time on remand...


Roy Walmsley - International Centre for Prison Studies ICPS

# World Prison Population List 10th edition 21 november 2013
More than 10.2 million people are held in penal institutions throughout the world, mostly as pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners or as sentenced prisoners. Almost half of these are in the United States (2.24m), Russia (0.68m) or China (1.64m sentenced prisoners). In addition at least 650,000 are reported to be in pre-trial or ‘administrative’ detention in China and 150,000 in North Korea (D.P.R.K.); if these were included the world total would be more than 11 million.

# World Prison Population List (ninth edition) 19.07.2011

# World Prison Population List (eighth edition) 30.01.2009

# World Prison Population List (7th Edition) 30.01.2007

# World Prison Population List (6th Edition) 30.01.2005


# Eurostat Prison Population 1999-2009

# Eurostat Prison Population 2001-2010


Joan Petersilia, Sara Abarbanel, John Butler, Mark Feldman, Mariam Hinds, Kevin Jason, Corinne Keel, Matt Owens, Camden Vilkin
# Voices from the Field: How California Stakeholders View Public Policy Safety Realignment Stanford Law School November 2013
Passage of California’s Public Safety Realignment Act (AB 109) initiated the most sweeping correctional experiment in recent history. Launched on October 1, 2011, Realignment shifted responsibility for most lower-level offenders from the state to California’s 58 counties. By mid-2013, more than 100,000 felons had been diverted from state prison to county jail or probation.


Roberta Palmisano
# Prison overcrowding: the Italian experience Strasbourg, 14-15 November 2013


Joël Creusat
# Les délais de la mise à exécution des peines d’emprisonnement ferme
Infostat Justice (Bulletin d’information statistique), n. 124, Novembre 2013
Une peine d’emprisonnement ferme sur deux est mise à exécution à moins de 3,7 mois. Toutefois, ce délai varie en fonction du type de procédures ayant conduit à la condamnation. Ainsi, 30 % des peines sont exécutées à l’audience, donc sans délai et dans les autres cas une peine sur deux est exécutée à moins de 7,4 mois. En outre, le délai de mise à exécution peut être multiplié par deux, si le condamné (absent à son procès) est recherché par les services de Police ou de Gendarmerie. Les peines les plus lourdes sont exécutées le plus rapidement et l’aménagement de la peine retarde peu la mise à exécution.


Ministry of Justice

# Prison Population Projections  2013 – 2019 England and Wales 7 november 2013

By the end of June 2019, the prison population is projected to be 77,300 in the Scenario 1 projection, 81,800 in the Scenario 2 projection and 86,600 in the Scenario 3 projection.


Christopher T. Lowenkamp, Marie VanNostrand | Laura and John Arnold Foundation ljaf
# Exploring the Impact of Supervision on Pretrial Outcomes November, 2013
The time it takes to process a case from arrest to disposition can differ substantially from one case to the next. This means that some defendants have significantly more time during which they might fail to appear or be arrested for new criminal activity than others. In order to control for this time differential, a measure was created called “time at risk in the community” (commonly referred to as “time at risk”). This measure simply captured the number of days from the date of release from jail to the date of case disposition.


Robert Weisberg, Lisa T. Quan
# Assessing Judicial Sentencing Preferences After Public Safety Realignment: A Survey of California Judges Stanford Law School - Stanford Criminal Justice Center- November 2013
Public Safety Realignment (“AB 109”) made drastic changes to California’s criminal justice system by transferring authority for the supervision of most non-violent, nonserious, and non-sexual offenders from the state to the 58 counties. This study aims to better examine the perceived effect of AB 109 on Superior Court (trial) judges in California who sentence offenders... The responses revealed judicial preferences that emphasize a desire to deploy sentencing to manage offenders. The preferences generally aim at a combination of a “taste of jail” and rigorous community supervision, whether that is a traditional felony probation sentence...



# I condannati con sentenza definitiva nel periodo 2000-2011 18 novembre 2013

Pene superiori a 10 anni (mediana della distribuzione) per i reati punibili con la reclusione sono state comminate solo nelle sentenze in cui il delitto più grave è l’omicidio volontario o il sequestro di persona a scopo di rapina o estorsione16. La maggior parte dei delitti considerati, invece, ha comportato una reclusione inferiore a un anno. Pene di reclusione mediana tra 1 e 2 anni sono invece più spesso comminate nelle sentenze in cui il delitto più grave è l’impiego di denaro di provenienza illecita, l’usura, il peculato, l’associazione per delinquere, i delitti previsti dalle leggi sull’uso e la detenzione di armi, la corruzione, le violazioni delle leggi in materia di stupefacenti e sostanze psicotrope. Condanne con pene mediane di reclusione più alte, tra 2 e 5 anni, sono state assegnate in anni recenti in sentenze aventi come reato più grave la concussione, la rapina, l’estorsione, il riciclaggio, la violenza sessuale.


Rémi Josnin
# La récidive plus fréquente et plus rapide chez les jeunes condamnés
 France, portrait social 2013

En 2004, 500 000 personnes ont fait l’objet d’une condamnation pour un délit ou une contravention « grave », inscrite dans le casier judiciaire. Parmi elles, quatre sur dix ont déjà des antécédents judiciaires au moment de la condamnation de 2004. Entre 2004 et 2011, si l’on exclut les infractions à la circulation routière, qui constituent un cas de récidive fréquent et atypique, 38 % des condamnés ont récidivé. Ce taux de récidive atteint 59 % pour les condamnés présentant des antécédents judiciaires. Environ 40 %des récidivistes retournent devant la Justice pour la même infraction que celle sanctionnée en 2004.


Richard Orange 
# Sweden closes four prisons as number of inmates plummets

The Guardian, Monday 11 November 2013
Decline partly put down to strong focus on rehabilitation and more lenient sentences for some offences... Prison numbers in Sweden, which have been falling by around 1% a year since 2004, dropped by 6% between 2011 and 2012 and are expected to do the same again both this year and next year.


HM Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2012–13 23 October 2013

The total prison population fell from 87,868 at the end of March 2012 to 84,596 at the end of March 2013, a welcome fall of almost 4%.  The extent to which the total prison population was overcrowded or operating above its certified normal accommodation in use fell from 11% to 7.1%


Annamaria Cancellieri

# Audizione del guardasigilli Annamaria Cancellieri in Commissione Giustizia Camera giovedì 17 ottobre 2013
 # Allegati

Il reato per il quale è ristretto il maggior numero di detenuti è quello di produzione e spaccio di stupefacenti. Per tali fattispecie sono ristrette ben 23.094 persone (di queste 14.378 sono condannate definitivamente mentre 8.657 sono in custodia cautelare e 59 internate); il secondo reato è la rapina con 9.473 presenze (5.801 sono i definitivi, 3564 i giudicabili e 108 gli internati); il terzo reato è l’omicidio volontario con 9.077 presenze (6.049 sono i definitivi, 2.792 i giudicabili e 236 gli internati); il quarto è l’estorsione con 4.238 presenze (2.180 sono i definitivi mentre 1.982 sono i giudicabili e 76 gli internati); il quinto reato, come detto, è il furto con 3.853 presenze (1.952 sono i definitivi, 1.824 i giudicabili e 77 gli internati); il sesto reato è la violenza sessuale con 2.755 presenze (2.001 sono i definitivi, 709 i giudicabili e 45 gli internati); il settimo è la ricettazione con 2.732 presenze (1.897 sono i definitivi, 809 i giudicabili e 26 gli internati).


ACLU American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico
# Inside the Box: The Real Costs of Solitary Confinement in New Mexico's Prisons and Jails
October 2013
The American Bar Association deines long-term solitary coninement as longer than 30 days.14 According to the NMCD, in 2013 the combined average length of stay for prisoners conined to Levels V and VI in New Mexico’s “supermax” is 1,072 days – that is, almost three years... in the Santa Fe County Jail, on December 21, 2012, almost 20 percent of the prisoners – ive out of 28 – had been held in solitary coninement for more than 6 months... It is crucial to note that 95 percent of prisoners are eventually released to the public.29 How these prisoners are treated while detained plays a substantial role in determining how they will adjust to public life and whether or not they re-engage in criminal activity once released. Those who have experienced extreme solitary coninement, and especially those with mental illness, re-enter society ill-equipped to handle the “free world” in a healthy, constructive way.


European Commission
# The EU Justice Scoreboard.A Tool to Promote Effective Justice and Growth European Union 2013
The objective of the EU Justice Scoreboard (‘the Scoreboard’) is to assist the EU and the Member States to achieve more effective justice by providing objective, reliable and comparable data on the functioning of the justice systems of all Member States. Quality, independence and efficiency are the key components of an 'effective justice system'. Providing information on these components in all Member States contributes to identifying potential shortcomings and good examples and supports the development of justice policies at national and at EU level.


England and Wales - Ministry of Justice
# Offender Management Statistics Quarterly Bulletin April to June 2013
Statistics bulletin 31 October 2013

30 september 2013: Prison population 84,488 | Under sentence 71,113 | The total annual probation caseload (court orders and pre and post release supervision) increased by 39% between 2000 and 2008 to 243,434. Since then the probation caseload has fallen year on year, reaching 224,823 at the end of 2012


Alan Travis
# Jail population spike threatens whole system, governors warn. Chiefs remind justice secretary Chris Grayling that rise in inmates follows decision to close four prisons
The Guardian, Wednesday 16 October 2013

A sudden rise in the jail population in England and Wales is threatening the stability of the system, prison governors have warned. They say the spike in the number of inmates, to 84,832, has led to some jails reaching their capacity just as the justice secretary, Chris Grayling, has ordered prison closures. Eoin Mclennan-Murray, the president of the Prison Governors Association (PGA), said he was concerned that an increase of 635 extra prisoners had come over the past four weeks, as four prisons had were earmarked for closure. He said the usable capacity of the prison system in England and Wales was 86,058 places, but many spare cells were in young offenders' institutions and women's prisons, and were unsuitable for adult male prisoners.


Lauren Galik and Julian Morris
# Smart on Sentencing, Smart on Crime: An Argument for Reforming Louisiana’s Determinate Sentencing Laws Reason Foundation, Policy Study 425. October 2013
Nonviolent offenders who pose little or no threat to society are routinely sentenced to exceedingly long terms in prison with no opportunity for parole, probation or suspension of sentence, in most cases as a direct result of the state’s  determinate sentencing laws. These prisoners consume disproportionate amounts of Louisiana’s scarce prison resources... The study suggests... reforms that might be described as “smart on sentencing, smart on crime.”...


Emmanuel Brillet
# Vieillesse(s) carcérale(s)
Cahiers d’études pénitentiaires et criminologiques, octobre 2013 - n. 38
Cette définition extensive de la « vieillesse », se justifie – selon Kuhlmann et Ruddell – par le fait que « les personnes incarcérées sont plus que proportionnellement susceptibles d’avoir adopté des styles de vie nocifs pour la santé préalablement à leur incarcération : consommation prolongée de drogues ou d’alcool, rapports non protégés » ; à quoi s’ajoutent « les effets à long-terme de la pauvreté : régimes alimentaires déséquilibrés, conditions de logement précaires, faible suivi sanitaire ».


Prison Reform Trust
# Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile Autumn 2013

On 11 October 2013, the prison population in England and Wales was 84,078. In 1992-93, the average prison population was 44,628. England and Wales has an imprisonment rate of 149 per 100,000 of the population. France has an imprisonment rate of 102 per 100,000 and Germany has a rate of 83 per 100,000. Between 2002 and 2012, the prison population in England and Wales grew by 14,830 or 21%. During this period the number on remand fell by 13%, while those sentenced to immediate custody rose by 28%. 26,386 new prison places were provided between 1997-98 and 2011-12. Prisons are getting larger, with a drive to close small community and open prisons, build larger jails and add additional capacity to existing establishments. There are now 28 prisons in England and Wales holding more than 1,000 men each...


Magnus Lofstrom
# Incarceration and Crime: Evidence from California’s Realignment Sentencing Reform
Public Policy Institute of California, October 2013
We assess the effects of a recent reform in California that caused a sharp and permanent reduction in the state’s incarceration rate. We exploit the large variation across California counties in the effect of this reform on county‐specific prison incarceration rates. We find very little evidence of an effect of the large reduction in incarceration rates on violent crime and evidence of modest effects on property crime, auto theft in particular. These effects are considerably smaller than existing estimates in the literature based on panel data for periods of time when the U.S. incarceration rate was considerably lower. We corroborate theses cross‐county results with a synthetic‐cohort analysis of state crime rates in California. This state‐wide analysis confirms our findings from the county‐level analysis. In conjunction with existing published research, the results from this study support the hypothesis of a crime‐prison effect that diminishes with the scale of incarceration. 


Joseph Murray, Daniel Ricardo de Castro Cerqueira, Tulio Kahn
# Crime and violence in Brazil: Systematic review of time trends, prevalence rates and risk factors
Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 18, Issue 5, September–October 2013
Between 1980 and 2010 there were 1 million homicides in Brazil. Dramatic increases in homicide rates followed rises in inequality, more young men in the population, greater availability of firearms, and increased drug use. Nevertheless, disarmament legislation may have helped reduce homicide rates in recent years. Despite its very high rate of lethal violence, Brazil appears to have similar levels of general criminal victimization as several other Latin American and North American countries. Brazil has lower rates of drug use compared to other countries such as the United States, but the prevalence of youth drug use in Brazil has increased substantially in recent years.


Valentina Calderone

# Carceri, i numeri della vergogna
l'Unità, 9 ottobre 2013
Con un tasso di sovraffollamento del 136 per cento, nelle carceri italiane sono ospitati 64.758 detenuti (al 30 settembre 2013), contro una capienza regolamentare di 47.615. Gli stranieri sono 22.770 e le donne 2.821. Se leggiamo i dati sulle presenza con riferimento alla posizione giuridica, scopriamo che ben 12.333 persone sono in carcere ancora in attesa di primo giudizio e che altre 12.302 stanno aspettando una sentenza definitiva. I condannati in tutti e tre i gradi - a esclusione degli internati e di quelli la cui posizione è al momento indefinibile - sono invece 38.845. Questo significa che quasi il 40 per cento dei detenuti nelle nostre carceri sono da presumersi non colpevoli, così come recita l'articolo 2 della Costituzione. Altra nota dolente, il ricorso alle misure alternative...


Franck Johannès
# La surpopulation carcérale, un problème inextricable en période de disette budgétaire
Le Monde | 28.09.2013
67.088 détenus, pour 57.473 places... Le problème des prisons est le clou dans la chaussure de tous les gardes des sceaux, mais l'impasse, aujourd'hui, est totale. Pour la deuxième année consécutive, le budget de l'administration pénitentiaire (3,236 milliards d'euros) est supérieur à celui de la justice judiciaire. Et c'est encore très insuffisant.


Instituto Nacionalde Estadistica INE | Notas de prensa
# Estadística de Condenados: Adultos / Estadística de Condenados: Menores - Año 2012 19 de septiembre de 2013
El número de personas condenadas por sentencia firme inscritas en el Registro Central de Penados se situó en 221.063, un 0,2% menos que el año anterior. El número de menores condenados por sentencia firme inscritos en el Registro Central de Sentencias de Responsabilidad Penal de los Menores fue 16.172, un 5,1% inferior al del año 2011. Los delitos contra la seguridad vial fueron los más numerosos en el caso de los condenados adultos (38,7% de los delitos) y los robos,  en el caso de los menores (41,3%). El 54,3% de las penas impuestas, tanto principales como accesorias, fueron penas privativas de otros derechos. El 25,9% fueron penas privativas de libertad, el 19,4% penas de multa y el 0,4% expulsiones del territorio nacional. Entre las penas privativas de otros derechos, la más frecuente fue la de inhabilitación  especial para empleo (18,6% del total). Entre las penas privativas de libertad, la más frecuente fue la pena de prisión (25,5% del total).


Alessandro Maculan, Daniela Ronco, Francesca Vianello
# Prisons in Europe: Overview and Trends
European Prison Observatory, september 2013


Institute for Policy Analysis of Conlict (IPAC)
# Prison Problems: Planned and Unplanned Releases of Convicted Extremists in Indonesia
IPAC Report No.2, 2 September 2013


Ted Goertzel, Ekaterina Shohat, Tulio Kahn, André Zanetic, and Dmitriy Bogoyavlenskiy
# Homicide Booms and Busts: A Small-N Comparative Historical Study
Homicides Studies, 2013
Homicide booms and busts are long-term phenomena that can best be studied with comparative historical methods. They cannot easily be explained by enduring socioeconomic inequalities because these persist during boom and bust periods alike. Historical changes that may help to lower homicide rates in the long run sometimes cause homicide booms in the short term. Modern policing methods have helped to end homicide booms without first resolving underlying social problems, but this may be possible only when the conditions are propitious.


UN Human Rights | Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
# “Unspeakable atrocities” reported by the UN Inquiry into the Human Rights Situation in North Korea 17 september 2013
... He cited a host of alleged abuses, ranging from abductions, torture and a policy of inter-generational punishment to arbitrary detention in prison camps marked by deliberate starvation and “unspeakable atrocities.”
“We heard from ordinary people who faced torture and imprisonment for doing nothing more than watching foreign soap operas or holding a religious belief,” said Kirby, a retired Australian judge with broad international experience...


Amnesty International
# North Korea: New images show blurring of prison camps and villages 7 march 2013
Hundreds of thousands of people—including children—are held in political prison camps and other detention facilities in North Korea. According to former detainees prisoners are forced to work in slave-like conditions and are frequently subjected to torture and other ill-treatment


International Centre for Prisons Studies

# Democratic Republic of North Korea


Ram Subramanian, Alison Shames
# Sentencing and Prison Practices in Germany and the Netherlands: Implications for the United States Vera Institute of Justice, 2013
Normalize the conditions within prison. In the United States, many jurisdictions, like Michigan, Ohio, and others, have begun the process of “reentry” at the prison gate, reordering priorities, housing assignments, and programming based on what will be needed after prison... Total control, hard cells, and inadequate programming do not and cannot prepare well the more than 95 percent of prisoners who will return to our communities.


Nigel Newcomen | Prisons and Probation Ombudsman (PPO) for England and Wales
# Annual Report 2012–2013 September 2013
Complaints:  5,374 complaints were received this year, 80 more than last year. Of these 4,894 (91) were about the Prison Service, 369 (7%) were about the Probation Service and 111 (2%) were about immigration detention.


The Howard League for Penal Reform
# Revealed: The true scale of overcrowding in prisons in England and Wales 2 september 2013
Almost 20,000 prisoners were kept in overcrowded cells last year, figures obtained by the Howard League for Penal Reform reveal today (2 September). New research by the charity illustrates the true scale of prison overcrowding in England and Wales – showing that the problem is far greater than ministers have suggested. The figures show that, during the financial year 2012-13, about 19,140 prisoners on average were forced to share a cell designed for one person. A further 777 prisoners were made to sleep three to a cell, when the cells were designed to accommodate only two. Official government prison population announcements mask the full extent of overcrowding because they do not state how many cells are holding more prisoners than they are designed to. The worst-affected prison in England and Wales was Wandsworth, where on a typical day 835 prisoners were forced to share cells which contain an open toilet.


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire | Bureau des études et de la prospective
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France | situation au 1er septembre 2013
Densité carcérale: - 7 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 200 %, - 30 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 150 et inférieure à 200 %, - 58 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 120 et inférieure à 150 %, - 29 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 100 et inférieure à 120 %, - 127 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité inférieure à 100 %


Stéfan Lollivier, Christophe Soullez (Sous la direction de)
# INHESJ / ONDRP – Synthèse du Rapport 2013 La criminalité en France 2013


Eurostat | Gert Bogers, Athina Karvounaraki, Steve Clarke, Cynthia Tavares
# Trafficking in human beings 2013 edition


México Evalúa, Centro de Análisis de Políticas Públicas
# La cárcel en México: ¿Para qué? Agosto 2013
Usamos la cárcel intensiva e irracionalmente. En nuestros códigos, el 95 por ciento de los delitos tiene contemplada la prisión. En los hechos, no existen sanciones alternativas a la cárcel porque no existen los mecanismos ni la infraestructura para hacerlas operables. En nuestro ambiente de opinión tan agraviado por el crimen, insistimos en la cárcel como castigo ejemplar para todo tipo de delitos. Sin embargo, en el caso de delitos menores y no violentos, otros mecanismos de sanciones pudieran ser más efectivos y menos onerosos en términos sociales y económicos. Las cárceles mexicanas en su condición actual son espacios propicios al contagio criminógeno.


Department of Corrections - New Zealand
# Prison facts and statistics - June 2013 30 August 2013
This page shows statistical information on the: number of prisoners in each prison; total prison population | Breakdowns of the prison population by: ages; offence type; ethnicity; security classification; percentage of prisoners on life or preventive detention sentences


Dan Roberts, Karen McVeigh 
# Eric Holder unveils new reforms aimed at curbing US prison population. Reversing years of tough Washington rhetoric, attorney general calls levels of US incarceration 'ineffective and unsustainable, Monday 12 August 2013
Reversing years of toughening political rhetoric in Washington, attorney general Eric Holder declared that levels of incarceration at federal, state and local levels had become both "ineffective and unsustainable." The Department of Justice will now instruct prosecutors to side-step federal sentencing rules by not recording the amount of drugs found on non-violent dealers not associated with larger gangs or cartels. "Our system is in many ways broken," Holder told the American Bar Association in San Francisco. "As the so-called war on drugs enters its fifth decade we need to ask whether it has been fully effective and usher in a new approach." "Too many Americans go to too many prisons for far too long and for no truly good law enforcement reason," he said, adding later: "We cannot simply prosecute or incarcerate our way to becoming a safer country."


Steve Clarke
# Trends in crime and criminal justice, 2010 Statistics in focus 18/2013
The latest collection of data indicates a general tendency towards a decrease in the levels of recorded crime across European Union Member States between 2007 and 2010. The number of most types of crimes recorded by the police in the European Union has fallen. While crimes linked to drug trafficking, robbery and violent crimes decreased between 3 and 6 % between 2007 and 2010, the number of motor vehicle thefts has fallen substantially faster over the same period (-23 %).  In contrast, domestic burglary is a category with a rising trend in the European Union. Compared to 2007, 7 % more cases of domestic burglary were reported in 2010.


Pierre V. Tournier

# Population sous écrou, population détenue au 1er juillet 2013 : nouveaux records
« Arpenter le Champ pénal » (ACP) | vendredi 26 juillet 2013
Au 1er juillet 2013, le nombre de personnes sous écrou est de 80 700 (France entière) : 17 318 prévenus détenus, 51 251 condamnés détenus (soit 68 569 personnes détenues), 10 846 condamnés placés sous surveillance électronique en aménagement de peine, 629 condamnés placés sous surveillance électronique en fin de peine et 656 condamnés en placement à l’extérieur, sans hébergement pénitentiaire. Le taux de placement sous écrou est de 123 pour 100 000 habitants et le taux de détention de 105 pour 100 000 habitants.


House of Commons Justice Committee
# Women offenders: after the Corston Report. Second Report of Session 2013-14 15 July 2013
Five years after the March 2007 publication of Baroness Corston’s report A review of women with particular vulnerabilities in the criminal justice system (hereafter “the Corston Report”), which made a series of recommendations to drive improvement in the women's criminal justice agenda, we decided to hold an inquiry to review progress and examine current strategy and practice with respect to female offenders and those at risk of offending...


E. Ann Carson and Daniela Golinelli BJS
# Prisoners in 2012 - Advance Counts July 2013
The U.S. prison population declined for the third consecutive year, falling to an estimated 1,571,013 prisoners at yearend 2012. This was down 27,770 prisoners (1.7%) from yearend 2011. California had the greatest population decline, with 15,035 fewer prisoners than in 2011 in part due to the state’s Public Safety Realignment policy


Erica Goode
# U.S. Prison Populations Decline, Reflecting New Approach to Crime
New York Times | July 25, 2013
The prison population in the United States dropped in 2012 for the third consecutive year, according to federal statistics released on Thursday, in what criminal justice experts said was the biggest decline in the nation’s recent history, signaling a shift away from an almost four-decade policy of mass imprisonment. The number of inmates in state and federal prisons decreased by 1.7 percent, to an estimated 1,571,013 in 2012 from 1,598,783 in 2011, according to figures released by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, an arm of the Justice Department. Although the percentage decline appeared small, the fact that it followed decreases in 2011 and 2010 offers persuasive evidence of what some experts say is a “sea change” in America’s approach to criminal punishment.


Vera Institute of Justice
# The Potential of Community Corrections: To Improve Communities and Reduce Incarceration July 2013
Community corrections supervises people who are under the authority of the  criminal justice system but who are not in prison or jail. In 2009, more than five million people in the United States were supervised in the community by the criminal justice system. Community-based corrections supervision is less expensivethan prison or jail and can be a source of positive change for communities. By keeping individuals in the community and offering supervision, intervention, and services that are responsive to their risk and needs to prevent reoffending, community supervision can improve public safety and, with it, the viability of neighborhoods that are most affected by crime and large numbers of people returning from prison.


New Mexico Corrections Department (NMCD)
# Evidence-Based Programs to Reduce Recidivism and Improve Public Safety in Adult Corrections July 2013
Ninety-five percent of incarcerated offenders will be released back into the community. About 50 percent of offenders will return to prison within five years... Reducing recidivism, even by just 10 percent, can save millions. Rigorous research has demonstrated that some programs and strategies can improve public safety and reduce recidivism...


House of Commons Justice Committee
# Older Prisoners 16 July 2013
Older prisoners are the fastest growing group within the prison population; the number of those aged over 60 grew by 120% and those aged 50–59 by 100% between 2002 and 2013. The health and social care needs of older prisoners are not all the same. It is broadly recognised that many prisoners have the biological characteristics of those who are ten years older than them; they may have chronic health and mental health disorders as well as disabilities which, in the community, would be typical among those who are significantly older.


EU.R.E.S. Ricerche Economiche e Sociali
# L’omicidio volontario in Italia. Rapporto EURES 2013- Sintesi luglio 2013


Ministry of Justice
# Prison population figures 01.01.2013 - 12.07.2013 16 July 2013


Ministero della giustizia | Dipartimento dell'amministrazione penitenziaria DAP | Ufficio per lo Sviluppo e la Gestione del Sistema Informativo Automatizzato - Sezione Statistica

# Bollettino Penitenziario n. 17

Dati aggiornati al 31 Dicembre 2012

Risorse dell'Amministrazione penitenziaria - Popolazione Detenuta - Reati - Lavoro e corsi professionali - Detenute madri ed asili nido - Benefici concessi alla popolazione detenuta - Eventi critici


 | Ufficio per lo Sviluppo e la Gestione del Sistema Informativo Automatizzato - Sezione statistica

# Caratteristiche socio-lavorative, giuridiche e demografiche della popolazione detenuta
Situazione al 30 Giugno 2013

Sesso - Età - Numero di figli - Stato civile - Grado di istruzione - Condizione lavorativa - Ramo di attività - Posizione professionale - Posizione giuridica - Durata della pena - Durata della pena residua - Distribuzione per regione di detenzione e regione di nascita - Distribuzione per regione di detenzione e regione di residenza


Ministero della Giustizia
# Corsi Professionali Serie Storica | Anni 1992 - 2013
30 giugno 2013


# I minorenni nelle strutture della giustizia. Anno 2011
2 luglio 2013
Sono 20.157 i minorenni autori di reato presi in carico nell’anno 2011 dagli Uffici di Servizio Sociale per i Minorenni. Nei Centri di prima accoglienza si contano 2.343 ingressi, nelle Comunità 1.926, in Istituti penali per i minorenni 1.246. Le principali aree geografiche da cui provengono i minori stranieri segnalati dall’Autorità Giudiziaria sono la Romania, il Marocco e la Tunisia, anche se con forti differenze di genere... La maggior parte delle ragazze proviene infatti dalla Romania, dalla Croazia, dalla Bosnia Erzegovina e dalla Serbia. I minori assistiti sono nell’83,8% dei casi italiani e nel 90% maschi. Più della metà ha 16-17 anni (51,8%), il 27,2% 18-215 e il 20,6% 14-15 anni. I 14-17enni presi in carico sono 14.600, pari allo 0,6% del totale della popolazione minorile residente in Italia in questa fascia di età.


Department of Justice Canada
# The Youth Criminal Justice Act: Summary and Background 2013


Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP

Caratteristiche socio-lavorative, giuridiche e demografiche detenuti al 30 giugno 2013


Prison Reform Trust
Prison: the facts
Bromley Briefings Summer 2013
The prison system as a whole has been overcrowded in every year since 1994. At the end of March 2013, 69 of the 124 prisons in England and Wales were overcrowded. Prison has a poor record for reducing reoffending – 47% of adults are reconvicted within one year of release. For those serving sentences of less than 12 months this increases to 58%. Nearly three quarters (73%) of under 18 year olds are reconvicted within a year of release. 41,875 people entered prison to serve sentences of less than or equal to six months in the year to September 2012.


Gavin Berman, Aliyah Dar
Prison Population Statistics
Library House of Commons 29 July 2013
On 26 July 2013 the prison population in England and Wales stood at 84,052, a 3% fall on the previous year...


Gavin Berman | Library House of Commons
Prison population statistics | 28 June 2013

The prison population surpassed 80,000 for the first time in December 2006 and 85,000 in spring 2010. The prison population remained around this level until the sharp increase due to the remanding and sentencing of people alleged to have been involved in the riots in England in August 2011. The number of offenders in prison reached its current record high of 88,179 prisoners on 2 December 2011... Around 900 prisoners were being held for public disorder related offences in the immediate aftermath of the disorder... At the end of March 2013 the prison population was 83,769, a decrease of 4.3% on the previous year. The recent month end levels are the lowest recorded since December 2010.


The Correctional Investigator Canada | L’Enquêteur correctionnel Canada
# Annual Report of the Office of the Correctional Investigator 2012-2013 june 28, 2013
n the 10 year period between March 2003 and March 2013, the incarcerated population has grown by close to 2,100 inmates, which represents an overall increase of 16.5%. During this period, the Aboriginal incarcerated population increased overall by 46.4%. Federally sentenced Aboriginal women inmates have increased by over 80% in the last 10 years. Visible minority groups (Black, Hispanic, Asian, East Indian and other ethnicities) behind bars increased by almost 75% over this period. As a subgroup, Black inmates have increased every year, growing by nearly 90% over the last 10 years. Meantime, Caucasian inmates actually declined by 3% over this same period.


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire | Bureau des études, de la prospective et des méthodes

# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France

Situation au 1er juin 2013


Zakia Belmokhtar, Abdellatif Benzakri
# Les Français et la prison
Infostat Justice, n. 122, Juin 2013
La prison est pour les Français un univers inquiétant et sombre : plus d’un sur deux (53 %) pense qu’il lui est possible d’être mis un jour en prison, et plus des deux tiers (66 %) considèrent que les conditions de détention sont mauvaises, à l’exception de la prise en charge médicale des détenus jugée globalement satisfaisante. La prison n’est pas remise en cause dans ses fondements mais pour 71%des Français, elle doit changer, notamment en ce qui concerne les conditions de détention. L’univers carcéral reste méconnu : les caractéristiques de la population des détenus sont mal connues, les droits accordés aux détenus sont sous estimés.  Un des effets de la prison les plus décriés porte sur la récidive : pour les trois quarts des Français (77 %), la prison ne permet pas de lutter contre la récidive, et pour deux Français sur trois (64 %), les aménagements de peine sont perçus comme un levier d’action efficace pour éviter la récidive. Les prises de position des Français sur la prison sont très liées à leur connaissance du milieu carcéral : les plus concernés ou les plus informés sont les plus critiques.


INQUEST Working for truth, justice and accountability
# Preventing the deaths of women in prison: the need for an alternative approach June 2013

INQUEST’s monitoring of deaths in custody in England and Wales over the last 30 years has been central to the identification of emerging trends and patterns, including the sharply upward trend of women’s deaths in prison between 1998 and 2003. INQUEST’s specialist casework, research and evidence based policy work was critical in generating public and parliamentary debate on women’s deaths in prison and directly influenced the Government’s decision to commission  Baroness Corston’s review following the deaths of 6 women at Styal prison in a twelve month period... The state’s responsibility for the deaths of the women featured in this report go beyond the prison walls and extend to failures in mental health and substance abuse provision, sentencing policies and a lack of investment in alternatives to custody...


Centre for Crime and Justice Studies
# The overuse of pre-trial detention: causes and consequences. Martin Schönteich examines arbitrary and excessive pre-trial imprisonment cjm no. 92 June 2013
A near universal reason for the excessive use of pre-trial detention is a lack of coherence over how the presumption of innocence should be balanced against the need to protect the public. Even in places with a strong legislative and jurisprudential basis for protecting the presumption of innocence, it is more a principle than a reality. Often, there is little clarity as to what the concept means, or how it should be applied. This is aggravated by imprecise and restrictive laws in many places. Such laws are not produced in a vacuum; public pressure and populist politicians are often responsible for laws which limit the right to pre-trial release.


Todd D. Minton
# Jails in Indian Country, 2012
Bureau of Justice Statistics, Bulletin June 2013

Despite the overall stability in Indian country jail admissions, the 70 facilities that provided data in both years reported a 10% increase, from 10,463 admissions in June 2011 to 11,474 in June 2012. Specifically, 40 facilities reported either a decline or no change in their admissions, and 30 facilities reported an increase in their admissions. Over half of the increase in admissions came from the Navajo Department of Corrections - Chinle


Patrizio Gonnella

# I numeri di una giustizia al collasso
MicroMega | La pagina dei blog (05 giugno 2013)

... dati impietosi che indicano, numeri alla mano, come sia al collasso la nostra giustizia, sia civile che penale...


United States Government Accountability Office GAO | Bureau of Prisons
Improvements Needed  in Bureau of Prisons’ Monitoring and Evaluation of Impact of Segregated Housing May 2013
The overall number of inmates in the Bureau of Prisons’ (BOP) three main types of segregated housing units—Special Housing Units (SHU), Special Management Units (SMU), and Administrative Maximum (ADX)—increased at a faster rate than the general inmate population. Inmates may be placed in SHUs for administrative reasons, such as pending transfer to another prison, and for disciplinary reasons, such as violating prison rules; SMUs, a four-phased program in which inmates can progress from more to less restrictive conditions; or ADX, for inmates that require the highest level of security. From fiscal year  2008 through February 2013, the total inmate population in segregated housing units increased approximately 17 percent—from 10,659 to 12,460 inmates. By comparison, the total inmate


Direction de l’administration pénitentiaire
# L’aménagement des peines privatives de liberté : l’exécution de la peine autrement Collection Travaux & Document n°79, Mai 2013
L’inflation carcérale, une tendance de long terme. Commencer l’étude statistique d’un dispositif pénal au moment de son apparition conduit assez souvent à une évaluation assez optimiste des réalisations puisque la série part de presque rien, sinon d’une valeur nulle. Ainsi, la courbe des écroués non détenus qui reflète le développement des aménagements de peine sous écrou affiche avec constance depuis 2004 (début de la série en août) un taux d’accroissement  annuel à deux chiffres (par exemple 39,4 % entre le 1er septembre 2010 et le  1erseptembre 2011). Pour la période initiale, de 2004 à 2010, la série montre une progression géométrique, avec un doublement tous les deux ans.


Todd D. Minton | U.S. Department of Justice | Office of Justice Programs | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Jail Inmates at Midyear 2012 - Statistical Tables May 2013
After three consecutive years of decline in the jail inmate population, the number of persons confined in county and city jails (744,524) increased by 1.2% (or 8,923 inmates) between midyear 2011 and midyear 2012. The majority of the increase occurred in California jails. Excluding the increase in California’s jail population, the nationwide jail population would have remained relatively stable during the period. The average daily population (ADP) in jails remained stable from 735,565 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2011, and 735,983 during the 12-month period ending June 30, 2012. The jail incarceration rate—the confined population per 100,000 U.S. residents—remained stable between 2011 (236 per 100,000) and 2012 (237 per 100,000). The incarceration rate was down from a high of 259
jail inmates per 100,000 residents in 2007.


Tom Silver
# Breaking Out of the Prison Cycle
Harvard Political Review, May 23, 2013

Of all the costs of incarceration, the day-to-day expenses are perhaps the most difficult to ignore. By most estimates, the United States spends over $74 billion annually on its prisons. Ten states now spend more on imprisonment than they do on higher education— six times more, in the case of California. JoAnne Page, CEO of the Fortune Society, a New York-based nonprofit that specializes in prisoner reentry and alternatives to incarceration, told the HPR that these costs are increasing “more than anything else … [because] the average length of stay is going up.” Indeed, from 1990 to 2009, the average length of stay for prisoners increased by 2.9 years. As a result of this progression, the prison population is not only growing, but also aging.


Jo Hawley, Ilona Murphy, Manuel Souto-Otero | GHK
# Prison Education and Training in Europe Current State-of-Play and Challenges. A summary report authored for the European Commission by GHK Consulting. May 2013
“He who opens a school door, closes a prison” (Victor Hugo). There is evidence that investing in prison education and training is worthwhile. For instance, a study assessing the costs and benefits of in-prison education to UK society found that the benefits were more than double the investment made. It is thus important to explore the quality and efficiency of current learning provision in European prisons.


Republic of South Africa | Mr. Sibusiso Ndebele, Minister of Correctional Services, Department Correctional Services
# Correctional Services Budget Vote Speech 2013/14
National Assembly, Cape Town • 29th May 2013
ccording to the latest National Offender Population Profile (September 2012), the major crime categories are economic, aggressive, sexual and narcotics. As at 27th May, South Africa’s inmate population was 152,514; 45,043 (29,5%) were remand detainees, and 107,471 were sentenced offenders. Offenders sentenced to life imprisonment increased from about 400 in 1994 to more than 11,000 in 2013. Foreign nationals comprise 8,973 inmates (4,087 sentenced and 4,886 un-sentenced). In addition, 65,931 offenders are outside correctional centres living in their respective communities; 48,716 are parolees, 15,491 are probationers (serving non-custodial sentences) and 1,724 are awaiting-trial.


Servizio studi del Senato | Ufficio ricerche sulle questioni istituzionali, sulla giustizia e sulla cultura
# Dati statistici relativi all'amministrazione della giustizia in Italia
dossier n. 11 - maggio 2013
Dato il tasso medio nella UE di detenzione per 100.000 abitanti a 127,7...,  rispetto a tale media, l'Italia registra un tasso più basso, pari a 112,6. A fronte di un tasso di detenzione relativamente basso, l'Italia registra un tasso di sovraffollamento delle carceri piuttosto alto. Tale circostanza si verifica, secondo il report ISTAT, "a causa sia dei detenuti in attesa di giudizio, che rappresentano il 43,1% nel 2010 contro una media europea del 27,1%, sia del minor utilizzo delle misure alternative al carcere (30,5 soggetti in misura alternativa per 100.000 abitanti contro i 199,2 per 100.000 abitanti della media europea)"


Matteo Mascia
# Aumentano i detenuti e crollano i finanziamenti al Dap. I numeri ufficiali assomigliano ad un bollettino di guerra. Parlamento e Governo devono intervenire 18 maggio 2013

La popolazione detenuta in Italia ha raggiunto cifre senza precedenti, ben superiori alle oltre 61mila presenze del luglio 2006, data dell'ultimo provvedimento di indulto. Al 31/03/2013 la popolazione detenuta è pari a 65.831 unità, 4.800 in più del giugno 2006. Alla dichiarazione dello stato di emergenza per il sovraffollamento carcerario, 13 gennaio 2010, nelle carceri italiane c'erano 64.791 persone, a fronte di una capienza di 44.073, con un tasso di affollamento del 147 per cento (147 detenuti ogni 100 posti).


Ministerio del Interior | Secretarìa General de Instituciones Penitenciarias
# Informe Epidemiologico sobre Mortalidad en II. PP. - Año 2012 Area de Salud Publica - Mayo 2013


Acaip Agrupacion de los Cuerpos de la Administracion de Instituciones Penitenciarias
# Muertes en Prision. Mortalidad 2006/2012 - 2013


Joan Petersilia, Jessica Greenlick Snyder
# Looking Past The Hype: 10 Questions Everyone Should Ask About California’s Prison Realignment
Calif. J. Politics Policy 2013; 5(2): 266–306
California’s Criminal Justice Realignment Act passed in 2011 shifted vast discretion for managing lower-level offenders from the state to the county, allocated over $2 billion in the first 2 years for local programs, and altered sentences for more than 100,000 offenders. Despite the fact that it is the biggest penal experiment in modern history, the state provided no funding to evaluate its overall effect on crime, incarceration, justice agencies, or recidivism. We provide a framework for a comprehensive evaluation by raising 10 essential questions: (1) Have prison populations been reduced and care sufficiently improved to bring prison medical care up to a Constitutional standard? (2) What is the impact on victim rights and safety? (3) Will more offenders participate in treatment programs, and will recidivism be reduced? (4) Will there be equitable sentencing and treatment across counties? (5) What is the impact on jail crowding, conditions, and litigation? (6) What is the impact on police, prosecution, defense, and judges? (7) What is the impact on probation and parole? (8) What is the impact on crime rates and community life? (9) How much will realignment cost? Who pays? (10) Have we increased the number of people under criminal justice supervision?


République française - CNCDH Commission Nationale Consultative des Droits de l'Homme
# Lutte contre la récidive: pour une approche globale 21.02.2013 - 14.05.2013

Les dix dernières années, nettement marquées par un basculement vers une politique répressive et ce qu’il est désormais commun d’appeler « le tout carcéral », n’ont pas fourni de solutions satisfaisantes en matière de lutte contre la récidive, au point qu’une majorité des acteurs s’accorde à en dénoncer les méfaits. Face à un système carcéral ayant aujourd’hui largement démontré ses limites, la CNCDH invite les pouvoirs publics à envisager un changement de paradigme profond afin de concilier éducation, répression et réinsertion. Au-delà du seul ministère de la Justice, la CNCDH appelle le Gouvernement à envisager une approche intégrée associant notamment les ministères de la famille, de l’éducation nationale et de l’intérieur, eux aussi pleinement concernés par la lutte efficace contre la récidive.


Garante delle persone sottoposte a misure restrittive della libertà personale della Toscana
# La detenzione in Toscana
Firenze, 14 maggio 2013

La situazione e' ''sostanzialmente identica'' al gennaio 2010 (anno della dichiarazione di 'stato di emergenza nazionale conseguente all'eccessivo sovraffollamento degli istituti penitenziari'): all'epoca in Toscana erano detenute 4.334 persone in 3.233 posti, con un tasso di affollamento del 134 per cento. Oggi quel tasso è del 127,2 per cento ed è condizionato dalla crescita della capienza del sistema penitenziario, in Toscana pari a 331 unità. Ma questa crescita di capienza dipende, secondo Margara, ''da un diverso calcolo degli spazi disponibili'' quindi questi dati del Dipartimento dell'amministrazione penitenziaria non appaiono attendibili.


Council of Europe COE - Marcelo F. Aebi, Natalia Delgrande

# Annual Penal Statistics. Space I. Survey 2011

Strasbourg 3 May 2013


# Annual Penal Statistics. Space II. Survey 2011 | Persons Serving Non-Custodial Sanctions and Measures in 2011 - Strasbourg 3 May 2013


#  Comunicato stampa 3 maggio 2013. Secondo un rapporto del Consiglio d’Europa, il sovraffollamento delle carceri costituisce un problema per la metà delle amministrazioni penitenziarie europee


Alberto Barbieri, Cecilia Francini, Novella Mori, Mariarita Peca, Marie Aude Tavoso, Marco
Zanchetta | Medici per i Diritti Umani
Arcipelago CIE. Indagine sui centri di identificazione ed espulsione italiani
Sintesi Maggio 2013

Nel solo perimetro dell’Unione Europea, la rete Migreurop stima la presenza di almeno 420 strutture di trattenimento ufficiali con una capienza totale di 37.000 posti40. E’ molto diffuso inoltre l’utilizzo di luoghi di detenzione che non compaiono nelle liste ufficiali, quali aeroporti, navi mercantili, campi, carceri statali. In alcuni Paesi, quali la Germania e l’Irlanda, le strutture carcerarie vengono spesso utilizzate per la detenzione degli stranieri, mentre in altri, come la Svizzera, la detenzione ha luogo all’interno di sezioni speciali degli istituti penitenziari ordinari. I luoghi di detenzione sono pertanto molto eterogenei sia per caratteristiche che per modalità di funzionamento. Le due tipologie più ricorrenti sono i centri in cui vengono trattenuti gli stranieri al momento dell’ingresso, quando il loro accesso al territorio è condizionato alla verifica dei requisiti di ingresso e soggiorno, e le strutture di detenzione ai fini dell’espulsione o del rimpatrio degli immigrati già presenti sul territorio in condizioni di irregolarità. La maggior parte dei centri svolgono entrambe le funzioni ed in molti casi sono preposti anche all’identificazione


MM. Jean-Yves Le Bouillonnec et Didier Quentin - Députés | Assemblée Nationale
# Rapport d’information relative à la mesure statistique des délinquances et de leurs conséquences Enregistré à la Présidence de l’Assemblée nationale le 24 avril 2013
Les statistiques des délinquances et de leurs conséquences, objet du présent rapport, ont pris une importance considérable dans le débat public. Tour à tour utilisées pour présenter un bilan favorable de l’action des gouvernements ou, au contraire, pour asseoir, à partir de l’état des lieux qu’elles fournissent, une nouvelle politique pénale, elles sont déraisonnablement mises en avant. La valorisation de ces statistiques, tant par les gouvernants que par les médias, est d’autant plus paradoxale que, comme vos rapporteurs entendent vous le démontrer, ces statistiques n’ont qu’une fiabilité très limitée et ne permettent  nullement de mesurer finement les délinquances.


ADALAH – The Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in Israel
# Statistics on Detainees and Prisoners in Israeli prisons | 10 April 2013:1
(Researcher: Adalah Attorney Rima Ayoub) - Total number of detainees and prisoners in Israel prisons: 17,666 1. Criminal detainees and prisoners: 12,682 Security detainees and prisoners: 4,984 a. Jewish security prisoners and detainees: 10 Security prisoners and detainees from the OPT, the occupied Golan Heights, and Israel, including Palestinian citizens of Israel: 4,804...


U.S. Department of Justice  DOJ | Office of the Inspector General  | Evaluation and Inspections Division
# The Federal Bureau of Prisons’ Compassionate Release Program April 2013

In the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984, Congress authorized the Director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) to request that a federal judge reduce an inmate’s sentence for “extraordinary and compelling” circumstances. Under the statute, the request can be based on either medical or non-medical conditions that could not reasonably have been foreseen by the judge at the time of sentencing. The BOP has issued regulations and a Program Statement entitled “compassionate release” to implement this authority.3 This review assessed the BOP’s compassionate release program, including whether it provides cost savings or other benefits to the BOP.


Michelle S. Phelps
# The Paradox of Probation: Community Supervision in the Age of Mass Incarceration
Law & Policy, Vol. 35, Nos 1–2, January–April 2013
After four decades of steady growth, U.S. states’ prison populations finally appear to be declining, driven by a range of sentencing and policy reforms. One of the most popular reform suggestions is to expand probation supervision in lieu of incarceration. However, the classic socio-legal literature suggests that expansions of probation instead widen the net of penal control and lead to higher incarceration rates. This article reconsiders probation in the era of mass incarceration, providing the first comprehensive evaluation of the role of probation in the build-up of the criminal justice system. The results suggest that probation was not the primary driver of mass incarceration in most states, nor is it likely to be a simple panacea to mass incarceration. Rather, probation serves both capacities, acting as an alternative and as a net-widener, to varying degrees across time and place. Moving beyond the question of diversion versus net widening, this article presents a new theoretical model of the probation- rison link that examines the mechanisms underlying this dynamic. Using regression models and case studies, I analyze how states can modify the relationship between probation and imprisonment by changing sentencing outcomes and the practices of probation supervision. When combined with other key efforts, reforms to probation can be part of the movement to reverse mass incarceration.


Fondazione di ricerca Istituto Carlo Cattaneo

# Un'anomalia italiana: il sovraffollamento carcerario

Analisi e testo a cura di Asher Colombo - twitter: @ashercolombo | 29 marzo 2013

Le carceri italiane sono più affollate oggi che prima dell’indulto del 2006, e lo sono più che le
carceri delle altre democrazie europee. In alcuni istituti italiani si superano i 3 detenuti per posto, e l’80% degli istituti ha più detenuti che posti regolamentari. Il sovraffollamento carcerario non dipende dall’aumento dei detenuti: paesi con livelli di crescita della detenzione sensibilmente più alti del nostro controllano meglio di noi il sovraffollamento carcerario... L’analisi comparata, nel tempo e nello spazio, del caso italiano mostra che il nostro sistema penitenziario ha un grave e cronico problema di sovraffollamento, ma che a ottenere risultati apprezzabili e di medio periodo nel campo del controllo del problema del sovraffollamento carcerario non sono i paesi che hanno sperimentato riduzioni straordinarie della popolazione carceraria, i cui effetti possono essere tipicamente solo di breve periodo.


Benjamin Monnery
# Les déterminants du risque de récidive des sortants de prison : applications micro-économetriques sur données francaises Mars 2013
Cet article se propose d’étudier les principaux d´eterminants de la probabilité instantanée de récidive des sortants de prison... Les résultats obtenus confirment les roles déterminants du sexe, de l’age, de la nationalité, de l’accés  à l’emploi et des antécédents, sur le comportement de récidive des anciens détenus en France. De plus, ils mettent en évidence des différences significatives en fonction du type d’infraction initialement commise, de la situation pénale des détenus à l’écrou et des aménagements de peine dont ils ont pu bénéficier (libération conditionnelle et placement à l’extérieur), ainsi que la présence d’effets fixes par prison. Enfin, cette étude remet en doute l’influence de certaines variables (statut matrimonial, niveau scolaire, domicile) et l’efficacité de la semi-liberté comme mesure de prévention de la récidive.


Mike Males, Lizzie Buchen
Beyond Realignment_Counties' Large Disparities in Imprisonment Underlie Ongoing Prison Crisis
Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice CjCJ, March 2013
New prison admissions fell by 34 percent in the fourth quarter of 2012 compared to the third quarter of 2011 (the last quarter before Realignment implementation). The majority of this reduction is due to decreases in admissions for non-violent crimes, including drug offenses and property offenses; the number of new admissions for violent offenses has remained roughly the same throughout Realignment. Consistent with the decline in non-violent imprisonments, females and parole violators showed much larger declines than did males and new admissions.


Margo Schlanger
Plata v. Brown and Realignment: Jails, Prisons, Courts, and Politics
Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Vol. 48, 2013
Informed by court documents,11 state reports and policy papers,12 and interviews,13 I trace the litigation and policy that led to and that have followed the Supreme Court’s ruling affirming the Plata/Coleman population order. The result illustrates the complex interplay of institutional reform litigation and political outcomes and processes.


Sbu Ndebele - South Africa
SA has highest prison population in Africa
Mail&Guardian - Africa's Best Read 11 Feb 2013
South Africa has the highest prison population in Africa, says Correctional Services Minister Sbu Ndebele. We are currently ranked ninth in the world in terms of prison population, with approximately 160.000 inmates, he said in a speech prepared for delivery.


Office fédéral de la statistique |  Suisse
Criminalité et droit pénal février 2013
En 2011, il y avait en Suisse 113 établissements d’exécution des peines et mesures (2010: 114) comptant 6660 places au total. Le jour de référence (le 7 septembre 2011), 6065 places étaient occupées (2010: 6181), ce qui représentait un taux d’occupation de 91%. Sur les 6065 personnes incarcérées, 63% exécutaient une peine, 28% se trouvaient en détention préventive, 6% étaient détenues pour des mesures de contrainte (loi sur les étrangers) et les 3% restants l’étaient pour d’autres raisons. Les personnes incarcérées sont principalement des hommes (95%), de nationalité étrangère (65%), qui purgent une peine privative de liberté. Elles sont âgées de 34 ans en moyenne. La durée de détention moyenne a passé de 103 à 207 jours de 1984 à 2001. Elle est depuis lors retombée à 160 jours. En dépit d’une nette baisse du nombre des incarcérations, la population carcérale présente une remarquable stabilité, se maintenant autour de 3900 personnes, à cause de l’allongement de la durée moyenne des peines.


Bear Witness Project
# Life in the Mass Incarceration Black History Month, February 2013

Bear Witness will be a vehicle for mass participation. Way too many people accept mass incarceration as a collection of policies that combat crime and that are administered in a “color blind” way. Forging a massive movement of determined resistance to this injustice has to include as a key part jolting society awake to the ugly reality of this injustice and moving them to change how they view it. Just like the Freedom Riders and other activists of the 1960’s changed the way people viewed "Jim Crow" segregation in the South.


Commonwealth of Pennsylvania | Department of Corrections
Recidivism Report 2013
The Bureau of Planning, Research and Statistics (PRS) 2013
Approximately 6 in 10 released inmates recidivate (are rearrested or reincarcerated) within three years of release from prison.  Overall recidivism rates have been stable over the last ten years.  Rearrest rates have been slowly increasing over the last ten years.  Reincarceration rates peaked around 2005 and began to decline in the most recent years.  Despite a drop starting in 2005, reincarceration rates were slightly higher in the most recent years than they were in 1990.  Offenders returning to urban areas are more likely to be rearrested, however those returning to rural areas are more likely to be reincarcerated.  Dauphin County reports the highest overall recidivism rates.  Released inmates do not appear to heavily specialize in the same crime type when they reoffend. The most specialized type of recidivist is the property offender. The least specialized type of recidivist is the violent offender.  Released inmates are more likely to be reincarcerated (mostly for technical parole violations) than rearrested during the first 18 months after release from prison, and thereafter are significantly more likely to be rearrested.


The Pew Charitable Trusts
# U.S. Prison Count Continues to Drop. More Than Half of States Cut Imprisonment Rates from 2006 to 2011 March 8, 2013

After nearly four decades of explosive growth, the U.S. prison population declined for two years in a row, according to the Justice Department. Inmate counts fell in about half the states in each year from 2009-10 and 2010-11. Over the past five years, the imprisonment rate fell in 29 states.


Lois M. Davis, Robert Bozick, Jennifer L. Steele, Jessica Saunders, Jeremy N. V. Miles | RAND Corporation
# Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education. A Meta-Analysis of Programs That Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults 2013
Our meta-analytic findings provide further support that receiving correctional education while incarcerated reduces an individual’s risk of recidivating after release from prison. Our findings were stable even when we limited our analyses to those studies with more rigorous research designs. We found a notable effect across all levels of education, from adult basic education and GED programs to postsecondary and vocational education programs. Further, our cost analysis suggests that correctional education programs can be cost-effective.


Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia minorile
# Dati Statistici

Elaborazione su dati del sistema SISM del 28 marzo 2013

La maggior parte dei minori autori di reato è in carico agli USSM nell’ambito di misure all’esterno; la detenzione, infatti, assume per i minorenni carattere di residualità, per lasciare spazio a percorsi e risposte alternativi, sempre a carattere penale. Negli ultimi anni si sta assistendo ad una sempre maggiore applicazione del collocamento in comunità, non solo quale misura cautelare, ma anche nell’ambito di altri provvedimenti giudiziari, per la sua capacità di contemperare le esigenze educative con quelle contenitive di controllo. L’utenza dei Servizi minorili è prevalentemente maschile; le ragazze sono soprattutto di nazionalità straniera e provengono dall’area dell’ex Jugoslavia e dalla Romania. La criminalità minorile è connotata dalla prevalenza dei reati contro il patrimonio e, in particolare, dei reati di furto e rapina. Frequenti sono anche le violazioni delle disposizioni in materia di sostanze stupefacenti, mentre tra i reati contro la persona prevalgono le lesioni personali volontarie.


House of Commons - Justice Committee
Youth Justice. Seventh Report of Session 2012–13
Volume I: Report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence
Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 26 February 2013
Published on 14 March 2013

We strongly welcome the substantial decrease since 2006/07 in the number of young people entering the criminal justice system for the first time, and commend local partnerships for their successful efforts to bring this figure down. Justice agencies play a crucial role in preventing youth crime by diverting young people away from formal criminal justice processes, which, when done well, means they are less likely to go on to serious and prolonged offending. We are particularly encouraged that many youth offending teams and police forces are using a restorative approach to resolving minor offending.


Allen Frances, M.D.
# Prison Or Treatment For the Mentally ill
We should be supporting mental health, not punishing patients. - March 10, 2013
According to the Department of Justice, nearly 1.3 million people with mental illness are incarcerated in state and federal jails and prisons -- compared to only about 70,000 people being served in psychiatric hospitals... "The current psychiatric hospital inpatient population is only 5 percent of what it was at its height. We have about the same number of psychiatric hospital beds now as we did in 1850. Some of this 'deinstitutionalization' comes from the availability of medication and improved outpatient treatment, but most of the change is no more than a switch of institutions from hospital to prison."   BJS 2006

Amanda Pustilnik
# Calling Mental Illness “Myth” Leads to State Coercion - August 13, 2012

State psychiatry is a mouse in the manger of an elephant, a barnacle on a Leviathan. The coercive giant that straddles our country and that feeds its maw with people who have serious mental illnesses is not state psychiatry. It is our vast prison system, which coercively confines hundreds of thousands of nonviolent, severely mentally ill people who have wound up there for want of adequate treatment.... Five times more people with severe mental illnesses are confined in penal institutions than are treated (or confined) in all psychiatric facilities combined in any given year. In a typical year, according to the Department of Justice, over 300,000 people with severe mental illnesses are incarcerated in state and federal jails and prisons. Yet for the same period, only about 40,000–60,000 people with such conditions reside in public psychiatric hospitals. This current total psychiatric hospital population is also only about ten percent of what it was at its height over a half-century ago, in or around 1957.    BJS 2006


Laurent Mucchielli,
# «Un procédé marketing, et pas scientifique»
l'Humanité, le 26 Février 2013
On ne peut pas tracer de courbe de la délinquance de 1950 à nos jours à partir de la statistique de police. D’une part, la population était beaucoup moins nombreuse il y a soixante ans. D’autre part, les actes de délinquance enregistrés reposent sur le Code pénal. Or, le texte a été modifié des centaines de fois depuis 1950...


Laurence Leturmy
# Evolution de la prise en compte de la récidive sur les conditions d’exécution de la peine
Conférence de consensus 14 février 2013

Quinze ans (1998-2013), neuf lois qui marquent singulièrement l’évolution des dispositions relatives à l’exécution des peines applicables aux récidivistes.  Parmi elles, deux, celles du 12 décembre 2005 et du 24 novembre 2009, se distinguent en ce qu’elles visent les condamnés dans une situation de récidive légale avérée. Toutes les autres, 17 juin 1998, 10 août 2007, 25 février 2008, 10 mars 2010, 14 mars 2011, 10 août 2011 et 27 mars 2012 s’intéressent à certains condamnés en raison des risques de récidive que leur dangerosité fait redoute.


Rapport du jury de consensus remis au Premier ministre - Conférence de consensus

# Pour une nouvelle politique publique de prévention de la récidive. Principes d’action et méthodes
Paris, le 20 février 2013
Le premier principe se fonde sur deux recommandations essentielles et qui sont étroitement liées : considérer la prison comme une peine parmi d’autres et instaurer une peine de probation, sans lien ni référence avec l’emprisonnement, dont la finalité réside dans la réinsertion des personnes condamnées et, partant, la protection de la société et des victimes. Pour assurer la lisibilité, cette nouvelle peine fusionne les différentes peines et mesures non privatives de liberté qui existent actuellement. L’abandon des peines automatiques et des peines plancher, la réduction du nombre d’incriminations passibles d’une peine d’emprisonnement, ainsi que la contraventionnalisation de certains délits sont également des recommandations induites par ce principe.


Lila Kazemian
# Que sait-on des facteurs qui préconisent la récidive?
Conférence de consensus sur la prevention de la récidive Paris, le 20 février 2013

Il y a deux catégories générales de facteurs de risque liés au comportement délinquant. Les facteurs dynamiques, qu’Andrews et Bonta (2006) qualifient de « besoins criminogènes », sont malléables et peuvent, en principe, être modifiés (par exemple, les caractéristiques cognitives, les valeurs, les comportements, etc.). À l’inverse, les facteurs statiques ne peuvent pas être modifiés; ils incluent des variables tels que l’âge, les antécédents criminels, et les facteurs de risque durant l’enfance. La méta-analyse de Gendreau, Little et Goggin (1996) suggère qu’il est important de tenir compte de ces deux catégories de facteurs dans l’étude de la récidive. Gendreau et al (1996) rapportent que les deux prédicteurs les plus saillants de la récidive sont les antécédents criminels et les besoins criminogènes. L’influence respective de ces facteurs sera discutée ci-dessous.


Nicole Maestracci | Propos recueillis par Franck Johannès
# Les alternatives à la prison protègent de la récidive
Le Monde 14.02.2013

On sait avec certitude que les peines exécutées en milieu ouvert favorisent moins la récidive que les peines de prison. Et ce, dans tous les cas de figures : on objecte souvent que les détenus qui purgent leur peine à l'extérieur sont précisément ceux qui offrent des gages de réinsertion plus importants et qu'ils ont ainsi moins de risques de récidiver. C'est vrai, et des chercheurs ont essayé de neutraliser ces biais de sélection. Il s'avère que, dans tous les cas, les mesures alternatives protègent mieux de la récidive que la prison. Autre point de consensus, le risque de récidive est 1,6 fois plus grand pour les personnes qui sortent de prison, en fin de peine, sans suivi, plutôt qu'en libération conditionnelle. C'est une donnée indiscutable, dont on n'a pas tiré les conséquences, puisque la libération conditionnelle ne concerne qu'un sortant de prison sur dix.


Sonya Faure
# Récidive : les peines planchers vers la petite porte
Libération 6 février 2013
Entre 2006 et 2010, le taux de récidivistes est passé de 3,9% à 6% pour les crimes, et de 7 à 11,1% pour les délits. Ce qui, à première vue, ne plaide pas pour la loi Sarkozy. Seulement, explique Jean-Paul Jean, ce taux de récidive légale ne veut rien dire. Il «ne traduit pas une augmentation des faits de récidive, mais une augmentation mécanique des cas légaux de récidive, du fait des évolutions des textes et des pratiques des juridictions.» Pour leurs défenseurs, les peines planchers devaient avoir un effet dissuasif. Mais «la stratégie de la dissuasion créée par les peines automatiques ne concerne que les délinquants rationnels, qui calculent le risque de se faire prendre avant d’agir. Cette approche n’a aucun sens pour le toxicomane, la personne ayant un trouble psychiatrique, nombre de délinquants sexuels».


Ministére de la Justice | Odile Timbart
# Les condamnations, Année 2011 Février 2013
604 000 condamnations ont été prononcées en 2011 et inscrites au Casier Judiciaire. o 604 000 condamnations ont été prononcées en 2011 et inscrites au Casier Judiciaire. Les tribunaux correctionnels sont à l’origine de quatre condamnations sur cinq (80,7 %), les tribunaux de police et juridictions de proximité de 6,3 % et les juridictions de mineurs de 8,2 %. Les cours d’appel émargent à 4,4 %.


Département fédéral de justice et police DFJP | Office fédéral de la justice OFJ | Unité Exécution des peines et mesures
# Pratique de l’exécution des peines: Les collaborateurs sous la loupe Informations sur l’exécution des peines et mesures 1/2013


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire | Bureau des études, de la prospective et des méthodes

# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France

Situation au 1er février 2013
Au 1er février 2013, la France comptait 66746 détenus | 11 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 200 % | 25 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 150 et inférieure à 200 % | 59 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 120 et inférieure à 150 % | 36 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité supérieure ou égale à 100 et inférieure à 120 % | 117 établissements ou quartiers ont une densité inférieure à 100 %



# Février 2013 : chiffres clefs de la population carcérale
Lun 25 Fév 2013
Source: - Ministère de la justice - Controleur général des lieux de privation de liberté pour l'année 2012


France | Conférence de consensusPrincipes d’action et méthodes
# Pour une nouvelle politique publique de prévention de la récidive

Rapport du jury de consensus remis au Premier ministre
Paris, le 20 février 2013

La récidive est une réalité complexe qui réunit, tant sur le plan théorique que pratique, certaines des questions les plus significatives du droit pénal, et sans doute aussi les plus irritantes. La récidive est en effet la marque visible des limites du système de justice pénale qui ne peut à lui seul appréhender un problème qui concerne la société toute entière. En un mot, la prévention de la récidive, enjeu humain et social majeur, est à la fois une question de politique pénale et une question de politique sociale.


Pierre V. Tournier
# Prévenir la récidive? Commencer par appliquer les recommandations qui font consensus au sein des États  membres du Conseil de l’Europe sur les mesures et sanctions pénales 6 janvier 2013

Une détention «utile», c’est avant tout une détention dont les conditions vont permettre de respecter, à tout moment, la dignité de la personne détenue, et ce en conformité avec l’article 3 de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme interdisant les traitements inhumains et dégradants. C’est une détention qui est en cohérente avec le sens que lui a assigné le législateur, dans le cadre de l’article 1er de la loi pénitentiaire (24 novembre 2009), reprenant une formulation du Conseil de l’Europe: «Permettre à la personne détenue de mener une vie responsable et prévenir la commission de nouvelles infractions». Comment atteindre un tel objectif de responsabilisation dans des établissements pénitentiaires surpeuplés?


Ministère de la Justice
# Mesurer la récidive. Contribution à la conférence de consensus de prévention de la récidive
Service support et moyens du ministère - Sous-direction de la Statistique et des Études Janvier 2013
Avant de commencer l’analyse du phénomène de la récidive, il faut s’arrêter sur la façon de le définir. Récidive et réitération ont désormais des définitions légales inscrites au code pénal, mais ces définitions donnent une vision étroite, peu cohérente (entre crime et délit) et restrictive d’un phénomène plus large de « retour devant la justice » que l’on peut qualifier de récidive statistique ou plutôt de récidive au sens large...


England and Wales - Ministry of Justice
#  Story of the Prison Population: 1993 – 2012 England and Wales January 2013
Crown copyright - Produced by the Ministry of Justice

Between June 1993 and June 2012 the prison population in England and Wales increased by 41,800 prisoners to over 86,000. Almost all of this increase (98%) took place within two segments of the population - those sentenced to immediate custody* (85% of the increase) and those recalled to prison for breaking the conditions of their release (13% of the increase).


England and Wales - Ministry of Justice
Offender Management Statistics Quarterly Bulletin July to September 2012
Statistics bulletin - 31 January 2013

The prison population at 31 December 2012 was 83,757, a decrease of 2,415 (3 per cent) compared to 31 December 2011 when the total population was 86,172... Within the adult sentenced population, the numbers serving longer  determinate sentences of 4 years or more continued to rise (up 5 per cent  from 23,361 to 24,462), while those serving shorter sentences fell. The number of prisoners serving indeterminate sentences (either a life sentence or an Indeterminate Sentence for Public Protection – an IPP) fell by two per cent to 13,577... The annual total probation caseload (court orders and pre and post release supervision) increased by 39 per cent between 2000 and 2008 to 243,434, before falling slightly to 234,528 in 2011.


England / Wales | Ministry of Justice

Population and Capacity Briefing for Friday 25/01/2013


Ministry of Justice
# Story of the Prison Population: 1993 – 2012. England and Wales January 2013
Between June 1993 and June 2012 the prison population in England and Wales increased by 41,800 prisoners to over 86,000. Almost all of this increase (98%) took place within two segments of the population - those sentenced to immediate custody* (85% of the increase) and those recalled to prison for breaking the conditions of their release (13% of the increase)... • Since 1999, sentenced offenders have been spending longer in prison, which has also contributed to the increase in the prison population. There has been an increase of 1.4 months in the average time served in custody since 1999 for offenders serving determinate sentences. • This reflects longer determinate sentences handed down by the courts, which increased by 2.1 months between 2000 and 2004, and by 2 months between 2007 and 2011...


Prison Service Journal
# Migration, Nationality and Detention
Special Edition - January 2013

Mary Bosworth, Blerina Kellezi, Developing a Measure of the Quality of Life in Detention | Hon Judi Moylan, Desperation, Displacement and Detention: Australia’s Treatment of Asylum Seekers Past
and Present |
Hindpal Singh Bhui, The changing approach to child detention and its implications for immigration detention in the UK | Lea Sitkin, ‘The right to walk the streets’: Looking for illegal migration on the streets and stations of the UK and Germany | Andriani Fili, The maze of immigration detention in Greece: a case study of the Athens airport detention facility | Ana Aliverti, Sentencing in immigration-related cases: the impact of deportability and immigration status | Francesca Cooney, Double Punishment: The treatment of foreign national prisoners | Femke Hofstee-van der Meulen, Assisting Dutch Nationals Imprisoned Abroad | Ray Taylor, Book Review, Foreign national prisoners: law and practice | Jamie Bennett, Book Review, Racial criminalisation of migrants in the 21st century


Francesco Cascini
Analisi della popolazione detenuta e proposte di intervento
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 1, 2013
Prima dell’indulto i detenuti presenti in carcere erano 61.400, numero, in modo unanime, ritenuto assolutamente incompatibile con i criteri minimi di umanità della pena e rispetto della dignità della persona. Con il provvedimento di clemenza, a partire dal luglio 2006, sono usciti dal carcere 26.000 detenuti definitivi con una pena residua di tre anni. Da allora, e per i primi tre anni circa, il ritmo di crescita delle presenze è stato costante e si è assestato intorno ad una media di mille unità al mese...



Statistics General Directorate of Prisons and Detention Houses 28.02.2013

Total 126.393 || Official capacity of prison system 142,906 (28.1.2013).

Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population) 167, based on an estimated national population of 75.89 million at end of February 2013.


# ICPS Turkish prison


Portugal - Direcção-Geral dos Serviços Prisionais

# População Prisional, por tipo de estabelecimento, segundo a situação penal em 15 de fevereiro e 1 de março de 2013


Direção-Geral dos Serviços Prisionais
# Estatisticas Prisionais 2º Trimestre de 2012


Prison Statistics Portugal - 2011


ICPS - 2010


Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP

# Presenze - Ingressi - Eventi critici - Bilancio

Dati del 18 marzo 2013


#  Presenze - Capienza regolamentare - Pena residua - Tipologia reato - Classi d'età - Misure alternative - Misure di sicurezza

31 dicembre 2012


Mexico - Órgano Administrativo Desconcentrado Prevencion y Readaptacion Social
Estadisticas del Sistema Penitenciartio Nacional - Enero 2013


Thomas H. Cohen
# Pretrial Detention and Misconduct in Federal District Courts, 1995-2010
U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs - Bureau of Justice Statistics
February 2013

From 1995 to 2010, the percentage of federal defendants who were detained pretrial increased from 59% to 76%... Federal defendants detained for the duration of a case increased from 42% in 1995 to 64% in 2010.

Between 1995 and 2010, the number of defendants detained pretrial increased by 184% Growth in the number of pretrial detentions were driven by immigration caseloads, which increased by 664% between 1995 and 2010.


Russian Legal Information Agency RAPSI
# From Russian Prisons
28 february 2013 -
As of February 1, 2013, there are 697,500 prisoners in Russia... Over 4,000 prison inmates died in Russia last year...


Japan’s prisons

#  Eastern porridge.Even Japanese criminals are orderly and well-behaved
The Economist - Feb 23rd 2013 | TOKYO

Japan incarcerates its citizens at a far lower rate than most developed countries: 55 per 100,000 people compared with 149 in Britain and 716 in America. The country’s justice ministry can also point to low rates of recidivism. Yet increasingly the nation’s 188 prisons and detention centres come in for harsh criticism, particularly over their obsession with draconian rules and secrecy (on February 21st the government unexpectedly announced it had hanged three men for murder), and their widespread use of solitary confinement.


M. Dominique Raimbourg, M. Sébastien Huyghe
Mission d’information sur les moyens de lutte contre la surpopulation carcérale 23 janvier 2013
Les thèmes de l’inflation carcérale et de la surpopulation des établissements pénitentiaires font, depuis de nombreuses années, partie intégrante des débats sur la prison... la surpopulation des établissements pénitentiaires est le produit, à un instant donné, du déséquilibre entre le nombre de personnes  détenues et le nombre de places opérationnelles du parc carcéral. De manière concrète, elle se traduit par un taux moyen d’occupation des établissements pénitentiaires supérieur à 100 %... La surpopulation carcérale n’est ni une situation nouvelle, ni un phénomène exclusivement français. À l’occasion de son audition par la mission, M. Lorenzo Salazar, président du Comité européen pour les problèmes criminels du Conseil de l’Europe, a par exemple rappelé que le taux d’occupation moyen des établissements pénitentiaires italiens s’élevait, en octobre 2012, à 145 %. Au 1er septembre 2010, celui de la Belgique atteignait 125 %. Plus généralement, le  phénomène concerne, à un degré certes variable, de nombreux pays européens.


Christine Lazerges – Commission nationale consultative des droits de l'Homme
Audition de Christine Lazerges par la Conférence de consensus sur la prévention de la récidive Janvier 2013

Depuis 2005, les lois sur la prévention et la répression de la récidive se sont succédé à un rythme infernal. Ces lois ont constitué une fuite en avant, au nom de la dangerosité. Elles n’ont pu influer de manière décisive sur la récidive. L’une des raisons centrales de cet échec est l’insuffisante connaissance des causes de la récidive. Les données existantes sont par ailleurs très peu et très mal diffusées, et les personnes qui ont directement pour rôle de prévenir la récidive n’en disposent que rarement. L’initiative de la conférence de consensus est un effort de mise en commun des connaissances qu’il convient de saluer. Il conviendrait de soutenir la recherche scientifique sur le sujet, et de permettre une meilleure diffusion des savoirs. Cependant, il est nécessaire de garder à l’esprit que la prédiction d’un comportement futur est impossible, et que la suppression complète de toute forme de récidive est illusoire...


Statistisches Bundesamt - Rechtspflege
Bestand der Gefangenen und Verwahrten in den deutschen Justizvollzugsanstalten nach ihrer Unterbringung auf Haftplätzen des geschlossenen und offenen Vollzugs jeweils zu den Stichtagen 31. März, 31. August und 30. November eines Jahres
Stichtag 30. November 2012 | Statistisches Bundesamt, Wiesbaden 2013


Amnesty International
Iraq: A decade of abuses
Amnesty International London 2013

Prison Statistics Iraq ICPS


James Austin, Eric Cadora, Todd R. Clear, Kara Dansky, Judith Greene, Vanita Gupta, Marc Mauer, Nicole Porter, Susan Tucker, Malcolm C. Young
Ending Mass Incarceration. Charting a New Justice Reinvestment 04-2013


Human Rights in Ukraine - Information website of the Kharkiv Human Rights Protection Group
Ukraine’s Prisoners in Figures
24.01.13 |
As of 1 January 2013 there were 147, 112 prisoners in 182 places of confinement within the State Penitentiary Service (as against 154, 029 exactly one year earlier). There were thus 6, 917 prisoners less, a reduction of 4.49%.


Ukraine ICPS


Thailand | Thai Prison Statistics

# Latest statistics about prisons in Thailand: Prison Population 2012- feb.2013 - ICPS

Prison population 1 Feb 2013: 219,466 men & 37,857 women = 257,323 . The 144 prisons in Thailand only have a capacity for 105,748 prisoners based on regulations that each inmate has 2.25 square metres of space in a cell.


Luiz G.A. Alves, Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Renio S. Mendes
Scaling laws in the dynamics of crime growth rate
Physica A 392 (2013) 2672–2679
The increasing number of crimes in areas with large concentrations of people have made cities one of the main sources of violence. Understanding characteristics of how crime rate expands and its relations with the cities size goes beyond an academic question, being a central issue for contemporary society. Here, we characterize and analyze quantitative aspects of murders in the period from 1980 to 2009 in Brazilian cities. We find that the distribution of the annual, biannual and triannual logarithmic homicide growth rates exhibit the same functional form for distinct scales, that is, a scale invariant behavior. We also identify asymptotic power-law decay relations between the standard deviations of these three growth rates and the initial size. Further, we discuss similarities with complex organizations.


Luiz G. A. Alves, Haroldo V. Ribeiro, Ervin K. Lenzi, Renio S. Mendes
Distance to the Scaling Law: A Useful Approach for Unveiling Relationships between Crime and Urban Metrics August 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 8
We report on a quantitative analysis of relationships between the number of homicides, population size and ten other urban metrics. By using data from Brazilian cities, we show that well-defined average scaling laws with the population size emerge when investigating the relations between population and number of homicides as well as population and urban metrics. We also show that the fluctuations around the scaling laws are log- normally distributed, which enabled us to model these scaling laws by a stochastic-like equation driven by a multiplicative and log-normally distributed noise...


Associazione Antigone

Osservatorio europeo sulle condizioni di detenzione

Febbraio 2013


Bianconi Giovanni
# I 699 al 41 bis sono più camorristi che mafiosi
Corriere della Sera | 13 gennaio 2013 | Pagina 22

Dal 2007 c'è stata una costante crescita, da 526 ai 680 detenuti del 2010. Nel 2011 s'è registrato un fisiologico calo di 7 unità e nel 2012 s'è raggiunta la cifra record di 699 detenuti: quattro le donne


Nathan James - Congressional Research Service
The Federal Prison Population Buildup: Overview, Policy Changes, Issues, and Options
CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress -
January 22, 2013

Congress could consider whether there are alternative ways to properly manage offenders convicted of committing relatively minor crimes without sending them to prison. Data from BJS show that in FY2010 over half of inmates entering federal prison were sentenced to three years or less. Given the relatively short sentences these inmates received, it is likely that they were sentenced for relatively minor offenses. One policy option Congress could consider is amending penalties for some offenses to allow more defendants to be placed on probation rather than being sentenced to a period of incarceration.


Annie Kensey
# Les « taux de récidive » : principaux enseignements 2013
L’âge au moment de la libération est une variable évaluée comme très corrélée à la récidive. Dans toutes les études, le taux de récidive varie en raison inverse de l’âge : plus l’âge augmente, plus la récidive diminue. Dans la dernière étude, les mineurs présentent un taux de recondamnation supérieur de 17 points à celui des majeurs (75% contre 58%) et un taux de prison ferme supérieur de 21 points (66% pour les mineurs contre 45% pour les majeurs). Pour les libérés de 50 ans et plus, le taux de recondamnation était de 29%. 


France - Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
# Statistique mensuelle de la population écrouée et détenue en France
Ministère de la Justice et des Libertés 1er janvier 2013


Direction de l’Administration Pénitentiaire - Ministere de la Justice et des Libertés
Chiffre clés de l’administration pénitentiaire -- 1er janvier 2012


UNODC Office des Nations Unies contre la Drogue et le Crime |  Vivienne Chin, Yvon Dandurand
# Manuel d’introduction pour la Prévention de la Récidive et la Réinsertion Sociale des Délinquants
Nations Unies, New York 2013
La prévention de la récidive demande des interventions efficaces basées sur la connaissance des facteurs qui présentent des risques pour les délinquants et rendent difficile la réussite de leur réinsertion dans la société (par exemple, la victimisation dès le plus jeune âge, les difficultés d’apprentissage, la toxicomanie, les familles qui n’offrent aucun soutien, les maladies mentales et physiques etc.). Certains facteurs de risque sont dynamiques — c’est-à dire qu’ils sont susceptibles de changer — alors que d’autres facteurs de risques ne le sont pas16. Les facteurs de risques dynamiques peuvent être abordés par des programmes au sein du système de justice pénale ou en dehors.


James Austin, Michael P. Jacobson, Inimai Chettiar | VERA Institute of Justice
How New York City Reduced Mass Incarceration: A Model for Change? Brennan Center for Justice January 2013
The declines in New York State’s prison population as well as the New York City jail population are due largely to a reduction in the number of people being arrested for felony level crimes. Greater use of non-prison sanctions by New York City courts also contributed to the decline. The New York City and overall New York prison population decline would have occurred much  sooner had the state legislature not been incentivized by the federal government to adopt “truth-in-sentencing” laws that increased the length of imprisonment. These results show that policy changes at the local level can have a dramatic and lasting impact on state prison as well as jail, probation, and parole populations.


Giovanni Cellini
Controllo Sociale, Servizio Sociale e Professioni di Aiuto. Una Ricerca nel Sistema Penitenziario
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca | Dipartimento di Sociologia | Dottorato in Sociologia Applicata e Metodologia della Ricerca Sociale - 2013
In Italia il sistema penitenziario è basato su un modello riabilitativo, teso al reinserimento sociale degli autori di reato, che affida compiti rilevanti alle professioni di aiuto. Tra queste, il servizio sociale è chiamato oggi a confrontarsi con un nuovo ordine sociale, segnato dall’influenza del pensiero neoliberista. In questo scenario i mutamenti delle politiche sociali, intervenuti con la crisi del welfare state, sono intrecciati con quelli delle politiche penali. Nella letteratura sociologica contemporanea ci si interroga sulla graduale transizione da un modello di welfare basato principalmente sulla garanzia del benessere sociale ad un modello in cui l’interesse dominante è, fondamentalmente, quello di garantire un controllo sociale efficace. In questo “nuovo welfare” si registra un impoverimento della protezione sociale e delle risorse da destinare ai segmenti di popolazione più vulnerabili; tale processo ha portato, in alcuni casi, a pratiche di policy discriminatorie, finalizzate all’incarcerazione delle persone più svantaggiate. Queste tematiche sono al centro della ricerca qualitativa presentata nel volume, realizzata in Lombardia, Piemonte e Liguria, mediante interviste semi-strutturate a professionisti operanti nel settore penitenziario: assistenti sociali – in prevalenza nel campione –,  educatori e psicologi.





Dap Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria

Risorse umane e finanziarie, popolazione detenuta, corsi e lavoro in carcere
Situazione al 31 dicembre 2012


Gobierno de El Salvador | Ministerio de Justicia y Securidad Publica, Direccion General de Centros Penales
# Estadística Penitenciaria al 31/Diciembre/2012


Gobierno de España | Ministerio del Interior
# Anuario Estadistico del Ministerio del Interior 2012 - Instituciones Penitenciarias


Washington Department of Corrections
# 2012 Report on Community Corrections Practices to the Legislature
December 1, 2012


Israel Prison Service

# A Map of the Prisons - Types of Violations

Ministry of Public Security 2012

Security Prisoners - There are some 4,500 security prisoners and detainees incarcerated in the Israel Prison Service, about 50% of whom are considered prisoners “with blood on their hands.” These prisoners include men, women and minors...


# ICPS Israel Prison Population Trend 1992-2010


Margaret E. Noonan
Mortality in Local Jails and State Prisons, 2000-2010 - Statistical Tables
U.S. Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs - Bureau of Justice Statistics
December 2012

During 2010, 4,150 inmates died while in the custody of local jails and state prisons—a 5% decline from 2009. Local jails accounted for about a quarter of all inmate deaths, with 918 inmates who died in custody in 2010. The number of jail inmate deaths declined from 2009 to 2010 (down 3%), while the mortality rate remained relatively stable, from 128 deaths per 100,000 jail inmates in 2009 to 125 per 100,000 in 2010. The five leading causes of jail inmate deaths were suicide, heart disease, drug or alcohol intoxication, cancer, and liver disease. Most inmates who died in custody were serving time in state prisons (78%). In 2010, 3,232 state prison  inmates died in custody—a 5% decline from 2009. The mortality rate in state prisons declined slightly, from 257 deaths per 100,000 prison inmates in 2009 to 245  per 100,000 in 2010. In 2010, the five leading causes of state prison inmate deaths were cancer, heart disease, liver disease, respiratory disease, and suicide.


Statistics Belgium

# Population détenue 2005 -2012


Le Soir -- Belgique
# 11.855 personnes sont en prison pour 9.600 places
Jeudi 27 Décembre 2012,

Ce nombre de personnes emprisonnées est un record absolu. En théorie, seules 9.600 places sont cependant disponibles.

[La Belgique compte 32 prisons : 16 en Flandre, 14 en Wallonie et 2 à Bruxelles. A Paifve, des internés séjournent dans un établissement de défense sociale. Les internés sont des personnes qui ont commis un délit et que le juge a déclaré irresponsables de leurs actes].


Canada Public Safety

Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview 2012

Public Works and Government Services Canada December 2012

The overall crime rate has decreased 25.9% since 1998, from 8,915 per 100,000 to 6,604 in 2011. Over the same period, there was a 38.2% decrease in the property crime rate, from a rate of 5,696 per 100,000 to 3,520 in 2011. In contrast, the crime rate for drug offences has increased 39.5% since 1998, from 235 per 100,000 population to 328... Canada’s incarceration rate is higher than the rates in most Western European countries but much lower than the United States, where the most recent incarceration rate was 730 per 100,000 general population. Based on the most up to date information available from the International Centre for Prison Studies, Canada’s incarceration rate was 117 per 100,000, calculated based on the 2008 population...


The European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice
# Evaluation of European Judicial Systems 2012 edition

Between 2008 and 2010, the European trend is still increasing budgets for justice in general and the judicial system in particular (+6.8%). The development of the judicial system remains a priority for governments in Europe... Different political choices - or structural ways for building justice organisation – can be highlighted in Europe: more than half the member states spend more resources to other areas of justice than the judicial system (prison system, etc.), while others direct public budgetary efforts mainly to court operation.


Istat | Ministero della Giustizia - DAP

# I detenuti nelle carceri italiane

18 dicembre 2012

Per quanto riguarda le misure alternative alla detenzione va segnalato un aumento rispetto agli anni immediatamente precedenti: sono infatti 22.423 i soggetti in esecuzione penale esterna al 31 dicembre 20114 (erano 5.933 nel 2006 e 10.220 nel 2008), un numero di non molto superiore della metà dei condannati reclusi (38.023 al 31 dicembre 2011). Negli altri paesi europei, invece, il numero di beneficiari di misure alternative è doppio rispetto ai condannati presenti negli Istituti Penitenziari. L’Italia, quindi, pur avendo un tasso di detenzione più basso di altri paesi europei, ricorre meno alle misure alternative al carcere: nel 2010 in Italia vi erano 30,5 soggetti in misura alternativa per 100.000 abitanti contro i 199,2 (per 100.000 abitanti) della media europea. A titolo di esempio si consideri che, in Francia nel 2010, a fronte di 59.856 detenuti in carcere, i soggetti in esecuzione penale esterna erano 173.022 e che nel Regno Unito, a fronte di 81.627 detenuti, i soggetti in misura alternativa sono 237.507. In Italia tali valori nel 2010 erano, rispettivamente, 67.961 e 18.435. Nel 2011 i valori sono 66.897 e 22.423 con un tasso pari al 37,5 per 100.000 abitanti.


Human Rights Watch
# The Answer is No. Too Little Compassionate Release in US Federal Prisons November 30, 2012
In 1984 Congress authorized what is commonly called “compassionate release” because it recognized the importance of ensuring that justice could be tempered by mercy. A prison sentence that was just when imposed could—because of changed circumstances—become cruel as well as senseless if not altered. The US criminal justice system, even though it prizes the consistency and finality of sentences, makes room for judges to take a second look to assess the ongoing justice of a sentence. Prisoners cannot seek a sentence reduction for extraordinary and compelling circumstances directly from the courts. By law, only the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP, the Bureau) has the authority to file a motion with a court that requests judicial consideration of early release. Although we do not know how many prisoners have asked the BOP to make motions on their behalf—because the BOP does not keep such records—we do know the BOP rarely does so. The federal prison system houses over 218,000 prisoners, yet in 2011, the BOP filed only 30 motions for early release, and between January 1 and November 15, 2012, it filed 37. Since 1992, the annual average number of prisoners who received compassionate release has been less than two dozen. Compassionate release is conspicuous for its absence.


The New York Times - EDITORIAL
# What Compassionate Release?
Published: December 8, 2012


Gabrielle Garton Grimwood, Gavin Berman
# Reducing Reoffending: the "What Works" Debate
House of Commons Library, Research Paper 12/71, 22 November 2012


Human Rights Watch
# “Prison Is Not For Me”. Arbitrary Detention in South Sudan 2012
While ensuring accountability for crimes is a critical aspect of establishing the rule of law, arbitrary detention is rife in South Sudan,with individuals who should not have been detained at all spending months or even years in one of the country’s approximately 79 prisons. There are people in prison detained simply to compel the appearance of a relative or friend; because they were said to show evidence of mental disability; or because they are unable to pay a debt, court fine, or compensation award. Many are serving prison terms for adultery or for customary law crimes such as “elopement” or “pregnancy,”which place undue restrictions on the rights to privacy and to marry a spouse of one’s choice. Legal aid is almost totally absent, leaving individuals charged with crimes—the vast majority of whom are illiterate—unable to follow the status of their case or to call and prepare witnesses in their defense.


France - Ministère de la Justice
# Les chiffres-clés de la Justice
Ministère de la Justice 2012


Secrétariat Général - Service support et moyens du ministère - Sous-Direction de la Statistique et des Etudes

Annuaire statistique de la Justice. Édition 2011-2012

La Documentation française - Direction de l’information légale et administrative. Paris 2012


Franck Johannès
# La révolution Taubira contre la récidive

LE MONDE | 20.08.2012

La principale étude française (des démographes Annie Kensey et Abdelmalik Benaouda, du bureau des études et de la prospective de l'administration pénitentiaire) a prouvé que 63 % des sortants de prison sans aménagement de peine étaient à nouveau condamnés dans les cinq ans, contre 39 % pour les sortants en libération conditionnelle. Les différentes études internationales confirment ces résultats, une étude canadienne de référence (Smith, Goggin et Gendreau en 2002), conclut franchement à "l'inefficacité des stratégies punitives pour réduire la récidive"... Six fois moins de conseillers d'insertion que de surveillants.


Tapio Lappi-Seppälä
# Imprisonment and Penal Policy in Finland
Scandinavian Studies In Law, 2012
During the 1990s foreign population living in Finland increased by some 250 %. This was reflected also in the prisoner rates. The number of foreign prisoners increased from a near zero to a figure that corresponds to about 9 % of the Finnish prisoner rates. During the 1990s foreign population living in Finland increased by some 250 %. This was reflected also in the prisoner rates. The number of foreign prisoners increased from a near zero to a figure that corresponds to about 9 % of the Finnish prisoner rates. 


Daria Perrone
# Il costo del carcere
Rivista dell'Associazione Italiana dei Costituzionalisti, 31 luglio 2012



# Le manifeste «pour une justice pénale efficace»
12 juin 2012

L'ensemble des recherches internationales menées depuis plus de vingt ans converge vers les mèmes conclusions: le recours systématique à l'emprisonnement aggrave les risques de récidive.


Jean-Claude Bouvier, Valérie Sagant, Pascale Bruston, Charlotte Cloarec, Marie Cretenot, Lara Danguy des Deserts, Sarah Dindo, Ludovic Fossey, Benoist Hurel, Sarah Silva-Descas

# Prévention de la récidive: sortir de l'impasse. Pour une politique pénale efficace, innovante et respectueuse des droits
11 juin 2012


Sonya Faure

Récidive : pour une autre prévention
Dans un texte publié par «Libération», sociologues, magistrats et conseillers d’insertion prônent de nouvelles pistes après dix ans de politique sécuritaire.
Libération | 12 juin 2012

Depuis janvier, des sociologues, des statisticiens, des magistrats, des conseillers d’insertion de la pénitentiaire ... présentent aujourd’hui dans Libération un manifeste, fruit de leur réflexion. «Depuis dix ans, le système pénal français est engagé dans une course à l’abîme. Une véritable frénésie législative - 29 lois pénales votées en dix ans - a conduit à la multiplication des incriminations et des occasions de recours à l’emprisonnement. Les résultats de cette politique doivent être pris pour ce qu’ils sont : le témoignage d’un échec et la promesse d’une faillite.».


M. Jean-René Lecerf et Mme Nicole Borvo Cohen-Seat (Sénateurs)
# Rapport d'information fait au nom de la commission des lois constitutionnelles, de législation, du suffrage universel, du Règlement et d’administration générale (1) et de la commission sénatoriale pour le contrôle de l’application des lois (2) sur l’application de la loi pénitentiaire n° 2009-1436 du 24 novembre 2009 Enregistré à la Présidence du Sénat le 4 juillet 2012


Scott Wm. Bowman, Raphael Travis Jr.
# Prisoner Reentry and Recidivism According to the Formerly Incarcerated and Reentry Service Providers: A Verbal Behavior Approach
The Behavior Analyst Today, vol. 13, n. 3-4, 2012
However, theory-based, non-traditional examinations of prisoner reentry are needed to better understand potential ingredients for reentry success. With a general behavior analysis approach and a the specific application of B.F. Skinner’s Theory of Verbal Behavior (1957) as a theoretical foundation, focus groups were conducted with both formerly incarcerated persons and reentry service providers to examine the factors that influence significant recidivism rates.


Susan M. Campers
# A Failing Correctional System: State Prison Overcrowding in the United States
Pell Scholars and Senior Theses. Paper 79. 2012
For offenders who must be more closely monitored, probation, parole, and home confinement allow for special attention without incarceration. Electronic monitoring has increased the effectiveness of these programs by constantly tracking offenders by ankle bracelet or other electronic device. Although these programs will require some cost to taxpayers, they have the advantage of costing less than housing a prisoner while still reducing the overcrowding problem. Utilizing the many sentencing alternatives that are available would mean lower rates of overcrowding, heightened opportunity for reintegration into lawful society for those not incarcerated and the chance for violent offenders who are incarcerated to receive the attention and programs necessary for rehabilitation...


Rob Allen
# Reducing the use of imprisonment. What can we learn from Europe?
Criminal Justice Alliance - May 2012

The recent study by the National Audit Office found no correlations, noting “the lack of evidence for a clear relationship between the use of prison and changes in crime levels”.15 The countries in their study included some where crime had gone down, as the prison population had increased (including all three UK jurisdictions); countries where crime had increased, as the prison population increased (including the Republic of Ireland); one country where crime was up but the prison population down (Finland) and another where crime had gone down and so had the prison population the


The Sentencing Project
# Trends in U.S. Corrections May 18, 2012


Barbara Owen, Alan Mobley
# Realignment in California: Policy and Research Implications
Western Criminology Review 13(2):46-52 2012
Many important questions surround the policy change. What does realignment say about our contemporary approach to crime and punishment? Will California continue to invest in a punitive criminal justice system, albeit at the local level, at the expense of needed social services? Will this touted reform change how offenders are treated and create rehabilitative and reentry services that do, in fact, reduce recidivism? Or, as many advocates fear, will this new system of punishment repeat the mistakes of the state prison system and continue the practice of “mass incarceration” that has affected mostly poor and minority communities? California, through its 58 local counties, has an opportunity to do something different: to examine the purposes and rationale for punishment and address criminal offending in alternative ways, breaking the dependence on incarceration. We await answers to these questions-- and many others—as Realignment and its consequences play out in the communities and people of California.


Elías Carranza

# Situación penitenciaria en América Latina y el Caribe ¿Qué hacer?

Anuario de Derechos Humanos 2012 - No. 8 (2012) pág. 31 - 66

Argentina Bolivia - Brasil - Colombia - Costa Rica - Chile - Ecuador - El Salvador - Guatemala - Honduras - México - Nicaragua - Panamá - Paraguay - Perú - R. Dominicana - Uruguay - Venezuela. La situación penitenciaria en los países de América Latina y el Caribe es muy grave. Hay alta violencia, numerosas muertes y delitos que ocurren al interior de los presidios, muchos de ellos cometracialen su interior pero con efectos fuera de ellos, y gravísimas violaciones a derechos humanos tanto de las personas privadas de libertad como de las personas funcionarias. La situación ha venido deteriorándose durante las tres últimas décadas (1980-2010), y ha escapado del control de los países a partir de la década de los noventa en la mayoría de los casos.


Infojus - Sistema Argentino Informacion Juridica
# Una gestión penitenciaria integral. El aporte del Sistema Nacional de Estadísticas sobre la Ejecución de la Pena (SNEEP) 01.08.2012
De acuerdo al último censo penitenciario realizado al 31 de diciembre de 2010, exisơ an en la Argentina 59.227 personas privadas de libertad en establecimientos de ejecución penal, lo que equivale a una tasa de encarcelamiento de 146 cada 100.000 habitantes. Este dato merece una aclaración y es que solo incluye la población privada de libertad que se encuentra en una unidad penitenciaria (o sistema análogo), es decir no incluye a los detenidos en comisarías y destacamentos de fuerzas de seguridad. En ese sentido, de acuerdo al relevamiento efectuado por el mismo organismo sobre personas privadas de libertad que se encontraban en comisarías u otras dependencias de fuerzas de seguridad al 30 de junio de 2010, de acuerdo a las instituciones que informaron, había 5.868 personas en dicha situación. Por tal motivo, el total estimado (las fechas de corte son distintas) de personas mayores de edad privadas de libertad por confl icto con la ley penal es de 65.095, lo que equivale a una tasa de 161 cada 100.000 habitantes.


Andrew Coyle

# Prisiones y prisioneros: una revisión desde los estándares internacionales de derechos humanos. An overview of prisons, prisoners and international human rights standards
Anuario de Derechos Humanos 2012, No. 8 (2012) p. 17 - 29
Las tasas de encarcelamiento habitualmente se estiman sobre la base de cada 100.000 habitantes sobre el total de la población. Sobre esta base, la tasa promedio de privación de libertad en el mundo es aproximadamente de 145 personas. Esta tasa varía considerablemente entre regiones  e incluso entre países. Estados Unidos tiene la mayor tasa de encarcelamiento del mundo con una amplia ventaja, con 730 de cada 100.000 habitantes en prisión. En algunos estados, como Texas y Luisiana, una de cada cien personas está en la cárcel. Sin embargo, justo al otro lado de la frontera norte de Estados Unidos, la tasa de encarcelamiento en Canadá es sumamente baja: 117. Podemos encontrar contrastes similares en otras partes del mundo.


Justice Center - The Council of State Governments (CSG)
States Report Reductions in Recidivism
September 2012

Many states are now presenting data that indicate declines in statewide recidivism rates for adults released from prison... This brief highlights significant statewide recidivism reductions achieved in Kansas, Michigan, Mississippi, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, and Vermont. For each state, this brief compares three-year post-release recidivism rates for two cohorts: people exiting prison in 2005 and those  released in 2007. This data is among the most current available for statewide three-year recidivism rates. Some states saw particularly sharp reductions during this period, such as Kansas, which achieved a 15-percent decline, and Michigan, which saw an 18-percent drop. When measuring recidivism changes over a longer period of time, the reductions for some states are even more dramatic: Ohio’s recidivism rate declined by 21 percent between 2003 and 2008, while Texas saw a drop of 22 percent between 2000 and 2007.


Giovanni Tamburino
# Resoconto aggiornato dello stato del sistema penitenziario
DAP - Ufficio del Capo Dipartimento, Roma 19 settembre 2012


Donatella Stasio
# Meno recidiva, più crescita
Il Sole 24ore 27 settembre 2012
La recidiva ha un costo sociale ed economico: riduce il livello di sicurezza collettiva, scoraggia gli investimenti, pesa sul bilancio dello Stato. Abbattere la recidiva significa quindi contribuire alla crescita di un Paese in termini di legalità, risparmio e competitività.

Roberto Nicastro
# L’Istituto Einaudi ha avviato una ricerca sulla relazione tra misure alternative e recidiva
Le due città, settembre 2012

... Ricerca che il Ministero della Giustizia e il Dipartimento dell’Amministrazione Penitenziaria hanno affidato all’Einaudi Institute for Economics Finance (Eief), al Crime Research Economic Group (Creg) e al Sole 24 Ore. Sarà proprio il Dap a consentire agli studiosi l’accesso alle informazioni necessarie alla ricerca, aprendo – con un’operazione trasparenza – i suoi archivi all’esterno, al fine di valutare l’incidenza sulla recidiva delle misure alternative e del lavoro in carcere.


J. Grinage
# Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness

Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Criminology Review
July, 2012, Vol. 4(2):127-132
The permanence of racism in the United States has not remained in the same form over centuries of its existence. Instead, racism shifts, changes, and molds into often unrecognizable ways that fit seamlessly into the fabric of the American consciousness to render it utterly invisible to the majority of white Americans. In the current era of political thinking, colorblindness, or society’s unwillingness to discuss or even recognize race in any way, seems to be the dominant perspective. Michelle Alexander, in her book, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness shatters this dominantly held ideology.


National Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Committee nidac | Australian National Council on Drugs ANCD
# An economic analysis for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offenders : prison vs residential treatment
Australian National Council on Drugs 2013 August 2012

Indigenous Australians are over-represented in Australian prisons. At 30 June 2011, there were 29 106 prisoners in Australian prisons, of which 7656 (26%) were Indigenous (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011a). By comparison, 2.5 per cent of the total population was Indigenous in 2011 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011b). In 2010–11, the imprisonment rate for Indigenous adults (aged 18 years or over) was 1746.51 per 100 000 compared with a corresponding rate of 125.4 for non-Indigenous people — a ratio of Indigenous to non-Indigenous imprisonment rates of 13.9


Jacob & Valeria Langeloth Foundation | John Jay College | Policy Research Associates
# Responding to the needs of an aging prison population August 2012
The percentage of prisoners age 65 and older has grown by 67 percent in the past four years – even though the total state/Federal prison population stayed flat. In the past decade, between 2000 and 2009, the number of sentenced prisoners under state and Federal jurisdiction increased 17 percent, while the number of older prisoners (prisoners aged 55 or older) increased 79 percent...


Lynn Langton, Marcus Berzofsky, Christopher Krebs, Hope Smiley-McDonald
# Victimizations Not Reported to the Police, 2006-2010 August 2012
During the period from 2006 to 2010, 52% of all violent victimizations, or an annual average of 3,382,200 violent victimizations, were not reported to the police. Of these, over a third (34%) went unreported because the victim dealt with the crime in another way, such as reporting it to another official, like a guard, manager, or school official. Almost 1 in 5 unreported violent victimizations were not reported because the victim believed the crime was not important enough.


Maribel Lozano Cortés

# Estudio comparativo de la cárcel en España y México en la actualidad
Julio-Diciembre 2012
El riesgo, la amenaza y la incertidumbre forman parte del mundo global. Las personas tienen miedo, particularmente, las que viven más acomodadas. Existe una obsesión por la seguridad que sobrepasa todo principio ético y humanitario. Las cárceles de todo el mundo, sobre todo las de los países desarrollados, como es el caso de España, han incrementado su población. Ahí están los inmigrantes y/o desempleados, los “excedentes”, como los llama Bauman; aquellos los marginados del “progreso económico”. Ellos son las consecuencias de la modernidad, la desigualdad social, el individualismo y el incremento de riesgos lo que ha conducido a la creación de Estados punitivos, para los cuales es más importante la seguridad que la libertad. Las medidas alternativas a la prisión, el discurso de readaptación o reinserción social de los Estados de bienestar social han sido relegadas con el ejercicio del control punitivo.


Cindy Chang The Times-Picayune
Louisiana is the world's prison capital
The Times-Picayune on May 13, 2012

Louisiana imprisons more people than any nation in the world: Louisiana 1,619 people per 100,000 residents | United State 730 | Russia 525 | Rwanda 450 | Iran 333 | China 122 | Afghanistan 62


Department of Justice (G. J. Mazza ed.)
Report on Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails. Review Panel on Prison Rape
U.S. Department of Justice, April 2012
This Report presents the findings of the Review Panel on Prison Rape (Panel), resulting from the hearings it held in Washington, DC, in the spring and fall of 2011, based on the national survey that the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) published in August 2010, Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails, Reported by Inmates, 2008-09. Under the Prison Rape Elimination Act of 2003, the Panel is responsible for holding public hearings to which it invites, relying on data from the BJS, two correctional institutions with a low prevalence of sexual victimization and three institutions with a high prevalence of sexual victimization. The purpose of the hearings is to identify the common characteristics of (1) sexual predators and victims, (2) correctional institutions with a low prevalence of sexual victimization, and (3) correctional institutions with a high prevalence of sexual victimization.


Paula Smith and Myrinda Schweitzer
The Therapeutic Prison
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 2012 28: 7

Historically, one of main purposes of the American correctional system has been to rehabilitate offenders . At the present time, there is now a well-developed literature on “what works” in reducing offender recidivism that
should be used to inform the design and implementation of offender assessment and treatment services in prison. In fact, meta-analyses have reported a 28% reduction in recidivism when programs adhere to the principles of effective intervention (see Andrews & Bonta, 2010). If none of the principles are followed, slight  increases in recidivism have often been recorded. Moreover, corrections professionals should focus on factors beyond the content of assessment and treatment programs to include consideration of the organizational context of the prison. Using the items contained in the CPAI as a blueprint, institutions can develop treatments that will produce optimal results in terms of rehabilitating offenders.


Kofi Poku Quan-Baffour, Britta E. Zawada
Education Programmes for Prison Inmates: Reward for Offences or Hope for a Better Life?
J Sociology Soc Anth, 3(2): 73-81 (2012)
Education is a means to emancipate people from abuse, unemployment and poverty, which is why democratic countries provide basic education for all their citizens, even ‘law breakers’. Education for prisoners is gaining currency in many countries. In South Africa, it is both a constitutional right and a foundation stone for rehabilitation. The objective of this paper was to investigate the value of prison education at two correctional service facilities in Pretoria...


Christian Henrichson, Ruth Delaney
The Price of Prisons What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers
Vera Institute of Justice, January 2012 (Updated 7/20/12)
A growing body of research suggests—and government officials acknowledge—that beyond a certain point, further increases in incarceration have significantly diminishing returns as a means of making communities safer. This means that for many systems, putting more lower-risk offenders in prison is yielding increasingly smaller improvements in public safety and may cost more to taxpayers than the value of the crime it prevents. As states look to strike a balance that results in better outcomes, it is essential to assess the benefits and costs of incarceration.


Human Rights Watch
Old Behind Bars. The Aging Prison Population in the United States 2012

Using data from the United States Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), Human Rights Watch calculates that the number of sentenced federal and state prisoners who are age 65 or older grewan astonishing 94 times fasterthan the total sentenced prisoner population between 2007 and 2010. The older prison population increased by 63 percent, while the total prison population grewby 0.7 percent during the same period. Some older men andwomen in prison today enteredwhen they were young or middle-aged; others committed crimes when they were already along in years. Those who have lengthy sentences, as many do, are notlikely to leave prison before they are aged and infirm. Some will die behind bars: between 2001 and 2007, 8,486 prisoners age 55 or older died in prison.


Ilyana Kuziemko
How Should Inmates Be Released from Prisons? An Assessment of Parole Versus Fixed-Sentence Regimes September 11, 2012

Exploiting quasi-experiments from the state of Georgia, I show that prison time reduces recidivism risk and that parole boards set prison time in an allocatively e cient manner. Prisoners respond to these incentives; after a reform that eliminated parole for certain o enders, they accumulated a  greater number of disciplinary infractions, completed fewer prison rehabilitative programs, and recidivated at higher rates than inmates una ected by the reform. I estimate that eliminating parole for all prisoners would increase the prison population by ten percent while also increasing the crime rate through deleterious e ects on recidivism.


American Civil Liberties Union ACLU | Allen Hopper, Margaret Dooley-Sammuli, Kelli Evans
Public Safety Realignment: California at a Crossroads
ACLU of California March 2012
It’s time to fix California’s broken criminal justice system. Most people in California jails have not been convicted of a crime. More than 50,000 of the 71,000 Californians held in a county jail on any given day are awaiting trial: that‘s 71% of county jails’ average daily population. In addition to the human cost, there is a high financial cost of pretrial incarceration. $100 per day to keep someone in jail awaiting trial. $2.50 per day to monitor people with pretrial programs.


Roy Walmsley | International Centre for Prison Studies ICPS
World Female Imprisonment List (second edition). Women and girls in penal institutions, including pre-trial detainees/remand prisoners 2012
The female prison population is growing in all five continents. The total in the 187 countries whose figures were shown in the first edition of  this List (2006) has increased by more than 16%, with the largest increase being in the Americas (up 23%) and the smallest increase in European countries (up 6%). In about 80% of prison systems female prisoners constitute between 2 and 9% of the total prison population. The highest percentage levels are in Maldives (21.6%), Hong Kong-China (20%), Bahrain (18.5%), Andorra (16.4% - 10 out of a total of 61 prisoners), Macau-China (14.8%), Qatar (14.7%) and Thailand (14.6%).


Penal Reform International
# Alternatives to imprisonment in East Africa. Trends and challenges 2012
Prison overcrowding is a serious problem on the African continent. According to the International Centre for Prison Studies’ World Prison Brief, the number of prisoners exceeds capacity in 28 out of 40 African countries. In nine countries occupancy levels are more than twice capacity. Figures compiled by the International Centre for Prison Studies show the occupancy rate of prisons to be 226% of capacity in Kenya (2010), 214% in Uganda (2011) and 145% in Tanzania (2011). A large part of the overcrowding problem is caused by the widespread use of often lengthy pre-trial detention. Pre-trial detainees represent 54% of prisoners in Uganda, 52% in Tanzania and 43% in Kenya.


Jane Hurry, Lynne Rogers, Margaret Simonot, Anita Wilson
# Inside Education: The Aspirations and Realities of prison education for under 25s in the London area June 2012
In an overarching Recommendation, the Council of Europe (1989) proposed that ‘the right to [prison] education is fundamental’. In England and Wales it is legislated that ‘Every prisoner able to profit from the education facilities provided at a prison shall be encouraged to do so’. However, of the adult population in prison, only around 25 per cent will be receiving education of some kind. It is hoped that the implementation of new policy will provide greater incentives, opportunities, and a clearer vision of what prisoner learners can expect from the educational offer.


State of Wisconsin - Department of Corrections
# Recidivism After Release from Prison
Office of the Secretary - Research and Policy Unit - October 2012

The data shows that the recidivism rate has been steadily trending down since 1993, when the three-year follow-up recidivism rate was 45.3%, the highest during the analysis timeframe. Overall, between 1990 and 2007 the three-year rate decreased by 24.8% (10.7 percentage points), and between 1993 and 2007, it decreased by 28.5% (12.9 percentage points).


España - Ministerio del Interior - La Administración Penitenciaria
Estadística penitenciaria
31 diciembre de 2012

Clasificación y tratamiento de los internos. Régimen penitenciario


Europa Press | Barcelona
Siete de cada 10 presos españoles, con problemas mentales por consumir drogas - 15/04/2012

El 84,4% de los presos españoles sufre o ha sufrido enfermedades mentales en algún momento de su vida en las prisiones españolas, en su mayoría por adicción o abuso de drogas (76%), según un estudio con datos de 2011 al que ha tenido acceso Europa Press, realizado a más de 700 hombres de cinco cárceles de Cataluña, Madrid y Zaragoza.
Esta cifra está lejos de la prevalencia de los trastornos mentales en la población general, que es de un 15,7%, y se explica por la influencia del consumo de drogas en el desarrollo de diferentes trastornos mentales, ha afirmado en una entrevista a Europa Press el director de psiquiatría penitenciaria del Parc Sanitari de Sant Joan de Déu, el doctor Francesc Pérez Arnau, colaborador del estudio. (Estudio PRECA 2011)



# COMUNICADO: El 80% de los reclusos de centros penitenciarios españoles ha sufrido un trastorno mental  - 22 marzo 2012


Conférence de consensus sur la prévention de la récidive
# Combien coûte la prison ? 2012
Pour les personnes qui ont bénéficié d’une alternative à l’incarcération ou qui ont été écrouées et bénéficient d’un aménagement de peine, la prise en charge par l’administration pénitentiaire représente un coût très inférieur à celui de la détention... Pour l’ensemble de ces mesures mises en œuvre par le service pénitentiaire d’insertion et de probation (SPIP) en milieu ouvert, il a été établi un coût moyen annuel de 1014 € par personne.


Mexico - Secretaria de Securidad Publica
# El Sistema Penitenciario Mexicano - 6 de septeimbre 2012
Hay 419 centros penitenciarios con 188 mil 147 espacios.  13 centros federales con 18 mil 684 espacios  305 centros estatales y 10 del D.F. con 165 mil 419 espacios  91 centros municipales con 4 mil 044 espacios • El 50% de las instalaciones penitenciarias del país (226 centros de reclusión estatales y municipales) tiene sobrepoblación. • 50% de la población se concentra en 30 centros de reclusión. • 7 estados concentran el 52% de la población penitenciaria: Distrito Federal, Estado de México, Baja California, Jalisco, Sonora, Nuevo León y Puebla.


Kim Williams, Vea Papadopoulou and Natalie Booth | Ministry of Justice Analytical Services
# Prisoners’ childhood and family backgrounds. Results from the Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR) longitudinal cohort study of prisoners
Ministry of Justice Research Series 4/12 | March 2012

Many prisoners had problematic backgrounds: Twenty-four per cent stated that they had been in care at some point during their childhood. Those who had been in care were younger when they were first arrested, and were more likely to be reconvicted in the year after release from custody than those who had never been in care. Many prisoners had experienced abuse (29%) or observed violence in the home (41%) as a child – particularly those who stated that they had a family member with an alcohol or drug problem. Those who reported experiencing abuse or observing violence as a child were more likely to be reconvicted in the year after release than those who did not. Thirty-seven per cent of prisoners reported having family members who had been convicted of a non-motoring criminal offence, of whom 84% had been in prison, a young offenders’ institution or borstal. Prisoners with a convicted family member were more likely to be reconvicted in the year after release from custody than those without a convicted family member. Eighteen per cent of prisoners stated that they had a family member with an alcohol problem, and 14% with a drug problem.


Ikponwosa Ekunwe
# Finnish Criminal Policy: From Hard Time to Gentle Justice
Journal of Prisoners on Prisons, n. 1-2, 2012
One important idea that emerged was that prison cures nobody. As a result policies were enacted that prison sentences should rarely be used in smaller crimes and other penalty systems should be developed instead... Policies in the criminal justice system in Finland, imbedded with the principles of legality, equality and humaneness by making rehabilitation the central value, have created an encouraging situation for offenders in desisting from crime. The initial high numbers of confined criminals in Finland by the beginning of the 1960s subsided to the Nordic level of 50–60 prisoners per 100,000 inhabitants by 1998...


Laurent Mucchielli, Emilie Raquet, Claire Saladino
# Délinquances et contextes sociaux en région PACA. Premiers éléments pour un tableau de bord statistique analytique
Etudes et travaux de l’ORDCS (Observatoire Régional de la Délinquance et des Contextes Sociaux), N°1 - Février 2012

Cette étude constitue le premier travail statistique réalisé par l’ORDCS sur l’ensemble de la région PACA, à partir des chiffres officiels de la police et de la gendarmerie. Dans une première partie, les auteurs expliquent d’abord longuement les précautions méthodologiques indispensables à l’utilisation de ces données administratives, signalant au passage les critiques qui peuvent être adressées aux divers organismes utilisant couramment ces statistiques. Ils expliquent, dans une seconde 22partie, la sélection qu’ils ont réalisée parmi les 107 index de cette statistique administrative, ainsi que les regroupements qu’ils ont opérés pour construire 5 nouveaux indicateurs de délinquances.


E. Ann Carson, William J. Sabol - Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS
# Prisoners in 2011
Bulletin December 2012
Declining for the second consecutive year, state and federal prison populations totaled 1,598,780 at yearend 2011, a decrease of 0.9% (15,023 prisoners) from yearend 2010.
State correctional authorities had jurisdiction over 21,663 fewer sentenced inmates in 2011 than in 2010. Seventy percent of this decrease was due to California’s Public Safety Realignment program.

The number of state and federal prisoners sentenced to more than one year declined by 15,254 individuals, from 1,552,669 in 2010 to 1,537,415 in 2011.

Between 2010 and 2011, the imprisonment rate — the number of sentenced prisoners divided by the U.S. resident population times 100,000 — declined from 500 to 492 per 100,000 U.S. residents (table 6). The imprisonment rate has declined consistently since 2007 when there were 506 persons imprisoned per 100,000 U.S. residents. The rate in 2011 was comparable to the rate observed in 2005 (492 per 100,000).


David E. Olson, Sema Taheri
# Population Dynamics and the Characteristics of Inmates in the Cook County Jail
Loyola University Chicago 2-2012
Based on 2010 data collected by the U.S. Department of Justice’s Bureau of Justice Statistics, the Cook County Jail housed a total of 9,777 inmates on June 30, 2010, second behind the 10,264 inmates detained in the largest single site facility in the country, the Harris County Jail in Houston, TX, and more than the 7,549 inmates housed in the Maricopa County Jail in Phoenix, AZ (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2011). Although the jail systems in New York and Los Angeles have many more inmates—12,745 and 16,862 on June 30, 2010, respectively—the jail systems in these two jurisdictions are in multiple sites across their respective jurisdictions.


Tracey Kyckelhahn - Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS
# State Corrections Expenditures, FY 1982-2010
Bulletin December 2012
Between 1982 and 2001, total state corrections expenditures increased each year, rising from $15.0 billion to $53.5 billion in real dollars. Between 2002 and 2010, expenditures fluctuated between $53.4 billion and $48.4 billion. Preliminary data from the Census Bureau’s Annual Survey of State Government Finances indicated that states spent $48.5 billion on corrections in 2010, a decline of 5.6% since 2009.


Laura M. Maruschak, Erika Parks - Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2011

November 2012 Bulletin

During 2011, for the third consecutive year, the number of adults under community supervision declined. At yearend 2011, there were about 4,814,200 adults under community supervision, down 1.5% or 71,300 offenders from the beginning of the year (figure 1). The community supervision population includes adults on probation, parole, or any other post-prison supervision (see text box on page 2 for definitions of probation and parole). The  drop in the probation population drove the decline in the total number of adults under community supervision. In 2011, the probation population fell 2%, from an estimated 4,053,100 to 3,971,300. While the parole population increased 1.6% during 2011, the increase was not enough to offset the overall decrease in the community supervision population. At yearend 2011, 1 in 50 adults in the U.S. were under community supervision.


Prison Reform Trust
Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile November 2012

Prison has a poor record for reducing reoffending – 47.5% of adults are reconvicted within one year of being released. For those serving sentences of less than 12 months this increases to 57.6% - an increase of 3.3 percentage points from 2000. For those who have served more than 11 previous custodial sentences the rate of reoffending rises to 68%. 51% of women leaving prison are reconvicted within one year – for those serving sentences of less than 12 months this increases to 62%. For those women who have served more than 10 previous custodial sentences the reoffending rate rises to 88%. 58% of young people (18-20) released from custody  in the first quarter of 2008 reoffended within a year


Prison Reform Trust
Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile
June 2012

Now, 83 of 134 prisons in England and Wales are overcrowded. Outcomes of excessive use of imprisonment are bleak. There are high levels of violence and self-harm. Just 36% of people leaving prison go into education, training or employment. Very many are homeless and in debt on release. Prison has a poor record for reducing reoffending with 47% of all adults reconvicted within one year of release, rising to 57% for those serving sentences of less than 12 months and almost 70% for under 18 year olds.


England / Wales | Ministry of Justice

Prison Population Projections 2011 – 2017 England and Wales
Ministry of Justice Statistics Bulletin Published 27th October 2011


Didi Kirsten Tatlow
# Women in Prison Fare Better in China
The New York Times - September 11, 2012
In the United States and in China, women now account for about 9 percent and 6 percent of inmates, respectively, Mr. Kamm estimated... Ms. Wang estimated China’s female prison population at 4 to 5 percent of the total, but she cautioned that she did not have exact figures, with so much about China’s prison system a secret.
And Mr. Kamm also noted that the new clauses did not apply to women in China’s large system of re-education through labor, or “laojiao,” an extrajudicial form of detention that snares many thousands every year.


F. McNeill, S. Farrall, C. Lightowler, S. Maruna
# How and why people stop offending: discovering desistance
University of Glasgow, 2012
One of the few near certainties in criminal justice is that for most people, offending behaviour peaks in their teenage years, and then starts to decline. This is the pattern depicted in what is known as the ‘age crime curve’. Studies of desistance illuminate the processes of change associated with the age-crime curve...


Brazil | Ministério da Justiça - Departamento Penitenciário Nacional - Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias – InfoPen
Formulário Categoria e Indicadores Preenchidos

Referência: 06/2012

Quantidade de Presos custodiados no Sistema Penitenciário Masculino 476.805 | Feminino 31.552 | Total 508.357


Brazil ICPS

Prison population rate (per 100,000 of national population) 276 based on an estimated national population of 198.9 million at June 2012


Artur Barrio Ricart, Marta Carrasco Moreno, Marta Ferrer Puig, Ignasi Jambrina Gato, Mireia Roca, Bertran and Gemma Torres Ferrer
# The specialised training of social educators involved in the implementation of sanctions and measures
Generalitat de Catalunya Centre d’Estudis Jurídics i Formació Especialitzada, June 2012
This is an explanatory guide to the way in which the Centre for Legal Studies and Specialised Training (CEJFE) conceives and structures the  specialised training of social educators in the field of correctionals. The guide contains the basis of the annual  training programmes which make up the specialised training available at the Centre for this group of professionals...


Policy Forum EXOCP di Berlino
# La dichiarazione di Berlino sul reinserimento degli autori di reat reati e degli ex autori di reati 18-19 giugno 2012

I detenuti tendono ad avere scarse competenze, la maggior parte di essi è sprovvisto di qualifiche scolastiche o professionali. In maggioranza sono disoccupati da lungo tempo o non hanno mai avuto accesso al mercato del lavoro. La loro carenza di abilità sociali e di vita può costituire un ostacolo notevole, non solo per ottenere un posto di lavoro, ma anche per affrontare la vita quotidiana e reinserirsi nella società. Alcuni hanno notevoli problemi comportamentali a livello sociale che rappresentano un immediato svantaggio sul mercato del lavoro. Altri poi hanno disturbi fisici e mentali che necessitano di interventi sanitari prima che essi possano collegarsi efficacemente con il mercato del lavoro o con la società.


Department of Correctional Services Republic of South Africa

# Annual Report 2011/12 (1 april 2011 to 31 march 2012)

Minister of Correctional Services 31 may 2012

For the 2011/12 financial year the inmate population was on average 158 790. Since the 2009/10 financial year there was a slight decrease annually in the male inmate population (2009/10 – 160 280; 2010/11 – 157 345 and 2011/12 -155 032) whilst there was a slight increase in the female inmate population from 2010/11 to 2011/12 (2010/11 – 3 562;  2011/12 – 3 758). [Prison population rate 307]

As at March 2012, there were 243 correctional facilities with an approved bed capacity of 118 441 in the department. It should be noted that during the course of the year some of these were temporarily closed either as the centre or as a section, resulting in an available bed space for the financial year of 118 154. There is massive diversity in terms of size, minimum standards and facilities across the South African correctional centres, given the time periods over which  they were built, the purposes for which they were built and the political landscape that prevailed when they were built. DCS must manage this legacy to enable a set of minimum norms and standards to prevail across all centres and to ensure cost-effective and delivery efficient centres.


Annual Report 2010/11 (1 april 2010 to 31 march 2011)


Perù Ministerio de Justicia y Derechos Humanos | Instituto Nacional Penitenciario
Presentacion de Documento Informe Estadistico “10 Medidas de Reforma del Sistema Penitenciario" Abril 2012
A través de la pirámide de la población penal clasificada por género y los grupos de edad, observamos que la mayor concentración de la población penal masculina se encuentra en el grupo comprendido entre los 20 a 39 años, mientras que en el caso de la población penal femenina se da entre los 25 a 44 años... El 36% de la población total de internos (rango de 18 a 29 años), se encuentra considerada entre la población joven y económicamente activa o productiva. Estos datos son muy importantes para evaluar los programas de políticas preventivas encaminados a cambiar la conducta delictiva. Otra situación es la población de internos entre 18 a 24 años, que constituye el 17% de la  población total, la que estaría en la etapa de formación técnico-productiva; al respecto, se podría destinar o fomentar programas de formación técnica o universitaria, e incluso el aprendizaje de idiomas...


Australian Bureau of Statistics ABS
Corrective Services March Quarter 2012
Commonwealth of Australia 2012

Based on first day of the month averages, for the March quarter 2012 there were 29,226 persons in full-time custody and 53,763 persons in community-based corrections. This comprises an increase of 822 persons (3%) in full-time custody from the March quarter 2011, and a decrease of 994 persons (2%) in community-based corrections for the same period. This represents a decrease of 172 persons (less than 1%) in corrective services from the March quarter 2011.


Swiss - Confederazione svizzera

#  Statistiche penitenziarie 2011-2012.

Privation de liberté et exécution des sanctions - Données, indicateurs


Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP
Ufficio per lo Sviluppo e la Gestione del Sistema Informativo Automatizzato - Sezione statistica
#  Caratteristiche socio-lavorative, giuridiche e demografiche della popolazione detenuta.
Situazione al 31 dicembre 2012 - Anno XV - 2012 - II Semestre

65.701 persone, di cui 23.492 straniere, presenti il 31.12.2012

- Caratteristiche anagrafiche e lavorative" (sesso, età, numero di figli, stato civile, grado di istruzione, condizione lavorativa, ramo di attività, posizione professionale);

- Caratteristiche giuridiche" (posizione giuridica, durata della pena, durata della pena residua);

- Caratteristiche demografiche (distribuzione per regione di detenzione e regione di nascita, residenza e, per gli stranieri, area geografica);
- Numero di persone uscite dal carcere per effetto della detenzione presso il domicilio di cui alla legge n. 199/2010 (c.d. svuota carceri): 4.725 dalla data di entrata in vigore della legge al 31.12.2012;
- Recidiva: dati relativi al numero di carcerazioni precedenti, anche con sentenza definitiva.
- Popolazione detenuta: dati relativi alla capienza degli istituti di pena; dati relativi agli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari e alle Case di Cura e di Custodia.


Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria - DAP

Detenuti per durata pena residua, pena inflitta, tipologia di reato 2005-2012

31 dicembre 2012


Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria - DAP

#  Detenuti per titolo di studio - numero figli - classi d'età - stato civile - regione di nascita - regione residenza 2005-2012

31 dicembre 2012


Ondine Millot
Les clés de Taubira pour vider les prisons Libération 25 Septembre 2012
Les prisons françaises - «une humiliation pour la République»... Face aux centres de détention surpeuplés, la garde des Sceaux entend développer massivement les peines alternatives. Un changement profond de la politique pénale française… qui demande beaucoup de moyens.
«Nos prisons sont pleines, mais vides de sens.» La garde des Sceaux, Christiane Taubira, s’attaque aujourd’hui à un problème ancien avec une nouvelle formule...


Joycelyn M. Pollock, Nancy L. Hogan, Eric G. Lambert, Jeffrey Ian Ross, Jody L. Sundt
# A Utopian Prison: Contradiction in Terms?
Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 28(1) 60–76 (2012)
The current prison system overshadows education and public services as the major consumer of state revenue. Today about 1.6 million individuals are incarcerated in this nation’s prisons. The so-called “prison industrial complex” has grown from 319,598 inmates in 1980 to 1,613,740 in 2009. About a third of felony offenders  sentenced to prison are convicted of drug crimes and another third for property crimes. Other countries with similar property crime rates as the United States’ rate choose other ways to deter and punish these offenders. The United States’ total incarceration rate (which includes jails) of 756 per 100,000 can be compared with Canada’s 116, the United Kingdom’s 153, Germany’s 89, France’s 96, or Finland’s 64


Paola Severino | Ministero della Giustizia
Intervento della guardasigilli Paola Severino alla conferenza stampa su carcere e recidiva
giustizia newsonline mercoledì 26 settembre 2012

Le slides


Criminal Justice Alliance
# Crowded Out? The impact of prison overcrowding on rehabilitation March 2012
The prison population in England and Wales has almost doubled over the last 20 years from about 45,000 to over 85,000. On top of the long term rise in the use of imprisonment, there has been a surge in prison numbers in the months following the public disorder in August. On top of the long term rise in the use of imprisonment, there has been a surge in prison numbers in the months following the public disorder in August. In late July 2011, the prison population stood at 84,902; by early December it had risen to 87,371



noi italia. 100 statististiche per capire il Paese in cui viviamo

Febbraio 2012

L’Italia, con circa 1,0 omicidi per centomila abitanti nel 2009, si colloca al di sotto della media dell’Unione (1,2 omicidi). Il fenomeno mostra un trend decrescente dal 1991. Le rapine denunciate alle autorità sono quasi 36 mila, pari a 59,5 ogni centomila abitanti, in forte calo rispetto all’anno precedente. L’Italia in sede di confronto europeo si colloca per la prima volta nel 2009 al di sotto della media del complesso dei 27 paesi dell’Unione europea.


Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire
Séries statistiques des personnes placées sous main de justice 1980-2012 juillet 2012


Ministry of Justice
2012 Compendium of re-offending statistics and analysis
Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin, 12 July 2012
Using a cohort of offenders between January and December 2000:  27.9 per cent re-offended within one year;  38.9 per cent after 2 years;  53.2 per cent after 5 years; and,  58.9 per cent after nine years. In 2000 there were around 480,000 offenders in the cohort. Over 9 years this group committed approximately 3.6 million further offences. For adults 26.2 per cent re-offended within one year and 56.4 per cent reoffended within nine years. While for juveniles 33.7 per cent re-offended within one year and 67.7 per cent re-offended within 9 years..


Regione Emilia Romagna - Direzione Generale Sanità e Politiche Sociali - Servizio Salute Mentale, Dipendenze Patologiche e Salute nelle Carceri
Assistenza Sanitaria erogata negli Istituti Penitenziari  della Regione Emilia-Romagna nell’anno 2011
Relazione per la Commissione IV, Politiche per la Salute e Politiche Sociali, e la Commissione VI, Statuto e Regolamento convocate in seduta congiunta martedì 3 luglio 2012


Regione Emilia Romagna - Servizio Salute Mentale, Dipendenze Patologiche e Salute nelle Carceri
Il percorso clinico-assistenziale per le persone detenute. Attività e prestazioni rivolte alle persone detenute negli Istituti Penitenziari della Regione Emilia-Romagna

Primavera 2012


 Eurostat | Cynthia Tavares, Geoffrey Thomas, Fethullah Bulut
# Crime and Criminal Justice, 2006-2009
Eurostat Statistics in focus 6/2012

The prison population figures (Table 9) include both adult and juvenile convicted prisoners and pre-trial detainees in all types of prison establishments but exclude non-criminal prisoners held for administrative purposes such as pending investigation into their immigration status. In 2009, there were over 630 000 prisoners in the EU. This gives a rate of about 129 prisoners per 100 000 population in the EU Member States (averaged over the period 2007-2009). By comparison, the incarceration rate in the USA was much higher, at 784 per 100 000 population.


Mazhar Hussain Bhutta - Muhammad Siddique Akbar

Situation of Prisons in India and Pakistan: Shared Legacy, Same Challenges

South Asian Studies. A Research Journal of South Asian Studies, Vol. 27, No. 1, January-June 2012

Prison Statistics India


Philippines - Bureau of Jail Management and Penology BJMP

# Data and Statistics 2012


Romulo A. Virola - National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB)
# Statistics on jails and prisons 2010

Prisoners are further classified as follows: (a) insular or national prisoner who is sentenced to a prison term of three years and one day to death; (b) provincial prisoner or one who is sentenced to a prison term of six months and one day to three years; (c) city prisoner who is sentenced to a prison term of one day to three years; and (d) municipal prisoner or one who is sentenced to a prison term of one day to six months...
In 2010, there were 59,2895 inmates in BJMP jails, an increase of 2.9% from 2009. Of this total, 56,479 or 95.3 % were detained, and 2,810 or 4.7% were sentenced, representing an increase of 3.3% and a decrease of 4.7%, respectively, from 2009. In addition, 1,147 were in PNP jails on a temporary basis in 2010, an increase of 5.0% from 2009.


Sergio Alejandro Gomez

Sistema penitenciario cubano

# Respeto a la dignidad y al mejoramiento humano

Granma | Órgano Oficial del Comité Central del Partido Comunista de Cuba
La Habana, martes 22 de mayo de 2012

Cuba es un país subdesarrollado y a la vez sometido a un brutal bloqueo por parte de Estados Unidos desde hace más de cincuenta años, por lo que las reformas y mejoras al sistema carcelario se han impulsado en el contexto de los limitados recursos disponibles. Ello, unido a la continua crisis económica y financiera mundial, crea serios obstáculos y desafíos para nuestro desempeño. No obstante, se han llevado a cabo proyectos de reparación y acondicionamiento de los centros penitenciarios para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los 57 337 internos (31 494 en condiciones cerradas y 25 843 en instalaciones abiertas).


Fernando Ravsberg
# Cuba Finally Quantifies Its Prisoners

Havana - May 23, 2012

The number of prisoners in Cuban jails is 57,337, a figure just revealed by the official Granma newspaper after decades of silence on the issue. This total places Cuba in a better position than the US, a country with more than 700 prisoners per 100,000 inhabitants.




Soo-Ryun Kwon, Amanda Solter, Dana Marie Isaac | University of San Francisco (USF) School of Law’s Center for Law and Global Justice
Cruel and Unusual. U. S. Sentencing Practices in a Global Context May 2012
All of these sentencing practices—life without the possibility of parole, “three strikes” laws, consecutive sentences, mandatory
minimums, juvenile justice laws, dual sovereignty, and non-retroactive application of ameliorative law—are used
frequently in the United States in ways they are not in the rest of the world...


HM Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales
Annual Report 2011–12

Presented to Parliament pursuant to Section 5A of the Prison Act 1952
as amended by Section 57 of the Criminal Justice Act 1982.
Ordered by the House of Commons to be printed on 17 October 2012.

The number of self-inflicted deaths in prison rose from 54 (0.64 per 1,000 prisoners) in 2010–11 to 66 (0.76 per 1,000 prisoners) in 2011–12. Incidents of self-harm are, however, also rising in men’s prisons – from 14,768 in 2010–11 to 16,146 in 2011–12 (the number fell in women’s prisons) – as are the number of recorded assaults, from 13,804 to 14,858... In March 2011, the prison population was 85,400; by March 2012, it had grown by 2,131 to 87,531. The operational capacity of prisons had grown over the same period by 3,532 to 90,622...


Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP
Relazione triennale al Parlamento sul regime detentivo speciale di cui all'art. 41 bis O.P.
Roma, 21 febbraio 2012
La stabilizzazione del regime scaturita dalle nuove disposizioni di legge ha inciso notevolmente sul numero complessivo dei detenuti ascritti asl regime speciale. Allo stato si registra un picco nella presenza di detenuti 41bis che risultano essere 679. Ciò a parità di strutture penitenziarie disponibili, con le ovvie difficoltà di allocazione e di garanzia delle separazioni interne.


Christoffer Carlsson
# Using "Turning Points" to Understand Processes of Change in Offending. Notes from a Swedish Study on Life Courses and Crime
BRIT. J. CRIMINOL. (2012) 52, 1–16
Processes of within-individual change in offending and desistance from crime can be very complex, often involving multiple, context-specific processes. But even in a generous reading of much research on turning points, while this is theoretically stated or inferred, it is less often shown or illustrated in empirical cases. I explore processes of change in offending with the help of the concept of ‘turning points’, through life story interviews conducted in the Stockholm Project, trying to make use of the possibilities inherent in qualitative inquiry. I show how life course processes and the turning points that emerge within them are often interdependent on each other, emerging in very context-specific circumstances, and need to be studied and understood and such. Future research areas are suggested.


Hanns von Hofer, Tapio Lappi-Seppälä, Lars Westfelt
# Nordic Criminal Statistics 1950–2010
Kriminologiska institutionen - Stockholms universitet, Rapport 2012:2
Prisons in the Nordic countries are small (between 80 and 100 beds), modern, and characterised by high staffing levels. Overcrowding of inmates is not a typical problem. Open prisons, where security arrangements aimed at preventing escape are kept to a minimum, accounted in 2008 for between 19 per cent (Sweden) and 38 cent of prison places (Norway)... In a 60-year perspective, prison populations have been fairly stable in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Finland constitutes a remarkable exception. There the prison population has shrunk greatly from the mid-1970s (1976:118 inmates per 100,000) until the end of the 1990s (1999:53 inmates per 100,000)


Edward J. Latessa
Designing More Effective Correctional Programs Using Evidence-Based Practices 2012
Behavioral programming has shown the strongest effects across a wide range of programs and settings. This paper reviews some evidence-based programs and methods proven effective in addressing various criminogenic needs of high-risk offenders. Results from three large-scale studies are reviewed to show that the more criminogenic needs targeted by a program, the greater the reduction in recidivism rates. On the other hand, programs that targeted an insufficient number of criminogenic needs showed only a slight decrease in failure rates.


COE Council of Europe - Unil Université of Lausanne
Marcelo F. Aebi - Natalia Del Grance

Annual Penal Statistics: Space I Survey 2010

Strasbourg, 28 March 2012 | PC-CP (2012) 1


Prison Service Pay Review Body
# Eleventh Report on England and Wales 2012 | Presented to Parliament by the Prime Minister and the Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice by Command of Her Majesty - March 2012 2012
NOMS is an Executive Agency of the Ministry of Justice. Its role is to commission and provide offender management services in the community and in custody ensuring best value for money from public resources. It works to protect the public and reduce reoffending by delivering the punishment and orders of the courts, and supporting rehabilitation by helping offenders to reform their lives. On 17 February 2012, the prisoner population was 87,631, 3.0 per cent higher than a year earlier. NOMS paybill costs relating to the remit group in 2010-11 were £1¼ billion (including  social security and other pension costs). At the end of December 2011, there were 32,410 staff in our remit.


Christopher Uggen, Sarah Shannon
# State-Level Estimates of Felon Disenfranchisement in the United States, 2010 The Sentencing Project, July 2012
A remarkable 5.85 million Americans are forbidden to vote because of “felon disenfranchisement,” or laws restricting voting rights for those convicted of felony-level crimes. Approximately 2.5 percent of the total U.S. voting age population – 1 of every 40 adults – is disenfranchised due to a current or previous felony conviction. Ex-felons in the eleven states that disenfranchise people after they have completed their sentences make up about 45 percent of the entire disenfranchised population, totaling over 2.6 million people. The number of people disenfranchised due to a felony conviction has escalated dramatically in recent decades as the population under criminal justice supervision has increased. There were an estimated 1.17 million people disenfranchised in 1976, 3.34 million in 1996, and over 5.85 million in 2010.


# Disenfranchised Felons The New York Times, Published: July 15, 2012
The disproportionate number of blacks among the disenfranchised remains a huge racial justice problem. Almost 7.7 percent of blacks of voting age are disenfranchised because of their criminal records, compared with less than 2 percent for non-blacks.


Michelle Tolbert | U.S. Department of Education Office of Vocational and Adult Education
# A Reentry Education Model. Supporting Education and Career Advancement for Low-Skill Individuals In Corrections U.S. Department of Education - Office of Vocational and Adult Education 2012
How can we solve the reentry challenge and ensure that incarcerated individuals and those under community supervision become productive members of society? Although there is no one answer, a growing body of evidence shows that providing offenders with education and training increases their employment opportunities, addresses their cognitive deficits, and helps reduce their likelihood of recidivating... The U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education, therefore, supported the development of a correctional education reentry model illustrating an education continuum to bridge the gap between prison and community-based education and training programs.


Anna Maria Tarantola
# Dimensione delle attività criminali, costi per l’economia, effetti della crisi economica
Senato della Repubblica, Camera dei Deputati, Commissione parlamentare di inchiesta sul fenomeno della mafia e i
Stimare il valore delle attività criminali e i costi che esse impongono all’economia è attività complessa e soggetta ad ampi errori di stima. E’ tuttavia un’attività preziosa sia per comprendere le radici e le cause del fenomeno, dove sia più radicato o si stia diffondendo, sia per rafforzare la capacità di reazione e contrasto. La crescita delle informazioni disponibili e il progredire delle metodologie di analisi offrono strumenti via via più adeguati per migliorare la qualità delle indicazioni, anche se tuttora richiedono ulteriori affinamenti...


National Audit Office | Ministry of Justice
# Comparing International Criminal Justice Systems February 2012
In England and Wales, there were 4.2 million crimes recorded by the police in 2010 11, down from 5.6 million in 2005-06. This represents a 25 per cent decrease. As over the longer period since 1995, this overall trend is confirmed by the British Crime Survey, though the size of the reduction reported is different. According to the British Crime Survey measure, 9.6 million crimes were committed against adults in 2010-11, down from 10.7 million in 2005-06, a statistically significant decrease of 10 per cent...


Allen J. Beck, Candace Johnson | Bureau of Justice Statistics BJS
# Sexual Victimization Reported by Former State Prisoners, 2008
Office of Justice Programs | May 2012

One In Ten State Prisoners Sexually Abused. Bureau of Justice Statistics study confirms national crisis of sexual abuse in U.S. detention, exposes systemic problem of staff retaliation, and shatters prisoner rape stereotypes... 9.6% of former state prisoners reported one or more incidents of sexual victimization during the most recent period of incarceration in jail, prison, or a postrelease community-treatment facility... 5.4% of former inmates reported an incident with another inmate; 5.3% reported an incident with staff... An estimated 3.7% of former prisoners said they had nonconsensual sex with another inmate, including manual stimulation and oral, anal, or vaginal penetration. An additional 1.6% of former prisoners said they had experienced one or more abusive sexual contacts only with another inmate, including unwanted touching of the inmate’s buttocks, thigh, penis, breast, or vagina in a sexual way. An estimated 1.2% of former prisoners reported that they unwillingly had sex or sexual contact with facility staff. An estimated 4.6% said they “willingly” had sex or sexual contact with staff.



JULY 8, 2009  Serial No. 111–49


Jill Filipovic
# Is the US the only country where more men are raped than women? The figures on rape may be uncertain, but we could lower the sexual assault rate in American jails – if we had the political will
The Guardian,, Tuesday 21 February 2012


Vivre Ensemble
# Sortie de prison. Difficile réinsertion 2012/02
Tout détenu qui entre en prison sera un jour amené à en sortir. Il est dans l’intérêt de la société qu’il ne récidive pas et qu’il puisse se réinsérer, notamment par le logement et l’emploi. Une telle réinsertion ne se fait pas du jour au lendemain. Elle doit être préparée et accompagnée. Préparée pendant la détention, accompagnée à la sortie. 


California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR)
# The year in accomplishments 2012 2012
Total Inmate Population – The total inmate population dropped 10 percent from 147,578 to 132,785 during 2012.  Overcrowding – As defined by the inmate population in relation  to the design capacity of the 33 adult institutions – declined from  167 percent to 150 percent. Parolee population – The parolee population dropped  42.9 percent from December 2011 to December 2012.


France - Direction de l'Administration Pénitentiaire

# Les Chiffres Clés de l'Administration Pénitentiaire au 1er janvier 2012


Le Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté
# Rapport d’activité 2011

Éditions Dalloz, 2012


Vera Institute of Justice

Christian Henrichson - Ruth Delaney

The Price of Prisons. What Incarceration Costs Taxpayers
January 2012

Decades of increasing incarceration and soaring corrections costs have been well documented and are a familiar story to policy makers and the public. Over the past 40 years, the United States has seen a dramatic increase in the use of prisons to combat crime. As a result, incarceration rates have skyrocketed, with the country’s state prison population having grown by more than 700 percent since the 1970s. Today, more than 1 in 100 adults are in prison or jail nationwide.2 This trend has come at great cost to taxpayers. States’ corrections spending—including prisons as well as probation and parole—has nearly quadrupled over the past two decades, making it the fastest-growing budget item after Medicaid.


The Prison Reform Trust (PRT)
# Prison Reform Trust submission to the Labour Party Justice Policy Working Group Consultation, Punishment and Reform: What Works to Protect the Public and Stop Crime? January 2012
There is consensus across the top of the justice system and beyond on the need to reverse the unsustainable trend in ever expanding prison numbers. In the last two decades the prison population has almost doubled from around 44,000 in the early 1990s to over 88,000 today. Inflation in sentencing and massive overuse of custody leaves us with a society where seven per cent of school children experience their father's imprisonment. Estimates reveal that more children are affected by parental imprisonment than by divorce in the family. Reform is essential to overhauling an overcrowded, expensive and, in many ways, counter-productive prison system. It costs £39,573 per year to lock up an individual and two out of every three prisoners are reconvicted within two years of release. The National Audit Office estimates that reoffending by former prisoners costs the UK economy between £9bn and £13bn a year. Research by the Prime Minister‟s Strategy Unit shows that the 22% increase in the prison population since 1997 is estimated to have reduced crime by around 5% during a period where overall crime fell by 30%. The report states: “There is no convincing evidence that further increases in the use of custody would significantly reduce crime.”


Nathan Brady Office of Legislative Research and General Counsel OLRGC
# Utah's Recidivism Rate In Light of National Trends January 31, 2012


José Becerra Muñoz
# Las prisiones españolas vistas desde Europa. Un análisis comparado
UneD. Revista de Derecho Penal y Criminología, 3.a Época, n.o 7 (2012)

... En lo que se refiere a las condenas de 1 a 5 años, todos los países muestran cifras superiores a la franja anterior situándose entre el 30 y el 60%. Sólo españa y Holanda presentan más internos condenados a menos de un año de prisión que a una pena de entre 1 y 5 años (aunque en nuestro país ambos grupos son casi idénticos). Además, lo habitual es que este segundo intervalo acumule el mayor número de internos (ocurre en todos excepto en Holanda y Portugal). La franja de 5-10 años devuelve de nuevo valores pequeños, entre los que llaman la atención los casos de Bélgica, Letonia y Portugal, únicos países que superan en este rango el 30% de internos. nuestro país es el octavo con más población en esta franja...




David A. Anderson
# The Cost of Crime
Foundations and Trends in Microeconomics, Vol. 7, No. 3 (2011) 209–265
The size of crime’s burden informs the prioritization of crime-prevention efforts and influences our legal, political, and cultural stance toward crime. This research quantifies crime’s burden with an estimate of the annual cost of crime in the United States. While most existing studies focus on particular regions, types of crime, or cost categories, the scope of this article includes the direct and indirect cost of all crime in the United States. Beyond the expenses of law enforcement, criminal justice, and victim losses, the cost of crime includes expenditures on private deterrence, the implicit cost of fear and agony, and the opportunity cost of time lost due to crime. The estimated annual cost of crime, net of transfers from victim to criminal, is $1.7 trillion.


Cour des comptes - Bruxelles
# Mesures de lutte contre la surpopulation carcérale | Rapport de la Cour des comptes transmis à la Chambre des représentants Bruxelles, décembre 2011
La surpopulation dans les prisons n’a cessé de s’aggraver ces dix dernières années. Entre les 1er mars 2000 et 2010, la population pénitentiaire  augmenté de 21 %, passant de 8.668 à 10.501 détenus. Dans le même temps, la capacité a progressé de 18 %, passant de 7.462 à 8.829 places (la capacité de la prison de Tilburg, aux Pays-Bas, est incluse dans les chiffres de 2010). La surpopulation, mesurée tous les ans au 1er mars, est passée, durant la même période, de 16,4 % à 18,9 %...


Ministerio del Interior | Secretaría General de Instituciones Penitenciarias
# Informe General 2011
La población reclusa en los Centros Penitenciarios dependientes de la Administración General del Estado1 a 31-12-2011 fue de 59.975 internos. El año 2011, en relación con 2010, finalizó con 3.428 internos menos (-5,4%). La media de población reclusa fue de 61.851 internos (-5,3% menos que en el año anterior). Por sexo, son varones 55.425 internos (2.937 internos menos que en las mismas fechas de 2010) y mujeres 4.550 (-491 internas menos en relación con el año anterior). Nueve de cada diez internos son hombres (92,4%)...


Tracy L. Snell
# Capital Punishment, 2010 – Statistical Tables
Bureau of Justice Statistics December 2011

Between January 1 and December 19, 2011, 13 states executed 43 inmates, which was 3 fewer than the number executed as of the same date in 2010. Three states accounted for more than half of the executions carried out during this period: Texas executed  13 inmates; Alabama executed 6; and Ohio executed 5.

At yearend 2010, 36 states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons held 3,158 inmates under sentence of death,15 fewer inmates than at yearend 2009. This represents the tenth consecutive year that the number of inmates under sentence of death has decreased. Four States (California, Florida, Texas, and Pennsylvania) held more than half of all inmates on death row as of December 31, 2010. The Federal Bureau of Prisons held 58 inmates on death row. Of those under sentence of death at yearend, 55% were white and 42% were black. The 388 Hispanic inmates under sentence of death accounted for 14% of inmates with a known ethnicity. Ninety-eight percent of inmates under sentence of death were male, and 2% were female. The race and gender of those under sentence of death has remained relatively unchanged since 2000.


Paul Guerino, Paige M. Harrison, and William J. Sabol
Prisoners in 2010
Bureau of Justice Statistics, Bulletin december 2011

Most offenders enter prison in one of two ways. About two-thirds are admitted as new court commitments. New court commitments include admissions into prison of offenders convicted and sentenced by a court, usually to a term of more than 1 year, including probation violators and persons with a split sentence to incarceration followed by court- ordered probation or parole. About a third of new court commitments were admitted because they violated a condition of supervised release. Parole violators include all conditional release violators returned to prison for either violation of conditions of release or for new crimes. Both types of admissions declined in 2010.


Sri Lanka

# Prison Statistics 2007 - 2011


Jagath Abeysirigunawardana
# Overcrowded Prisons and Present Practices and Experiences in relation to Community-Based Alternatives to Incarceration

Department of Prisons in Sri Lanka 2008


ICPS - Sri Lanka


Observatoire International des Prisons OIP
# Les conditions de détention en France - Dossier de presse 7 décembre 2011

La période 2005-2011 est marquée par une systématisation et une aggravation de la sanction en cas de récidive, principalement pour les petits délits. Une option contreproductive en matière de prévention de la récidive. Entre août 2005 et novembre 2010, 18 nouvelles lois pénales ont été adoptées dans l’objectif affiché de lutter contre la récidive... L’OIP alerte sur le caractère contre-productif des peines minimales... Dans un contexte de surpopulation, les conditions de détention restent indignes dans de nombreux établissements, et les nouvelles prisons sont critiquées pour le
manque de contacts humains inhérent à leur fonctionnement... « La France présente l’un des taux de suicide carcéral le plus élevé de l’Europe des Quinze », un taux qui a «quintuplé en 50 ans alors qu’il a dans le même temps peu changé dans la population générale » (INSEE).
Prévaut en prison une approche de la sécurité dite « passive », qui inscrit la détention dans un rapport de force coercitif générateur de tensions et violences, loin des préconisations de sécurité « active » fondées sur le respect des droits des personnes, le dialogue et la prévention.


Minnesota Department of Corrections
# The Effects of Prison Visitation on Offender Recidivism November 2011
Following recent studies in Florida and Canada, this study examines the effects of prison visitation on recidivism among 16,420 offenders released from Minnesota prisons between 2003 and 2007. Using multiple measures of visitation (any visit, total number of visits, visits per month, timing of visits, and number of individual visitors) and recidivism (new offense conviction and technical violation revocation), the study found that visitation significantly decreased the risk of recidivism, a result that was robust across all of the Cox regression models that were estimated. 


Jake Cronin
# The Path to Successful Reentry: The Relationship Between Correctional Education, Employment and Recidivism September 2011
Nearly all Missouri inmates will be released from prison, but the majority of them will reoffend and return to prison. To combat this problem, prisons have implemented educational programs to help offenders successfully reenter society. Using data from the Missouri Department of Corrections, this study evaluates the impact of these educational programs in terms of post-prison employment rates and recidivism rates. The results show that inmates who increase their education in prison are more likely to find a full-time job after prison, and those with a job are less likely to return to  prison.


Direction générale des Etablissements pénitentiaires | Eric Leytens, Annelies Boffé, Inge Nagels, Laurent Sempot, Olivier Michiels, Nathalie Faes, Christine Melebeck, Samuel Deltenre
# Rapport d’activités Avril 2011
Les établissements les plus surpeuplés en 2010 sont, en ordre décroissant : Ieper, Dinant, Antwerpen, Forest et Jamioulx avec une population qui a excédé en moyenne leur capacité de plus de 50% ! A l’inverse, 12 établissements (y compris les centres fédéraux pour jeunes) affichent une population moyenne inférieure à la capacité théorique. On observe une croissance annuelle de la population globale d’une part, des prévenus et des condamnés d’autre part, qui est de l’ordre de 6 à 7 %.


Alexia Cooper, Erica L. Smith | U.S. Department of Justice | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Homicide Trends in the United States, 1980-2008. Annual Rates for 2009 and 2010 November 2011
The homicide rate doubled from the early 1960s to the late 1970s, increasing from 4.6 per 100,000 U.S. residents in 1962 to 9.7 per 100,000 by 1979.  In 1980 the rate peaked at 10.2 per 100,000 and subsequently fell to 7.9 per 100,000 in 1984.  e rate rose again in the late 1980s and early 1990s to another  peak in 1991 of 9.8 per 100,000.  e homicide rate declined sharply from 9.3 homicides per  100,000 in 1992 to 4.8 homicides per 100,000 in 2010.  The number of homicides reached an all-time high of 24,703  homicides in 1991 then fell rapidly to 15,522 homicides by  1999...


Bryn A. Herrschaft, Zachary Hamilton
# Recidivism Among Parolees in New York City, 2001-2008 Center for Court Innovation NY November 2011
Parolees returning to New York City are predominantly male (91%), nonwhite (57% black and 35% Hispanic), and multiple-time offenders (10.6 prior  arrests and 7.3 prior convictions on average). In addition, 47% were imprisoned on drug  charges, 30% on violent felony charges, and 23% on other charges; and almost one-fourth (23%) had a previous parole episode on the same case that ended in re-incarceration. • Recidivism Rates: Over the three-year tracking period: The re-arrest rate was 53%. The re-conviction rate was 42%. o Almost one-third (29%) of the parolees had their parole revoked and were returned to prison (23% for a technical violation and 6% for a new felony conviction).


Duha T. Altindag
# Crime and Unemployment: Evidence from Europe
Auburn University, October 2011
The magnitude of the unemployment’s impact on crime is economically significant. For example, France, Italy or UK suffer about 25,000-30,000 additional larcenies, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts per year for one percentage point increase in the unemployment. Roughly, cost of each property crime is $46,000. Due to one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate, the French, Italian and British incur an extra crime cost of about $1.2-$1.4 billion according to the OLS estimates or $1.6 – $2.5 billion according to the 2SLS estimates.


Grant Duwe, Valerie Clar
# Blessed Be the Social Tie That Binds: The Effects of Prison Visitation on Offender Recidivism
Criminal Justice Policy Review, 2011
Prison visitation can improve recidivism outcomes by helping offenders not only maintain social ties with both nuclear and extended family members (especially fathers, siblings, and in-laws) while incarcerated but also develop new bonds such as those with clergy or mentors. In doing so, offenders can sustain or broaden their networks of social support, which we found was important in lowering recidivism.


Vera Institute of Justice
# Los Angeles County Jail Overcrowding Reduction Project. Final Report: Revised September 2011


M. Eric Ciotti # Rapport. Pour renforcer l’efficacité de l’exécution des peines
(Présenté en conclusion des travaux d’une mission confiée par le Président de la République) Juin 2011

Serge Portelli # Le rapport Ciotti est "émaillé de mensonges, contre-vérités et approximations" Le Monde,  07.06.2011
Nicole Borvo (PCF) # Rapport Ciotti : « une dérive dangereuse et inefficace »  l'Humanité le 7 juin 2011

Laura Thouny | # Prisons : le rapport Ciotti est "absurde" et "dangereux" l'Humanité le 7 juin 2011


Klara Kerezsi*, József Kó, Szilvia Antal | National Institute of Criminology, Budapest, Hungary
# The Social Costs of Crime and Crime Control
Beijing Law Review, 2011, 2, 74-87
Crime caused damage, or required state expenditure, worth 2807 million $ in the single year 2009. At the same time, from the comparison of the costs of crime and the amount spent by the state, we can establish that state expenditure in dealing with crime (163 million $) is around 512.8 million $ higher than the amount of damage caused by crime (1175 million $)...


Francesco Drago, Roberto Galbiati, Pietro Vertova
# Prison Conditions and Recidivism
American Law and Economics Review 2011
The authors examine the impact of prison conditions on future criminal behavior. The take over is based on a unique dataset on the post-release behavior of about twenty thousand Italian former prison inmates. The authors use variation in prison assignment as a means of identifying the effects of prison overcrowding, deaths in prison, and degree of isolation on the probability of reoffending. They do not find compellingevidence  of (specific) deterrent effects of experienced prison severity. The measures of prison severity do not reduce the probability of recidivism. Instead, all point estimates suggest that harsh prison conditions increase post-release criminal activity, though they are not always precisely estimated...


Leonidas K. Cheliotis
# Suffering at the Hands of the State Conditions of Imprisonment and Prisoner Health in Contemporary Greece
Queen Mary University of London, School of Law - Legal Studies Research Paper No. 82/2011

Against the background of an immense growth in the use of imprisonment in Greece over the last three decades or so, it is shown that prison establishments are greatly overcrowded and material conditions of detention are deplorable. Healthcare provision is minimal, and the prevalence of serious transmittable diseases and mental disorders amongst prisoner populations is high, as are the rates of deliberate self-harm, suicide, and death more generally. Indeed, the officially recorded incidence of prisoner deaths has risen at a faster pace than imprisonment itself.

# Greece ICPS


Giovanni Torrente

# Tribunali di Sorveglianza e giurisprudenza in materia di concessione di misure alternative
VIII rapporto Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione in Italia, 2011

Il presente studio si è occupato di analizzare la giurisprudenza di undici tribunali di sorveglianza in relazione alla concessione di misure alternative alla pena detentiva. Nello specifico, l'analisi ha riguardato i dati statistici raccolti dai singoli tribunali in relazione ai provvedimenti emessi a seguito di istanza volta alla concessione di misure alternative. In particolare, l'analisi qui proposta riguarda quattro fra le principali misure alternative: l'affidamento in prova ai servizi sociali, l'affidamento ex art. 94 del DPR 309/90, la detenzione domiciliare e la semilibertà.


Joan Petersilia
# Beyond the Prison Bubble
NIJ Journal / Issue No. 268 October 2011
The announcement last summer that the number of Americans behind bars had increased for the 37th consecutive year in 2009 provoked a fresh round of grim editorializing and national soulsearching. With its prisons and jails now holding more than 2.4 million inmates — roughly one in every 100 adults — the United States has the highest incarceration rate of any free nation. As a proportion of its population, the United States incarcerates five times more people than Britain, nine times more than Germany, and 12 times more than Japan. “No other rich country is nearly as punitive as the Land of the Free,” The Economist has declared.


Fair Trials International
# Detained without trial: Fair Trials International’s response to the European Commission’s Green Paper on detention | # Appendix 2 Pre-trial Detention Comparative Research October 2011
Pre-trial detention is defined differently across the EU; this report defines pre-trial detention as the time spent in
detention between charge and sentencing. he total prison population of the EU is estimated to be 643,000. Overcrowding is severe with over half of the 27 Member States running prisons with occupancy levels above capacity and the average occupancy level for EU prisons at 108%. Bulgaria‟s prisons are operating at 156% capacity, Italy‟s at 149% capacity and Spain‟s at 138%. Overcrowding exacerbates poor prison conditions. There are approximately 132,800 pre-trial detainees in the EU, which represents approximately 21% of the total EU prison population.


Roberto Nicastro
# Hotel carcere
Le due città, ottobre 2011
Ogni anno 40mila persone passano in cella meno di sei mesi: è il fenomeno della porta girevole, una delle cause maggiori del sovraffollamento


European Commission
# Green Paper. Strengthening mutual trust in the European judicial area – A Green Paper on the application of EU criminal justice legislation in the field of detention

Brussels, 14.6.2011 - COM(2011) 327 final

Probation measures and alternatives to imprisonment would be available in all legal
systems across the Union. These measures may then have to be promoted at Union level for a proper and efficient application of the rules by Member States...

Pre-trial detention in the context of this Green Paper covers the period until the sentence is final19. Pre-trial detention is a measure of an exceptional nature in all Member States' judicial systems...


Smart on Crime Coalition | The Constitution Project (TCP)
# Smart on Crime: Recommendations for the Administration and Congress
The Constitution Project 2011
The Coalition is comprised of more than 40 organizations and individuals, who participated in developing policy recommendations across 16 broad issue areas. These organizations and individuals represent the leading voices in criminal justice policy. Coalition members focus their efforts on such diverse and varied areas as combating unnecessary expansions of criminal law, advocating for improvements to investigatory and forensic science standards, ensuring that persons accused of crimes have an opportunity to receive a fair trial, helping persons who have served their sentences successfully reenter their communities, and protecting the rights and dignity of victims of crime.Our dedication to exploring all options means that Smart on Crime focuses on providing non-ideological, cost-effective, and evidence-based solutions to address the worst problems in our system...


Jennifer l. Truman
# National Crime Victimization Survey. Criminal Victimization, 2010
Bureau of Justice Statistics, Bulletin September 2011

 the rate of total violent crime victimizations declined by 13% in 2010, which was about three times the average annual decrease observed from 2001 through 2009 (4%).  the decline in the rate of simple assault accounted for about 82% of the total decrease in the rate of violent victimization in 2010.  in 2010 the property victimization rate declined by 6%, compared to the average annual decrease of 3% observed from 2001 through 2009.  From 2001 to 2010, weapon violence (26% to 22%) and stranger-perpetrated violence (44% to 39%) declined.  Between 2001 and 2010, about 6% to 9% of all violent victimization were committed with fi rearms. this percentage has remained stable since 2004.  after a slight overall decline from 2001 to 2008, the percentage of victims of violent crimes who suffered an injury during the victimization increased from 24% in 2008 to 29% in 2010.  about 50% of all violent victimizations and nearly 40% of property crimes were reported to the police in 2010. these percentages have remained stable over the past 10 years.  males (15.7 per 1,000) and females (14.2 per 1,000) had similar rates of violent victimization during 2010.


Steven N. Durlauf, Daniel S. Nagin
# The Deterrent Effect of Imprisonment
in Philip J. Cook, Jens Ludwig, Justin McCrary (eds),Controlling Crime: Strategies and Tradeoffs
University of Chicago Press, September 2011
The magnitude of deterrent effects depends critically on the specifi c form of the sanction policy. In particular, there is little evidence that increases in the severity of punishment yield strong marginal deterrent effects; further, credible arguments can be advanced that current levels of severity cannot be justifi ed by their social and economic costs and benefi ts. By contrast there is very substantial evidence that increases in the certainty of punishment produce substantial deterrent effects.


Marina Minster
# Comparative Analysis of Legal Status of Women Sentenced to Deprivation of Freedom in Russia and in the USA
VARSTVOSLOVJE, Journal of Criminal Justice and Security, year 13 no. 4 pp. 418-430 : 2011
Governmental tendencies are oriented now to the humanization of system of criminal sanctions, the way of its execution and to the increase of amount of punishments alternative to the deprivation of freedom. However, deprivation of freedom is the most widespread type of punishment nowadays.Women form rather a small part of the total amount of prisoners in the world. Women usually form from 2 to 9% of all prisoners of the country but in some cases this indicator can be higher of number of imprisoned women but according to the research in some countries this increase has a faster rate than the increase of amount of imprisoned men. For example, in the USA the amount of women incarcerated for more than one year had increased to 757% since 1977 to 2004 what is practically twice as much as 388% growth of the amount of men. In Australia since 1984 to 2003 the amount of incarcerated men had increased to 74%, the amount of incarcerated women had significantly increased to 209%. This tendency in 1994-2003 was also in Mexico, in Bolivia, in Colombia, in Kenya, in New Zealand and in Kirghizstan and in some European governments such as Cyprus, Estonia, Finland,Greece and Netherlands...


Leopold Sudaryono

# Reform at the Doorstep of Prisons in Indonesia
August 10, 2011

The number of inmates in Indonesia's prisons almost doubled between 2003 and 2008... In 2009, the correctional system was able to discharge 24,000 inmates after streamlining parole procedures so that inmates could exercise their legal right to early release. However, that same year, the prison population still increased by 5,000 inmates – to a total of 124,000 people – due to an increase in number of people arrested and prosecuted.


# Prison Statistics Indonesia


The American Society of Criminology.
Special Issue on Mass Incarceration Criminology & Public Policy Volume 10 Issue 3, August 2011


Iran Human Rights
Annual Report: Death Penalty in Iran 2011

Prison Statistics Iran


David Gould, Jason Hainsworth, Kevin Manning, Toni McLackland
# Finishing the job: providing a roadmap for post release education
Australasian Journal of Correctional Staff Development, v. 6, 2011
Different forms of community based education and employment support programs for offenders have been implemented in numerous jurisdictions, both in Australia and internationally... Pre and post release employment support for up to 12 months. 82% reduction in ‘offences per day’ reported (measure of recidivism by frequency over time)...


Grupo PRECA (Prevalencia Carceles)

# Informe prevalencia de trastornos mentales en centros penitenciarios españoles. (Estudio PRECA)

Barcelona Junio 2011

La prevalencia vida y del último mes de los trastornos mentales según criterios DSM-IV se muestran en la tabla 2. La prevalencia vida de presentar cualquier trastorno mental fue del 84,4%. El trastorno por uso de sustancias fue el más frecuente (76,2%)
seguido del trastorno de ansiedad (45,3%), trastorno afectivo (41%) y trastorno psicótico (10,7%).
Entre los reclusos con trastorno por uso de sustancias (abuso o dependencia) los más frecuentes fueron los trastornos por consumo de alcohol y cocaína (Tabla 2). Entre los trastornos inducidos por sustancias el más prevalente a lo largo de la vida fue el trastorno de ansiedad (16,1%), seguido del trastorno afectivo (15,8%) y del trastorno psicótico (7,1%).
La prevalencia en el último mes de presentar cualquier trastorno mental fue del 41,2%. El trastorno más prevalente fue el de ansiedad (23,3%) seguido del trastorno por uso de sustancias (17,5%), trastorno afectivo (14,9%) y trastorno psicótico (4,2%). Dentro de las categorías mencionadas previamente, los trastornos más frecuentes fueron el trastorno por uso de cannabis (14,4%), trastorno de ansiedad no especificado (9,2%) y el trastorno depresivo mayor (7,8%).


Fondazione ICSA - Intelligence Culture and Strategic Analysis
Rapporto sulla criminalità e la sicurezza in Italia 2010 (a cura di Marzio Barbagli e Asher Colombo)
1^ edizione luglio 2011
Alla ricerca di spiegazioni: la recente crescita del numero di detenuti ha ridotto la criminalità? È bene chiarire che è molto difficile valutare il ruolo delle pene, e tra queste dell’incarcerazione, come fattore di controllo, di deterrenza e di neutralizzazione eventualmente svolto dal carcere nei confronti della criminalità...


Ministry of Justice
# Reporting of deaths in custody. Ministry of Justice Technical note: discussion of measurement of trends in deaths in custody – standardised mortality rates methodology 28 July 2011


Prison Reform Trust
# Reforming Women’s Justice. Final report of the Women’s Justice Taskforce London 2011
Custody not only proves ineffective in many cases, it is also expensive. The Taskforce heard that the average cost of a women’s prison place is £56,415 per annum. By contrast, an intensive community order that commands the confidence of the police and the courts could cost in the region of £10,000 - £15,000. With this report, we are presenting an assessment of the costs and benefits of women’s imprisonment, community penalties and women’s centres. If work to reduce women's offending were better integrated across governmant and more strategic, it could pay dividends - not only by getting vulnerable women out of trouble but also by tackling costly inter-generational crime.


S. Harrendorf, M. Heiskanen, S. Malby (eds) | European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control | United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
# International Statistics on Crime and Justice Helsinki 2010
Global homicide levels: Data previously published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime suggests that approximately 490,000 deaths from intentional homicide occurred in 2004 (Geneva Declaration 2008). This represented a world average homicide rate in 2004 of 7.6 per 100,000 population. The dataset used for this calculation focused on maximum geographic coverage at the expense of more recently available data for some countries in order to produce a single global dataset for one point in time... In order to represent the distribution of this nearly half a million annual homicides by regions of the world...


Christian Mouhanna
# La coordination des politiques judiciaires et penitentiaire. Une analyse des relations entre monde judiciaire et administration pénitentiaire Juin 2011
La schizophrénie organisationnelle. La description détaillée de toutes ces interactions entre monde judiciaire et administration pénitentiaire nous montre donc un monde assez éclaté, traversé par des tensions, des logiques plus ou moins convergentes, de la coopération et aussi souvent des dilemmes. Dans ce système humain où tous les acteurs sont interdépendants entre eux, les objectifs ne sont pas tous partagés. La logique répressive s’oppose à celle de la réinsertion sociale, celle de l’enfermement à celle de l’évitement de l’incarcération, celle de l’automatisation à celle du « cas par cas ». La difficulté pour bien appréhender l’impact de ces diverses logiques dans le système et ainsi pouvoir aisément le décrypter provient du fait que les rôles qu’occupent les uns et les autres dans leur fonction ne sont pas figés...


Ignacio González Sánchez
# Aumento de presos y Código Penal: una explicación insuficiente
Revista Electrónica de Ciencia Penal y Criminología 12 junio 2011
En los últimos 30 años la cantidad de personas que se encuentran encerradas en las prisiones de nuestro país se ha multiplicado, pasando de haber 8440 presos en 1975 a haber cerca de ocho veces más, 67.100 presos, en 2007 (en mayo de 2010 ya se habían alcanzado los 76.951 presos).... El crecimiento ha sido pronunciado, pasando de 23’59 presos/100.000 habitantes a 148’45 presos/100.000 habitantes en 2007. Es decir, es seis veces mayor...


Adalberto Carim Antonio
# Les peines alternatives dans le monde Université de Limoges, 24 juin 2011

L’utilité et l’importance des peines alternatives doivent être distinguées non seulement face au phénomène de la fallite des peines privatives de liberté, mais aussi parce que les delits les plus pénalisés dans le système de justice pénale en général sont ceux qui peuvent avoir ses peines efficacement remplacés par des mesures et des peines alternatives, et qui, malheureusement, ne le sont pas, exposant les délinquants à tous types de maux causés par l’immersion dans le monde souterrain de la criminalité répandu dans les prisons.


Claire Duchemin
# European Inventory on Validation of Nonformal and Informal Learning 2010. Case Study: Validation of prior learning: a stepping stone for the reintegration of inmates into society (Norway) 2010

The three-year project ‘Validation of prior learning in prison education’was developed simultaneously in five Norwegian counties. It was led in each case by one prison and one upper secondary school. It aimed to use validation of prior learning (VPL) to provide inmates with an education that is adapted to their backgrounds and needs. Education and training is considered in Norway to be a key element in prison rehabilitation efforts. As prison education should be on par with education and training in the rest of society, it is thought that it should also keep pace with recent developments, such as VPL. 


Annie Kensey, Abdelmalik Benaouda (DAP/PMJ5)
# Les risques de récidive des sortants de prison. Une nouvelle évaluation
Cahiers d’études pénitentiaires et criminologiques - mai 2011 - n. 36

Ce cahier présente les premiers résultats d’une nouvelle recherche sur la récidive menée sur un échantillon national en 2011 des sortants de prison entre le 1er juin et le 31 décembre 2002. Les différences de risque de récidive les plus significatives sont liées au sexe, les femmes ayant une probabilité deux fois plus faible que les hommes d’avoir une nouvelle condamnation dans les cinq ans après la sortie de prison ; à l'âge, les mineurs ayant un risque nettement plus élevé et les personnes âgés de plus de 50 ans plus faible de récidiver que les jeunes majeurs de 18 à 30 ans. Par définition, ces risques de récidive sont liés aux antécédents pénaux : on constate que là où il y a plusieurs condamnations antérieures la probabilité du prononcé d’une nouvelle condamnation est quatre fois plus élevée que dans le cas d’une condamnation unique.

# Franck Johannès, L'absence d'aménagement de peine aggrave le risque de récidive des sortants de prison, Le Monde | 14.10.2011


Laura E. Gorgol, Brian A. Sponsler
# Unlocking Potential: Results of a National Survey of Postsecondary Education in State Prisons Institute for Higher Education Policy, May 2011
Despite the positive outcomes associated with postsecondary correctional education (PSCE), discussion of postsecondary opportunity for the nation’s prison population is notably absent from the top tier of state and federal policy agendas. This lack of topline policy attention to PSCE is detrimental to the country—postsecondary education has a critical role to play in mitigating challenging social conditions exacerbated by high incarceration levels.  


Annie Kensey, René Lévy, A. Benaouda
# Reoffending after an EM measure | La récidive des placés sous surveillance électronique 6 mai 2011


BIS Department for Business Innovation & Skills | Ministry of Justice
# Making Prisons Work: Skills for Rehabilitation. Review of Offender Learning / May 2011

Re-offending blights lives and communities, carrying personal, social and economic costs of between £9.5 billion and £13 billion a year. Enabling offenders to have the skills that will make them attractive to employers so that they can find and keep jobs on release or whilst  serving a community sentence – becoming an asset rather than a burden to society – makes sense. Whilst our investment in giving offenders the skills they need to help them get and keep jobs is significant, it is a fraction of the prize on offer to all of us if we can prevent the creation of future victims of crime, with the associated economic and social costs, by cutting their reoffending.


Anne Costelloe, Torfinn Langelid, Walter Hammerschick, Eduard Matt | GHK
# Prison education and training in Europe - a review and commentary of existing literature, analysis and evaluation. Directorate General for Education and Culture, European Commission 6 May 2011
The theme „prison as a positive environment for learning‟ is grounded in the assumption that education and training should be integral to and integrated into all aspects of the prison regime. The theme also assumes that prison education and training have a significant role to play in the daily life of the prisoner as well as significant consequences for resettlement on release. The idea of „prison as a positive environment for learning‟ is wide-reaching and  the application of the concept appears to vary considerably from country to country.


Adam Asmundo
# Indicatori e costi di criminalità mafiosa. Analisi ed evidenze empiriche, 2004-2007
Originriamente in AA. VV., Alleanze nell’ombra. Mafie ed economie locali in Sicilia e nel Mezzogiorno, Donzelli, 2011


Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
# Making Prisons Work: Skills for Rehabilitation, May 2011

Re-offending blights lives and communities, as well as carrying significant social and economic costs: the National Audit Office assessed the cost of re-offending by recent prisoners in 2007- 08 as between £9.5 billion and £13 billion a year. Around half of all crime is committed by people who have already been convicted of a criminal offence. Improving the skills of offenders, focussed on the requirements of real jobs, is critical to reducing re-offending, alongside addressing other factors that drive crime such as substance misuse, mental health issues, poor accommodation, family issues and poverty. Evidence shows that prison education and vocational interventions produce a net benefit to the public sector ranging from £2,000 to £28,000 per offender (or from £10,500 to £97,000 per offender when victim costs are included): we are determined to secure those savings for the public purse.


Greg Berman
# A Thousand Small Sanities. Crime Control Lessons from New York 2011
As is typical of New York City, this patchwork of alternative programmes has emerged organically without centralised planning. Some are funded by  the city. Some are funded by the state. And some rely on federal funding or private donations. The field is constantly evolving as new problems emerge and new gaps in services are identified. A particular area of focus at the moment is using risk and needs assessments to allocate scarce resources where they are most needed. The latest research suggests that there needs to be a continuum of non-incarcerative interventions for offenders, with the most intensive options reserved for populations that are both high-risk and high-need...


Justice Policy Institute
# Finding direction: Expanding Criminal Justice Options By Considering Policies of Other Nations April 2011

Despite dropping crime rates and evidence that incarceration is neither the most effective nor the most efficient means of preserving public safety,incarceration in the United States continues to grow; since 1980 the number of people in prison has increased 458 percent. During this difficult economic time, the U.S. federal government and states alike have been looking to save scarce resources by significantly reducing incarceration rates. However, to date, alternatives to our current policies and practices which are contributing to these rates have not been implemented on a large scale.


Pew Center on the States
# State of Recidivism. The Revolving Door of America’s Prisons
April 2011
According to the survey results, 45.4  percent of people released from prison  in 1999 and 43.3 percent of those sent  home in 2004 were reincarcerated within three years, either for committing a new crime or for violating conditions governing their release...  When excluding California, whose size skews the national picture, recidivism rates between 1994 and 2007 have consistently remained around 40 percent.


Christian Arment
# Is Incarceration Still the Answer? The Impact of Current Policies & Possible Alternatives
Truman Policy Research, Report 04-2011, March 2011
The substantial increase in incarceration rates appears to have played only a minor role in the decline in crime, and there is evidence for diminishing returns for each new incarceration. The research done in the state of Washington demonstrates how sending nonviolent drug-offenders to prison actually costs more than the financial gains of the crimes averted. Furthermore, incarceration actually increases the reoffense rate for some offenders. The financial impact of our growing inmate population is obvious when you consider the growth in corrections budgets is exceeded only by the growth in the Medicaid budgets.


Ministry of Justice
# Adult re-convictions: results from the 2009 cohort - England and Wales
Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin March 2011
The starting point for the re-conviction indicators (see Appendix B for more information) is to take all offenders discharged from custody or commencing a court order supervised by the probation service (aged 18+ at discharge or commencement) in the 1st quarter of a year (between 1 January and 31 March). Offenders are then matched to the Police National Computer and their criminal history is collated and criminal behaviour is tracked over the following one year. Any offence committed in this one-year period which is proven by a court conviction (either in the one-year period, or in a further six months) counts as a re-conviction. This enables us to calculate the frequency rate, the number of most serious offences and the re-conviction rate.


Giovanni Fossa, Uberto Gatti
# Il carcere e l’esecuzione penale in Italia nell’ultimo decennio
Rassegna italiana di criminologia, n. 3, 2011
Un punto certo è che le carceri – da almeno dodici anni – non hanno mai ospitato una percentuale così elevata di detenuti definitivi con residuo pena inferiore ai tre anni, che è la pre-condizione per la stragrande maggioranza dei condannati per poter essere considerati ammissibili alle misure alternative. Una analisi dettagliata delle cifre dimostra che nel 2009, in particolare, ogni tre detenuti definitivi uno deve scontare meno di un anno di reclusione, un altro da uno a tre anni e un terzo detenuto oltre tre anni


Prison Reform Trust
# Breaking the Cycle: Effective Punishment, Rehabilitation and Sentencing of Offenders March 2011
The current adversarial approach to crime is very expensive and produces a poor return in terms of victim satisfaction and reoffending rates. The Prison Reform Trust supports the proposed increased use of diversionary restorative justice approaches for adults and young people and believes such approaches should be given far greater prominence than is apparent from the green paper. The Making Amendsix report demonstrates that  restorative approaches can transform criminal justice, for the benefit of victims and public safety...


Kriminal Forsorgen
# The Danish Prison and Probation Service – in brief 2011

The Prison and Probation Service has activities at almost 80 locations all over Denmark, including at 10 locations in Greenland and on the Faroe Islands. Prisoners per 100,000 inhabitants: 71 | Total number of places in state and local prisons: 4,120 | Capacity utilisation, management target: 92 % (but 96 % for 2011) | Prisoners per day serving sentences: 2,460 | Remand prisoners per day: 1,380 | Female prisoners per day: 170 | Detained asylum-seekers per day: 50 | Young offenders under the age of 18 per day: 20 | Inmates with an ethnic background other than Danish: 33% | Admissions per year: 14,500


Peter Katel

# Downsizing Prisons

CQ Researcher March 11, 2011 Judith Greene


Judith Greene - Marc Mauer
# Downscaling Prisons. Lessons from Four States
The Sentencing Project - Research and Advocacy for Reform - Washington 2010

It is particularly instructive to examine the four states that are the focus
of this report – Kansas, Michigan, New Jersey, and New York. In contrast to the 12% growth in state prison populations since 2000, these states have actually achieved significant declines in their prison populations in recent years, and therefore offer lessons to policymakers in other states about how this can be accomplished. These declines have spanned the following periods: • New York: A 20% reduction from 72,899 to 58,456 from 1999 to 2009 • Michigan: A 12% reduction from 51,577 to 45,478, from 2006 to 2009 • New Jersey: A 19% reduction from 31,493 to 25,436, from 1999 to 2009 • Kansas: A 5% reduction from 9,132 to 8,644, from 2003 to 2009




Andrew Webber
# Literature Review: Cost of Crime December 2010

Consider a program that costs $50,000 and prevents 20 assaults and 40 thefts. If the relevant cost of an assault is $1,000 and the cost of a theft is $500, then the overall benefits generated (costs avoided) by the program are $1,000 x 20 + $500 x 40 = $40,000. Since benefits are less than the costs of the program, the program should probably not be continued. However, if the cost of an assault was $2,000 and the cost of a theft is $750, then the benefits of the program would be $2,000 x 20 + $750 x 40 = $70,000, well above the costs. In this case, the program can be considered a success from society’s point of view....


Erwin James
# Cost of re-offending is around £11bn - prison is a colossal failure Thursday 4 November 2010
The average annual cost of keeping someone in prison is around £45,000. For some years it has been estimated that the financial cost to society of re-offending is around £11bn (the human cost, of course, is incalculable). By any measure the evidence is clear – prison as we have been using it is a colossal failure.


Charles M. Blow
# High Cost of Crime OCT. 8, 2010
They also calculated that each rape costs $448,532, each robbery $335,733, each aggravated assault $145,379 and each burglary $41,288. By their estimates, more than 18,000 homicides that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recorded in 2007 alone will cost us roughly $300 billion. That’s about as much as we’ve spent over nine years fighting the war in Afghanistan...


Shadd Maruna, Thomas P. LeBel
# The desistance paradigm in correctional practice: from programs to lives
In McNeill, F. Raynor, P., & Trotter, C. (Eds.) Offender Supervision: New Directions in Theory, Research and Practice. Cullompton, UK: Willan 2010

We describe an emerging way of thinking about evidence-based practice, sometimes referred to as the ‘desistance paradigm’; this approach focuses less on evaluation evidence of ‘what works’, and instead draws from criminological research on ‘how change works’. We begin by outlining what we see as the key features of this paradigm and contrast it to the traditional correctional paradigm.


V. Carrasco, O. Timbart
# Les condamnés de 2007 en état de récidive ou de réitération
Infostat Justice, September 2010
La rapprochement, par type de crime, des deux termes de la réitération montre une assez faible «spécialisation». En effet, même si les auteurs de vols criminels sont près de 60 % à avoir précédemment été condamnés pour une atteinte aux biens, il n’en est pas de même pour les auteurs d’homicides ou de violences criminelles qui sont seulement 18,2 % à avoir déjà commis ce type d’infraction ou les auteurs de viols qui sont 12,4 % à avoir été condamnés précédemment pour une atteinte sexuelle.


Fergus McNeill, Beth Weaver
# Changing Lives? Desistance Research and Offender Management June 2010
We have tried to articulate below not a prescriptive manual for supporting desistance in practice, but rather a practice process or framework (the ‘offender supervision spine’). This initial articulation of the process or framework is designed to support practitioners to engage with both general evidence about desistance and with specific attention to understanding and supporting individualised desistance pathways. The central suggestion here is that practitioners need to be able to develop, apply and test individualised ‘theories of change’ on a case by case basis, rather than applying homogenised theories of change (based on generalisations about ‘what works’ to support desistance) to groups of offenders.


Antonio Salvati
# L’emergenza del sovraffollamento carcerario
Amministrazione in Cammino, 20 aprile 2010
Il problema del sovraffollamento è in sostanza una questione di legalità “perché nulla è più disastroso che far vivere chi non ha recepito il senso di legalità e, quindi, ha commesso reati, in una situazione di palese non corrispondenza tra quanto normativamente definito e quanto attuato e vissuto”2. Il sovraffollamento, inoltre, non è solo un problema di spazio vitale individuale, ma ha effetti negativi sul processo di reintegrazione e di conseguenza sulla recidiva e sulla sicurezza della comunità esterna. Ciò è paradossale, poiché il sovraffollamento è spesso la conseguenza di una richiesta mai soddisfatta di sicurezza che viene da una società paurosa che guarda ai cancelli chiusi del carcere come alla risposta al proprio allarme e alle proprie difficoltà sociali mentre, al contrario, questa richiesta si ritorce in una situazione meno sicura.


Antonio Salvati
# La detenzione femminile 2010

La presenza delle donne negli istituti penitenziari viene analizzata solitamente nel confronto con la preponderante componente maschile. Gli sforzi di  comprensione sembrano concentrarsi più sul perché le donne siano poche, che non sulla realtà in sé. Il fatto che le donne detenute siano meno rispetto agli uomini tende a far considerare la condizione maschile come norma, riproducendo la subalternità concettuale della donna, la sua assimilazione ad una generalità che non è generale. Forse anche a causa dell’esiguità della percentuale di donne detenute, rimasta pressoché costantemente attestata intorno al 5% delle presenze complessive 3 , si riscontra un’evidente difficoltà a elaborare accorgimenti organizzativi e offerte riabilitative idonei a cogliere e valorizzare la specificità della popolazione detenuta femminile.


Franklin E. Zimring
# The scale of imprisonment in the United States: Twentieth century patterns and twenty-first century prospects
The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, vol. 100 n. 3, 2010
Just as theories of stability of punishment followed sustained periods of little change in prison population, a concern with explaining wide variations in rates of imprisonment grew out of the fourfold expansion of rates of imprisonment in the United States in the generation after 1970. Among the long list of unanswered questions about the determinants of rates of imprisonment is whether the dramatic rise in prison population over the past decades is a new norm for the scale of imprisonment or a precursor to significant declines in the rates of imprisonment in the early decades of a new century.


Franklin E. Zimring
# The City that Became Safe: New York and the Future of Crime Control April 8, 2010

New York’s decrease in serious crime is unprecedented among America’s biggest cities. In the 1990s the entire country experienced the largest documented crime decline of the twentieth century, in which the typical big city experienced approximately 35 to 40% reductions in felonies. But in most urban areas the downward trend ended around the year 2000. In contrast, Zimring notes that New York’s decline has so far lasted twice as long, and the average felony rate drop has been twice as large. The city’s felony rates have plunged by an average of about 80%, and they have continued to stay at that low level or to decrease even further in the post-2000 period.


Robert J. Sampson, Charles Loeffler
# Punishment’s place: the local concentration of mass incarceration
Daedalus. 2010 ; 139(3): 20–31
Concentrated incarceration may have the unintended consequence of increasing crime rates through its negative impact on the labor market and social-capital prospects of former prisoners. What is more, evidence shows that neighborhood context plays a major role in the recidivism rates of ex-prisoners. The integration of prisoner release programs and efforts to build community capacity are important steps for policy. Along with policy reform, efforts to destigmatize and achieve justice for communities are crucial to overcoming the vicious cycle of crime production, victimization, incapacitation, and disadvantage.


Natalie Hearn
# Theory of Desistance 2010
Upon review of the literature on desistance from crime one common area of discourse is in defining what is meant by desistance, how do we measure and recognise desistance. Desistance is a difficult area for criminologists to observe as it is not an event that happens, but the absence of events... 


FNARS (Fédération nationale des associations d'accueil et de réinsertion sociale)
# Les aménagements de peine et mesures alternatives à l’incarcération. Les apports de la loi pénitentiaire Juin 2010
L’augmentation constante de la population carcérale ces dernières années a fait prendre conscience aux autorités publiques des problèmes posés par l’enfermement systématique : surpopulation, difficultés de réinsertion, etc. Pour lutter contre ce phénomène, dès 2004, les sanctions  non carcérales et les aménagements de peine sont encouragés. Cependant on observe que l’emprisonnement reste la peine de référence. De nouvelles législations, mais aussi les politiques pénales prônent le prononcé des peines privatives de liberté. Il est dans l’intérêt de la société et de la personne condamnée, de développer les aménagements de peine et autres mesures alternatives à l’incarcération. En effet, elles participent à réduire les tensions liées à l’augmentation de la population carcérale, et contribuent efficacement et de manière progressive à la réinsertion de la personne condamnée (permissions, placement sous surveillance électronique, libération conditionnelle, placement extérieur, semi-liberté…).


Matthew DeMichele
# Three Worlds of Western Punishment: A Regime Theory of Cross-National Incarceration Rate Variation, 1960-2002
University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations, Paper 89, 2010
This dissertation offers an explanation of cross national incarceration rate variation for 17 industrialized countries for the second half of the 20th century. Both historical case studies and time-series cross-section analyses are used to provide an institutional explanation of incarceration rate differences. Borrowing from Weber’s Sociology of Law and comparative legal scholarship, it is suggested that three types of legal thinking exist among western democracies— ommon, Romano-Germanic, and Nordic law. A regime approach commonly applied in political economic explanations of welfare state development is used to quantify the legal and criminal justice institutional differences between 1960 and 2002 to assert that there are ‘three worlds of western punishment’ in the post-War period...


Ryan McNamara, Linda Bynoe
# Education in American Prisons: A Review of the Literature
California State University Monterey Bay , May 20, 2010
The purpose of this study is to understand how education programs in prison can benefit both prisoners and society in an America with a perennially rising prison population comprised of less educated individuals and budget cuts on education programs within prisons... . The findings indicate a correlation with participation in educational programs in prison with reduced recidivism rates, an improvement in the environment of the prisons themselves, and an increased likelihood of the children of prisoners becoming educated along with other positive outcomes.


Margaret E. Shippen, David E. Houchins, Steven A. Crites, Nicholas C. Derzis, Dashaunda Patterson
# An Examination of the Basic Reading Skills of Incarcerated Males
Adult Learning, Sum-Fall 2010
The more that is known about the literacy abilities of prisoners that greater the chances are that effective and efficient educational programming can be developed for this population of adults. Increased literacy skills have the potential to improve the overall quality of life of these men and enhance society by reducing recidivism rates and the costs associated with incarceration.


The Pew Charitable Trusts | The Economic Mobility Project - The Public Safety Performance Project

# Prison Count 2010. State Population Declines for the First Time in 38 Years
Revised April 2010
For the first time in nearly 40 years, the number of state prisoners in the United States has declined. Survey data compiled by the Public Safety Performance Project of the Pew Center on the States, in partnership with the Association of State Correctional Administrators, indicate that as of January 1, 2010, there were 1,404,053 persons under the jurisdiction of state prison authorities, 4,777 (0.3 percent) fewer than there were on December 31, 2008. This marks the first year-to-year drop in the state prison population since 1972. In this period, however, the nation’s total prison population increased by 2,061 people because of a jump in the number of inmates under the jurisdiction of the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The federal count rose by 6,838 prisoners, or 3.4 percent in 2009, to an all-time high of 208,118.


The Pew Charitable Trusts | The Economic Mobility Project - The Public Safety Performance Project
# Collateral Costs: Incarceration’s Effect on Economic Mobility 2010

The findings in this report should give policy makers reason to reflect. The price of prisons in state and federal budgets represents just a fraction of the overall cost of incarcerating such a large segment of our society. The collateral consequences are tremendous and far-reaching, and as this report illuminates with fresh data and analysis, they include substantial and lifelong damage to the ability of former inmates, their families and their children to earn a living wage, move up the income ladder and pursue the American Dream.


Prison Reform Trust | The All-Party Parliamentary Penal Affairs Group
# Too Many Prisoners Prison Reform Trust 2010
With the prison population at an all time high of around 85,000 and plans for further considerable expansion of the estate... This report revives the title of the group’s first publication in 1980 Too Many Prisoners. At that time the prison population in England and Wales stood at 44,000, a level that the then Home Secretary described as “dangerously high”... With an imprisonment rate of 154 per 100,000 England and Wales has become the top incarcerator in Western Europe. Rates in more moderate France and Germany are 96 and 88 per 100,000. Fevered prison building, at £170,000 per place, is now set to propel us past most of our Eastern European neighbours. It is hoped that this review will prove helpful in allowing parliamentarians an opportunity to pause and reflect on both the pace and nature of change...


John Schmitt, Kris Warner, Sarika Gupta
# The High Budgetary Cost of Incarceration
Center for Economic and Policy Research CEPR June 2010
U.S. incarceration rates are also high by our own historical standards. From 1880 to 1970 incarceration rates ranged between about 100 and 200 per 100,000. From around 1980, however, the prison and jail population began to grow much more rapidly than the overall population, climbing from about 220 (per 100,000) in 1980, to 458 in 1990, to 683 in 2000, and finally to 753 by 2008... In 2008, federal, state, and local governments spent nearly $75 billion on corrections, with the large majority on incarceration. Figure 6 breaks down total corrections costs across the three levels of government and illustrates that by far the largest share of the costs of corrections are borne by state and local governments. State governments house about 60 percent of inmates and account for about the same share of total correction expenditures. Local governments hold about one third of all inmates and make not quite one third of total corrections spending. The federal government, which holds less than 10 percent of the inmate population, spends just under 10 percent of total national corrections expenditures.


Alicia Bannon, Mitali Nagrecha, Rebekah Diller | Brennan Center for Justice
# Criminal Justice Debt: A Barrier to Reentry 2010
Criminal justice debt and collection practices are different in each state, but in our analysis of fifteen states’ practices, several themes emerged. Many of the problems described in this report arise from states’ failure to provide indigence waivers for criminal justice debt. States also consistently failed to consider the costs – both human and financial – of aggressive collection practices, including arrests, incarceration, the extension of probation terms, and the suspension of driver’s licenses. Several collections practices also raised serious constitutional concerns.


Florida Department of Corrections | Bureau of Research and Data Analysis
# 2009 Florida Prison Recidivism Study Releases From 2001 to 2008 May 2010
This study finds that results for Florida are generally consistent with existing research of the factors that influence recidivism. The Bureau of Justice Statistics report, "Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994 (2002)" shows overall recidivism rates for releases from 15 different states. That report shows a 51.8% recidivism rate (return to prison for any reason within three years)for this group of inmates...


United Nations Asia and Far East Institute for the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders (UNAFEI)
# Effective Countermeasures against Overcrowding of Correctional Facilities

Fuchu, Tokyo, Japan March 2010 -

- Sanction Policies and Alternative Measures to Incarceration – European Experiences with Intermediate and Alternative Criminal Penalties

- Overcrowding: Causes, Consequences and Reduction Strategies - Maintaining Standards, Decency and Human Rights in Overcrowded Times - Current Regime of Imprisonment in Brazil and Effective Countermeasures against Overcrowding of Correctional Facilities - Overcrowding of Prison Populations – The Nepalese Perspective - Sentencing and Alternative Punishment - Post-Sentencing Disposition and Treatment Measures


National Audit Office NAO
# Managing offenders on short custodial sentences 10 march 2010
Short-sentenced prisoners are most commonly convicted of theft and violence offences. On average, they have 16 previous convictions, which is more than any other group of offenders. They are also more likely to re-offend: around 60 per cent are convicted of at least one offence in the year after release. Based on previous work by the Home Office, we estimate that, in 2007-08, re-offending by all recent ex-prisoners  cost the economy between £9.5 billion and £13 billion and that as much as three quarters of this cost can be attributed to former short-sentenced prisoners: some £7 billion to £10 billion a year.


Jörg-Martin Jehle, Stefan Harrendorf (eds.) | Marcelo F. Aebi, Bruno Aubusson de Cavarlay, Gordon Barclay, Beata Gruszczyńska, Stefan Harrendorf, Markku Heiskanen, Vasilika Hysi, Véronique Jaquier, Jörg-Martin Jehle, Martin Killias, Chris Lewis, Giulia Mugellini, Ernesto U. Savona, Olena Shostko, Paul Smit, and Rannveig Þorisdottir
# Defining and Registering Criminal Offences and Measures Standards for a European Comparison
Göttingen Studies in Criminal Law and Justice - Volume 10
Universitätsverlag Göttingen 2010

The study presented in this book is a direct response to the needs for defining and registering criminal and judicial data on the European level. Based upon work done by the European Sourcebook experts group in creating the European Source-book of Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics (ESB), the project intended to improve and complement the standards developed so far for definitions and statistical registration in four fields, in order to contribute to the picture of criminal justice in Europe. It utilized questionnaires filled by an established European network...


Louis Weber, Laurent Willemez
# Grand entretien avec Laurent Mucchielli. Le savant, l’expert et le politique :  la production de connaissances sur les délinquances
Savoir/Agir n° 14, décembre 2010
Pour prendre une métaphore que j’utilise souvent, le système pénal est un pêcheur qui utilise un filet dont les mailles ne cessent de se rétrécir, il attrape donc de plus en plus de petits poissons qui viennent rejoindre les gros qui y étaient déjà et y sont toujours. Mes travaux m’amènent à penser que, à côté d’un phénomène bien réel de ghettoïsation, c’est ce phénomène de judiciarisation qui est le processus principal travaillant aujourd’hui les questions de délinquance juvénile et de violences interpersonnelles en général, comme j’ai essayé de le prouver empiriquement et de le théoriser dans un article de Déviance et société qui constitue une étape, pour moi importante, dans mon travail de sociologue.


Jessica Zhang and Andrew Webster | Australian Bureau of Statistics
# An Analysis of Repeat Imprisonment Trends in Australia using Prisoner Census Data from 1994 to 2007
Commonwealth of Australia 2010
Reimprisonment was strongly associated with being young, being Indigenous or having been previously imprisoned  (that is, being a prisoner who had already served time in prison, prior to the prison episode from which they were released in 1994–1997 or 2001–2004). To a lesser extent reimprisonment was also associated with being male. Of all the jurisdictions, the Northern Territory had a particularly high rate of reimprisonment. This was due to the demographic characteristics of its prisoners – particularly being young and / or Indigenous.


Laurent Mucchielli
# Les techniques et les enjeux de la mesure de la délinquance
Savoir/Agir n°93, 2010
Les questions de sécurité figurent parmi les plus importantes dans les discours politiques et les rhétoriques électorales en France. Dans ces débats que répercutent fortement les médias, les statistiques servent généralement d’arguments d’autorité. Elles sont convoquées pour prouver le bien fondé de l’action d’un gouvernement, ou son échec selon ses opposants. Cela donne des « batailles de chiffres » auxquelles le citoyen ne comprend souvent pas grand-chose, qui n’éclairent guère le débat public et surtout permettent rarement d’évaluer correctement tant l’état des problèmes que l’efficacité des politiques publiques. On s’efforcera ici de clarifier les choses du point de vue de la construction et de l’usage des statistiques, en rappelant d’abord ce que nous appellerions volontiers trois « règles d’or » de l’analyse statistique en sciences humaines : 1) on ne peut rien dire d’un chiffre si l’on ignore comment il a été fabriqué ; 2) un seul chiffre ne saurait permettre de décrire ni mesurer un phénomène social complexe ; 3) les chiffres ne « parlent pas d’eux-mêmes », c’est nous qui les faisons parler.


Kathryn E. McCollister, Michael T. French, and Hai Fang
# The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation
NIH Public Access - Author Manuscript | Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 April 1; 108(1-2): 98–109.
Estimating the cost to society of individual crimes is essential to the economic evaluation of many social programs, such as substance abuse treatment and community policing. A review of the crimecosting literature reveals multiple sources, including published articles and government reports, which collectively represent the alternative approaches for estimating the economic losses associated with criminal activity. Many of these sources are based upon data that are more than ten years old, indicating a need for updated figures. This study presents a comprehensive methodology for calculating the cost of society of various criminal acts. Tangible and intangible losses are estimated using the most current data available. The selected approach, which incorporates both the cost-ofillness and the jury compensation methods, yields cost estimates for more than a dozen major crime categories, including several categories not found in previous studies. Updated crime cost estimates can help government agencies and other organizations execute more prudent policy evaluations, particularly benefit-cost analyses of substance abuse treatment or other interventions that reduce crime.


Mark Sedra (ed)
# The Future of Security Sector Reform
The Centre for International Governance Innovation CIGI - Waterloo, Ontario 2010

Today’s understanding of the security sector draws on the widely accepted definitions of the OECD (2007a: 22), the European Commission (2006: 5) and the UN secretary-general (UN, 2008: 5).83 All refer to the security sector — or the security system — in its broad sense, encompassing not only traditional core elements of the security sector, such as the armed forces and police, but also the oversight mechanisms of these forces, including the courts, legislatures, correctional services and civil society, as well as non-state security actors such as militias and private security companies.


Gregory J. O'Meara | Marquette University Law School
# Compassion and the Public Interest: Wisconsin’s New Compassionate Release Legislation
Federal Sentencing Reporter, Vol. 23, No. I, october 2010
Just as Victor Hugo's fictional Jean Valjean could be largely forgotten in the bowels of prison, women and men sentenced to correctional facilities largely fall from consciousness unless or until benign neglect is disturbed by other factors. Today, that benign neglect in Wisconsin has been disturbed by the financial constraints of maintaining the current prison population. Between 2000 and 2007, Wisconsin's prison population increased by 14 percent. The State Corrections budget increased by 71 percent from 1999 to 2009... One product ofWisconsin's reconsideration is a recent  change in compassionate release standards for inmates in state correctional facilities...


Annie Kensey
# Dix ans d’évolution du nombre de personnes écrouées de 2000 à 2010
Cahiers d’études pénitentiaires et criminologiques, octobre 2010


Stephen Tripodi, Johnny S. Kim, Kimberly Bender
# Is Employment Associated with Reduced Recidivism?: The Complex Relationship between Employment and Crime
Florida State University, 2010
Among parolees who are reincarcerated, those who obtain employment spend more time crime-free in the community before returning to prison. This article argues that increased time crime-free is an indicator of positive behavior change that should be supplemented with clinical interventions to help formerly incarcerated persons maintain the initial motivation associated with employment.


Paul Heaton
# Hidden in Plain Sight. What Cost-of-Crime Research Can Tell Us About Investing in Police
RAND 2010
In this paper, we showed how the results in the literature on the costs of crime and the effects of police hiring are “hidden in plain sight” and can be used as inputs into fairly straightforward cost/benefit analyses. Applying that cost/benefit framework to several real-world police hiring and firing scenarios demonstrates that investments in police personnel generate net social benefits. In the case of police hiring in Los Angeles, this conclusion persists across a wide range of alternative modeling assumptions, which shows that the results are robust...


Centre international pour la prévention de la criminalité (CIPC)
# Rapport International Prévention de la Criminalité et Sécurité Quotidienne: Tendances et Perspectives 2010
La prévention de la criminalité est une notion vivante dont les contours varient selon le cadre institutionnel dans lequel elle est utilisée, selon les régions géographiques et les langues et selon les périodes. Nous avons rappelé dans notre premier Rapport international que notre Centre s’appuyait pour l’ensemble de ses activités sur la définition de la prévention retenue aux Principes directeurs des Nations Unies applicables à la prévention du crime qui « englobe des stratégies et mesures qui visent à réduire les risques d’infraction et les effets préjudiciables que ces dernières peuvent avoir sur les personnes et sur la société, y compris la peur du crime et ce, en s’attaquant à leurs multiples causes »


Anne Wyvekens
# La rétention de sûreté en France : une défense sociale en trompe-l’oeil (ou les habits neufs de l’empereur)
déviance et société 2010, vol. 34, n° 4, pp. 503-525
La législation pénale française n’a pendant longtemps été que modérément influencée par les théories positivistes. La loi du 25 février 2008 crée la rétention de sûreté, qualifiée de « révolution en droit pénal français ». Aboutissement d’une évolution placée sous le signe de la lutte contre la récidive, où la dangerosité et les mesures de sûreté tendent à supplanter les notions de responsabilité et de peine, elle ne représente pas pour autant la mise en oeuvre d’une politique moderne de défense sociale. La rupture évoquée, bien réelle sur le plan des principes, renvoie plutôt à une rhétorique, dissimulant mal la difficulté de répondre à la question soulevée en des termes autres que de neutralisation.


Erwin James
# Most offenders have low skills and prison is the place to put that right
The Guardian, Wednesday 3 February 2010

A report out today says education and training programmes should be an integral part of time served in prison and should be included in the sentencing process. Almost 90% of prisoners under the age of 21 and nearly two thirds of adult prisoners re-offend within two years – and the economic cost to society remains in the region of £11bn per annum...


RSA The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce | Rachel O'Brien
# The Learning Prison 2010
However, we argue that without a braver approach to enhancing prison’s ability to rehabilitate, we will continue to spend more on prison places at the expense of rehabilitation... We believe that rehabilitation is too di$cult and too important to leave prisons always ‘behind the curve’. A brave strategy on modernisation should ensure that the prison service is able to utilise the new tools and thinking we have at our disposal to best effect. Most notably, we argue that there are huge gains to be had in developing a technology strategy that better balances risk and benefits.


Giovanni Torrente
# Indulto. La verità, tutta la verità, nient'altro che la verità 2010


Dan Ovidiu Rusu, Andrea Muller-Fabian, Dorottya Domokos
# Women in Prison. A Theoretical Approach about Mothers Profile, Family Communication, and Parenting Programs Bulletin UASVM Horticulture, 67(2)/2010
Women are a small minority of the prison population, but a minority that is growing at a disproportionate rate, their needs, and indeed their rights. Imprisonment impacts on women differently than on men.


House of Commons Justice Committee
# Cutting crime: the case for justice reinvestment. First Report of Session 2009–10 14 January 2010


Janet I. Warren, Shelly L. Jackson, Ann Booker Loper, Mandi L. Burnette
# Risk Markers for Sexual Predation and Victimization in Prison U.S. Department of Justice - December 2009
Our data concerning sexual contact that was perceived by the recipient as coercive was higher than that found in a national survey conducted by the BJS. Assummarized in 5.9% of the male inmates reported contact sexual victimization by other inmates and 2.4% by prison staff. The female inmates reported comparable levels with 6.6% self‐reporting contactsexual victimization by other inmates and 2.7% by correctional staff. Further added to this were significantly higher levels of perceived non‐contact sexual victimization (12.5% by inmates and 6.6% by staff for males and 22.4% by inmates and 11.5% by staff for females). These data suggest that females experience and report significantly more victimization by other inmates through comments, looks and innuendoes than men.


European Forum for Urban Safety
# Innovative strategies for the prevention of re-offending. Practices and recommendations for local players 2009
The repetition of offences feeds European crime statistics in large part. The overall rise in prison populations is constant. Studies reveal that a limited number of persons commit three-fourths of offences in certain categories. Regardless of the organisation of criminal justice systems, re- ffending rates range between 50% and 70% across Europe...


Basharat Hussain
# Social Reintegration of Offenders: The Role of the Probation Service in North West Frontier Province, Pakistan
University of Hull, November 2009


Troy Allard, Anna Stewart, April Chrzanowski, James Ogilvie, Dan Birks, Simon Little
# The Use and Impact of Police Diversion for Reducing Indigenous Over-Representation Report to the Criminology Research Council , October 2009
Limited evidence suggests that Indigenous young people are less likely to be diverted than non-Indigenous young people and that Indigenous young people are more likely to have recontact than non-Indigenous young people, regardless of the juvenile justice system response. Given that Indigenous over-representation is a perennial problem in the justice system...


Pierre Verluise | Institut de Relations Internationales et Stratégiques IRIS

# Espace Atlantique et UE : quels États emprisonnent le plus ou le moins ?
Actualités Européennes n° 27 - Septembre 2009

Les États-Unis et l'Union européenne partagent nombre de valeurs et d'intérêts. Sur les 28 membres de l'Alliance atlantique, 21 sont membres de l'Union européenne. Pour autant, il existe de grandes disparités en ce qui concerne le taux d'incarcération. Aux États-Unis, ce sont 758 personnes sur 100 000 habitants qui se trouvent emprisonnées, en moyenne annuelle 2005-2007. Dans l'Union européenne, pour la même période, la moyenne reste bien inférieure : 123 personnes sur 100 000 habitants. Autrement dit, les États-Unis enferment 6 fois plus de personnes pour 100 000 habitants que l'Europe communautaire...
Entre 2005 et 2007, il y avait en moyenne 607 000 personnes en prison dans l'espace UE-27. Au sein de l'Europe communautaire,quels sont les pays qui emprisonnent le plus ou le moins ? LES PAYS EUROPÉENS QUI EMPRISONNENT LE PLUS Groupe 1, les pays qui emprisonnent le plus, entre 302 et 162 personnes pour 100 000 habitants. Il s'agit des États membres suivants, par ordre décroissant : Estonie (302 personnes emprisonnées pour 100 000 habitants) ; Lettonie (293) ; Lituanie (232) ; Pologne (228) ; République Tchèque (185) et Slovaquie (162). La composition de ce groupe appelle quelques observations.


National Prison Rape Elimination Commission
# Standards for the Prevention, Detection, Response, and Monitoring of Sexual Abuse in Adult Prisons and Jails 2009
These parts explain the National Prison Rape Elimination Commission’s (NPREC) “nine findings on the problems of sexual abuse in confinement and select policies and practices that must be mandatory everywhere to remedy these problems” and follow an Executive Summary: Part I. Understanding and Preventing Sexual Abuse -- A Problem that Must Be Solved, Leadership Matters, Unequal Risk for Vulnerability and Victimization, and Strengthening Oversight Inside and Out; Part II. Responding to Victims and Perpetrators -- Reporting, Investigation, and Punishment and Treating Trauma; and Part III. Special Populations -- When Children Are Involved, the Next Frontier of Community Corrections, and Immigrants in Detection (On the Margins).


Management & Training Corporation MTC Institute
# Programs that Help Offenders Stay Out of Prison July 2009
Studies in several states have indicated that recidivism rates have declined where offenders have received proper education. 39 Furthermore, the literature has shown that educated prisoners are less likely to find themselves back in prison a second time if they complete an education program and are taught skills to successfully read and write. The literature also shows that in Ohio, while the overall recidivism rate was 40%, the recidivism rate for inmates enrolled in college was 18%...


Diana Brazzell, Anna Crayton, Debbie A. Mukamal, Amy L. Solomon, Nicole Lindahl
# From the Classroom to the Community. Exploring the Role of Education during Incarceration and Reentry
The Urban Institute, 2009
Education for current and former prisoners is a cost-effective solution to reducing reoffending and improving public safety. The effect of education on recidivism has been well-demonstrated, and even small reductions in reoffending can have a significant impact when spread across large numbers of participants.


Concepción Yagüe Olmos (coord.), Samuel Andujar Núñez, Luis Fernando Barrios Flores, Jesús Miguel Cáceres García, Francisco Lerín Pérez, Miguel Martín Casillas
# Análisis de la ancianidad en el medio penitenciario
Ministerio del Interior, 2009
A mediados del año 2007 en las prisiones españolas permanecían ingresadas 219 personas mayores de 70 años. Lo que socialmente se consideran ancianos. Pero para dar una mayor cobertura a este estudio hemos ampliado el objeto de esta investigación a las 1540 personas que traspasan la barrera de los 60 años. Tratamos de predecir los efectos del aumento paulatino de mayores encarcelados en nuestro sistema penitenciario como consecuencia, entre otras razones, de la mejora de la expectativa de vida de la sociedad española que provoca un imparable envejecimiento de la población general y un constante aumento de ancianos en las prisiones.


NIACE National Institute of Adult Continuing Education |  IFLL Inquiry into the Future for Lifelong Learning
# Lifelong Learning and Crime: An Analysis of the Cost-effectiveness of In-prison Educational and Vocational Interventions IFLL Public Value Paper 2 - 2009
Without in-prison educational and vocational interventions, the total cost of offending associated with this cohort of offenders in their fi rst year postrelease would be approximately £2 billion. It is estimated that the introduction of inprison educational and vocational interventions would reduce this cost of re-offending by £0.5 billion.


Ioan Durnescu
# Some Reflections on Community Sanctions and Measures in Europe
Journal of Criminal Justice and Security year 11 no. 4, 2009
The article draws on data gathered from a recent survey commissioned by The Conférence Permanente Européenne de la Probation (better known as CEP) which is a panEuropean association of probation organizations. The purpose of this  study is to provide an inventory of CSM as it is used across Europe and, from this, to draw some conclusions and suggestions for development into the future. 


Elizabeth K. Drake, Steve Aos, Marna G. Miller
# Evidence-Based Public Policy Options to Reduce Crime and Criminal Justice Costs: Implications in Washington State Public Policy Options
Victims and Offenders, 4:170-196, 2009
Our analysis of evidence-based and economically sound options for corrections indicates that there are ways to provide more cost-effective use of taxpayers’ monies. Serious crime is costly to victims and taxpayers; our economic analysis for Washington indicates that evidence-based—and reasonably priced— programs that achieve even relatively small reductions in crime can produce attractive returns on investment.