1218 documenti

ψ

psy  

 

autolesionismo e suicidio ◄  ► dell'omicidio

 

 

 

Ignazio Marino
# Matti da slegare
L'Espresso, 23 aprile 2017
Nelle nuove Rems non andranno solo coloro ai quali è stata accertata l'infermità mentale al momento del reato, ma anche tutti coloro per i quali l'infermità di mente sia sopravvenuta in carcere, e anche i detenuti per i quali occorra accertare le condizioni psichiche, qualora il carcere non sia idoneo a garantire i trattamenti terapeutico-riabilitativi. Esattamente ciò che si voleva evitare. Ma con questo decreto legge si ritorna di fatto alla vecchia logica in cui tutti i rei con problemi di disturbi mentali finiranno nelle Rems, che diventeranno rapidamente sovraffollate e ingestibili. Ovvero si ritornerà ai  vecchi Opg.

 

Radicali Italiani
# Riforma della procedura di applicazione del Trattamento Sanitario Obbligatorio (Proposta di modifica della L. 23.12.1978 n° 833 – artt. 33 - 34 - 35) - Relazione illustrativa
www.radicali.it/ aprile 2017
A 39 anni dalla pubblicazione della legge 180/78, cosiddetta “Legge Basaglia”, confluita con gli articoli 33, 34, e 35 nella L. 23.12.1978 (Istitutiva del Servizio Sanitario Nazionale), l’Istituto del Trattamento Sanitario Obbligatorio (da adesso anche solo TSO), appare oggi meritevole di un riesame, non più rinviabile...

 

Gloria Bertotti
# Riflessioni e analisi in tema di tutela della salute mentale in carcere: la sentenza Murray c. Olanda
Giurisprudenza Penale Web, 2017, 3
1. Premessa. – 2. Il caso Murray c. Olanda. – 3. I fatti. – 4. La decisione della Gran Camera. – 5. Riflessioni sulla tutela e sulle condizioni di salute mentale in carcere. – 5.1. Fonti normative in merito al diritto alla salute. – 5.2. La salute mentale nelle carceri italiane – 6. Conclusioni.

# ECHR, Case of Murray v. Netherlands, Strasbourg, 26 April 2016

 

Franco Corleone
# Seconda Relazione Semestrale sulle attività svolte dal Commissario unico per il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
19 agosto 2016 – 19 febbraio 2017

 

# Gemma Brandi, Pubblica smentita a proposito di chiusura degli Opg e dintorni, Eistretti Orizzonti, 26 febbraio 2017

# Mario Iannucci, Uomini e carceri, OPG e REMS, Ristretti Orizzonti 24 febbraio 2017
# Gianfranco Rivellini, Rems. Il diritto alla cura non può sottostare ai tempi e all’esito del processo penale, Quotidianosanità.it, 17 febbraio 2017

# Superamento Opg. De Biasi: “Le Rems siano vere strutture di riabilitazione e non di contenzione”, Quotidianosanità.it, 16 febbraio 2017

# Pieritalo Pompili, Giuseppe Nicolò, Stefano Ferracuti, Dagli Opg alle Rems. Ma i medici non possono fare i poliziotti, Quotidianosanità.it, 2 novembre 2016

 

Rita Bernardini e Massimo Lensi
# I "folli-rei" che vagano tra le Rems e le carceri
Il Dubbio, 22 febbraio 2017
La recente storia del superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari rischia di diventare il paradigma di quelle cure che lungi dal risolvere il malanno ne favoriscono la metastasi. Pensata per lasciarsi definitivamente alle spalle strutture troppo spesso simili a discariche medioevali per i folli- rei, la legge 81/ 2014 vede svanire, già nella sua applicazione, il lavoro di riforma che l'ha guidata e il profilarsi del quanto mai concreto rischio di partorire tanti mini- Opg all'interno degli istituti penitenziari.

 

Michele Passione
# La chiusura degli Opg è costituzionale
il Manifesto, 8 febbraio 2017
# Corte Costituzionale, sentenza n. 22/2017

La norma impugnata è diretta a evitare i cosiddetti ergastoli bianchi, cui può dar luogo la permanenza a tempo indeterminato in strutture detentive per l’esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza, e pone così fine a situazioni in cui per  l’infermità mentale, anche nel caso di commissione di reati di modesta gravità, persone senza supporti familiari o sociali rimanevano perennemente private della loro libertà in un contesto di natura penale...

 

Sergio Mauceri (a cura di) | A buon diritto
# “Contenere” la contenzione meccanica in Italia Primo rapporto sui diritti negati dalla pratica di legare coercitivamente i pazienti psichiatrici nei SPDC  # integrale...
A Buon Diritto, Associazione per le libertà, Gennaio 2017
La presente indagine si concentra specificatamente sugli usi della contenzione meccanica nei Spdc, per quanto sia da precisare che i Spdc non sono gli unici luoghi nei quali si lega: i servizi di neuropsichiatria infantile, le residenze sanitarie assistenziali (Rsa), i reparti di medicina e quelli geriatrici, i pronto soccorso, le Rems, le case di cura private e le comunità terapeutiche, sono tutte strutture all’interno delle quali talvolta (più o meno frequentemente, a seconda della cultura e delle pratiche degli operatori) i pazienti vengono contenuti con vari mezzi...

# Legge Basaglia. Dopo 40 anni un report per "contenere" la contenzione, 180gradi.org, 13 aprile 2017

 

Giacomo Galeazzi, Raphaël Zanotti
# Abusa di psicofarmaci un detenuto su due: "dipendenza nascosta"
La Stampa, 23 gennaio 2017
In un'indagine dell'Agenzia regionale della sanità Toscana che ha coinvolto 57 strutture detentive (il 30% di quelle italiane), cinque regioni (Toscana, Lazio, Umbria, Veneto, Liguria) e Asl di Salerno, per un totale di 15.751 detenuti, spicca un dato: il 46% dei farmaci prescritti sono psicofarmaci. La quasi totalità di questi (95,2%) appartiene al gruppo di molecole che agisce sul sistema nervoso, con gli ansiolitici (37,8% del totale) a fare la parte del leone...

 

Pietro Pellegrini
# Sull’imminente chiusura degli O.P.G. e sull’istituzione delle R.E.M.S. Una lettera al Direttore
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 16 gennaio 2017
L'OPG è sostituito non dalle REMS ma dall'insieme dei servizi sociali e sanitari del territorio dei quali è parte il dipartimento di salute mentale (DSM) e al suo interno la REMS. Se questo non diviene lo scenario di riferimento vi è il rischio di vedere le REMS modo riduttivo e distorto, e il tentativo di applicare ad esse le stesse norme dell'OPG finirà per trasformarle in "miniOPG" annullando il senso profondo della riforma che invece richiede un nuovo approccio e ruoli diversi a tutti i soggetti. In questo percorso concetti quali cura, sicurezza, libertà, responsabilità ecc. vanno rivisiti in modo articolato e innovativo secondo il modello psichiatrico (che è organizzato con una molteplicità di strutture a  diverso livello di protezione e intensità di cura, assai poco noto agli operatori del diritto) e non secondo il superato modello custodiale-carcerario.

 

Gianluigi Gatta
# O.P.G. e R.E.M.S.: a che punto siamo? Le relazioni del Commissario unico per il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari, Franco Corleone | Corleone 1 -- Corleone 2
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 27 dicembre 2016

Il dato più allarmante, segnalato dal Commissario unico, è quello relativo all’incidenza delle misure di sicurezza provvisorie sul numero complessivo dei pazienti assegnati alle R.E.M.S., pari al 40%. La relazione trimestrale segnala in particolare come a fine ottobre 2016 risultavano in attesa di essere eseguite 241 misure di sicurezza, gran parte delle quali (176) provvisorie: misure queste non eseguibili per mancanza di posti disponibili, con incidenza del fenomeno riferibile in particolare ad alcune regioni (ad es., la Sicilia). Proprio il ricorso all’applicazione provvisoria delle misure di sicurezza del ricovero in O.P.G. e in C.C.C. rappresenterebbe, secondo il Commissario Corleone, un fattore capace, numeri alla mano, di portare al collasso il neo istituito sistema delle R.E.M.S...

 

Cristiano Cupelli
# Dagli OPG alle REMS: un ritorno alla medicina custodiale?
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 23 dicembre 2016
Il superamento degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari e il passaggio alle nuove strutture regionali per l’esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza detentive (le c.d. REMS), pur segnando un significativo passo in avanti nel faticoso processo di abbandono dell’intollerabile logica manicomiale, hanno evidenziato alcuni profili di criticità. Tra i più rilevanti si segnalano quelli riguardanti il peculiare ruolo attribuito, all’interno delle nuove strutture, agli operatori psichiatrici, chiamati principalmente a compiti di organizzazione e gestione della sicurezza interna, anziché di cura e protezione dei pazienti internati. Ciò, inevitabilmente, si ripercuote sui prioritari compiti terapeutici della classe medica e amplia il perimetro applicativo della responsabilità penale dello psichiatra.

 

Ministero della Salute | a cura di Miriam Di Cesare, Teresa Di Fiandra, Lidia Di Minco, Liliana La Sala, Natalia Magliocchetti, Giulia Masiero, Davide Orlandi, Morgan Romanelli, Elisabetta Santori
# Rapporto salute mentale. Analisi dei dati del Sistema Informativo per la Salute Mentale (SISM) - Anno 2015
www.salute.gov.it/ Dicembre 2016

Gli utenti psichiatrici in cura presso strutture residenziali, nell'anno di osservazione 2015 sono pari a 29.733 unità, con tassi che vanno da 0,4 per 10.000 abitanti nella regione Calabria a 14,3 della regione Emilia Romagna. I pazienti con  diagnosi di schizofrenia e altre psicosi funzionali (14.836 unità) rappresentano la metà dell‟utenza delle strutture residenziali (49,9%); con riferimento all‟età si tratta di utenti appartenenti soprattutto alle fasce di età 45-64 anni. Il tasso relativo a tale diagnosi è pari a 2,9 per 10.000 abitanti (3,9 per 10.000 abitanti nei maschi, 2,1 per 10.000 abitanti nelle femmine)...

 

Franco Corleone
# Seconda relazione trimestrale sull’attività svolta dal Commissario unico per il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
19 agosto 2016 – 19 novembre 2016
La chiusura del manicomio criminale, degli Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari, rappresenta davvero una rivoluzione culturale e sociale che si ricollega alla fine del manicomio civile iniziata con la legge 180 attribuita, nell’ispirazione, a Franco Basaglia. Personalmente ho l’orgoglio di partecipare alla realizzazione di un obiettivo che rende l’Italia un modello unico in Europa e nel mondo. Sono ben consapevole che questo passaggio si svolge su un terreno ricco di contraddizioni, dal momento che la legge 81 non ha eliminato alla radice il nefasto doppio binario del Codice Rocco...

 

Michele Passione
# Rems, misure di sicurezza e libertà
Rubrica di Fuoriluogo su il Manifesto del 9 novembre 2016

Formalmente, sono passati 19 mesi dalla prevista chiusura degli Opg, ma tanti problemi restano ancora sul tavolo. Dopo l’entrata in vigore di una Legge di assoluta civiltà giuridica, che ha già superato con successo un ricorso davanti alla Corte Costituzionale, continua incessante la limitazione della libertà personale di autori di reato (anche per fatti bagatellari) affetti da disturbi psichici, malgrado la legge 81 del 2014 preveda la presa in carico territoriale quale risposta primaria, ed il ricorso alle misure di sicurezza in REMS quale extrema ratio.

 

Pietro Pellegrini
# La chiusura degli OPG è vicina, quella delle REMS?
www.stopOPG.it/ 3 novembre 2016

Va assolutamente evitato che le REMS diventino sede di “scarico” delle povertà, dei migranti e senza fissa dimora ma anche una soluzione per i casi psichiatrici difficili da trattare (pazienti con disturbi resistenti, disturbi antisociali) nei servizi territoriali.

 

Zheng Chang, Paul Lichtenstein, Niklas Långström, Henrik Larsson, Seena Fazel
# Association Between Prescription of Major Psychotropic Medications and Violent Reoffending After Prison Release
JAMA November 1, 2016 Volume 316, Number 17
Among released prisoners in Sweden, rates of violent reoffending were lower during periods when individiduals were dispensed antipsychotics, psychostimulants, and drugs for addictive disorders, compared with periods in which they were not dispensed these medications. Further research is needed to understand the causal nature of this association.

 

Marta Bertolino
# Il “crimine” della pericolosità sociale: riflessioni da una riforma in corso
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 24 ottobre 2016
Il saggio svolge alcune riflessioni che portano a dubitare della affidabilità scientifica della nozione di pericolosità sociale e che rilevano come essa sia in realtà strumentale alla costruzione di tipologie legali d’autore alle quali riservare un trattamento sanzionatorio differenziato, quanto a severità e a modalità... Emergono indicazioni per l’abbandono della pericolosità sociale, quale criterio guida per la scelta del trattamento, a favore del bisogno di cura e di trattamento; per il superamento del sistema del doppio binario a favore di un sistema monistico, caratterizzato da un ampio spettro di possibili risposte sanzionatorie dai contenuti terapeutico-riabilitativi...

 

AdnKronos
# Psichiatria: 3 detenuti su 4 con disturbi mente, al via progetto ad hoc
www.adnKronos.it/ 5 ottobre 2016
I numeri sono allarmanti: più di 42 mila detenuti italiani - il 77% degli oltre 54 mila totali - convivono con un disturbo mentale: dai disturbi della personalità alla depressione, fino alla psicosi. Disagi che possono portare a conseguenze estreme come l'autolesionismo (circa 7 mila episodi in un anno) o il suicidio (43 casi e oltre 900 tentativi solo nel 2014)

 

Rachel Edworthy, Stephanie Sampson, Birgit Völlm
# Inpatient forensic-psychiatric care: Legal frameworks and service provision in three European countries
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 47, 2016
Laws governing the detention and treatment of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) vary widely across Europe, yet little information is available about the features of these laws and their comparative advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to compare the legal framework governing detention in forensic psychiatric care in three European countries with long-established services for MDOs, England, Germany and the Netherlands...

 

Lenore E.A. Walker, James M. Pann, David L. Shapiro, Vincent B. Van Hasselt
# Best Practices for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System
ia800202.us.archive.org/ Springer 2016
It is clear that the challenges presented by the mentally ill involved with the judicial system suggest policies are in need of revision as indicated by a recent Department of Justice report illustrating that over 50 % of people in jails and prisons across the nation have been treated for a mental illness and/or substance abuse problem at some point prior to their being detained. It is estimated that at any time, approximately 20 % of all inmates will have a diagnosable mental illness that needs treatment during the time they are held in jail or prison. If the numbers of substance abusers are added to this group, the need for services would be greater than the ability to effectively provide them... 

 

StopOPG
# Rafforzare i programmi di tutela della salute in carcere. Completare la chiusura degli OPG, non stravolgere la funzione delle Rems
www.stopopg.it/ 20 settembre 2016

 

Franco Vatrini
# Opg e "nuove" Rems
quotidianosanita.it, 10 settembre 2016

 

Daniele Piccioni
# REMS. Per superare l’infelice emendamento: antidoti per il legislatore
www.news-forumsalutementale.it/ 30 agosto 2016

 

Franco Corleone
# Relazione semestrale sull’attività svolta dal Commissario unico per il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
www.stopopg.it/ 19 febbraio - 19 agosto
Le basi concettuali e pratiche di un modello come le REMS, perché evitino il rischio di diventare “mini – OPG”, sono la territorialità e il numero chiuso, il rifiuto della coercizione, in particolare la contenzione, e la consapevolezza che la permanenza nella struttura ha un tempo definito. Occorre saper vivere la dimensione del rischio. La libertà comporta il rischio e la REMS vive sul rischio di convivere quotidianamente con esperienze difficili. E’ una scommessa che si può vincere con una sinergia piena con i servizi dellapsichiatria sul territorio, non isolando queste strutture in luoghi sconosciuti e dimenticati.

 

Maria Livia Zuppa
# Dagli OPG alle nuove residenze per i sofferenti psichici autori di reato
Università degli Studi di Genova, 2016

 

Patricia H. Hasbach, Nalini Nadkarni, Tierney Thys, Emily Gaines, Lance Schnacker
# Nature Imagery in Prisons Project: The Impact on Staff and Inmates in Solitary Confinement
www.apa.org/ 2016 APA Annual Convention, August 5, 2016

... Inmates indicated that exposure to videos had a positive impact on mood. The majority of E-B inmate survey respondents (91%) agreed or strongly agreed that they felt calmer  when they watched the nature videos. 80% indicated that this calm was sustained for several hours afterward, 78% agreed or strongly agreed that they remembered the nature videos when they got angry or agitated and felt more calm, and 67% indicated that the nature imagery project contributed to more positive relationship with staff. Over 80% of survey respondents stated that exposure to nature videos made their time easier, 7% stated that it made it more difficult, and the remainder indicated no effect
.

 

Sophie Wickham, Richard Bentall
# Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? A Patient Study Considering Just World Beliefs as a Mediator
The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease • Volume 204, Number 8, August 2016
Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals... Of particular relevance to the present study is the finding that beliefs about injustice...

 

Saínza García, Mónica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Saioa López-Zurbano, Iñaki Zorrilla, Purificación López, Eduard Vieta, Ana González-Pinto
# Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenic Patients: A Systematic Review
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology • Volume 36, Number 4, August 2016
Analyzing 38 studies conducted in a total of 51,796 patients, including patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder, we found that younger age, substance abuse, poor insight, cognitive impairments, low level of education, minority ethnicity, poor therapeutic alliance, experience of barriers to care, high intensity of delusional symptoms and suspiciousness, and low socioeconomic status are the main risk factors for medication nonadherence in both types of disorder. In the future, prospective studies should be conducted on the use of personalized patient-tailored treatments, taking into account risk factors that may affect each individual, to assess the ability of such approaches to improve adherence and hence prognosis in these patients.

 

Azza AbuDagga, Sidney Wolfe, Michael Carome, Amanda Phatdouang, E. Fuller Torrey | Public Citizen’s Health Research Group - The Treatment Advocacy Center
# Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses in County Jails: A Survey of Jail Staff’s Perspectives
www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ July 14, 2016
About half (54.4%) of the jails had implemented housing or staffing changes to accommodate the seriously mentally ill inmates. Specifically, > 33.9% reported sending mentally ill offenders to facilities other than jail; > 27.8% had implemented inmate housing-facility changes (such as increasing the number of beds reserved for people with mental illness); > 27.4% reported hiring full- or part-time non-law-enforcement staff members (including nurses, social workers, and psychiatrists); and > Only 3.5% reported hiring deputies with experience in dealing with seriously mentally ill people

 

Glorimar Ortiz, Vera Hollen, Lucille Schacht
# Antipsychotic Medication Prescribing Practices Among Adult Patients Discharged From State Psychiatric Inpatient Hospitals
Journal of Psychiatric Practice Vol. 22, No. 4 July 2016
Antipsychotic polypharmacy continues at a high enough rate to impact nearly 10,000 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia each year in state psychiatric inpatient hospitals. Given such a large sample, further analysis of the clinical presentations of these patients may highlight particular aspects of the illness and its previous treatment that are contributing to practices outside the best practice guidelines.

 

Seena Fazel, Adrian J Hayes, Katrina Bartellas, Massimo Clerici, Robert Trestman
# Mental health of prisoners: prevalence, adverse outcomes, and interventions
www.thelancet.com/ July 14, 2016
More than 10 million people are imprisoned worldwide, and the prevalence of all investigated mental disorders is higher in prisoners than in the general population. Although the extent to which prison increases the incidence of mental disorders is uncertain, considerable evidence suggests low rates of identifi cation and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Prisoners are also at increased risk of all-cause mortality, suicide, self-harm, violence, and victimisation, and research has outlined some modifi able risk factors... 

 

Kathryn A. Burns
# Expert Report (on mental health care in the Alabama Department of Corrections - ADOC - prison system)
www.splcenter.org/ Submitted July 5, 2016
Mental health treatment is inadequate to meet the needs of the prisoner population with serious mental illness. Residential and stabilization unit treatment beds are underutilized but also provide little treatment beyond psychotropic  medication due to staffing level shortages of both treatment and custody staff. Individual contacts with mental health staff are brief, infrequent and often not conducted in confidential settings. There is little group treatment in mental health treatment units and even less in outpatient settings. As a consequence, prisoners with untreated and undertreated serious mental illness are over-represented in the segregation population – essentially punished for manifestations of serious mental illness.

 

Matt DeLisi
# Zeroing in on violent recidivism among released prisoners
www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 3 June 2016
Substantial heterogeneity exists among the criminal offender population, and with 30 million individuals released from prisons worldwide each year, the identification of those who are most likely to perpetrate future violence is essential. Fazel and colleagues’ study in The Lancet Psychiatry is an important advance for enabling such identifications...

 

Seena Fazel, Zheng Chang, Thomas Fanshawe, Niklas Långström, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Susan Mallett
# Prediction of violent reoffending on release from prison: derivation and external validation of a scalable tool
Lancet Psychiatry, 2016 June ; 3(6): 535–543
More than 30 million people are released from prison worldwide every year, who include a group at high risk of perpetrating interpersonal violence. Because there is considerable inconsistency and inefficiency in identifying those who would benefit from interventions to reduce this risk, we developed and validated a clinical prediction rule to determine the risk of violent offending in released prisoners

 

Seena Fazel, Stal Biorkly
# Methodological Considerations in Risk Assessment Research

in International Perspectives on Violence Risk Assessment, 2016, pp.16-25
In this chapter we emphasized some different approaches for further progress in violence risk assessment research. We did not present a comprehensive and detailed overview ofthe many issues involved, but chose to focus on some key issues and those that may be feasible to address. Our main point, however, is to underscore that research on violence risk assessment is in need of innovation.

 

Ministero della Salute | Ministero della Giustizia
# Relazione al Parlamento sul Programma di superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
Giugno 2016

 

Giulia Melani
# Tutela della libertà personale degli internati: «attraverso la cruna dell’ago». Riflessioni a margine dell'ordinanza del Magistrato di Sorveglianza di Firenze del 21.10.2015
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 5 Giugno 2016
# Ordinanza del Magistrato di Sorveglianza di Firenze in data 21 ottobre 2015
# Ordinanza del Tribunale di Sorveglianza di Firenze in data 9 febbraio 2016, che ha rigettato il reclamo presentato dalla Regione Toscana contro l'ordinanza in commento
# Ordinanza del Tribunale di Sorveglianza di Firenze in data 9 febbraio 2016, che ha accolto il secondo reclamo presentato dalla Regione Toscana in tema di carenza di legittimazione passiva dell'Ente locale

 

Doris A. Fuller, Elizabeth Sinclair, Jeffrey Geller, Cameron Quanbeck, John Snook
# Going, Going, Gone: Trends and Consequences of Eliminating State Psychiatric Beds, 2016
Treatment Advocacy Center, June 2016
37,679 staffed beds remain in state hospitals. Adjusted for population growth, this represents a 17% reduction in the bed population since 2010, when 43,318 beds remained, and a 96.5% drop from peak hospital numbers in the 1950s. 11.7 beds remain per 100,000 people. The functions the hospitals once performed for people severely disabled by mental illness—treatment, structure, shelter—were lost, and the people who needed those functions were “transinstitutionalized” to other large settings, such as jails and prisons...

 

Margreet ten Have, Roel Verheul, Ad Kaasenbrood, Saskia van Dorsselaer, Marlous Tuithof, Marloes Kleinjan, Ron de Graaf
# Prevalence rates of borderline personality disorder symptoms: a study based on the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2
BMC Psychiatry (2016) 16:249
The epidemiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been studied in various large adult populationbased surveys, mainly in the United States. These studies have shown that the prevalence rates for BPD vary between 0.5 % and 1.4 % of the total population. Two studies, based on data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, have found higher rates, of 2.7 % and 5.9 % respectively, depending on how strictly the diagnostic rules are applied.  A prudent assumption seems to be that, generally speaking,the population prevalence rate of BPD is circa 1 %

 

Derek Gilna
# U.S. Prisons Filled with America’s Mentally Ill
Prison Legal News, June, 2016, page 14

Recent data indicates that over a million mentally ill people are incarcerated annually, cycling in and out of jails. The U.S. Department of Justice reports that almost a quarter of all prisoners suffer from serious mental illnesses, and many complain of inadequate treatment by prison and jail medical staff who often change or discontinue the psychotropic drugs they were receiving to treat their conditions. In most correctional facilities, suicidal prisoners are placed in solitary confinement and monitored by guards rather than by qualified mental health professionals in a treatment setting.

 

Seena Fazel, Zuzanna Fiminska, Christopher Cocks, Jeremy Coid
# Patient outcomes following discharge from secure psychiatric hospitals: systematic review and meta-analysis
The British Journal of Psychiatry, 208, 2016
Over the past two decades, there have been large increases in the numbers of secure psychiatric hospital beds, which some have argued amounts to a reinstitutionalisation of psychiatric patients. Costs per patient are substantially more in such hospitals, with some estimates of £152 000 per year per patient in the UK at low secure institutions and £273 000 in high secure hospitals and an estimated overall budget of over £1 billion. In England, this is equivalent to 19% of the overall mental health budget and represents its largest single component. However, the evidence for patient benefit in such hospitals is limited ...

 

Rachel Claire Judges
# An Exploration into the Value of Protective Factors in Violence Risk Assessment of Psychiatric Inpatients
University of Nottingham, May 2016
This thesis explores the value of including protective factors in the violence risk assessment and risk management processes of forensic mental health services. More specifically it investigates whether assessment of protective factors improves predictive accuracy of violence risk assessment tools, and discusses the implications for clinical practice. The impact on patient motivation to change is also considered. A critique is presented of the Historical Clinical Risk-20 Version 3, one of the most popular and widely used violence risk assessment tools.

 

Sarah Jillani, Prina Patel, Robert Trestman, Jayesh Kamath
# Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD in Incarcerated Adolescents
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 44:158 – 63, 2016
Effective interventions for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the correctional setting may improve care during incarceration, decrease risk of substance relapse, and reduce recidivism after release from the correctional setting of these individuals. The present report delineates the epidemiology of adolescent ADHD in the correctional setting and its association with substance use disorders and comorbid psychiatric illnesses.

 

Assemblea parlamentare del Consiglio d'Europa
# Raccomandazione n. 2091 (2016) - Gli argomenti che sconsigliano uno strumento giuridico del Consiglio d'Europa riguardante le misure involontarie in psichiatria
Trasmessa l'11 maggio 2016

 

Franco Corleone (Intervista di Alessia Guerrieri)
# Lavoro finito per agosto. Ora decreto sulle Rems
www.avvenire.it/ 22 maggio 2016
Tre mesi per chiudere tutti gli opg, «ma allora si apre la partita più delicata: rendere le Rems luogo dei diritti e non di contenzione ».  Sta emergendo un dato preoccupante. Nelle Rems, escludendo Castiglione, ci sono 331 persone di cui 179 con condanne definite e 162 provvisorie, cioè quasi il 50%. Questo dà l’idea di come ci sia una contraddizione su questo luogo: si rischia diventi un posto in cui le persone vengano mandate anche in condizioni patologiche ancora incerte...

 

Doris A. Fuller
# Prevalence of Treated and Untreated Severe Mental Illness by State
www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ May 17, 2016
With an estimated 356,000 inmates with serious mental illness in America’s jails and prisons and 3.8 million adults untreated for one of the two most serious mental illnesses, the risk of being incarcerated is nearly 10% for those whose schizophrenia or severe bipolar is not treated.

 

Human Rights Watch
# France: Inadequate Mental Health Care in Prisons. Detention Conditions, Lack of Treatment Increase Suffering
www.hrw.org/ April 5, 2016
Human Rights Watch interviewed 50 prisoners, prison staff, and medical professionals in eight prisons, as well as government officials and others. When their condition deteriorates, prisoners with psychosocial disabilities are in some cases transferred to psychiatric hospitals against their will and isolated in conditions that can constitute cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment under international law, Human Rights Watch found. “I prefer 1,000 times to be in a cell than in an isolated room in the hospital, my arms and feet tied down as if I were an animal,” said Sarah (pseudonym), a prisoner who has previously been sent to psychiatric hospitals...

 

Human Rights Watch
# Double Punishment. Inadequate conditions for Prisoners with Psychosocial Disabilities in France
www.hrw.org/ April 2016
The last comprehensive study on mental health in French prisons, published in 2004, found that almost a quarter of inmates had psychosis: 8 percent of men and 15 percent of women had schizophrenia – much higher than the 0.9 percent among of France’s general population. Estimates by people interviewed for this report by Human Rights Watch in 2015 – prison directors, psychiatrists, the inspector of prisons, government officials and prisoners themselves – suggest the proportion of prisoners with psychosocial disabilities in prison remains high. 

 

Damiano Aliprandi
# In cella centinaia di malati psichiatrici, aspettando le Rems
Il Dubbio, 22 aprile 2016

 

StopOpg
# Vademecum sulle misure di sicurezza per chi è internato/ricoverato in OPG o in una REMS per favorire misure non detentive e prevenire internamenti
www.stopopg.it/ Aprile 2016

 

Gemma Brandi
# La concentrazione della follia in carcere: anomalia o normalità cui adattarsi?
www.ristretti.org/ Aprile 2016

Venivano e vengono avviati, infatti, alla Osservazione Psichiatrica quei detenuti mai o mal valutati nelle fasi del giudizio  di merito e condannati come presunti sani di mente, che però tali non erano e non sono; le persone che in udienza di convalida di arresto presentano franchi scompensi e i quadri di confine che oggi si preferisce definire “cattivi”, quanti cioè mostrano disagi complessi, trattati sul territorio nei Servizi Psichiatrici di Diagnosi e Cura attraverso prese in carico limitate alla emergenza, risultando pressoché impossibile, con gli attuali strumenti della Salute Mentale, rispondere in maniera salda e costante ai problemi di persone da inseguire, più che da seguire. 

 

Christine Tartaro
# Keeping Mentally Ill Offenders Out of Jail
American Jail Association, Apr 19, 2016
During the second half of the 20th century, the United States embarked on a movement to deinstitutionalize individuals with mental illness, and this initiative resulted in the rapid decline of available psychiatric beds. In 1955, there was one psychiatric bed in public hospitals for every 300 people. By 2004, there was to one bed per 3,000 people and correctional facilities were housing three times more people with serious mental illness than hospitals (Torrey et al, 2010). Ironically, New York actually closed a State psychiatric hospital only to re-open the same set of buildings as a correctional facility to serve inmates with several mental illnesses

 

Marvin S. Swartz, Allison G. Robertson
# Mental Health Courts: Does Treatment Make a Difference?
Psychiatric Services 67:4, April 2016

 

Francesco Molinari
# Interrogazione a risposta scritta 4-05333 al ministro della Giustizia sul superamento degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari con trasferimento degli internati verso le nuove REMS
http://parlamento17.openpolis.it/ 23 febbraio 2016

 

Patrick R. Krill, Ryan Johnson, Linda Albert
# The Prevalence of Substance Use and Other Mental Health Concerns Among American Attorneys
Journal of Addiction Medicine, February 2016
Rates of substance use and other mental health concerns among attorneys are relatively unknown... This study measured the prevalence of these concerns among licensed attorneys... A sample of 12,825 licensed, employed attorneys completed surveys, assessing alcohol use, drug use, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress... Attorneys experience problematic drinking that is hazardous, harmful, or otherwise consistent with alcohol use disorders at a higher rate than other professional populations. Mental health distress is also significant. These data underscore the need for greater resources for lawyer assistance programs, and also the expansion of available attorney-specific prevention and treatment interventions.

 

Gautam Gulati, Robert Cornish, Hasanen Al-Taiar, Christopher Miller, Vivek Khosla, Christopher Hinds, Jonathan Price, John Geddes, Seena Fazel
# Web-Based Violence Risk Monitoring Tool in Psychoses: Pilot Study in Community Forensic Patients
Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, vol. 16, n. 1, 49-59, 2016
We describe the development and pilot testing of a novel, web-based, violence risk monitoring instrument for use in community patients with psychoses. We describe the development of the tool, including drawing on systematic reviews of the field, how item content was operationalized, the development of a user interface, and its subsequent piloting. Sixtyeight patients were included from three English counties, who had been discharged from forensic psychiatric services. Over 12 months, 310 questionnaires were completed on the sample by professionals from several disciplines and qualitative feedback collected relating to the use of the tool using an electronic survey. Strengths of this approach for risk assessment, and potential limitations and areas for future research, are discussed. 

 

John Dale Dunn
# Senator Cornyn and the Inmates
www.americanthinker.com/ February 26, 2016

 

Leah G. Pope, Kim Hopper, Chelsea Davis, David Cloud
# First-Episode Incarceration. Creating a Recovery-Informed Framework for Integrated Mental Health and Criminal Justice Responses
www.vera.org/ January 2016
While there have been significant shifts in the understanding of mental health over the past 50 years, many of the responses to people with mental illness have changed very little. In the mid-1950s more than half a million people were held in U.S. psychiatric institutions for long periods and often in deplorable conditions. Sixty years later, an equivalent number of people with mental illness are held in the nation’s prisons and jails on any given day. 

 

Jay P. Singh
# International Perspectives on Forensic Risk Assessment: Measuring Use, Perceived Utility, and Research Quality
Universitat Konstanz, 18 januar 2016
Forensic risk assessment refers to the attempt to predict the likelihood of future violence in order to identify individuals in need of intervention. Risk assessment protocols have been implemented in mental health and criminal justice settings around the globe to prioritize risk reduction strategies for those most at need. Helping to allocate scarce resources more effectively and efficiently while protecting our communities, risk assessment has come to be a cornerstone of forensic practice in many jurisdictions. The present thesis investigates the use, perceived utility, and research quality on forensic risk assessment tools.

 

Valentina Calderone
# "E tu slegalo subito", una campagna di civiltà
Il Manifesto, 22 gennaio 2016
"E tu slegalo subito", un imperativo categorico scelto come titolo dalla neonata campagna per l'abolizione della contenzione, presentata ieri nella sala del Senato di Santa Maria in Aquiro. Un imperativo ma anche una risposta, quella che Franco Basaglia soleva dare agli operatori che gli chiedevano cosa fare di fronte a un paziente legato al letto. E tu slegalo subito, appunto.

 

Dahlia Lithwick
# Prisons Have Become America’s New Asylums. Mentally ill people are locked up for trivial reasons and then get much worse
www.slate.com/ Jan. 5 2016
A 2014 report by the Treatment Advocacy Center notes bluntly that “prisons and jails have become America’s ‘new asylums.’ ” Ten times more mentally ill people are now in jails and prisons than in state psychiatric hospitals: In 2012, approximately 356,268 inmates with severe mental illness were in prisons and jails, while about 35,000 severely ill patients were in state psychiatric hospitals. Many of these inmates would have been in hospitals prior to the deinstitutionalization movement of the 1960s, but now there are not enough beds, and many mental health hospitals have been closed down...

 

Ministero della Salute - Ministero della Giustizia
# Relazione al Parlamento sul processo di superamento degli OPG

# Allegati
Dicembre 2015

 

Sylva D'Amato
# Osservazioni sulla contenzione in psichiatria e i suoi riflessi in tema di stato di necessità. Recensione a Piero Cipriano, Il manicomio chimico. Cronache di uno psichiatra riluttante. Elèuthera, Milano, 2015
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 15 Dicembre 2015
1
. La pratica psichiatrica dal punto di vista di uno psichiatra «riluttante». - 2. L'indagine di Withaker sulla rivoluzione psicofarmacologica. - 3. Verso la psicopatologizzazione della normalità. - 4. Il manicomio chimico e la contenzione farmacologica. - 5. Il ricorso alla contenzione in psichiatria, quale pratica «scorciatoia gestionale», «antiterapeutica, oltre che illegale», è non necessitato ed 'altrimenti evitabile'.

 

Andrea Affaticati, Maria Lidia Gerra, Andrea Amerio, Maria Inglese, Carlo Marchesi
# The Controversial Case of Biperiden. From Prescription Drug to Drug of Abuse
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology • Volume 35, Number 6, December 2015
Anticholinergic drugs such as biperiden are commonly used in psychiatry for the prophylaxis and treatment of extrapyramidal symptoms caused by antipsychotics, as well as for tremors in Parkinson disease. Anticholinergic abuse has been reported in nonpsychotic patients probably because of inducing mild euphoria with increased sociability and energy through an increase of dopaminergic activity... Further studies are needed to estimate the impact of biperiden as a substance of abuse, especially among marginalized people. Concerning Italy, the preliminary data presented in Table 1 support that biperiden is particularly abused by prisoners coming from North-African countries. 

 

Anna Cilento, Dorella Costi, Paolo Ugolini (eds)
# Oltre l’ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario: quali percorsi?
Sestante, 01 novembre / 2015
Contributi di: Paolo Ugolini, Anna Cilento, Dorella Costi, Francesco Maisto, Mila Ferri, Alessio Saponaro, Valeria Calevro, Anna Cilento, Teresa Di Fiandra, Mila Ferri, Natalia Magliocchetti, Anna Cilento, Dorella Costi, Paolo Ugolini, Pietro Pellegrini, Giuseppina Paulillo, Giovanni Francesco Frivoli, Pietro Domiano, Valerio Giannattasio, Sandra Grignaffini, Roberto Zanfini, Michele Sanza, Anna Mori, Claudio Bartoletti, Velia Zulli, Federico Boaron, Maria Grazia Fontanesi, Gemma Verbena, Franca Bianconcini, Ivonne Donegani, Angelo Fioritti, Pietro Pellegrini, Giuseppina  Paulillo, Clara Pellegrini, Diego Gibertini.

 

Matteo Luca Andriola
# Gli ex manicomi e quella chiusura mai arrivata.
www.lettera43.it/ 25 Ottobre 2015
Ritardi. Maltrattamenti. Polemiche. Una legge chiude gli Ospedali psichiatrici, ma nel 2015 in Italia ci sono ancora internati. Colpe e numeri di una impasse.Gli effetti di questa legge avranno ripercussioni pure sulle carceri, dato che i detenuti un tempo inviati negli Opg per il periodo canonico di osservazione di 30 giorni, adesso andranno nelle sezioni psichiatriche nei penitenziari, non migliorando senz’altro neppure la situazione di tali strutture, dove secondo dati del 2013, i disturbi mentali riguarderebbero circa il 40% dei detenuti, cosa del resto condannata dalla Corte europea dei diritti umani.

 

Joseph A. Schwartz, Kevin M. Beaver, J. C. Barnes
# The Association between Mental Health and Violence among a Nationally Representative Sample of College Students from the United States
PLOS ONE | October 7, 2015
The results revealed that college students were less likely to have engaged in violent behavior relative to the non- student sample, but a substantial portion of college students had engaged in violent behavior. Age- and sex- standardized prevalence rates indicated that more than 21% of college students reported at least one violent act. In addition, more than 36% of college students had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Finally, the prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders significantly increased the odds of violent behavior within the college student sample.

 

Carl Salzman, Richard I. Shader
# Not Again: Benzodiazepines Once More Under Attack
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology: October 2015 - Volume 35 - Issue 5 - p 493–495
It seems that we are again in the midst of a new storm of concern about an epidemic of benzodiazepine (BZ) overuse, misuse, and abuse. The first concern, in the 1980s, posited BZs as an epidemic of excessive prescribing and was frequently mentioned in books, movies, and numerous lay magazine articles. There was also concern that BZs were abused or misused, caused addiction with difficult withdrawal symptoms, or taken without medical supervision by large numbers of people.

 

Casey Tolan
# A psychologist is leading the largest jail in America and helping rethink incarceration and mental health
http://fusion.net/ October 20, 2015

CHICAGO—Home to about 10,000 inmates, Cook County Jail takes up a huge swath of land on Chicago’s southwest side. It’s the largest single jail in America, and because about a third of its inmates are mentally ill, it also doubles as the largest mental health institution in the country. So it makes sense that the jail’s new warden, Nneka Jones Tapia, is a clinical psychologist. Since she was promoted to her job five months ago, Jones Tapia has helped to reimagine how the jail operates. She’s trying to create a jail that doesn’t just keep people locked up but gives them treatment and supports them even after they go free.

# Timothy Williams, A Psychologist as Warden? Jail and Mental Illness Intersect in Chicago, www.nytimes.com/ July 30, 2015

 

Andrea Pugiotto
# Morire di Tso nell’Italia del terzo millennio
http://ilmanifesto.info/ 19 agosto 2015
La morte di Andrea Soldi durante l’esecuzione di un Tso è una metonìmia. Narra qualcosa di più generale che trascende il fatto in sé, pur gravissimo, lasciando intravedere nodi irrisolti nel rapporto tra autorità e libertà individuale.

 

Jeffrey Guina, Sarah R. Rossetter, Bethany J. DeRhodes, Ramzi W Nahhas, Randon S. Welton,
# Benzodiazepines for PTSD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of Psychiatric Practice Vol. 21, No. 4, July 2015
The results of this systematic review suggest that BZDs should be considered relatively contraindicated for patients with PTSD or recent trauma. Evidence-based treatments for PTSD should be favored over BZDs. 

 

Federal Public Defender’s Office | Speakers: Thomas Price, Michelle Guyton
# CLE Seminar. The Brain on Prison
http://or.fd.org/ Portland, Oregon, June 17, 2015

It is time we recognize that the system is broken and that, current prison conditions traumatize the brains of those incarcerated. These conditions are not a substitution for flogging, but are a flogging of the most important organ in the human body. And if that is not cruelty, and injustice, what constitutes it? 

 

Matt Ford
# America's Largest Mental Hospital Is a Jail
www.theatlantic.com/ jun 8, 2015
At Cook County Jail, an estimated one in three inmates has some form of mental illness. At least 400,000 inmates currently behind bars in the United States suffer from some type of mental illness—a population larger than the cities of Cleveland, New Orleans, or St. Louis—according to the National Alliance on Mental Illness. NAMI estimates that between 25 and 40 percent of all mentally ill Americans will be jailed or incarcerated at some point in their lives.

 

Mary Jane England, Adrienne Stith Butler, Monica L. Gonzalez (eds)
# Psychosocial Interventions for Mental and Substance Use Disorders: A Framework for Establishing Evidence-Based Standards
www.nap.edu/ Board on Health Sciences Policy; Institute of Medicine; 2015
Mental health and substance use disorders affect approximately 20 percent of Americans and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the current evidence base for the effects of psychosocial interventions is sizable, subsequent steps in the process of bringing a psychosocial intervention into routine clinical care are less well defined. The data from research supporting these interventions have not been well synthesized, and it can be difficult for consumers, providers, and payers to know what treatments are effective. This report details the reasons for the gap between what is known to be effective and current practice and offers recommendations for how best to address this gap by applying a framework that can be used to establish standards for psychosocial interventions.

 

Michael Ollove
# New Efforts to Keep the Mentally Ill Out of Jail
The Pew Charitable Trusts  Research & Analysis  Stateline, May 19, 2015 
According to a 2009 study cited by the Council of State Governments Justice Center, an estimated 2 million adults with serious mental illnesses are jailed in the course of a year. Studies, including one from the Urban Institute, say they tend to stay in jail longer than those without mental illnesses, return to jail more often and cost local jurisdictions more money while incarcerated. More frequently than not, they are jailed for minor offenses, such as trespassing, disorderly conduct, disturbing the peace or illicit drug use.

 

Alan R. Felthous, Matthew S. Stanford
# A Proposed Algorithm for the Pharmacotherapy of Impulsive Aggression
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 43:456 – 67, 2015
A rational algorithm for effective pharmacotherapy for impulsive aggression takes into account five factors: sufficiently defined and characterized aggressive behavior; availability of agents studied by trials of sufficient quality; risks, side effects, and contraindications; severity of aggressive outbursts; and co-occurring mental and medical conditions. Clinicians in forensic and correctional treatment centers, indeed in any treatment setting, should be able to optimize their effectiveness in treating impulsive aggression by using methods that consider these five factors. 

 

S. Young, O. Sedgwick, M. Fridman, G. Gudjonsson, P. Hodgkins, M. Lantigua, R. A. González
# Co-morbid psychiatric disorders among incarcerated ADHD populations: a meta-analysis
Psychological Medicine (2015), 45, 2499–2510
Compared with population rates, there is robust evidence to support an over-representation of youths and adults with ADHD in the criminal justice system, most likely reflecting high rates of co-morbidity with conduct disorder. A meta- nalysis of 42 international studies reported that 30% and 26% of the youth and adult prison populations, respectively, had clinically diagnosed ADHD...

 

S. Young, D. Moss, O. Sedgwick, M. Fridman, P. Hodgkins
# A meta-analysis of the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in incarcerated populations
Psychological Medicine (2015), 45, 247–258
Forty-two studies were included in the analysis. ADHD prevalence was higher with screening diagnoses versus diagnostic interview (and with retrospective youth diagnoses versus current diagnoses). Using diagnostic interview data, the estimated prevalence was 25.5% and there were no significant differences for gender and age. Significant country differences were noted. Compared with published general population prevalence, there is a fivefold increase in prevalence of ADHD in youth prison populations (30.1%) and a 10-fold increase in adult prison populations (26.2%). 

 

Jeffrey Guina, Sarah R. Rossetter, Bethany J. DeRhodes, Ramzi W. Nahhas, Randon S. Welton
# Benzodiazepines for PTSD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of Psychiatric Practice Vol. 21, No. 4 July 2015
BZDs are ineffective for PTSD treatment and prevention, and risks associated with their use tend to outweigh potential short-term benefits. In addition to adverse effects in general populations, BZDs are associated with specific problems in patients with PTSD: worse overall severity, significantly increased risk of developing PTSD with use after recent trauma, worse psychotherapy outcomes, aggression, depression, and substance use.

 

Rivista di Psicodinamica Criminale
# Interventi con gli uomini maltrattanti
Anno VIII – n. 2 luglio 2015
I programmi per uomini autori di violenza devono assicurarsi che le compagne dei soggetti coinvolti siano informate sugli obiettivi e sui contenuti del programma, sui suoi limiti non sottovalutando la possibilità dell' insorgere di ulteriori episodi di violenza. Le donne devono essere messe a conoscenza che la partecipazione al programma da parte del compagno potrebbe essere un modo per manipolarle e controllarle ulteriormente. Le donne devono essere messe a conoscenza della possibilità di ricevere esse stesse supporto e di rientrare in progetti di sicurezza. Le informazioni fornite dalle compagne dovrebbero essere incluse nell’accertamento dei rischi e nella valutazione dell’autore...

 

# Corte Costituzionale, Sentenza n. 186/2015 (Decisione del 24/06/2015 - Deposito del 23/07/2015)

La Corte Costituzionale ha respinto il ricorso promosso dal Tribunale di sorveglianza di Messina contro la legge 81/2014 sul superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari, giudicando non fondata la questione di legittimità costituzionale. Il ricorso contestava la legge 81/2014 nelle parti in cui stabilisce che l’accertamento della pericolosità sociale “è effettuato sulla base delle qualità soggettive della persona e senza tenere conto delle condizioni (cosiddette ambientali)  di cui all’articolo 133, secondo comma, numero 4, del codice penale” e che “non costituisce elemento idoneo a supportare il giudizio di pericolosità sociale la sola mancanza di programmi terapeutici individuali”. La Consulta conferma la piena legittimità costituzionale della legge 81, laddove in sostanza ci dice che un malato povero, emarginato, senza casa o abbandonato dai servizi non può diventare, per questa ragione, socialmente  pericoloso e finire in OPG. Come troppo spesso sinora è accaduto...

 

Corte d'Appello di Bologna
# Circolare in merito alla chiusura degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari. Rapporti dell'Autorità giudiziaria con i responsabili delle Residenze pr l'Esecuzione delle Misure di Sicureazza (REMS). Rapporti con la Polizia Penitenziaria nel corso della esecuzione della misura
Circolare n. 5406/PROT. - 22 luglio 2015

 

Andrea Pugiotto
# Dalla chiusura degli Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari alla (possibile) eclissi della pena manicomiale
Costituzionalismo.it, Fasc. 2 | 2015
Dopo ripetuti rinvii, la legge n. 81 del 2014 conferma finalmente la data (31marzo 2015) per la chiusura dei sei Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari operanti in Italia. A tale dispositivo abolizionista si accompagna l’introduzione di un corpo normativo inedito in grado, se integralmente applicato, di trasformare la misura di sicurezza detentiva da regola – fin qui seriale, meccanica, inumana e degradante – a legale eccezione. Il saggio ricostruisce la coerenza sistematica del testo legislativo, evidenziandone i profili di indubbio spessore costituzionale, in ideale dialettica con il Tribunale di Sorveglianza di Messina che, all’indomani dell’entrata in vigore, ha già impugnato davanti alla Corte costituzionale la novella in uno dei suoi snodi fondamentali (la ridefinizione della diagnosi di pericolosità sociale del reo non imputabile).

 

Agnieszka Piróg-Balcerzak, Bogusław Habrat, Paweł Mierzejewski
# Misuse and abuse of quetiapine
www.psychiatriapolska.pl/ Psychiatr. Pol. 2015; 49(1): 81–93
Most reports concern males, and especially those with a history of other psychoactive substance abuse, and personality disorders, often in conflict with the law. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing quetiapine to such patients. Descriptions of cases of improper admission or abuse of quetiapine are mainly related to men. Another high-risk population are prisoners and persons with criminal records, and in some prisons it is a widespread phenomenon.

 

Giuliano Balbi
# Infermità di mente e pericolosità sociale tra OPG e REMS
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 20 luglio 2015
1. Infermo di mente autore di reato e controllo sociale. Considerazioni introduttive. – 2. Infermità di mente e pericolosità sociale come strumenti di elusione dei principi di derivazione illuministico-liberale. – 3. Un gioco a carte truccate: pericolosità sociale e doppio binario. – 4. La l. 81/2014. Le misure di sicurezza detentive tra sussidiarietà e limite di durata. – 5. Sulla vaghezza del concetto di infermità mentale. – 6. Il tempo sospeso. Tra REMS che non aprono e OPG che non chiudono. 

 

Stefano Cecconi
# Chiudere gli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari, per aprire spazi ai diritti e alla cittadinanza
www.stopopg.it/ Roma, 14 luglio 2015
Siamo consapevoli che la chiusura degli Opg sarà graduale ma niente può e deve fermarla. Chiudere gli Opg sarà una vittoria per tutti. Per le persone che hanno subito e subiscono l’internamento, in primo luogo. Ma anche per gli operatori degli Opg e dei servizi di salute mentale è una grande vittoria, e un’opportunità per restituire più qualità al lavoro. Perché sappiamo che costruire l’alternativa alla logica manicomiale dipende dalla qualità del lavoro nei servizi. La strada è in salita...

 

Giovanna Bellini, Marco Strano (a cura di)
# Anatomia di un reato: Stalking. Manuale didattico - Operativo
www.stalkingtalk.it/ Luglio 2015

... Dietro ad un comportamento caratterizzato da atti persecutori, per utilizzare il termine giuridico, si celano cause e fini molto diversi tra loro che vanno dal seguire un impulso irrefrenabile, all'adottare un comportamento strumentale, come avviene ad esempio nelle false accuse. In questi ultimi casi come  vedremo, la auto dichiarata “vittima” risulterà in realtà colei che di fatto ha avuto il vero comportamento persecutore nei confronti della persona che risulterà successivamente accusata senza un fondamento. Tali false accuse possono essere effettuate per rivalsa, per ottenere un qualche beneficio o talora per vera mana persecutoria...

 

Psichiatria Democratica
# Chiudere gli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari, superare le REMS: le proposte di Psichiatria Democratica per governare il cambiamento
www.psichiatriademocratica.com/ 26 maggio 2015

... Si è commesso - da parte delle Istituzioni - l’errore di partire dal posto letto, di puntare sul luogo e non sulle persone, di oggettivare e non soggettivare il bisogno: in questa ottica, come ben sappiamo, i posti letto non saranno mai sufficienti né nelle REMS provvisorie né in quelle definitive; non si è partiti, cioè, dal programma individualizzato, per ciascuna persona, come si dovrebbe fare, sempre, nell’approntare progetti che riguardano la vita di ciascuno. Ecco perché i “gruppi tecnici” hanno, in genere, di  nuovo fallito e, comunque, non sono riusciti a scrollarsi di dosso la neo- manicomializzazione che la paura del folle porta con sè
...

 

Human Rights Watch
# Callous and Cruel. Use of Force against Inmates with Mental Disabilities in US Jails and Prisons
http://www.hrw.org/ May 2015
It is well known that US prisons and jails have taken on the role of mental health facilities. This new role for them reflects, to a great extent, the limited availability of communitybased outpatient and residential mental health programs and resources, and the lack of alternatives to incarceration for men and women with mental disabilities who have engaged in minor offenses... What is less well known is that persons with mental disabilities who are behind bars are at heightened risk of physical mistreatment by staff. 

 

Alan R. Felthous
# Enforced Medication in Jails and Prisons: The New Asylums
www.albanygovernmentlawreview.org/ 5/1/2015

That the dramatic reduction in the hospitalization of seriously mentally ill individuals has been a factor in the progressive and substantial increase in the numbers of incarcerated individuals in the United States is well known. Less well publicized is the failure of state governments to keep up with the increasing need for hospitalization within correctional systems and in some cases the withdrawal of hospital services for mentally disordered inmates in need of this level of care. Textbooks on correctional psychiatry do not address the nature and purposes of security hospitals. Neither have courts addressed whether the community practice of administering enforced medication in a mental hospital or ward should apply as well for incarcerated persons in need of this level of treatment ...

 

Alfred J.Lewy
# Circadian Rhythms and Mood Disorders: A Guide for the Perplexed
J Clin Psychiatry 76:5, May 2015

 

Zheng Chang, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Seena Fazel
# Substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and mortality after release from prison: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study
www.thelancet.com/ May 2015
Every year more than 30 million people circulate through prisons, and most will eventually return to their communities. The period after release is associated with high risk for various health outcomes, and many studies have provided an  epidemiological description of high mortality in people released from prison compared with the general population...

 

Mona Sobhani
# Extending the Logic of the Juvenile Justice System to a Separate Justice System for Mentally Ill Offenders
www.albanygovernmentlawreview.org/ 2015
Overall, this analysis suggests that the method the current criminal justice system implements in handling mentally ill offenders are outrageously inadequate, inhumane and unsustainable. Mental health courts, in which mentally ill offenders are linked with treatment, are a good option, and there should be a push for other counties to consider the benefits of these specialty courts.

 

Mirella Ruggeri, Chiara Bonetto, Antonio Lasalvia, Angelo Fioritti, Giovanni de Girolamo, Paolo Santonastaso, Francesca Pileggi, Giovanni Neri, Daniela Ghigi, Franco Giubilini, Maurizio Miceli, Silvio Scarone, Angelo Cocchi, Stefano Torresani, Carlo Faravelli, Carla Cremonese, Paolo Scocco, Emanuela Leuci, Fausto Mazzi, Michela Pratelli, Francesca Bellini, Sarah Tosato, Katia De Santi, Sarah Bissoli, Sara Poli, Elisa Ira, Silvia Zoppei, Paola Rucci, Laura Bislenghi, Giovanni Patelli, Doriana Cristofalo, Anna Meneghelli, and The GET UP Group

# Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Multi-Element Psychosocial Intervention for First- Episode Psychosis: Results From the Cluster-Randomized Controlled GET UP PIANO Trial in a Catchment Area of 10 Million Inhabitants
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2015

Interest in psychosocial interventions to facilitate recovery and reduce long-term disability in patients with firstepisode psychosis (FEP) has been growing. Clinical  guidelines for this population recommend an early and integrated approach, based on psychosocial interventions. The results of multi-element interventions, including early detection strategies; individual, group, and family therapy; case management; and pharmacological treatment, are promising, with symptom reduction, improved quality of life, increased social and cognitive functioning, lower inpatient admission rates, less in-hospital time, improved insight, greater treatment satisfaction, decreased substance abuse, and fewer self-harm episodes...

 

New South Wales Government | Family & Community Services
# Violence Risk Assessment Practice Guide. Practice Guide for Practitioners who Support People with Disability
www.adhc.nsw.gov.au/
In violence risk assessment the primary information that is gathered relates to known risk factors. Risk factors refer to a condition or characteristic of the person or their environment that research has demonstrated is predictive of future violence i.e. it is evidence based.

 

Carol Fisler
# Toward a New Understanding of Mental Health Courts
www.courtinnovation.org/ The Judges' Journal, Volume 54, Number 2, Spring 2015
Mental health courts, like other innovations in justice, began as an experiment, testing the proposition that linking defendants with mental illnesses to court-supervised, community-based treatment as an alternative to incarceration would lead to improved mental health outcomes and reduced criminal justice involvement. A handful of mental health courts were launched in the late 1990s, a few dozen by 2003, and by 2010 approximately 300 were operating in more than 40 states, involving tens of thousands of defendants.

 

Hon. John H. Guthmann
# Ramsey County Mental Health Court: Working with Community Partners to Improve the Lives of Mentaly Ill Defendants, Reduce Recidivism, and Enhance Public Safety
Wiliam Mitchell Law Review, vol. 41:3, 2015

While mental health courts are not the only answer, they are an important part of the answer. RCMHC (Ramsey County Mental Health Court) has a proven record of success.260 With continued public support, RCMHC and other mental health courts in Minnesota and around the country will continue to enhance public safety, reduce recidivism, and help individuals with mental illness who commit crimes improve their lives. 

 

Megan A. Lee
# Mental Health Services and the American Inmate: A Systematic Review of Literature
Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers, Paper 482, 2015
As the number of patients treated for mental illness by state hospitals has decreased over the last few decades, county, state, and federal prisons have become inundated with mentally ill offenders who often lack the proper treatment and support to manage their illnesses. It has been estimated that over 50% of criminal offenders in jails and prisons in the United States have issues with mental health, compared to 11% of the general population, with higher rates for females (73%)...

 

Ana Swanson
# A Shocking Number of Mentally Ill Americans End Up in Prison Instead of Treatment
Washington Post, April 30, 2015
According to a report by the Treatment Advocacy Center, which includes the anecdotes above, American prisons and jails housed an estimated 356,268 inmates with several mental illness in 2012—on par with the population of Anchorage, Alaska, or Trenton, New Jersey. That figure is more than 10 times the number of mentally ill patients in state psychiatric hospitals in the same year—about 35,000 people.

 

Laura Wallis
# Neglecting Mental Health Treatment in Prisoners. High rates of recidivism are only one of the costs
AJN, Vol. 115, No. 4, April 2015
In the United States today, we have more mentally ill people behind bars than anywhere else, which in effect, makes our correctional system the largest provider of mental health services in the nation...

 

Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica
# La contenzione: problemi etici
www.governo.it/ 23 aprile 2015
Il parere “La contenzione: problemi bioetici” affronta il tema della contenzione nei confronti dei pazienti psichiatrici e degli anziani, con particolare riguardo alle forme di contenzione meccanica, che più sollevano riserve dal punto di vista etico e giuridico. Numerose prese di posizione di organismi internazionali e dello stesso CNB in precedenti pareri hanno già indicato con chiarezza l’obiettivo della riduzione fino al superamento della contenzione, che è da considerarsi un residuo della cultura manicomiale.

 

Michele Passione, # Opg, le tante resistenze alla chiusura, il Manifesto, 21.4.2015

# Dopo la chiusura degli Opg. Psichiatri e magistrati: “Tutto risolto? Neanche per sogno”, www.ilFarmacistaonline.it/ 18 Aprile 2015

Mario Iannucci Il “superamento degli OPG” fra incompetenza, scelleratezza, ipocrisia e ignavia, www.ristretti.org/ 16 aprile 2015

Andrea Fiorello # Halden, un'altra idea del carcere, www.ilpost.it, 10 aprile 2015

Jessica Benko # The Radical Humaneness of Norway’s Halden Prison. The goal of the Norwegian penal system is to get inmates out of it, www.nytimes.com/ March 26, 2015

 

Emilio Sacchetti (Presidente Società Italiana di Psichiatria)
# Opg: dopo il superamento, il nodo del cambiamento: psichiatri e giuristi a confronto
www.sanita24.ilsole24ore.com/ 17 aprile 2015

 

Luigi Ferrannini
OPG: per le Regioni quali problemi (in)attesi?
Va' Pensiero n° 658 | 15 aprile 2015
Pericolosità sociale = malattia psichiatrica è un’equazione che – anche per gli aspetti diagnostici, clinici e terapeutici – andrebbe assunta con molta cautela per non rischiare di rimanere fermi ad una concezione oggi non comprensibile... Sia i comportamenti-reato sia le motivazioni dello stesso sono profondamente modificati rispetto al passato, così come lo sono gli intrecci complessi tra reato, abuso di sostanze stupefacenti ed effetti personali degli abusi di sostanze stupefacenti delle quali in molti casi non si conoscono nemmeno le azioni.

 

Francesco Maisto
OPG: dalla Legge ai fatti
www.pensiero.it/ 8 aprile 2015
 

Francesco Maisto
Quale superamento dell'OPG?
www.questionegiustizia.it/ 7 aprile 2015

 

Giulia Alberti
# Chiudono gli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari (?): la situazione e le prospettive in Lombardia
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 31 Marzo 2015
Dal 31 marzo 2015 gli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari sono chiusi e le misure di sicurezza del ricovero in ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario e dell'assegnazione a casa di cura e custodia sono eseguite esclusivamente all'interno di strutture sanitarie realizzate dalle regioni secondo i seguenti criteri: a) esclusiva gestione sanitaria all'interno delle strutture; b) attivita' perimetrale di sicurezza e di vigilanza esterna, ove necessario in relazione alle condizioni dei soggetti interessati, da svolgere nel limite delle risorse umane, strumentali e finanziarie disponibili a legislazione vigente; c) destinazione delle strutture ai soggetti provenienti, di norma, dal territorio regionale di ubicazione delle medesime...

 

Saverio Migliori
# 31 marzo 2015: chiudono gli Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari. La sfida di Montelupo Fiorentino e
l’esigenza di scelte condivise e coraggiose

Montelupo Fiorentino, 01 aprile 2015

 

Didier Fassin
# L’asile et la prison
Esprit, Mars-avril 2015

Plus tolérantes à l’égard de la maladie mentale, mais aussi mieux équipées pour la prendre en charge en dehors de l’espace asilaire, les sociétés contemporaines sont devenues plus sévères, à l’inverse, contre la petite délinquance et plus généralement la criminalité, en enfermant plus et plus longtemps et en tenant de moins en moins compte de la santé mentale des personnes qu’on punit et des conséquences psychologiques d’une telle sanction...

 

Adrian P Mundt, Sinja Kastner, Jan Mir, Stefan Priebe
# Did female prisoners with mental disorders receive psychiatric treatment before imprisonment?
Psychiatry (2015) 15:5
Throughout the world, high prevalence rates of mental disorders have been found in prison populations, especially in females. It has been suggested that these populations do not access psychiatric treatment. The aim of this study was to establish rates of psychiatric in- and outpatient treatments prior to imprisonment in female prisoners and to explore reasons for discontinuation of such treatments

 

Jessica Benko
# The Radical Humaneness of Norway’s Halden Prison. The goal of the Norwegian penal system is to get inmates out of it.
New York Times, March 26, 2015

 

Mark Toynbee
# The Penrose hypothesis in the 21st century: revisiting the asylum
http://ebmh.bmj.com/ Evid Based Mental Health August 2015 Vol 18 No 3

 

Adrian P. Mundt, Winnie S. Chow, Margarita Arduino, Hugo Barrionuevo, Rosemarie Fritsch, Nestor Girala, Alberto Minoletti, Flávia Mitkiewicz, Guillermo Rivera, María Tavares, Stefan Priebe
# Psychiatric Hospital Beds and Prison Populations in South America Since 1990 Does the Penrose Hypothesis Apply?
JAMA Psychiatry, 72(2):112-118, 2015
Since 1990, the numbers of psychiatric beds have substantially decreased in South America, while the sizes of the prison populations have increased against a background of strong economic growth. The changes appear to be associated because the numbers of beds decreased more extensively when and where the sizes of prison populations increased. These findings are consistent with and specify the assumption of an association between the numbers of  psychiatric beds and the sizes of prison populations. More research is needed to understand the drivers of the capacities of psychiatric hospitals and prisons and to explore reasons for their association.

 

Dustin DeMoss
# The Nightmare of Prison for Individuals With Mental Illness
www.huffingtonpost.com/ 03/25/2015
The result is that many people with mental illness who are incarcerated find themselves back in prison again. The fact of the matter is that our mental health system has failed as the federal government continues to deny and ignore the promises made to improve the system by taking responsibility from the states. The result is that recidivism rates among the mentally ill is soaring

 

Seena Fazel, Achim Wolf, Zheng Chang, Henrik Larsson, Guy M Goodwin, Paul Lichtenstein
# Depression and violence: a Swedish population study
www.thelancet.com/ Lancet Psychiatry 2015; 2: 224–32
Depression is associated with increased risk of a wide range of adverse outcomes, including reduced life expectancy, suicide, self-harm, acute myocardial infarction, and a worse prognosis for comorbidities, such as heart disease and diabetes. Clinical experience and expert opinion also suggest an association with the risk of perpetrating violence, including homicide in male perpetrators.

 

Stefano Rossi
# La salute mentale attraverso lo spettro dei diritti umani
www.forumcostituzionale.it/ 22 marzo 2015
Benché, nella maggior parte degli Stati occidentali, si siano adottate misure significative per includere nella legislazione tutele per i diritti e le libertà delle persone con sofferenza mentale, permangono comunque “faglie” nelle quali si realizzano, ancor oggi, aperte violazioni dei diritti umani, spesso giustificate da visioni politiche o sociali che intendono la malattia mentale come espressione di pericolosità sociale, stigmatizzando la patologia e la persona che ne è portatrice.

 

KiDeuk Kim, Miriam Becker-Cohen, Maria Serakos
# The Processing and Treatment of Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System. Scan of Practice and Background Analysis
www.urban.org/ Urban Institute, March 2015
Although a number of important gaps in the current literature and, particularly, in rigorous quantitative evaluations of the success of programs and their costs have limited our ability to arrive at more concrete conclusions, the data remain clear about one thing: individuals with mental illness are still largely overrepresented in the criminal justice system. With such high numbers, their care and treatment is not just a humanitarian concern; it is a critical economic, societal, and public safety issue. 

 

CQ Researcher. In-depth reports on today's issues
# Prisoners and Mental Illness. Are too many with psychiatric problems behind bars?
www.cor.pa.gov/ March 13, 2015, vol. 25, n. 11, pp. 241-264

Thousands of people with schizophrenia, severe depression, delusional disorders or other mental problems are locked up, often in solitary confinement. While some committed violent crimes and remain a threat to themselves or other inmates and prison staff, many are incarcerated for minor offenses, simply because there is no place to send them for treatment. The number of mentally ill inmates has mushroomed in recent years as states have closed their psychiatric hospitals in favor of outpatient community mental health centers that typically are underfunded and overcrowded. In an attempt to reduce the influx of mentally ill inmates, some 300 specialized mental health courts have diverted them into court-monitored treatment instead of jail.

 

Sarah Glowa-Kollisch, Jasmine Graves, Nathaniel Dickey, Ross MacDonald, Zachary Rosner, Anthony Waters, Homer Venters
# Data-Driven Human Rights: Using Dual Loyalty Trainings to Promote the Care of Vulnerable Patients in Jail
www.hhrjournal.org/ Health and Human Rights 17/1 on March 12, 2015
Dual loyalty is an omnipresent feature of correctional health. As part of a human rights quality improvement committee, and utilizing the unique advantage of a fully integrated electronic health record system, we undertook an assessment of dual loyalty in the New York City jail system. The evaluation revealed significant concerns about the extent to which the mental health service is involved in assessments that are part of the punishment process of the security apparatus. As a result, dual loyalty training was developed and delivered to all types of health staff in the jail system via anonymous survey.

Thomas R. Blair, Keramet A. Reiter
# Solitary Confinement and Mental Illness: Ethical Challenges for Clinicians; In Response to Glowa-Kollisch et al.
www.hhrjournal.org/ July 2, 2015

 

Timothy Williams
# Jails Have Become Warehouses for the Poor, Ill and Addicted, a Report Says
www.nytimes.com/ Feb. 11, 2015

Jails across the country have become vast warehouses made up primarily of people too poor to post bail or too ill with mental health or drug problems to adequately care for themselves, according to a report issued Wednesday.

 

Ram Subramanian, Ruth Delaney, Stephen Roberts, Nancy Fishman, Peggy McGarry | Vera Institute of Justice
# Incarceration's Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America
http://www.vera.org/ February 2015

 

Veerle Buffel, Vera van de Straat, Piet Bracke
# Employment status and mental health care use in times of economic contraction: a repeated cross-sectional study in Europe, using a three-level model
International Journal for Equity in Health (2015) 14:29
Our findings stress the importance of taking the macro-economic context and changes therein into account when studying the mental health care use of unemployed people compared with the employed, in particular among men. Moreover, it is important to make the distinction between primary and specialized medical care use, as the impact of macro-economic conditions is dependent on the type of care, which also applies when controlling for mental health.

 

Corte Costituzionale,
# Sentenza n. 45/2015 - Deposito del 25/03/2015
Sull'incapace eternamente giudicabile

2013: Il tema degli “eternamente giudicabili” torna davanti alla Corte Costituzionale

 

Regione Lombardia
# Schema di accordo tra Regione Lombardia e Regione Liguria per l'accoglimento di pazienti con residenza in Liguria presso residenze per l'esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza sanitaria (REMS) realizzate in Regione Lombardia
Deliberazione n° X / 3274 Seduta del 16/03/2015

 

Paola Di Nicola
# La chiusura degli OPG: un'occasione mancata
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 13 marzo 2015
Da dove partiamo. – 2. Dal manicomio giudiziario all’ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario (OPG). – 3. Chi viene internato o recluso nell’ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario. – 4. Il lento percorso legislativo della chiusura degli OPG: sintesi delle fonti principali. – 5. La valutazione di pericolosità sociale prima della “riforma”. – 6. L’Autorità giudiziaria preposta alla valutazione della pericolosità sociale. – 7. La valutazione della pericolosità sociale dopo “la riforma” e la realtà giudiziaria. – 8. La cosiddetta “non pericolosità condizionata”. – 9. Il silenzio della “riforma” sull’obbligo di tutela delle vittime dei reati. – 10. Gli effetti della mancanza di programmi terapeutici individuali per gli internati. – 11. I termini di durata delle misure di sicurezza detentive: una “riforma” a legislazione processuale invariata. – 12. Il calcolo della durata delle misure di sicurezza detentive e orientamenti giurisprudenziali sull’applicabilità di altre misure. – 13. Conclusioni.

 

Paolo Giordano

# Gli ultimi internati della nostra storia. Così finisce un’idea di detenzione
www.corriere.it/ 9 marzo 2015

 Il 31 marzo è prevista la chiusura degli Opg. Le incognite sul futuro. Per i soggetti considerati gravi nuove «residenze» affidate alla Sanità... Ma sarebbe troppo comodo accodarsi alla scia dello sdegno comune, condannare gli Opg come luoghi isolati di sadismo sfrenato, senza rilevare la parte di responsabilità che ognuno di noi ha avuto in tutto questo: la convenienza di una nazione intera che, dopo avere applaudito a lungo se stessa per la chiusura dei manicomi, ha tollerato per decenni delle realtà perfino peggiori, in ragione della presunta pericolosità sociale di alcuni infermi... e forse è il concetto stesso di «pericolosità sociale» a essere errato...

 

Donatela Coccoli
# Oltre gli OPG la nebbia. Il 31 marzo la chiusura degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari. Allorizzonte, l'incognita sulla destinazione dei "folli rei"
Left, 28 febbraio 2015

 

Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri. Conferenza Unificata
# Accordo concernente disposizioni per il definitivo superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
24 febbraio 2015

 

Thierry Brigaud, Jean-François Corty, Claude-Olivier Doron, Vincent Girard
# Troubles psychiatriques et prison: casser la spirale
http://blogs.mediapart.fr/ 06 Janvier 2015

 

Equality and Human Rights commission
# Preventing Deaths in Detention of Adults with Mental Health Conditions
www.equalityhumanrights.com/ February 2015
Between 2010 and 2013 367 adults with mental health conditions died of ‘nonnatural’ causes while in state detention in police cells and psychiatric wards. Another 295 adults died in prison of ‘non-natural’ causes, many of these had mental health conditions. Since 2013 that number has risen considerably. Each of them left behind loved ones who have suffered as a result of these deaths.

 

Randeep Ramesh
# Hospital psychiatric detainees more at risk of preventable death. Deaths of more than 600 mentally ill detainees in England and Wales could have been avoided, says Equality and Human Rights Commission report
www.theguardian.com/ Monday 23 February 2015

 

Sam P. K. Collins
# Pennsylvania Overhauls Health Care For Mentally Ill Inmates
http://thinkprogress.org/ January 7, 2015

 

Agnieszka Piróg-Balcerzak, Bogusław Habrat, Paweł Mierzejewski
# Misuse and abuse of quetiapine
Psychiatr. Pol. 2015; 49(1): 81–93
The paper presents and discusses the reports of quetiapine misuse, abuse, and even mentaladdiction, as well as symptoms similar to the so-called discontinuation syndrome, often mixedwith withdrawal syndrome occurring in the course of addiction. Most reports concern males, and especially those with a history of other psychoactive substance abuse, and personality disorders, often in conflict with the law. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing quetiapine to such patients.

 

Rich Lord
# Pennsylvania prison system develops separate housing for mentally ill inmates
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 6, 2015
Inmates with serious mental illnesses will no longer be locked in cells all day, under new policies outlined Monday by state prison officials. The change, which follows scathing criticism of the Department of Corrections’ handling of mentally ill inmates, is meant to address one of the toughest tasks in prison management: tailoring discipline to an inmate’s diagnosis. In 2013, the state’s confinement of 800 to 1,000 mentally ill inmates in Restricted Housing Units — 23 hours per day in small, one-bed cells — was blasted by the U.S. Department of Justice and by advocates for the disabled.

 

Francesco Schiaffo
# La pericolosità sociale tra 'sottigliezze empiriche' e 'spessori normativi': la riforma di cui alla legge n. 81/2014
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 11 Dicembre 2014
Nell'ambito delle strategie per il superamento degli OPG, la legge n.81/2014 è intervenuta incidendo sugli assetti fondamentali della disciplina delle misure di sicurezza e, in particolare, sui criteri del giudizio di pericolosità sociale degli infermi e seminfermi di mente. Sotto quest'ultimo profilo, la riforma, per quanto criticata e oggettivamente discutibile per taluni aspetti, è parsa necessaria ad adeguare la disciplina di riferimento a fondamentali parametri di legittimità costituzionale ed impedire, quindi, «una certa dilatazione del concetto di pericolosità sociale» che, nella prassi giudiziaria, era già stata rilevata nel 2011 dalla Commissione parlamentare sul sistema sanitario nazionale.

 

Eduardo De Cunto
# Norma e normalità. Malattia mentale, diritti, responsabilità
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 2014
La normalità in ambito psichiatrico è aciò che l’individuo malato deve conquistare o ritrovare al termine del percorso terapeutico. Nella definizione del confine tra comportamento normale e patologico ci troviamo dunque alle prese con una serie di modelli che si vengono ad affiancare alle norme etiche, religiose, giuridiche, nel più ampio genus delle norme comportamentali. Nella definizione della norma si stabilisce un rapporto tra malattia mentale e regolamentazione giuridica, tra psichiatria e diritto, nell'interscambio di saperi, finalità, linguaggi.

 

Senato - 12ª Commissione permanente (Igiene e sanità) - Palazzo Giustiniani, 11 novembre 2014

«Salute mentale, OPG e diritti umani»
# Maria Grazia De Biasi # Cesare Bondioli # Fabio Dito  # Gisella Trincas  # Stefano Cecconi  # Giovanna Del Giudice  www.senato.it |  www.stopopg.it/

 

Gerard Drennan, James Wooldridge, Anne Aiyegbusi, Debbie Alred, Joe Ayres, Richard Barker, Sally Carr, Helen Eunson, Hilary Lomas, Estelle Moore, Debbie Stanton, Geoff Shepherd
# Making Recovery a Reality in Forensic Settings
Centre for Mental Health and Mental Health Network, NHS Confederation 2014
The management of risk is, of course, fundamental to the success or failure of a forensic service aiming to support recovery. Despite acts of violence, many of the individuals in forensic mental health settings are also among the most vulnerable individuals in society. For many, the road to recovery starts with feeling safe. This often begins with feeling in control of oneself, having relationships that are characterised by hope, trust and compassion and by having safe living conditions.

 

Raffaele Bianchetti

# Sollevata questione di legittimità costituzionale in merito ai nuovi criteri di accertamento della pericolosità sociale del seminfermo di mente
www.penalecontemporaneo/ 14 Novembre 2014
# Trib. Sorveglianza di Messina, 16 luglio 2014 (ord.)
Al vaglio della Consulta è stata sottoposta quella parte della novella legislativa (art. 1, co. 1, lett. b, l. 81/2014) che dispone che l'accertamento della pericolosità sociale nei confronti dell'infermo e del seminfermo di mente deve essere effettuato dal magistrato - sia esso giudice di cognizione o magistrato di sorveglianza - «sulla base delle qualità soggettive della persona e senza tenere conto delle condizioni di cui all'articolo 133, secondo comma, numero 4, del codice penale», precisando che «non costituisce elemento idoneo a supportare il giudizio di pericolosità sociale la sola mancanza di programmi terapeutici individuali».

 

Irene Forcellini
# Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari e Costituzione
Università degli Studi Roma Tre

 

Antonella Calcaterra

# Sulla chiusura degli Opg

Il Garantista, 14 novembre 2014

 

Psichiatria Democratica
# Chi vuole chiudere veramente gli OPG?
Napoli 29 ottobre 2014
I progetti personalizzati costituiscono il cuore di ogni progettualità anche con l’individuazione delle risorse destinate e tempi di attuazione definiti. Insomma non posti letto (quindi NO REMS) ma progetti di vita che contemplino luoghi di risocializzazione e programmi operativi, a medio e lungo termine, di politiche di inclusione attraverso l’abitare e il lavoro...

 

Giulia Melani
# La funzione dell'OPG. Aspetti normativi e sociologici
www.altrodiritto.unifi.it/ 2014

 

Sara Magrin
# Il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari: presa in carico delle persone con problemi di salute mentale autrici di reato e ascolto dei professionisti del territorio. L’applicazione della norma e la ricerca effettuata presso l’Ufficio di Esecuzione Penale Esterna di Verona
Università degli Stdi di Verona - Anno Accademico 2013-14

 

Tommaso Sannini

# Vizio di mente e pericolosità sociale. Aspetti storici, giuridici e sociologici

www.altrodiritto.unifi.it/ (2014)

 

Evan Mayo-Wilson, Sofi a Dias, Ifi geneia Mavranezouli, Kayleigh Kew, David M Clark, A E Ades, Stephen Pilling
# Psychological and pharmacological interventions for social anxiety disorder in adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 1 October 2014

John R Keefe
# Heightened risk of false positives in a network meta-analysis of social anxiety
www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 2 April 2015

 

Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Jan Prasko
# Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 2014
Relationship between victimization and violent behavior by patients with severe mental illness has been clearly confirmed. It is not clear whether past victimization predicts future violence, or past violence predicts future victimization, or both.

 

Encarnación Lozano Galván
# Alexithymia: indicator of communicative deficit in emotional health
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 132 ( 2014 ) 603 – 607
An area of recent interest in psychology is devoted to study the factors which affect mental health; an indicator of communicative deficit in emotional health is called alexithymia index. The aim of this project is to identify the presence of high levels of alexithymia in young students; which is a risk factor for psychopathology. The TAS-20 (Toronto Alexithymia Scale) was administered to a random sample of ESO and High School students between the ages of 14 and 20, (men and women) from the regions Zafra-Río Bodión and Tendudía, located in the province of Badajoz. The results obtained have allowed us to know that a considerable percentage of our young people show a high index of alexithymia, making us aware of the need for emotional intelligence work in education

 

Claudia C. Hurducas, Jay P. Singh, Corine de Ruiter, John Petrila
# Violence Risk Assessment. Tools: A Systematic Review of Surveys
International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 13:3, 181-192, 2014
According to a recent systematic review, over 150 risk assessment tools have specifically been developed to assess the risk of violence. These instruments include schemes  such as the Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20 , the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide, and the Sexual Violence Risk-20. Such instruments are now used on multiple continents including North America, South America, Europe and Australia...

 

Rohan Derek Borschmann
# The development and testing of joint crisis plans for people with borderline personality disorder: a feasibility study
Institute of Psychiatry King’s College London , May 2014
This dissertation expands the knowledge about effective crisis management for people with borderline personality disorder, a group who have traditionally been alienated from mainstream mental health services and are still perceived to be difficult to help. The study showed that it is possible to recruit and retain adult service users with borderline personality disorder to a trial of joint crisis plans. Although the intervention was not clinically effective, the findings suggest that the brief intervention was perceived as helpful to participants with borderline personality disorder. 

 

Dan J. Stein, Katie A. McLaughlin, Karestan C. Koenen, Lukoye Atwoli, Matthew J. Friedman, Eric D. Hill, Andreas Maercker, Maria Petukhova, Victoria Shahly, Mark van Ommeren, Jordi Alonso, Guilherme Borges, Giovanni de Girolamo, Peter de Jonge, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Elie G. Karam, Norito Kawakami, Herbert Matschinger, Michail Okoliyski, Jose Posada-Villa, Kate M. Scott, Maria Carmen Viana, Ronald C. Kessler
# DSM-5 and ICD-11 Definitions of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Investigating "Narrow" and "Broad" Approach Depression And Anxiety, 31:494–505 (2014)
Diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have changed with each edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), including the recent release of DSM-5, reflecting in part debates about the distinctions between normal responses to traumatic stressors versus maladaptive reactions and the potential for inappropriate medicalization of suffering...

 

Ilaria Lega, Debora Del Re, Angelo Picardi, Isabella Cascavilla, Antonella Gigantesco, Andrea Di Cesare, Guido Ditta, Teresa Di Fiandra
# Valutazione diagnostica dei pazienti psichiatrici autori di reato: messa a punto di una metodologia standardizzata e riproducibile
Rapporti Istisan 14/10, 2014
Questo rapporto descrive la metodologia e gli strumenti utilizzati per la valutazione diagnostica e dei bisogni socio-sanitari dei circa 1000 pazienti psichiatrici autori di reato ricoverati negli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari (OPG) italiani nell’ambito di un progetto coordinato dall’Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS). Le informazioni raccolte dal progetto, indispensabili per predisporre interventi terapeutico-riabilitativi appropriati e individualizzati, consentiranno di caratterizzare le condizioni cliniche di questi pazienti, per i quali un ampio processo di riforma attualmente in corso prevede una presa in carico alternativa all’OPG.

 

Camera dei Deputati | Lorenzin, Ministro della salute - Orlando, Ministro della giustizia
# Relazione sullo stato di attuazione delle iniziative per il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari (Aggiornata al 30 settembre 2014)
www.camera.it/ Trasmessa alla Presidenza il 30 settembre 2014
L'esame ha evidenziato come nei mesi successivi all'entrata in vigore della legge, nel periodo compreso tra maggio e settembre 2014, si è rilevata una leggera ma costante diminuzione delle presenze, che alla data del 9 settembre 2014 vede 793 Internati presenti a fronte degli 880 alla data del 31 gennaio 2014.

 

Corte di Cassazione, Sezione I

# Sentenza 12 settembre 2014, n. 37573

Ai fini del riconoscimento del vizio totale o parziale di mente, anche i “disturbi della personalità”, che non sempre sono inquadrabili nel ristretto novero delle malattie mentali, possono rientrare nel concetto di “infermità”, purché siano di consistenza, intensità e gravità tali da incidere concretamente sulla capacità di intendere o di volere, escludendola o scemandola grandemente, e a condizione che sussista un nesso eziologico con la specifica condotta criminosa, per effetto del quale il fatto di reato sia ritenuto causalmente determinato dal disturbo mentale

 

Lamiece Hassan, Martin Frisher, Jane Senior, Mary Tully, Roger Webb, David While, Jenny Shawl.
# A cross-sectional prevalence survey of psychotropic medication prescribing patterns in prisons in England
Health Serv Deliv Res 2014;2(33)
Large, representative and random samples of prisoners from prisons in England and Wales participated in clinical interviews with psychiatrists (see Table 1 for details). Overall, psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 40% of adult and 33% of young sentenced men. The most common disorders were substance misuse, personality disorders and neurosis. The highest rates of psychiatric disorder were seen among women (56–77%) and remand prisoners (53–77%).  Among sentenced prisoners, it was estimated that 44% of women and 23% of men required some form of treatment, most commonly on an outpatient basis, within prison or as part of a therapeutic community.

 

Michiel de Vries Robbé
# Protective Factors. Validation of the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for Violence Risk in Forensic Psychiatry
www.saprof.com, 2014
As the reliability and predictive validity of unstructured clinical judgments made by clinicians was disputed, empirically based lists of risk factors were developed aiming to provide for a more accurate prediction of violent behavior. The predictive validity of these actuarial tools (the enumeration of risk factors according to  a set algorithm in order to come to a final conclusion regarding the level of risk) for specific types of violence in specific populations is generally good...

 

Icro Maremmani, Angelo G. I. Maremmani, Sonia Lubrano, Roberto Nardini, Liliana Dell’Osso, Matteo Pacini
# Who are Resistant Patients? Quality of Treatment and Disease Control
Addictive Disorders & Thein Treatment, vol. 13, n. 3, september 2014
Almost in the Italian health care system, but we are supposing in all European countries, 33–38 younger addicts may count on earlier diagnosis and treatment occasions, although effective interventions are far from being proposed as first- ine choices, or, when featured, tend to be performers at ineffective dosages or for limited periods of time. Such a mismatch is the source of apparent resistance to treatment, which is not confirmed after the enrollment in a second- evel service conceived for resistant patients. In fact, this population shows a high rate of response to agonist  maintenance, when performed at average effective dosages, and with no dose limitation, and in a maintenance perspective with no preplanned or arbitrary taper-off phase

 

Lauri Tuominen
# Neurobiological Correlates of Personality Traits: A Study on Harm Avoidance and Neuroticism
University of Turku, Finland, 2014

Harm Avoidance and Neuroticism are traits that predispose to mental illnesses. Studying them provides a unique way to study predisposition of mental illnesses. Understanding the biological mechanisms that mediate vulnerability could lead to improvement in treatment and ultimately to pre-emptive psychiatry. These personality traits describe a tendency to feel negative emotions such as fear, shyness and worry. Previous studies suggest these traits are regulated by serotonin and opiate pathways.

 

Marco Pelissero
# Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari in proroga e prove maldestre di riforma della disciplina delle misure di sicurezza
Diritto penale e processo 8/2014
Il d.l. 31 marzo 2014, n. 52, conv. in l. 30 maggio 2014, n. 81 proroga nuovamente il termine di chiusura degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari, avviato sin dal 2008, ma più chiaramente perseguito dalla l. n. 9/2012. Un esito scontato, viste le lentezze burocratiche ministeriali nel fissare i caratteri delle nuove strutture ed i lunghi tempi di effettiva attuazione a livello regionale. La disciplina si segnala, tuttavia, anche per la modifica di alcuni elementi della disciplina generale delle misure di sicurezza, i cui effetti sul sistema non sembrano essere stati adeguatamente soppesati e che segnalano ancora una volta, da un lato, la necessità di riforme di più ampio respiro del sistema e, dall’altro lato, l’urgenza di potenziare i percorsi terapeutico-riabilitativi non custodiali, dentro e fuori dal circuito penale.

 

Adriano Schimmenti, Alessia Passanisi, Ugo Pace, Sergio Manzella, Giovanbattista Di Carlo, Vincenzo Caretti
# The Relationship between Attachment and Psychopathy: A Study with a Sample of Violent Offenders
(pre-print) 2014
...It is possible that treatments addressing disorganised states of mind and childhood trauma during detention might reduce the risk of violent behaviors and recidivism; also, a close investigation of attachment styles and representations could be particularly relevant in the forensic assessment of offenders who committed violent crimes, especially for criminal offences where the dimension of romantic attachment is likely to be involved, as with stalking behaviors...

 

Carl E. Fisher, David L. Faigman, Paul S. Appelbaum
# Toward a Jurisprudence of Psychiatric Evidence: Examining the Challenges of Reasoning from Group Data in Psychiatry to Individual Decisions in the Law
UC Hastings Research Paper No. 110, August 17, 2014
Psychiatry is an applied science. It thus shares the characteristic of all applied science in that it is ultimately applied at two levels – general and specific. Scientific research inevitably focuses on aggregate data and seeks to generalize findings across persons, places or things. However, in the courtroom, as is true in other applied settings, the focus is usually on an individual case. Thus, psychiatry presents the challenge inherent in all scientific evidence of reasoning from group data to an individual case, which is termed the “G2i problem.”

 

David M Gardner
# Competent Psychopharmacology
The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 59, No 8, August 2014
Although its use in the treatment of schizophrenia has declined, quetiapine now represents one-half of all antipsychotic prescriptions in Canada, with rapidly increasing use in mood and anxiety disorders as well as insomnia, especially in moderate doses. The abuse potential of this agent and its overprescription for prison inmates further exemplify prescribing and patient care inadequacies. 

 

Dignity and Power Now | Patrisse Cullors, Mark-Anthony Johnson
# Impact of Disproportionate Incarceration of and Violence Against Black People with Mental Health Conditions In the World’s Largest Jail System
http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/ A Supplementary Submission for the August 2014 CERD Committee Review of
the United States
People from racial minorities who have mental health conditions are routinely routed to the criminal justice system instead of to alternative, community-based programs shown to better address their needs. Based on extensive community outreach, Dignity and Power Now seeks to highlight race-based disparities in treatment of persons with mental health conditions in Los Angeles (LA) County jails. The largest jail system in the United States and the world, LA County Jails are often referred to as the nation’s  largest de-facto mental health hospital6 warehousing approximately 19,000 pre-sentenced and sentenced individuals.

 

Luca Cimino
# Il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari: un’analisi critica
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza – Vol. VIII – N. 2 – Maggio-Agosto 2014
Attualmente i sei OOPPGG ospitano circa 900 reclusi, con un turnover di 600 persone all’anno; il 31% di essi è sottoposto ad una misura di sicurezza provvisoria e circa il 70% è autore di reati di scarsa rilevanza24. Si osserva pertanto che la popolazione degli internati in OPG non è omogenea né per bisogni sanitari o sociali, né per reati e possibilità di recupero, per cui si rende necessario definire in maniera precisa percorsi differenziati che partano dal presupposto di accertare in maniera puntuale ed approfondita la presenza di quei casi caratterizzati da una persistente pericolosità sociale da destinare alle strutture a gestione mista (REMS).

 

Kevin S. Douglas, Stephen D. Hart, Christopher D. Webster, Henrik Belfrage, Laura S. Guy, Catherine M. Wilson
# Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20 V3 ): Development and Overview
International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 13:2, 93-108, 2014
The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20(V3)) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries. This article explains (1) why a revision was necessary, (2) the steps we took in the revision process, (3) key changes between Version 2 and Version 3, and (4) an overview of HCR-20(V3)' s risk factors and administration steps. Recommendations for evaluating Version 3 are provided.

 

Chris Ford, Fergus Law
# Guidance for the use and reduction of misuse of benzodiazepines and other hypnotics and anxiolytics in general practice
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ July 2014
Use of clonazepam, licensed for use in epilepsy, has changed over the past 10 years and the drug is now much misused in the prison environment. Many prisoners report use in the community and claim to be epileptic to procure a continuous supply. The reasons for this are complex because clonazepam has a relatively slow onset of action therefore on its own causes little buzz but it can be used to help pass the time in prisons, and can enhance the effects of other rapid onset drugs used at the same time. Clonazepam 0.25mg is approximately equivalent to 5mg diazepam. 

 

Svenja Eichhorn, Elmar Brähler, Matthias Franz, Michael Friedrich, Heide Glaesmer
# Traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and posttraumatic symptomatology: a cross-sectional population-based study in Germany
European Journal of Psychotraumatology 2014
Our study constitutes the first international populationbased evidence for the mediating effect of posttraumatic symptomatology on the association between number of traumatic experiences and alexithymia. The strong association between alexithymia and posttraumatic symptomatology highlights the lack of conceptual and diagnostic consideration of alexithymia as it relates to PTSD and complex PTSD formulations.

 

Sarah Liebowitz, Peter J. Eliasberg, Ira A. Burnim, Emily A. Burnim
# A Way Forward: Diverting People with Mental Illness from Inhumane and Expensive Jails into Community-Based Treatment that Works
www.aclusocal.org/ July 2014
Jails have become warehouses for people with mental illness. Nationwide, nearly half a million inmates with mental illness are in local jails, and an estimated 10-25% have a serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia. In Los Angeles County alone, at least 3,200 inmates with a diagnosed severe mental illness crowd the jails on a typical day, which constitutes about 17% of the jail population. These numbers capture only the number of inmates with a diagnosed severe mental illness: the actual number may well be higher. Former Los Angeles County Sheriff Lee Baca has called L.A.’s jail system “the nation’s largest mental hospital.”

 

Darrell Steinberg, David Mills, Michael Romano
# When did prisons become acceptable mental healthcare facilities?
www.law.stanford.edu/ Stanford Law School Three Strikes Project 2014
We can no longer ignore the massive oppression we are inflicting upon the mentally ill throughout the United States... We have created conditions that make criminal behavior all but inevitable for many of our brothers and sisters who are mentally ill. Instead of treating them, we are imprisoning them. And then, when they have completed their sentences, we release them with minimal or no support system in place, just counting the days until they are behind bars once again...

 

Sinead Frances Devine
# An investigation of implicit measurement techniques amongst low risk and forensic samples
https://cora.ucc.ie/ Doctoral thesis, 2014
Studies suggest that the link between personality disorder and offending has important implications for treatment and risk management.The literature is also suggesting that not only it is important to understand personality disorders in forensic populations in the context of treatment and risk but also in understanding what specific personality disorders are linked to offending behaviours. There is now much evidence that personality disorder is related to offending. Studies as outlined above too indicate how some personality disorders other than antisocial are related to particular types of offending behaviour...

 

Doris A. Fuller
# Mental Health Briefing on the Institutions of Mental Diseas (IMD) Exclusion to Medicaid
http://treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ July 30, 2014
Numerous studies have found that short-length hospitalization of individuals in psychiatric crisis is associated with higher rehospitalization rates, and revolving-door hospitalization is extremely expensive. Also costly are the forensic beds, jail and prison cells and homelessness services that become the default “institutions of mental disease” for psychiatrically fragile people who do not receive the medically necessary treatment they need to function safely and successfully in the community.

 

Robert Rigg
# “Are there non Prisons?” Mental health and the criminal justice system in the United States
University of Denver Criminal Law Review, vol. 4, 2014
The result of the application of Penrose’s Law is increased crime rates and incarceration of the mentally ill. We have come full circle. Brown v. Plata appears to have been predictable and inevitable based on studies that have been completed by the psychiatric community. Until policy makers are willing to establish and maintain  sustained funding for a mental health treatment system run by medical personnel, changes  in existing delivery systems are the equivalent of rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic. We end where we began, with Scrooge asking: “Are there no prisons?” Unfortunately, the answer today is the same as it was then: Yes, “Plenty of prisons.”

 

Stefano Ferracuti, Giuseppe Nicolò, Rinaldo Perini
# Opg. Il futuro sono le Rems?
www.quotidianosanità.it Giovedì 10 Luglio 2014 
Il processo di chiusura degli Opg è complesso e pieno di criticità. Anche le nuove residenze per l'applicazione delle misure di sicurezza presentano molte incognite i cui esiti futuri non sono immediatamente prevedibili. I facili entusiasmi sono quindi da evitare. Ecco alcune delle problematiche...

 

Seth J. Prins,
# Prevalence of Mental Illnesses in U.S. State Prisons: A Systematic Review
Psychiatric Services vol. 65, n. 7, July 1, 2014

People with mental illnesses are understood to be overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system, and accurate prevalence estimates in corrections settings are crucial for planning and implementing preventive and diversionary policies and programs. Despite consistent scholarly attention to mental illness in corrections facilities, only two federal self-report surveys are typically cited, and they may not represent the extent of relevant data. This systematic review was conducted to develop a broader picture of mental illness prevalence in U.S. state prisons and to identify methodological challenges to obtaining accurate and consistent estimates.

 

StopOPG nazionale | Stefano Cecconi, Giovanna Del Giudice, Patrizio Gonnella
# Superamento OPG : per applicare bene la nuova legge
www.stopopg.it/ 1 luglio 2014
Secondo la nuova Legge la regola deve essere una misura di sicurezza diversa dal ricovero in Opg (e in Rems), salvo situazioni determinate che devono diventare l’eccezione. E ciò tanto più perché la pericolosità sociale non può essere dichiarata, o confermata, solo perché la persona è emarginata, priva di sostegni economici o per sola mancanza di programmi terapeutici individuali. La Legge in sostanza ci dice che un malato povero, emarginato, senza casa o abbandonato dai servizi non può diventare, per questa ragione, socialmente pericoloso e finire in OPG.

 

Sharam Kohan
# Re- or trans-institutionalization of Mentally Ill, A failure of Deinstitutionalization
http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/29 june 2014
Although the number of conventional psychiatric hospital beds has continued to decrease in most states, recent data suggest that we may already be witnessing a new phenomenon of ‘reinstitutionalization’. The provision of supported housing, the number of forensic beds and the prison population increased significantly in the United States.

 

Warren Reich, Sarah Picard-Fritsche, Lenore Cerniglia, Josephine Wonsun Hahn
# Predictors of Program Compliance and Re-Arrest in the Brooklyn Mental Health Court
Center for Court Innovation, June 2014
Partnerships between the criminal justice and mental health systems have become common over the past 30 years, and mental health courts are one product of this partnership. Since the first mental health court was established in Broward County Florida in 1997, their number has grown to more than 300 across the United States. As a special case of “problem-solving courts” mental health courts seek to divert mentally ill offenders from conventional prosecution through a combination of community-based mental health treatment and intensive judicial oversight of the treatment process. The primary goal is to reduce recidivism and stop the “revolving door” for justice-involved people with mental illness.

 

Gunnar Wiklund, Vladislav V. Ruchkin, Roman A. Koposov, Britt af Klinteberg
# Pro-bullying attitudes among incarcerated juvenile delinquents: antisocial behavior, psychopathic tendencies and violent crime
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2014 May-Jun
The objective was to evaluate a new scale aimed at assessing antisocial attitudes, the Pro-bullying Attitude Scale (PAS), on a group of 259 voluntarily-recruited male juvenile delinquents from a juvenile correctional institution in Arkhangelsk, North-western Russia

 

Emily Thuma
# Against the “Prison/Psychiatric State”: Anti-violence Feminisms and the Politics of Confinement in the 1970s
Feminist Formations, Vol. 26 No. 2 (Summer) pp. 26–51 - 2014
The article examines the grassroots organizing efforts of the Coalition to Stop Institutional Violence, a broad-based alliance of prisoners’ rights, mental patients’ rights, and feminist groups in Greater Boston that opposed the expansion and medicalization of maximum-security units for women in Massachusetts’s prisons and state mental hospitals in the 1970s. The case of the coalition, it argues, illustrates how grassroots feminist opposition to incarceration produced an epistemology of “violence against women” that complicated and contested liberal feminist demands for more aggressive criminalization and law enforcement of sexual and domestic violence during this period.

 

Joe Gorton, Keith Crew
# Evaluation of the Black Hawk County Mental Health Jail Diversion Program
http://firstdcs.com/ Iowa Department of Correctional Services - First Judicial District June 2014

The total estimate for annual cost savings produced by the mental health jail diversion program is $237,509. According to the officials from the First Judicial District Department of Correctional Services, annual program costs are $100,000. Therefore, the annual fiscal benefit of the program (without cost estimates for prosecutions, prison confinement, and taxpayer funded victimization programs) is estimated at $137,509.

 

Marin County Civil Grand Jury
# Jail Checkup: What’s the Price of a Clean Bill of Health? Report Date – June 10, 2014
www.marincounty.org/ Public Release Date – June 13, 2014
Some very specific needs of the mentally ill incarcerated in our Jail must be addressed, whether or not a contractual arrangement is struck for outside medical services. Among the most challenging issues facing Jail administrators is the need to make some accommodation for mentally ill inmates who are candidates for involuntary psychiatric medication. The mentally ill, whether in custody or not, have the right to refuse medication. Without their informed consent, involuntary medication is available only in circumstances in which the patient is a danger to himself or others or in which the patient is severely disabled as a result of the mental illness.

 

Roberto Catanesi
# Misure di sicurezza e pericolosità: Superare l’equivoco
www.news-forumsalutementale.it/ 13 marzo 2014
La pericolosità sociale è un concetto vecchio (e inadeguato) almeno quanto gli OPG. Nessuna categoria di esperti che ad essa si sia avvicinata, negli ultimi decenni, si è esentata dal chiederne l’abolizione, “tout court”, per manifesta inadeguatezza. Si tratti di giuristi esperti, criminologi o psichiatri, tutti ne hanno denunciato l’assoluta obsolescenza...

 

Glenn Roberts, Jed Boardman
# Becoming a recovery-oriented practitioner
Advances in psychiatric treatment (2014), vol. 20, 37–47
Coercion is a particular concern. Compulsion and coercion are often taken to be synonymous but the word coercion does not appear in either the Mental Health Act or the Code of Practice. At times of incapacity, unacceptable risk and excessive suffering there may be a legally mandated need for involuntary or compulsory measures, but this does not need to be conducted through coercive measures with overtones of force, intimidation, threat, punitive restrictions or punishments.

 

Graham Durcan, Anna Saunders, Ben Gadsby, Aidan Hazard
# The Bradley Report five years on. An independent review of progress to date and priorities for further development
www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/ June 2014
We are also now seeing the emergence of new and creative ways of supporting people with mental health problems and those with learning difficulties across the criminal justice system. Initiatives like street triage, which offers a more humane crisis response, and youth justice liaison and diversion, which provides support to children and young people when they come into contact with the police. [The Bradley Report]

 

Eric B Elbogen, Sally C Johnson
# Violence, suicide, and all-cause mortality
The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 6 - 8, June 2014
One of the unique aspects of this study—that violence and suicide were analysed simultaneously—has an important implication for how we as a society perceive people with mental illness. News coverage of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders often focuses on violence and crime. Much less attention is paid to suicide and self-harm in people with severe mental illnesses. Notably, multivariate analyses in this article showed a substantially stronger link between schizophrenia and suicide than between schizophrenia and violence.

 

Darrell Steinberg, David Mills, Michael Romano | Stanford Law School’s Three Strikes Project
# When did prisons become acceptable mental healthcare facilities?
www.law.stanford.edu/ May 2014
We can no longer ignore the massive oppression we are inflicting upon the mentally ill throughout the United States. Although deinstitutionalization was originally understood as a humane way to offer more suitable services to the mentally ill in community-based settings, some politicians seized upon it as a way to save money by shutting down institutions without providing any meaningful treatment alternatives. This callousness has created a one-way road to prison for massive numbers of impaired individuals and the inhumane warehousing of thousands of mentally ill people.

 

C Chérrez-Bermejo, R Alás-Brun
# Consumo de sustancias y trastornos de salud mental en agresores de violencia de género ingresados en prisión. Un estudio descriptivo
Rev Esp Sanid Penit 2014; 16: 29-37
Estudio descriptivo sobre una muestra de 106 varones ingresados en prisión por violencia de género. Estimación de porcentajes de consumo perjudicial de sustancias y de diagnósticos psiquiátricos al ingreso en prisión con uso de la historia clínica informatizada del Servicio Navarro de Salud. Resultados: el 61’3% realizan un consumo perjudicial de sustancias. El porcentaje es mayor que en otros estudios realizados sobre poblaciones de agresores denunciados y detenidos. Las sustancias mayormente implicadas son alcohol y cocaína...

 

Shirley S. Wang
# Medications Cut Violence Among Mentally Ill in Study. Report Comes Amid Concerns Sparked by High-Profile Mass Shootings
http://mentalillnesspolicy.org/ 5.8.2014
Researchers from Oxford and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm used Swedish national registries to examine more than 80,000 people who were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilizers from 2006 to 2009, as well as their psychiatric diagnoses and criminal convictions during the same period. They found a significant 45% drop in convictions for violent crime, such as homicide, assault, robbery or any sexual offense, during periods when the individuals were thought to be taking their medications, based on prescription and dispensing records, regardless of their diagnosis, compared with when they were off meds. Patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder exhibited a 24% decrease in convictions when taking mood stabilizers.

 

Suann Kessler
# Mental Health Parity: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Parity Definition Implications
Hastings Science and Technology Law Journal, vol. 6:2, Summer 2014
At least twenty-eight percent of American adults suffer from a mental or addictive disorder. Thus, it may seem surprising that attempts to establish federal guidelines for mental health services under health insurance plans did not take place until the 1970s. Yet the fact that health insurance coverage for mental health services differs drastically from that of other medical services is not as startling when taking into account mental health’s history, and its complete isolation from the medical field.

 

Seena Fazel, Achim Wolf, Camilla Palm, Paul Lichtenstein
# Violent crime, suicide, and premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders: a 38-year total population study in Sweden
Lancet Psychiatry 2014; 1: 44–54
In some studies, investigators have reported increased relative risks over time for suicide, death, and convictions of a violent offence,but secular trends have made these data difficult to interpret.The emerging reinstitutionalisation of patients in some regions of the world might have been partly driven by concerns about deinstitutionalisation, although broader socio political factors are probably important.

 

Douglas Hurd
# Standards for mental health care in prisons
Commonwealth Health Partnerships 2014
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners have stood for over 50 years. Mental health care plays a crucial role within prisons and, by extension, is fundamental to the revision process. The United Nations has made a solid foundation for building consensus on standards that apply across diverse jurisdictions, are accepted by practitioners as authoritative and set challenging expectations. In too many countries, prisons remain our least visible, most neglected institutions and this is to the detriment of us all.

 

Jane Langille
# Quand la maladie mentale et le système judiciaire se rencontrent
www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/ Juin 2014
Brett Batten, 45 ans, a presque toujours vécu avec un trouble bipolaire avec caractéristiques psychotiques. Il y a environ 14 ans, il a eu des démêlés avec la justice et passé trois ans dans diverses prisons avant d’être traité pour sa maladie mentale. « Je perturbais la vie de la prison à cause de mes délires, alors ils m’ont mis “au trou” [isolement cellulaire]. Quand le psychiatre est enfi n venu me voir, il a donné l’ordre de me placer dans une cellule médicalisée. J’ai alors commencé à prendre le bon médicament et à prendre conscience du temps et de l’espace. »

 

Gian Luigi Gatta
Aprite le porte agli internati!
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 6 Giugno 2014

Un ulteriore passo verso il superamento degli OPG e una svolta epocale nella disciplina delle misure di sicurezza detentive: stabilito un termine di durata massima (applicabile anche alle misure in corso, a noi pare) | L. 30 maggio 2014, n. 81 (Conversione in legge, con modif., del d.l. 31 marzo 2014, n. 52).

Gian Luigi Gatta
Revoca del ricovero in OPG per decorso della durata massima: un primo provvedimento
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 16 Giugno 2014

Tribunale di Roma - VIII Sezione Penale - Ordinanza 3 giugno 2014

 

George Szmukler, Rowena Daw, Felicity Callard
Mental health law and the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities
Int J Law Psychiatry. May 2014; 37(3): 245–252
People with a mental illness may be subject to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), depending on definitions of terms such as ‘impairment’, ‘long-term’ and the capaciousness of the word ‘includes’ in the Convention's characterisation of persons with disabilities. Particularly challenging under the CRPD is the scope, if any, for involuntary treatment. Conventional mental health legislation, such as the Mental Health Act (England and Wales) appears to violate, for example, Article 4 (‘no discrimination of any kind on the basis of disability’), Article 12 (persons shall ‘enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life’) and Article 14 (‘the existence of a disability shall in no case justify a deprivation of liberty’).

 

Patrick W. Corrigan, Benjamin G. Druss, Deborah A. Perlick
The Impact of Mental Illness Stigma on Seeking and Participating in Mental Health Care
Psychological Science in the Public Interest 2014, Vol. 15(2) 37–70
We addressed the question by examining ways in which stigma interferes with care-seeking decisions and behaviors at individual and system levels. Stigma was found to be a complex variable impacting decisions at public, self, and structural levels. These various types are influenced by knowledge, culture, and social network

 

Seena Fazel, Johan Zetterqvist, Henrik Larsson, Niklas Långström, Paul Lichtenstein
Antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and risk of violent crime
www.thelancet.com/ 8 May 2014
In 2006–09, 40 937 men in Sweden were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, of whom 2657 (6·5%) were convicted of a violent crime during the study period. In the same period, 41 710 women were prescribed these drugs, of whom 604 (1·4 %) had convictions for violent crime. Compared with periods when participants were not on medication, violent crime fell by 45% in patients receiving antipsychotics and by 24% in patients prescribed mood stabilisers.

 

Jillian K. Peterson, Jennifer Skeem, Patrick Kennealy, Beth Bray, Andrea Zvonkovic
# How Often and How Consistently do Symptoms Directly Precede Criminal Behavior Among Offenders With Mental Illness?
Law and Human Behavior, 2014, Vol. 38, No. 5, 439 – 449
Although offenders with mental illness are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, psychiatric symptoms relate weakly to criminal behavior at the group level. In this study of 143 offenders with mental illness, we use data from intensive interviews and record reviews to examine how often and how consistently symptoms lead directly to criminal behavior. First, crimes rarely were directly motivated by symptoms, particularly when the definition of symptoms excluded externalizing features that are not unique to Axis I illness. Specifically, of the 429 crimes coded, 4% related directly to psychosis, 3% related directly to depression, and 10% related directly to bipolar disorder (including impulsivity). Second, within offenders, crimes varied in the degree to which they were directly motivated by symptoms. These findings suggest that programs will be most effective in reducing recidivism if they expand beyond psychiatric symptoms to address strong variable risk factors for crime like antisocial traits.

 

American Psychological Association

Mental Illness Not Usually Linked to Crime, Research Finds. Most offenders didn’t display pattern of crime related to mental illness symptoms over their lifetime, according to study

www.apa.org/ April 21, 2014

 

ANM - CONAMS
Comunicato congiunto ANM e CONAMS su ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari
www.associazionemagistrati.it/ 29 aprile 2014

 

Claudia Sale
# Analisi penalistica della contenzione del paziente psichiatrico
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 27 Aprile 2014
1. La contenzione: evoluzione storica del fenomeno - 2. Tipologia contenitiva - 3. Coercizione e trattamento sanitario in psichiatria. Parallelismo o intersezione? - 4. Legittimità della contenzione in psichiatria: «dovere» o mero «potere» di intervenire? - 5. Fonti dell'obbligo di contenere - 6. Assenza di presupposti di legittimità e reati ipotizzabili - 7. Contenzione non attuata - 8. Contenzione impropriamente attuata - 9. Un'ipotesi particolare: la contenzione farmacologica - 10. Chi può disporre la contenzione?

 

Terri Langford, Cathaleen Qiao Chen
# Lawmakers to Examine Rehab of Mentally Ill, Addicted Inmates
The Texas Tribune, April 22, 2014
Of the more than 150,000 inmates currently incarcerated in the 109 Texas facilities, about 25,000 are diagnosed with a mental illness, and 62 percent have chemical dependency issues. In 2012 and 2013, TDCJ (Texas Department of Criminal Justice) expenditures on offender mental health services totaled $60 million, while substance abuse treatment spending was about $172 million.

 

Frank J. Porporino
# Correctional Services for the Mentally Disordered Offender: A Challenge that Merits an Integrated Response
www.icpa.ca/ April 2014
In New York, the estimated population of 10,000 mentally ill inmates in the state's prisons was noted as surpassing that of the state's psychiatric hospitals. In Seattle it was remarked that ‘quite unintentionally, the jail has become King County's largest institution for the mentally ill.’  And the Los Angeles County Jail, where approximately 3,300 of the 21,000 inmates ‘require  mental health services on a daily basis’, was referred to as the ‘the largest mental institution in the country’.

 

Melissa Kong
# Cook County Jail: A De Facto Hospital for the Mentally Ill
Public Interest Law Reporter, Spring 2014
Overall, the mentally ill inmate population has a high recidivism rate at about 80 percent higher than the general inmate population. Many inmates leave jail without a plan and no support system. These factors are compounded when a released inmate doesn’t know how to access “social services, food  stamps, social security disability, or computers to try and obtain health insurance,” said Monahan. Monahan further explained that the culmination of these factors leads to a downward spiral...

 

Nikki Barrowclough
# Homelessness Mental Health and Incarceration
Parramatta Region Homelessness Interagency - April 2014
“We’re talking about people caught up in a number of vicious cycles. They’re mentally ill, they’ve fallen homeless, and they bounce between prison and hospitals. A very large number of them use drugs and a lot of them commit crimes. And one of the harshest vicious cycles these people find themselves caught up in, is that committing a crime, going to prison, reduces your prospects of being eligible for housing. It reduces your ability to get employment in the future

 

Adam Miller
# Powerful psychotropic drug used in Canada’s federal prisons
http://globalnews.ca/ April 14, 2014
Canada’s prison watchdog has launched an investigation into the prescribing practices in federal prisons, after it was revealed that more than 60 per cent of female inmates across the country are receiving psychiatric medication. A joint investigation by The Canadian Press and CBC has learned that in August 2013, of 591 female federal inmates in five correctional institutions, 370 were being prescribed at least one psychotropic medication, drugs that impact mood and behaviour.

# Government of Canada | Correctional Service of Canada, New Approval Criteria for Quetiapine, Feb 07 2011

 

Provincial System Support Program (PSSP) | Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
# Evidence Summary. Mental Health Diversion Frameworks in Canada
http://eenet.ca/ April 2014
Diversion is “the redirection of persons with mental disorders, who have committed an offence, away from the criminal justice system and towards MH and social support services”). The idea behind diversion is that by providing access to community mental health services, these individuals will be connected to the help they need on an ongoing basis and will be less likely to re-offend.

 

Sandy Jung and Lisa Jamieson
# Examining the Use of Sex to Cope in a Forensic Sample
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling • April 2014
The authors examined differences between sexual and mentally disordered offenders on the Coping Using Sex Inventory. Sexual offenders were more likely to use sex to cope with negative life events but did not use all forms of deviant sexual activity.

 

Thomas R. Insel
# The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Project: Precision Medicine for Psychiatry
Am J Psychiatry 171:4, April 2014
RDoC might be considered a 21st-century version of RDC, building on clinical description and subjective experience to create a matrix of information for individual patients, leading ultimately to precision medicine for psychiatry. This is not a short-term project. The problems are complex; our tools are still primitive. We recognize that no framework will yield a “cause or cure” for “all that human hearts endure,” but we must not accept the current state of the art. Patients and their families are understandably demanding better outcomes. It is precisely because of this urgent unmet medical need that we must embark on a new approach to diagnosis. RDoC is a first step toward that approach, inviting a diverse research community to bring precision medicine to psychiatry.

 

Treatment Advocacy Center | E. Fuller Torrey, Mary T. Zdanowicz, Aaron D. Kennard, H. Richard Lamb, Donald F. Eslinger, Doris A. Fuller
# The Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails: A State Survey
www.tacreports.org/ April 8, 2014
Prisons and jails have become America’s “new asylums”: The number of individuals with serious mental illness in prisons and jails now exceeds the number in state psychiatric hospitals tenfold. Most of the mentally ill individuals in prisons and jails would have been treated in the state psychiatric hospitals in the years before the deinstitutionalization movement led to the closing of the hospitals, a trend that continues even today. The treatment of mentally ill individuals in prisons and jails is critical, especially since such individuals are vulnerable and often abused while incarcerated.

 

Graham Durcan | Centre for Mental Health
Keys to diversion. Best practice for offenders with multiple needs
http://www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/ April 2014
A large proportion of people in the criminal justice system have multiple or complex needs including a range of mental health problems. Many have repeated contact with the police and courts yet rarely get the support they need from public services.Liaison and diversion services aim to identify and support people with mental health problems, learning difficulties and other vulnerabilities in police stations and courts. Some do this more successfully than others.

 

Andrea Pugiotto
# Opg della vergogna, non sarà l’ultimo rinvio
il manifesto • 5 apr 14

Superare gli Opg è costituzionalmente necessario. Si doveva fare prima. Si poteva fare meglio, perché la vera follia giuridica è nella misura di sicurezza dell’internamento in mani­comi criminali e in quegli altri buchi neri chiamati case di lavoro e colonie agricole

 

Massimo Niro
# Ancora un rinvio per il superamento degli O.P.G.: problemi e prospettive. Note a margine del decreto-legge 31 marzo 2014, n. 52
www.altrodiritto.unifi.it/ 2014

 

Senato della Repubblica
# Conversione in legge, con modificazioni, del decreto-legge 31 marzo 2014, n. 52, recante disposizioni urgenti in materia di superamento degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari
www.senato.it/ 24 aprile 2014

 

# Decreto-Legge 31 marzo 2014, n. 52 | Disposizioni urgenti in materia di superamento degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari

www.governo.it/

 

Desi Bruno (Garante dei diritti dei detenuti della Regione Emilia-Romagna)
# Dossier O.P.G.
Newsletter “Notizie dal Garante” del 15 aprile 2014

... La riforma interviene in assenza di una contestuale modifica della disciplina sostanziale delle misure di sicurezza personali detentive. L’“Ospedale Psichiatrico Giudiziario” rimane, di conseguenza, la misura di sicurezza destinata agli autori di reato non imputabili e socialmente pericolosi, ma deve essere eseguita esclusivamente nelle nuove strutture ad hoc.

 

Decreto-Legge 31 marzo 2014, n. 52
# Disposizioni urgenti in materia di superamento degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari. (GU n.76 del 1-4-2014)

Dario Stefano Dell'Aquila


# Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari, ovvero la proroga della vergogna
Il Manifesto, 2 aprile 2014
Con decreto legge approvato due giorni fa dal Consiglio dei ministri, infatti, il governo Renzi ha annunciato di avere prorogato, su proposta dei titolari dei dicasteri della Salute e della Giustizia, Beatrice Lorenzin e Andrea Orlando, i termini per il superamento degli Opg, spostandolo in avanti di un anno, al 1° aprile 2015. Per il governo la proroga si è resa necessaria poiché il termine iniziale "non risulta congruo per completare definitivamente il superamento degli Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari, soprattutto in ragione della complessità della procedura per la realizzazione delle strutture destinate ad accogliere le persone cui sono applicate le misure di sicurezza".

 

Ashimesh Roychowdhury, Gwen Adshead
# Violence risk assessment as a medical intervention: ethical tensions
Psychiatric Bulletin (2014), 38, 75-82,
The assessment of risk of violence is a core function of  all psychiatric services, particularly in forensic psychiatry. As such, it can, and should, be considered in a similar light to other types of medical assessment and intervention. This includes not only the statistical properties of the process itself, such as sensitivity and specificity (further defined below) but also using accepted models of biomedical ethics for its analysis.

 

H. Richard Lamb, Linda E. Weinberger
# Decarceration of U.S. Jails and Prisons: Where Will Persons With Serious Mental Illness Go?
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 42:489 –94, 2014
It is estimated that more than 350,000 persons with serious mental illness (SMI) are among those incarcerated in the United States and that many thousands of them will probably be among those released... Most deinstitutionalized patients were able to adapt successfully to living in the community; however, this was not the case for a considerable  minority who were arrested and placed in jails and prisons or who became homeless (between one-fourth and one-third of homeless persons have a serious mental illness such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression)...

 

Robert Keers, Simone Ullrich, Bianca L. DeStavola, Jeremy W. Coid
# Association of Violence With Emergence of Persecutory Delusions in Untreated Schizophrenia
Am J Psychiatry, 171, 2014
The results indicate that the emergence of persecutory delusions in untreated schizophrenia explains violent behavior. Maintaining psychiatric treatment after release can substantially reduce violent recidivism among prisoners with schizophrenia. Better screening and treatment of prisoners is therefore essential to prevent violence.

 

Luigi Benevelli
# Culture psichiatriche ed esperienze nel lavoro per la salute mentale in Lombardia
Milano, 2 aprile 2014
Il sistema lombardo dei servizi di salute mentale, al di là del nome che portano, non è nelle condizioni di fare salute mentale a causa delle culture politiche, scientifiche e professionali che hanno sinora prevalso. Al massimo si può fare una (buona) assistenza psichiatrica come  confermano le culture e le scelte che caratterizzano il recente Piano Regionale per la Salute Mentale lombardo e le sue linee di attuazione (2004-2012)

 

Matthew R. J. Vandermeer
# Secondary Traumatic Stress and Alexithymia in High-Risk Professionals
University of Western Ontario, April 2014

 

Camera dei Deputati
# Proposta di legge n. 2233. Norme per valorizzare, in continuità con la legge 13 maggio 1978, n. 180, la partecipazione attiva di utenti, familiari, operatori e cittadini nei servizi di salute mentale e per promuovere equità di cure nel territorio nazionale - Presentata il 27 marzo 2014

www.leparoleritrovate
Dal 1978 ad oggi i primi princìpi rivoluzionari della legge 180 sono entrati nelle pratiche quotidiane della salute mentale italiana.... La Dichiarazione d’indipendenza degli Stati Uniti d’America sancisce per tutti i cittadini il « diritto alla ricerca della felicità ». La « 181 » vuole sancire il diritto alla fiducia e alla speranza per tutti gli utenti e i familiari che frequentano i servizi di salute mentale e le due cose sono strettamente legate.

Le parole ritrovate - Il fare assieme nella salute mentale, # Proposta di legge "181" - Con lo sguardo rivolto al futuro. Norme per valorizzare, in continuità con la Legge 180/1978, la partecipazione attiva di utenti, familiari, operatori e cittadini nei Servizi di salute mentale e per promuovere buone cure in tutta Italia. Testi curati da Renzo De Stefani e discussi e condivisi in alcune riunioni di coordinamento de Le Parole ritrovate del 2010/2011/2012

# Commenti

 

Jay P. Singh, Seena Fazel, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Alec Buchanan
Rates of violence in patients classified as high risk by structured risk assessment instruments
The British Journal of Psychiatry 204, 180–187, 2014
Violence risk assessment is an increasing part of psychiatric practice. Psychiatrists, psychologists and other health professionals seeking to manage the risk of their patients acting violently have a  range of structured risk assessment instruments (SRAIs) to assist them. These instruments score a patient on variables associated with  violence. Such scores are then either combined mathematically (the ‘actuarial’ approach) or assist clinicians in making risk classifications (the ‘structured professional judgement’ approach).  The most widely used instruments have satisfactory psychometric qualities in a range of settings and populations, and are reported to provide more accurate predictions of violence than unstructured clinical assessments.

 

Adiel Doron, Rena Kurs, Tali Stolovy, Aya Secker-Einbinder, Alla Raba
Voting Rights for Psychiatric Patients: Compromise of the Integrity of Elections, or Empowerment and Integration into the Community?
Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci - Vol. 51 - No 3 (2014)
The right to vote is an important basic right for individuals coping with mental disorders.However, it is important to evaluate the capacity to understand the voting process among individuals with mental disorders who have legal guardians. Thus, the integrity of the elections would be preserved by eliminating the risk of undue influence or manipulation of individuals who lack the capacity to understand the nature and meaning of voting, while preserving the right to vote for those with the capacity to do so, whether or not they have guardians.

 

Mario Iannucci
# Road-maps per superare gli Opg. Labirinti, disorientamenti e contraddizioni
Ristretti Orizzonti, 26 marzo 2014
La decostruzione dell’OPG invece, finora, è stata fatta dall’esterno, senza grande determinazione e con pochissima competenza. Noi stiamo investendo le carceri ordinarie, queste disastrate e inadempienti carceri italiane, di un problema rilevantissimo di assistenza di salute mentale e, occorre considerarlo, andremo a investirle sempre di più con le azioni proposte dalla road-map. Ma queste carceri attuali, il cui trattamento, come ci dice la CEDU, è al limite della tortura, possono davvero sopportare il peso di questa assistenza?

 

Società Italiana Psichiatria
# Chiusura degli OPG, scacco in sette mosse. Ecco la "road map" degli psichiatri italiani
www.psichiatria.it/ 12 marzo 2014

Tempi brevi e maggiori certezze, ma senza rischi sociali, per gli oltre 1000 detenuti con malattie psichiche che si trovano sottoposti a regime carcerario negli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari italiani. Strutture definite “esempi di inciviltà umana e sociale” dal Presidente della Repubblica, Giorgio Napolitano. Per questo La Società Italiana di Psichiatria, da sempre favorevole ad  una profonda revisione del sistema, ritiene che non si possa più continuare a rinviare la chiusura degli  OPG per mancanza di strutture alternative, e che si debba individuare una “road map” per ‘svuotarli’ e renderli quindi inutili. Un progetto condiviso per porre fine a strutture ormai fuori dal tempo.

 

Comitato Nazionale stopOPG
# No a proroghe senza vincoli: proposte per l’ effettivo superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari e il rafforzamento dei servizi di salute mentale
www.stopopg.it/ Marzo 2014
Riteniamo sia realistico e urgente introdurre una disposizione che stabilisca che la durata massima della misura non può essere superiore alla durata della pena detentiva per il reato per il quale la persona è stata condannata. Questo anche allo scopo di evitare che il reiterarsi inerziale delle proroghe possa realizzare detenzioni abnormi per reati di scarso o nullo allarme sociale, o addirittura il già tristemente noto fenomeno degli “ergastoli bianchi”... Senza modifiche sostanziali del Codice Rocco non è possibile evitare gli effetti perversi della logica del doppio binario, che separa il destino del “reo folle” dal "reo sano” o dal “reo affetto da altre malattie". Questo tema va inserito nell’agenda parlamentare.

 

Jo-Ann Brown | Alzheimer’s Australia NSW
# Dementia in Prison
https://fightdementia.org.au/ Discussion Paper #9 March 2014
A person with dementia in prison will, as they would in the community, struggle with gradual loss of: memory; functioning; coordination; health; and retaining their sense of identity. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia such as agitation, aggression, paranoia, delusions, self-neglect and incontinence can commonly occur at some point in the course of dementia and provide challenges for their carers.

 

Geoff Shepherd, Jed Boardman, Miles Rinaldi, Glenn Roberts
# Supporting recovery in mental health services: Quality and Outcomes
Centre for Mental Health and Mental Health Network, NHS Confederation march 2014
Relationships are at the heart of recovery. The creation of supportive relationships depends upon establishing shared values and demonstrating empathy, warmth, respect and a willingness to go the ‘extra mile’. These form the bedrock for all forms of care and, some would argue, have been undermined by the increasing ‘marketisation’ of healthcare with its emphasis on impersonal service transactions, rather than the relationships within which these transactions take place. Positiverelationships are at the heart of basic, good care highlighted in...

 

Astrid M. Kamperman, Jens Henrichs, Stefan Bogaerts, Emmanuel M.E.H. Lesaffre, Andre´ I. Wierdsma, Razia R. R. Ghauharali, Wilma Swildens, Yolanda Nijssen, Mark van der Gaag, Jan R. Theunissen, Philippe A. Delespaul, Jaap van Weeghel, Jooske T. van Busschbach, Hans Kroon, Linda A. Teplin, Dike van de Mheen, Cornelis L. Mulder
#
Criminal Victimisation in People with Severe Mental Illness: A Multi-Site Prevalence and Incidence Survey in the Netherlands
www.plosone.org/ March 2014 | Volume 9

In the past year, almost half of the severely mentally ill outpatients (47%) had been victim of a crime. After control for demographic differences, prevalence rates of overall and specific victimisation measures were significantly higher in severely mentally ill outpatients than in the general population. The relative rates were especially high for personal crimes such as violent threats, physical assaults and sexual harassment and assaults. In concordance, severely mentally ill outpatients reported almost 14 times more personal crime incidents than persons from the general population

 

Achim Wolf, Ron Gray, and Seena Fazel
# Violence as a public health problem: An ecological study of 169 countries
Soc Sci Med. Mar 2014; 104(100): 220–227
In summary, we have found that income inequality as measured by the Gini is associated with certain violent outcomes in both high, and low and middle-income countries, and alcohol consumption with self-reported assault rates in all countries. We also found that urbanicity was associated with official assault and robbery rates in highincome countries. The role of public policy in reducing the health burden of violence needs further examination.

 

Matthew M. Large, F.R.A.N.Z.C.P.
# Treatment of Psychosis and Risk Assessment for Violence
http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/ Am J Psychiatry 2014;171:256-258
The complex nature of violence risk factors should not be underestimated. As currently formulated, violence risk assessment instruments generally do not consider interactions between risk factors. They operate by simply adding risk factor items to obtain an overall risk score. It remains to be seen whether future risk assessment instruments can be improved by methods that acknowledge the complexity of violence risk factors.

 

Virginia Aldigé Hiday, Bradley Ray, Heathcote W. Wales
# Predictors of Mental Health Court Graduation
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, n. 2, 2014
Mental health courts (MHCs), nontraditional problem-solving courts designed to address underlying causes of offending rather than apportion guilt and punishment, have been reported to reduce offending among persons with mental illness and consequently have been spreading. Graduation from a MHC has been found to be a major predictor of reduced recidivism; yet few studies have examined factors affecting MHC graduation. This study examines what participants brought to MHC, their processing in MHC, and their behaviors during MHC. It found that noncompliant participant behaviors during MHC had the strongest impact on graduation, increasing the odds of failure to graduate and reducing, if not eliminating, the direct effects on completion of the risk factors participants brought into court.

 

Hans Joachim Salize, Juha Lavikainen, Allan Seppänen, Milazim Gjocaj
# Developing forensic mental healthcare in Kosovo
Front. Public Health, 2:26, 2014

The prevalence of mental ill health in Kosovo has constantly been reported as very high. In 2005, the Kosovo Rehabilitation Centre for Torture Victims (KRCT) found 27.7% of the population having substantial psychiatric morbidity, indicated by a General Health Questionnaire-28 score of 12 and higher. As a long-term consequence of the Kosovo war, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and emotional distress remained high among the population, with 22% prevalence of PTSD symptoms, 41.8% prevalence for depression (HSCL-20 score), and 43.1% prevalence for emotional distress.

 

Philip Mulvey, Michael White
# The potential for violence in arrests of persons with mental illness
An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management Vol. 37 No. 2, 2014
The current study offers insights on the dynamics of formal arrest encounters of suspects who are mentally ill. These encounters differ from arrests of non-mentally ill suspects in distinctive ways, including a greater likelihood of suspect resistance and, although rare, greater use of weapon force by police. This last finding may suggest that police respond to the affronts by PMIs differently than affronts from other suspects. Given the consequences surrounding poor police responses in encounters with PMIs, as well as the concerns over use of force, future research should continue to explore these questions.

 

Erin Bagalman, Angela Napili
# Prevalence of Mental Illness in the United States: Data Sources and Estimates
Congressional Research Service - February 28, 2014
The National Survey on Drug Use and Health NSDUH identifies adults (aged 18 or older) as having a serious mental illness if (1) they have a mental illness (excluding substance use disorders and developmental disorders) and (2) the illness substantially interferes with or limits at least one major life activity. The same approach used to impute any mental illness is applied to impute serious mental illness. According to the 2012 NSDUH, the estimated 12-month prevalence of serious mental illness excluding substance use disorders is 4.1% among adults (aged 18 or older).

 

Social Care, Local Government and Care Partnership Directorate
# Closing the gap: priorities for essential change in mental health
www.gov.uk/ February 2014
We are also looking at how other frontline services respond to incidents of self-harm – including across the criminal justice system, whether in prison or where the police attend an incident involving self-harm. For example, self-harm is closely monitored within prisons. There is a well-established process for supporting prisoners at risk of, or who have, self-harmed, called Assessment, Care in Custody and Teamwork (ACCT). The process includes a requirement to consider mental health, and where appropriate refer prisoners on to mental health services...

 

Federal Bureau of Prisons - Clinical Practice Guidelines
# Detoxification of Chemically Dependent Inmates
www.bop.gov/ February 2014
Substance use disorders are highly prevalent among inmate populations, affecting an estimated 30–60% of inmates. Drug intoxication and withdrawal may be particularly evident at the time of incarceration. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that an estimated 70% of all inmates in local jail facilities in the U.S. had committed a drug offense or used drugs regularly, and an estimated 35% were under the influence of drugs at the time of the offense.  

 

Treatment Advocacy Center
# Mental Health Commitment Laws. A Survey of the States
http://www.tacreports.org/ February 2014
The tragic consequences of ignoring the needs of individuals with the most severe mental illness who are unable or unwilling to seek treatment are on vivid display nationwide: on our city streets, where an estimated quarter million people with untreated psychiatric illness roam homeless; in our jails and prisons, which now house 10 times as many people with severe mental illness than do our psychiatric hospitals; in our suicide and victimization statistics, where individuals with psychotic disorders are grossly overrepresented; and in our local news, which reports daily on violent acts committed by individuals whose families struggled vainly to get them into treatment.

 

Giandomenico Dodaro
# Il nodo della contenzione in psichiatria tra gestione della sicurezza, diritti del paziente e “inconscio istituzionale”
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 25 Febbraio 2014
Legare il paziente al letto è una scelta niente affatto ineluttabile come dimostra l'esistenza in Italia (e all'estero) di Spdc che, oltre a lavorare con le porte del reparto aperte, rifiutano altresì la contenzione; e ciò non per ragioni ideologiche, ma per precise necessità terapeutiche, oltre che ovviamente per rispetto della dignità umana e dei diritti fondamentali del sofferente psichico[10]. I servizi no restraint non costituiscono esperienze pionieristiche e isolate nel panorama nazionale e internazionale, ma rappresentano modelli di buon operatività basati sull'esperienza e che vanno radicandosi anche in realtà metropolitane di grandi dimensioni, presumibilmente uguali per tipologia di utenza ai servizi in cui la contenzione si pratica[11]. Questi Spdc hanno fondato lo scorso novembre 2013 l'associazione "Club degli SPDC no restraint"

 

# Faut-il épargner la prison aux détenus atteints de maladies mentales ?
www.lefigaro.fr/ 17.02.2014
Les chiffres sont inquiétants: selon le groupe de travail santé-justice, dont le rapport a été révélé par La Croix, commandé il y a plus d'un an par les ministres de la Santé et de la Justice, de 20 à 30 % des détenus souffriraient de troubles psychotiques. La Cour des comptes va même plus loin, puisque, dans son rapport annuel, elle dénonce «une prévalence très forte des maladies psychiatriques et infectieuses. Au moins un trouble psychiatrique est identifié chez huit détenus sur dix, le taux de détenus atteints de schizophrénie étant quatre fois plus élevé que dans la population générale».

 

Terry Goldsworthy, Matthew Raj
# Stopping the Stalker: Victim Responses to Stalking
Griffith Journal of Law & Human Dignity, Volume 2(1) 2014
In an attempt to delineate and differentiate the nebulous behaviours of stalking, a range of terms has been used to describe stalking and stalking-related phenomena, including: obsessive relation intrusion; obsessional following;  obsessional harassment; unwanted pursuit behaviours; pre-stalking; and criminal stalking... Obsessive relational intrusion is defined as the ‘repeated and unwanted pursuit and invasion of one’s sense of physical or symbolic privacy by another person, either stranger or acquaintance, who desires and/or presumes an intimate relationship’ ...

 

Department of Health | Social Care, Local Government and Care Partnership Directorate
# Closing the Gap: Priorities for essential change in mental health
www.gov.uk/ February 2014
We are also looking at how other frontline services respond to incidents of self-harm – including across the criminal justice system, whether in prison or where the police attend an incident involving self-harm. For example, self-harm is closely monitored within prisons. There is a well-established process for supporting prisoners at risk of, or who have, self-harmed, called Assessment, Care in Custody and Teamwork (ACCT). The process includes a requirement to consider mental health, and where appropriate refer prisoners on to mental health services. We will examine what other services can learn from this.

 

Clifton Adcock, Shaun Hittle
# Prison Meds Reveal Disorders Severe for Mentally Ill Inmates
http://oklahomawatch.org/ Oklahoma Watch February 1, 2014
The number of mentally ill inmates in Oklahoma's prisons is rising, and data about the psychiatric drugs they receive reveals that many have serious issues beyond depression... In corrections facilities statewide, of the 1 0 psy chiatric m edications the Departm ent of Corrections spent the most on in 2013, seven were antipsychotics and three were anti-depressants, according to data obtained by Oklahom a Watch. The total cost of all such drugs was at least $1 .3 m illion, or 52 percent m ore than in 2010.

#

 

Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Elizabeth Krusemark, Elsa Ronningstam
# Empathy in Narcissistic Personality Disorder: From Clinical and Empirical Perspectives. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Advance online publication
http://dx.doi.org/ february 10, 2014
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is associated with an assortment of characteristics that undermine interpersonal functioning. A lack of empathy is often cited as the primary distinguishing feature of NPD. However, clinical presentations of NPD suggest that empathy is not simply deficient in these individuals, but dysfunctional and subject to a diverse set of motivational and situational factors. Consistent with this presentation, research illustrates that empathy is multidimensional, involving 2 distinct emotional and cognitive processes associated with a capacity to respectively understand and respond to others’ mental and affective states....

 

Nicholas Kristof
# Inside a Mental Hospital Called Jail
www.nytimes.com/ Feb. 8, 2014
THE largest mental health center in America is a huge compound here in Chicago, with thousands of people suffering from manias, psychoses and other disorders, all surrounded by high fences and barbed wire. Just one thing: It’s a jail. The only way to get treatment is to be arrested.

 

Massachusetts - Department of Mental Health Forensic Services
# Pre-Arrest Law Enforcement-Based Jail Diversion Program
www.mass.gov/ Report July 1, 2011 to January 1, 2014
There is a longstanding recognition that persons with mental illness are over-represented in the criminal justice system. While some arrests are necessary and appropriate, there are others in which individuals with mental illness might more appropriately be “diverted” into mental health and other treatment services in lieu of arrest and/or incarceration. The concept of “jail diversion” as it relates to the criminal justice system has many meanings. Different diversion programs target different points along the criminal justice continuum

 

Ben Hartman
# Psych Bed Shortage Threatens Public Safety
http://www.medpagetoday.com/ Jan 28, 2014
By the 1980s thousands of newly deinstitutionalized patients had returned to the streets often to be returned to institutionalized care -- but now it would be in prison. According to Fuller, in the 1950s, only 3% of American prisoners were mentally ill; today it's 40%.

 

Anthony O. Ahmed, Kristin M. Hunter, Eva G. Van Houten, Joel M. Monroe, Ishrat A. Bhat
# Cognition and Other Targets for the Treatment of Aggression in People with Schizophrenia
Ann Psychiatry Ment Health 2(1): 1004 (2014)
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are associated with an increased risk of violent offending in comparison to non-clinical samples, which in turn puts both victims and perpetrators of schizophrenia-related violence at risk of harm. There are currently few interventions for aggression in schizophrenia with existing treatments demonstrating limited efficacy. The impact of several factors—neurocognition, social cognition, alexithymia, emotion regulation capacity, and the treatment milieu—on aggression  in people with schizophrenia creates an opportunity for the development and/or evaluation of new treatments for aggression. The authors recommend studies into the possible anti-aggressive benefits of treatments that target these factors. The etiological heterogeneity of aggression in schizophrenia calls for the development of a comprehensive treatment program that targets several contributors to aggression.

 

Peppe Dell’Acqua
# Il cavallo blu contro i muri degli Opg. Il viaggio di Marco Cavallo nel mondo di fuori per incontrare gli internati
Animazione Sociale, gennaio 2014

Non potevamo accettare che al posto dei sei ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari (Opg) se ne costruissero più di venti, più piccoli, più puliti e più medicalizzati, dove finalmente si può curare! Non più istituti per l’esecuzione della misura di sicurezza, Opg appunto, ma Residenze per l’esecuzione della misura di sicurezza (Rems), mini Opg come li abbiamo  chiamati. Non più istituti ma residenze! Ci aspettavamo che cambiasse la finalità, non il nome della struttura dedicata.

 

Michael F. A. Morehart | Office of the State Inspector General (OSIG)
# Review of Mental Health Services in Local and Regional Jails

http://sfc.virginia.gov/ January 17, 2014

In July 2012 local and regional jail systems reported 6,322 incarcerated persons with mental illness. 48% 3,043 individuals) qualified for a diagnosis of serious mental illness. The number of individuals identified with mental illness in jails increased by 30% from 4,879 to 6,322 from 2008 to 2012. One in four inmates in local and regional jails was known, or suspected, to be mentally ill— making Virginia’s jails one of the Commonwealth’s largest provider of mental health services for persons with mental illness.

 

European Court of Human Rights | Cour Européenne des Droits de l’Homme
# Détention et santé mentale
www.echr.coe.int/ janvier 2014

 

Gianfranco Nuvoli [Francesco Bollorino - Franco Scarpa]
# Sulla pericolosità sociale... in margine al caso Gagliano
www.psychiatryonline.it/ 7 gennaio, 2014
Credo che sia assolutamente necessario che i due percorsi, psichiatrico e penitenziario, rimangano paralleli e rigorosamente separati. Il tentativo, spesso strisciante, di alcune amministrazioni penitenziarie di attribuire “di fatto“ agli operatori della sanità pubblica anche compiti di valutazione del percorso penitenziario dei detenuti, scevri da finalità di cura, va assolutamente avversato e respinto, mantenendo per gli operatori sanitari esclusivi compiti di cura e per quelli del Ministero di Grazia e Giustizia la competenza valutativa in sede criminologico/ penitenziaria... Lo stesso sistema italiano di erogazione delle pene, centrato sulla carcerazione, ha spesso l’effetto di favorire la cronicizzazione del comportamento criminale...

 

Alessia Guerrieri
# Opg, la chiusura resta un miraggio
Avvenire, 02 gen 2014 p. 10

Ancora un rinvio. Il primo aprile 2014 non sarà la data in cui si metterà la parola fine agli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari. Non è bastata la prima deroga che fece slittare la chiusura dal 31 marzo 2013 al 1° aprile 2014, per avviare i piani di dismissione e realizzare i 990 posti letto nelle 43 Rems (Residenze per l'esecuzione della misura di sicurezza sanitaria...la Liguria e l'Emilia Romagna, ad esempio, da quanto emerge nelle 20 pagine del report interministeriale, si distinguono per aver utilizzato i finanziamenti in modo virtuoso, riducendo la spesa in conto capitale, cioè per il mantenimento delle strutture, e investendo invece in risorse per la parte corrente, ovvero per i servizi sul territorio necessari a impostare i percorsi individuali di cura e inserimento sociale dell'ex internato. Ma molte altre hanno impiegato i fondi per costruire nuovi istituti...

 

Tony Ward
# The dual relationship problem in forensic and correctional practice: Community protection or offender welfare?
The British Psychological Society 10 december 2013 / Legal and Criminological Psychology (2014), 19, 35–39
Sometimes the conflict can occur between cultures or clusters of professional norms. In forensic and correctional work practice, the broader dual relationship problem is evident in conflict between (at least) two sets of professional norms: those concerned with community protection versus norms related to offender/defendant well-being. The two sets of norms are relatively coherent and structure the practice of clinicians working with offenders in assessment and interventions contexts.

 

Caitlin Gormley
# Mapping of Active Criminal Justice Diversion Schemes for Those with Mental Health Problems in Scotland
Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research, University of Glasgow - December 2013
People with mental ill-health are disproportionately found within the criminal justice system and imprisonment can lead to an acute worsening of mental health problems. In Scotland little is known about diversionary schemes or practices which focus specifically on people with mental health issues. This report was commissioned by the Scottish Association for Mental Health (SAMH) in association with the Centre for Mental Health (CfMH) in order to identify the stages at which people with mental health problems can be diverted during their route through the criminal justice system in Scotland.

 

Silvia D’Autilia, Peppe Dell’Acqua
# La pericolosità delle psichiatrie di ritorno: risposta ad Andreoli
www.news-forumsalutementale.it/ 29 dicembre 2013

 

Vittorino Andreoli

# Intervista a cura di Michele Brambilla

La Stampa 21 dicembre 213

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EMCDDA

# Co-morbid substance use and mental disorders in Europe: a review of the data

www.emcdda.europa.eu/ December 2013

Psychiatric co-morbidity particularly affects vulnerable groups, such as young people, people from ethnic minorities, prisoners and sex workers. Psychiatric co-morbidity in prison settings is a problem affecting a large part of the prison population. A large number of studies have estimated the prevalence of mental disorders as well as substance use in prisons, with prevalence estimates varying widely. In general, studies on the prevalence of mental illnesses in prison show large differences between the prison population and the general population in severe pathologies such as psychosis and personality disorders, as well as problems such as anxiety and depression...

 

D.AP. Ufficio Studi Ricerche e Rapporti Internazionali – Cassa delle Ammende . F.S.E. (Fondi sociali Europei)
# ME.D.I.C.S. – Monitoraggio detenuti con disagio psichico
http://www.giustizia.it/ 18 Dicembre 2013
Il progetto, cofinanziato per l’80% dalla Commissione Europea, parte dalla necessità di ottenere un quadro di informazioni chiaro e dettagliato sulla situazione dei detenuti con disagio mentale presenti negli istituti penitenziari italiani, allo scopo di offrire a questi soggetti accoglienza, presa in carico e trattamento specifici. Ciò anche in vista della prossima chiusura degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari nel nostro Paese e della conseguente istituzione di sezioni dedicate a persone con problemi di salute mentale in molti istituti penitenziari italiani. parteciperanno all’iniziativa: SIMSPE ONLUS – Società Italiana di Medicina e Sanità Penitenziaria, ITALIA | NOMS – Inghilterra e Galles | Servizio Penitenziario + Ospedale Sant Joan de Deu, Barcellona – Catalogna | Zdravo Grad / Healthy City, ONG – Croazia | Rete Europea delle Scuole Penitenziarie di Formazione.

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ Autumn 2013

A significant number of prisoners suffer from a psychotic disorder. 14% of women and 7% of men serving prison sentences have a psychotic disorder; 23 and 14 times the level in the general population. A more recent study found that 25% of women and 15% of men in prison reported symptoms indicative of psychosis.692 The rate among the general public is about 4%. 10% of men and 30% of women have had a previous psychiatric admission before they entered prison. 26% of women and 16% of men said they had received treatment for a mental health problem  in the year before custody. Personality disorders are particularly prevalent among people in prison. 62% of male and 57% of female sentenced prisoners have a personality disorder...

 

Tania Dupuis, Robin MacKay, Julia Nicol
# Current issues in mental health in Canada : mental health and the criminal justice system
http://www.lop.parl.gc.ca/ 16 december 2013

 

World Health Organization
# Mental health action plan 2013-2020
www.who.int/ 2013
Four major objectives are set forth: more effective leadership and governance for mental health; the provision of comprehensive, integrated mental health and social care services in community-based settings; implementation of strategies for promotion and prevention; and strengthened information systems, evidence and research

 

Taylor Salisbury
# The Relationship Between Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy: A Proposed Trajectory
Western Undergraduate Psychology Journal: Vol. 1 2013
This review paper critically examines the literature on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Through examining diagnostic criteria laid out in the DSM-IV along with statistics related to diagnosis and prognosis, the idea that ODD, CD, and APD may fall on a developmental trajectory as opposed to being distinct, categorical entities is proposed. Additionally, the notion that these three disorders may represent narrow, behavioural indicators of a general psychopathic personality is suggested using comparisons to Hare’s Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). Several implications related to child development, family instability and violence, as well as labeling and stigma are discussed and the importance of family intervention and involvement is highlighted. Finally, a number of implications related to the criminal justice system, including the prediction of conviction and recidivism rates, are explored.

 

Australian Government | National Mental Health Commission
# We must stop treating people with mental illness like criminals
www.mentalhealthcommission.gov.au/ 13 December 2013
We know that sixty-five per cent of the estimated 3.2 million Australians w ho have experienced a mental health problem in the past 12 months have not sought help for that problem... “The Commission is also very concerned by the w ay people w ith mental illness are being referred to in some media coverage, despite long-established Mindframe media guidelines on responsible reporting of mental illness. Generally describing the people in these facilities as ‘killers and rapists’, as one article has, is appalling.

 

Australian Government | National Mental Health Commission
# The justice system and mental health
www.mentalhealthcommission.gov.au/ 2013
The Commission is highly concerned about how we as a society criminalise people who live with a mental health difficulty. We know that people living with mental illness are over-represented in our prisons, in the number of police incidents and in the number of police shootings. We w ere dismayed to learn that in 2012, 38% of all people entering our prison system reported having been told they have a mental illness. If these findings w ere applied to the 29,000 prisoners in Australia, 207 then this w ould equate to around 11,000 people each year.

 

Arthur J. Lurigio
# Criminalization of the Mentally Ill. Exploring Causes and Current Evidence in the United States
The Criminologist. The Official Newsletter of the American Society of Criminology, Vol. 38, November/December 2013

In the early 1970s, Dr. Marc Abramson, a jail psychiatrist in California, was the first to report in the scholarly literature that people with serious mental illnesses (PSMI) (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression) were being criminalized: being processed through the criminal justice system instead of the mental health system. Since that time, studies have suggested that the mentally ill are arrested and incarcerated at levels that exceed both their representation in the general popu-lation and their tendency to commit serious crimes. Estimates suggest that 14% of offenders (more than one million people) in the criminal justice system in the United States suffer from serious mental illnesses. This phenomenon has come to be known as the “criminalization” of the mentally ill.

 

Alessandro Grispini, Giuseppe Ducci
# Il superamento degli ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari. Considerazioni e riflessioni
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, 1/2013 (9-24)

1. introduzione – 2. Cosa dice la legge – 3. Punti di forza e punti di debolezza – 4. Lo stato dell’arte – 5. Alcune considerazioni critiche - 5.1 Bisogni specifici e tipologia delle strutture - 5.2 L’imputabilità - 5.3 La pericolosità sociale - 5.4 La valutazione obiettiva dei fatti - 5.5 Salute mentale e carcere – 6. Conclusioni – 7. bibliografia.

 

Enrico Zanalda, Claudio Mencacci
# Percorso di superamento degli OPG in italia. L’impatto sui Dipartimenti di salute mentale. L’opinione della società italiana di Psichiatria
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, 1/2013 (25-47)

Introduzione sullo stato del percorso in riferimento alla normativa nazionale – alcune precisazioni sulle misure di sicurezza - I programmi di superamento degli oPG e delle CCC: 1. Recupero delle persone internate negli OPG - 2. Potenziare la tutela della salute mentale negli Istituti di Pena. - 3. Realizzare le Residenze per l’Esecuzione delle Misure di Sicurezza (REMS ai sensi del DM 1° ottobre 2012, Legge 296/1993, e s.m.i.). - 4. Definizione e monitoraggio di percorsi di cura territoriali per i pazienti autori di reato e sottoposti a misure di sicurezza per pazienti con pericosità sociale «attenuata». - 5. Formazione degli operatori coinvolti nei percorsi di esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza. - Considerazioni conclusive.

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Ministero della Salute
# Relazione al Parlamento sul Programma di superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari, ai sensi dell'articolo 3- ter del decreto-legge 22 dicembre 2011, n. 211 convertito dalla legge 17 febbraio 2012, n. 9, come modificato dal decreto-legge 25 marzo 2013, n. 24 convertito con modificazione, dalla legge 23 maggio 2013, n. 57, alla data del
30 novembre 2013
www.quotidianosanita.it/ 18 dicembre 2013
Dalle valutazioni dei programmi presentati e dagli incontri con le Regioni è emerso che il termine previsto dalla normativa vigente, IO aprile 2014, per il superamento degli OPG, non è risultato congruo, soprattutto per i tempi di realizzazione delle strutture, fase che si deve confrontare con una serie di procedure amministrative complesse. Sulla base delle valutazioni rese, si prospetta la necessità che il Governo, anche sulla scorta delle indicazioni regionali, proponga al Parlamento una proroga del termine che rispecchi la tempistica oggettivamente necessaria per completare definitivamente il superamento degli OPG.

 

Giandomenico Dodaro
# L’impatto di saperi, culture e sentimenti d’insicurezza dei servizi psichiatrici sulle politiche per il superamento dell’ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario
Milano 25 novembre 2013

Franco Basaglia invitava a fare « attenzione alle facili euforie con l’inserimento dei malati di mente negli ospedali » e con la tendenza ad omologare la psichiatria alla medicina, ossia il comportamento al corpo (Basaglia, 1978). Strutture extra-ospedaliere residenziali, spogliate dalla mission socio-riabilitativa, irrigidite sul modello ospedaliero rischiano di riprodurre luoghi di internamento, la cui funzione primaria è l’incapacitazione-neutralizzazione del “reo folle”.

 

Adam Joseph Evans Blanchard
# Dynamic Risk Factors in Violence Risk Assessment: A Multiple Time-Point Evaluation of the HCR-20 and START
Simon Fraser University, Fall 2013
The consideration of dynamic risk factors when conducting risk assessments is generally considered best practice. However, little empirical research can speak to intraindividual change over time in putatively dynamic risk factors included in violence risk assessments instruments, and even fewer studies can speak to whether this change is associated with violence. The present study investigated change on putatively dynamic scales included on the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) and the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START), using a prospective repeated measures design with a civil psychiatric and a correctional sample. Intraindividual change on these scales was seen in a notable proportion of the assessments. More change was seen on the HCR-20 when the reassessment interval was over two months compared to less than two months, whereas the proportion of change on the START scales was consistent across different reassessment intervals. As well, fluctuations on these scales were predictive of subsequent violence.

 

Martina Nasso
# Custodire o curare? Una scelta di diritto: la chiusura degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari e la presa in carico del paziente giudiziario
Università di Bologna, 2013-14
Non è possibile continuare ad escludere dal processo penale chi viene dichiarato “incapace d‟intendere e di volere”: deve essere considerato e riconosciuto imputabile. A chi muove l‟accusa del possibile regime peggiorativo che la persona andrebbe a vivere se sottoposto a pena, va costantemente ricordato che essa non può e non deve consistere nel carcere, luogo principe per lo sviluppo del disturbo mentale. Il carcere è, per sua natura, un luogo di esclusione e sofferenza, dunque, non può essergli riconosciuta alcuna funzione responsabilizzante...

 

Le plus France Info
# La prison, "asile républicain" ?
www.franceinfo.fr/ france info 6 novembre 2013

... sept des dix médicaments les plus distribués sont des psychotropes... 15% des détenus consultent un psychiatre...

 

Anne Elizabeth Bain
# The Impact of Therapeutic Jurisprudence: A Critical Study of Toronto’s Mental Health Court
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/ University of Michigan 2013
Seriously mentally ill offenders make up a disproportionate number of  inmates and tend to be in and out of jail frequently often for minor offenses. Within the criminal justice systems in North America, judges, lawyers, prosecutors, physicians, and social service providers have collaborated to address this problem with the establishment of mental health courts, like 102 Court in Toronto, Canada. In recognition that this particular population is in trouble with the law not because of criminality but due to illness, poverty, homelessness, and isolation, professionalsendeavor to “divert” accused away from jail and towards the services they need. This is a deliberate attempt to reduce rates of recidivism by replacing traditional punitive interventions with therapeutic interventions, based on the legal concept of therapeutic jurisprudence.

 

Patrick Callaghan, Nico Oud, Johan Håkon Bjørngaard, Henk Nijman, Tom Palmstierna, Roger Almvik, Bart Thomas
# Violence in Clinical Psychiatry. Proceedings of the 8th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry
www.oudconsultancy.nl/ 23 – 26 October 2013 Ghent, Belgium
Preventing violence, reducing its incidence and impact, managing its consequences and understanding how and why it manifests itself requires working across different disciplinary  perspectives using the most up-to-date techniques and interventions and the best available  evidence. Much is already known about violence in clinical psychiatry; much remains to be  discovered. It is the latter of these issues upon which the 8th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry will focus. Risk assessment is a widely used method of seeking to predict future violence with a view to preventing and minimising the occurrence of violence and managing people whose behaviour is deemed harmful. evidence shows that restraint has led to the death of patients on too many occasions. Joy Duxbury, chair elect of EVIPRG – the European Violence in Psychiatry Research Group – is one of the UK’s leading mental health nursing researchers and led a review of restraintrelated deaths for the English Department of Health. Joy shares her insights gleaned from this review that will hopefully lead to practice changes that will eradicate these avoidable deaths

 

Allen Frances, Melissa Raven
# Two Views on the New DSM-5. The Need for Caution in Diagnosing and Treating Mental Disorders
www.aafp.org/afp American Family Physician, Oct. 2013
DSM-5, published in May 2013, has stimulated the opposition of more than 50 mental health associations, which have petitioned for an independent scientific review based on the belief that the manual’s proposals for change are not safe or scientifically sound. DSM-5 seems likely to convert diagnostic inflation into diagnostic hyperinflation by adding new, questionable, and untested diagnoses, and by reducing the thresholds
for existing diagnoses.

 

Sophie Crampagne
# Évaluation de la dangerosité dans le cadre de l'expertise psychiatrique pénale
http://dumas.ccsd.cnrs.fr/ 2013
J. L. Senon et C. Manzanera décrivent une situation française se caractérisant par : l’incidence de la désinstitutionnalisation psychiatrique, le faible nombre d’irresponsabilités pénales prononcées, l’évolution des attentes de la Justice vers trois niveaux d’analyse de l’expertise, l’accumulation de personnes souffrant de troubles psychotiques dans les établissements pénitentiaires, l’incidence de la politique sécuritaire de «tolérance zéro», la confusion entre soins et punitions et l’exigence de soins pour toutes les déviances...

 

National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)
# State Legislation Report, 2013: Trends, Themes and Best Practices in State Mental Health Legislation
www.nami.org/ Oct. 28, 2013
Jails and prisons are neither designed nor funded to provide mental health treatment, yet with the erosion of public mental health services they have increasingly become de facto mental health facilities. Without appropriate treatment inmates with mental illness decompensate, are vulnerable to abuse and are disproportionately segregated in solitary confinement.

 

Elsa Ronningstam, Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers
# Fear and decision-making in narcissistic personality disorder—a link between psychoanalysis and neuroscience
www.dialogues-cns.org/ 2013
Linking psychoanalytic studies with neuroscience has proven increasingly productive for identifying and understanding personality functioning. This article focuses on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), with the aim of exploring two clinically relevant aspects of narcissistic functioning also recognized in psychoanalysis: fear and decision-making. Evidence from neuroscientific studies of related conditions, such as psychopathy, suggests links between affective and cognitive functioning that can influence the sense of self-agency and narcissistic self-regulation. 

 

Ivano Abbadessa | west Welfare Society Territory

# Are prisons becoming the new asylums?

www.west-info.eu/ 10.22.2013

The current emergency situation in US prisons has its roots in the closure of hundreds of nursing homes during the seventies, under the presidency of Jimmy Carter, which was justified by a lack of funding. Many patients were abandoned to wander through the city’s streets: without homes, jobs or psychiatric treatment. This created the ideal conditions for them to end up in jail because their marginality, poverty and drug use made them an easy prey for crime.

 

Ashish Srivastava, Veeranna Patil, Yvonne Da Silva Pereira
# A Case Series of Quetiapine Addiction/Dependence
German Journal of Psychiatry, 2013
After few days, he was found to consume an increased number of quetiapine tablets, which he used to borrow from other inmates in the prison. He demanded higher doses of quetiapine from treating doctors, which was not complied with. In jail, he apparently continued to take quetiapine in doses up-to 800mg/day, which he borrowed from other  inmates. During his next visit, he presented with similar complaints of irritability, sleep disturbances, and dysphoric mood and was hospitalised..

 

Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary | Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons | Care Quality Commission | Healthcare Inspectorate Wales
# A Criminal Use of Police Cells? The use of police custody as a place of safety for people with mental health needs
www.hmic.gov.uk/ 2013
The use of a police station as a place of safety has been subject of several specific reports. In 2008, the IPCC reported that police stations were commonly used as a first resort rather than the last.

 

Jonathan Martin
# Mental health in prisons: It’s a crime
http://seattletimes.com/ The Seattle Times, October 19, 2013
The state prison in Monroe is the largest psychiatric facility in Snohomish County... The jailing of the mentally ill cannot honestly be called an accidental byproduct of the nation’s fractured mental-health system. The disinvestment in mental health care has gone on too long — generations now — to be considered anything but deliberate neglect. In 1955, before deinstitutionalization, there was one psychiatric bed for every 300 U.S. residents. A half-century later, that ratio is now 1 in 3,000...

 

Eva-Maria Seidel, Daniela Melitta Pfabigan, Katinka Keckeis, Anna Maria Wucherer, Thomas Jahn, Claus Lamma, Birgit Derntl
# Empathic competencies in violent offenders
Psychiatry Research 2013

 

ACLU American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico
# Inside the Box: The Real Costs of Solitary Confinement in New Mexico's Prisons and Jails
http://nmpovertylaw.org/
October 2013
The American Bar Association deines long-term solitary coninement as longer than 30 days.14 According to the NMCD, in 2013 the combined average length of stay for prisoners conined to Levels V and VI in New Mexico’s “supermax” is 1,072 days – that is, almost three years... in the Santa Fe County Jail, on December 21, 2012, almost 20 percent of the prisoners – ive out of 28 – had been held in solitary coninement for more than 6 months... he NMCD has reported that “1 in every 4 prisoners (25 percent) in NMCD prisons is in treatment for serious mental illness on any given day.”21 On average, researchers estimate that across the country at least 30 percent of the prisoners held in solitary coninement are mentally ill.22 hus, we can assume that at least 25 percent of solitary coninement prisoners in the New Mexico prison system are seriously mentally ill. his means that serious mental illness alicts hundreds of prisoners now languishing in isolation in New Mexico’s prisons and jails.

 

Allen J. Frances
# Sexual Abuse Of Psychiatric Patients In Prisons. A national scandal
www.psychologytoday.com/ Psychology Today, October 15, 2013

Sexual abuse is shockingly common in the US prison system. A recent survey conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics concluded that about 200,000 prisoners are sexually abused each year. Most of the abused prisoners are misplaced psychiatric patients who make especially vulnerable targets because they are less able to defend themselves and to be believed if they report infractions. Although prison is clearly not the right place for psychiatric patients, almost a million are behind bars for crimes that could have been avoided if there were proper community treatment. Because there isn't, prison has become the default disposition for those patients who can't make it on their own. They usually get incarcerated for non- iolent nuisance crimes that result from neglect, not evil intent.

 

Daniel Yohanna
# Deinstitutionalization of People with Mental Illness: Causes and Consequences
American Medical Association Journal of Ethics - October 2013, Volume 15, Number 10: 886-891.
Is there a group of American citizens more deserving of safety and refuge than people with severe mental illness (SMI) who have traded one level of confinement in state mental hospitals for another in our nursing homes, intermediate care facilities, jails, and prisons—or, worse, become homeless? This paper reviews trends in the transinstitutionalization of people with SMI and proposes that it is time we offer asylum, in the best sense of the word, to the most vulnerable of the people with severe mental illness.

 

Mathew George, Maya Haasz, Alvaro Coronado, Steven Salhanick, Lindsey Korbel, Joseph P Kitzmiller
# Acute dyskinesia, myoclonus, and akathisa in an adolescent male abusing quetiapine via nasal insufflation: a case study
www.biomedcentral.com/ 13:187, 2013
Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic, and its indications include psychosis, mood disorders, and bipolar disorder. It is intended for oral administration with total daily doses up to 800 mg in adults. Quetiapine has good efficacy, but also has some potential for abuse. Routes of abuse include insufflation and intravenous entries.

 

Mental Health Foundation
# Starting today. The future of mental health services
www.mentalhealth.org.uk/
We cannot countenance a situation in 20-30 years’ time when a failure to exchange relevant data leads to the death, or even serious harm, of a patient or any other individual as a result of a mental illness. Information Technology (IT) systems that allow comprehensive information sharing must be developed both within health and social care, and across relevant organisations such as schools, housing organisations, prisons and the police, while still ensuring that people’s legally-enshrined rights to privacy remain protected.

 

Brandi Grissom
# Violence Behind Bars: A Tie to Mental Illness
The Texas Tribune, Sept. 22, 2013
The most violent prisons in the Texas state system share a common factor: They house a high proportion of mentally ill inmates... The volume of violent incident reports raises questions about the staff’s ability to manage inmates and keep prisoners and officers safe.

 

Gemma Brandi, Mario Iannucci
# La coazione benigna al servizio della salute e della sicurezza
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, 3, 2013
Gli Autori declinano il concetto di coazione benigna all’interno delle istituzioni sanitaria e penitenziaria, fondando il loro ragionamento sulle pratiche di salute mentale territoriale e sulla indicativa prevalenza di disturbi psichiatrici tra i detenuti nelle carceri italiane – desunta dall’unica ricerca psicopatologica standardizzata svoltavi su autorizzazione  del DAP, che ebbe per oggetto, tra il 2001 e il 2002, i nuovi giunti nella Casa Circondariale di Firenze Sollicciano nell’arco di sei mesi – passando attraverso due temi attuali e scottanti: la evoluzione dell’internamento giudiziario in corso e la contenzione fisica del portatore di sofferenza psichica.

 

Stefano Rossi
# Salute mentale e dignità della persona: profili di un dialogo costituzionale
www.gruppodipisa.it/ Università di Roma Tre, 20 settembre 2013
1. Perché dialogare su diritti e salute mentale? Introduzione e obbiettivi di un percorso di ricerca. - 2. Il diritto nella storia: influssi e riflessi. - 3. Il diritto alla salute come concetto dinamico. - 3.1. Dalla salute pubblica al vissuto della persona. - 3.2. Salute mentale: viaggio nei luoghi dell’incertezza. - 3.3. Malattia mentale e legislazione: dal paradigma custodiale a quello di cura (1904-1978) - 3.4. Oltre il diritto alla salute (anche mentale) verso un diritto delle capacità. - 4. La libertà personale: dall’habeas corpus all’autodeterminazione. - 4.1. I trattamenti sanitari obbligatori: fin dove la libertà può cedere il passo alla salute? - 5. La dignità nella Costituzione: per un’interpretazione mite. - 5.1. Dignità e salute mentale: dallo stigma all’integrazione. - 6. La salute mentale come diritto dell’uomo: profili di diritto internazionale e sovranazionale.

 

Giuseppe Craparo, Adriano Schimmenti, Vincenzo Caretti
# Traumatic experiences in childhood and psychopathy: a study on a sample of violent offenders from Italy
European Journal of Psychotraumatology 2013
There was a high prevalence of childhood experiences of neglect and abuse among the offenders. Higher levels of childhood relational trauma were found among participants who obtained high scores on the PCL-R. There was also a significant negative association between age of first relational trauma and psychopathy scores. Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest that an early exposure to relational trauma in childhood can play a relevant role in the development of more severe psychopathic traits.

 

John Monahan
# Gangs, Violence, and Psychiatry
Am J Psychiatry 170:9, September 2013
Frequent violent ruminations and the propensity to react violently to perceived disrespect differentiated violent and nonviolent men but—as with victimization—were highest among violent gang members. This result, too, reinforces established findings that angry ruminations and sensitivity to provocation often anticipate violent behavior...

 

Polly McConnell, Jenny Talbot
# Mental health and learning disabilities in the criminal courts. Information for magistrates, district judges and court staff
Prison Reform Trust, September 2013
More recently, renewed attention has been given to extending the role of liaison and diversion services to include people with learning disabilities and in ensuring access to provision at the police station. The Government has made a commitment that all police stations and criminal courts in England will have access to liaison and diversion services by 2014; similar services exist in Wales.

 

Aidan G. C. Wright, Aaron L. Pincus, Katherine M. Thomas, Christopher J. Hopwood, Kristian E. Markon, Robert F. Krueger
# Conceptions of Narcissism and the DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits
Assessment, 2013
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) has been shown to be associated with an array of traits and behaviors that can be understood as manifestations of, or closely related to, narcissistic grandiosity, such as psychopathy, impulsivity, violence, aggression, homicidal ideation, and sexual aggression. However, NPD is also associated with more vulnerable forms of dysregulation such as anxiety and depressive disorders, as well as functional impairments, interpersonal distress, and even suicidal behavior.

 

Vijayalakshmi Poreddi, Ramachandra, Konduru Reddemma, Suresh Bada Math
# People with mental illness and human rights: A developing countries perspective
Indian J Psychiatry. 2013 Apr-Jun; 55(2): 117–124.
Human rights violations among the people with mental illness were not an uncommon occurrence. The present study was aimed to compare persons with psychiatric illness and their caregivers’ perceptions regarding the human rights status of people with mental illness in the community.

 

Judge Tom Rickhoff, Ellen Patterson
# Dangerous Minds. Addressing violence and serious mental illness from one judge’s perspective
www.texasbar.com/ Texas Bar Journal • September 2013
We can certainly agree that in every group, there exist individuals who monopolize our care, resources, and attention because of an identified propensity for violence. This is no less true for the mentally ill, and thus we should consider identifying and distinguishing them from those 80 percent or greater who are nonviolent.

 

Gary Fields, Erica E. Phillips
# The New Asylums: Jails Swell With Mentally Ill. America's Jails Face Growing Need to Provide Mental-Health
Treatment

The Wall Street Journal, September 25, 2013
The country's three biggest jail systems—Cook County, in Illinois; Los Angeles County; and New York City—are on the front lines. With more than 11,000 prisoners under treatment on any given day, they represent by far the largest mental-health treatment facilities in the country. By comparison, the three largest state-run mental hospitals have a combined 4,000 beds. Put another way, the number of mentally ill prisoners the three facilities handle daily is equal to 28% of all beds in the nation's 213 state psychiatric hospitals, according to the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Research Institute Inc. "In every city and state I have visited, the jails have become the de facto mental institutions"...

 

Scientific American’s Board of Editors
# Solitary Is Cruel and Unusual. Isolating inmates inflicts permanent mental harm. The practice must be curbed
Scientific American, August 2013 Volume 309, Number 2

Some 80,000 people are held in solitary confinement in U.S. prisons, according to the latest available census. The practice has grown with seemingly little thought to how isolation affects a person’s psyche. But new research suggests that solitary confinement creates more violence both inside and outside prison walls.

 

David H. Cloud
# The Affordable Care Act: Opportunity for Addressing Mental Health Disparities in the Criminal Justice System
www.nyapsa.org/ Vera Institute of Justice 2013

•Better coverage in the community. Currently about 85-90 percent of people passing through jails are uninsured. This will be reduced in states opting to expand Medicaid. Only means they will have Medicaid in the community. • Increased Access to comprehensive health: Essential benefits mean they will have access to substance use and mental health treatment: many for the first time. • Health homes = better solution to promote care coordination and continuity. • More opportunities for early diversion!

 

Julie Repper, Becky Aldridge, Sharon Gilfoyle, Steve Gillard, Rachel Perkins, Jane Rennison
# Peer Support Workers: Theory and Practice
www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/ June 2013
We have concentrated on the contribution of peers working inside mental health services because of the multiple benefits that they can bring. Working together, ‘co-producing’ services alongside traditional mental health professionals, they can offer a truly comprehensive and integrated model of care.

 

Dona Sapp, Brad Ray
# Traumatic Brain Injury Prevalence: Indiana Department of Correction Prisoner Population
https://policyinstitute.iu.edu/ June 2013
The Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons recommends increased health screenings and treatment programs for offenders who had experienced a Traumatic Brain Injury TBI. Further, reentry programs should include specialized transition services and treatment to better assist individuals with TBI-related problems as they return to their communities.

 

Jesse Meijers, Frédérique V Scherder, Joke M Harte, Erik J A Scherder
# Rest-activity rhythm and aggression in prisoners with psychotic illnesses
IAFMHS 2013
Mental disorders such as psychotic illnesses are more common in the prison population than in the general population. An important clinical hallmark of these disorders is aggression/agitation. Agitation correlates positively to a disturbed rest-activity rhythm, often caused by physical inactivity and nocturnal restlessness. Physical inactivity is widespread among people in detention. Aims. The study objective was to ascertain  whether there is a relationship between the restactivity rhythm (i.e. the levels of physical activity during the day and night), and aggressive/agitated behaviour...

 

Virginia Aldigé Hiday, Heathcote W. Wales
# Mental Illness and the Law
in C.S. Aneshensel et al. (eds.), Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health, Second Edition, 563
Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research, 2013
...Recognize that (1) not all offenders with severe mental illness are the same; (2) severe mental illness is not a sufficient condition to explain offending behavior by most persons with severe mental illness (even in the small group whose psychoses drive the crime, there is still the likelihood that micro- and/or macro-social factors explain why only some with psychotic delusions and hallucinations act on them) ; and (3) mental illness is only indirectly causative of crime in the overwhelming majority of offenses by persons with severe mental illness...

 

Virginia Aldigé Hiday, Heathcote W. Wales, Bradley Ray
# Effectiveness of a Short-Term Mental Health Court: Criminal Recidivism One Year Postexit
Law and Human Behavior 2013
This article investigated criminal recidivism 1 year postexit from a mental health court (MHC), which has, unlike prior MHCs studied, relatively short periods of court supervision. It benefits from a federal pretrial services agency that screens all arrestees for mental illness and dedicates a specialized supervision unit (SSU) to provide supervision and services while on pretrial release to all screened positive, including MHC participants. We compared criminal activity prior to key arrest with criminal activity post court disposition in MHC participants (N 408)... This study adds to the accumulating evidence of the effectiveness of MHCs in reducing recidivism among offenders with severe mental illness.

 

Ajith Gurusinghe, Steffan Davis, Huw Stone
# Survey of Prison Mental Health Provision (CDAPP survey). General Adult Psychiatry Conference 2013 Manchester
www.rcpsych.ac.uk/

Relevant demographics:  Approx. 90000 prisoners in E & W  Pop. Growth 0.7%  Globally 10 million (14/10000 population)  Total of 102 In-reach teams (2007)   58 suicides in 2011 (1:1500) MOJ   Functional psychosis 7-14% (ONS 1998)  Personality disorder 50-78%  Depression/OCD, Anxiety – 40-76%...

 

Marta Pelazza

# La coazione terapeutica. Uno studio comparato

Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca | Dottorato Scienze Giuridiche | 2012/2013

In questa sede si è inteso esplorare un diverso tipo di problematica correlata alla pratica terapeutica, concernente in particolare quelle situazioni in cui è comunemente riconosciuta liceità all’agire del medico anche in assenza di un valido consenso del paziente, o addirittura contro l’espressa volontà di quest’ultimo...

 

Mauro Percudani, Giorgio Cerati, Lorenzo Petrovich, Antonio Vita (a cura di)
# La psichiatria di comunità in Lombardia. Il Piano Regionale per la Salute Mentale lombardo e le sue linee di attuazione (2004-2012)
www.eupolis.regione.lombardia.it/ Regione Lombardia, 2013

 

Miriam Light, Eli Grant, Kathryn Hopkins
# Gender differences in substance misuse and mental health amongst prisoners. Results from the Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR) longitudinal cohort study of prisoners
www.gov.uk/ Ministry of Justice Analytical Series 2013
This research explored substance misuse and mental health of male and female prisoners, using the Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR) longitudinal survey of 1,435 newly sentenced prisoners in England and Wales in 2005 and 2006. The sample consisted of 1,303 male and 132 female prisoners. Other surveys and management information were used as secondary sources. The research examined: drug and alcohol use; rates of self-harm and suicide; the presence of specific mental health disorders; and links to reconviction.

 

Michel Lejoyeux, Fabrizia Nivoli, Anne Basquin, Aymeric Petit, Florence Chalvin, Houcine Embouazza

# An investigation of factors increasing the risk of aggressive behavior among schizophrenic inpatients
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Frontiers in Psychiatry September 2013
We did not identify a unique factor associated to aggression among schizophrenic patients. We found a constellation of socio-demographic and addictive characteristics. Aggressive behavior is more frequent in males, patients with a history of sexual abuse, and nicotine dependents. Among all addictive disorders, nicotine dependence was the sole addiction associated with an increased risk of aggression. The effect was not significant for alcohol, cannabis, and opiates dependence disorders. A systematic assessment of these factors could permit to anticipate clinical situations with a risk of aggressive behavior. The only “treatable” condition exposing to aggression could be the nicotine withdrawal syndrome in nicotine dependents. Nicotine replacement and psychological intervention on dependence may reduce the risk of aggressive behavior.

 

Gary Fields, Erica E. Phillips
# The New Asylums: Jails Swell With Mentally Ill. America's Jails Face Growing Need to Provide Mental-Health Treatment
http://online.wsj.com/ The Wall Street Journal Sept. 25, 2013
America's lockups are its new asylums. After scores of state mental institutions were closed beginning in the 1970s, few alternatives materialized. Many of the afflicted wound up on the streets, where, untreated, they became more vulnerable to joblessness, drug abuse and crime. The country's three biggest jail systems—Cook County, in Illinois; Los Angeles County; and New York City —are on the front lines. With more than 11,000 prisoners under treatment on any given day, they represent by far the largest mental-health treatment facilities in the country. By comparison, the three largest staterun mental hospitals have a combined 4,000 beds. Put another way, the number of mentally ill prisoners the three facilities handle daily is equal to 28% of all beds in the nation's 213 state psychiatric hospitals, according to the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Research Institute Inc.

 

Diana Fries, Astrid Rossegger, Jérôme Endrass, Jay P. Singh
# Utility of a violence screening tool to predict recidivism in offenders with schizophrenia: A total forensic cohort study
www.forensicpsychologyunbound.ws/ Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology, 5, 40-52 (2013)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility of the screening tool developed by Wootton and colleagues (2008) to predict recidivism in a total cohort of offenders diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in the Canton of Zürich, Switzerland. The sample consisted of violent (including sexual) offenders between the ages of 18 to 65 years with ICD-10 diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective psychosis, and delusional disorder, sentenced either to court-ordered therapy or at least 10 month’s prison and discharged into the community (N = 34). The instrument was found to be useful in prospectively identifying low-risk individuals and retrospectively discriminating recidivists. Albeit the adaptation of the screening tool may have some usefulness when identifying low-risk individuals, caution is warranted when used in forensic samples.

 

Ruth McCausland, Eileen Baldry, Sarah Johnson, Anna Cohen
# People with mental health disorders and cognitive impairment in the criminal justice system. Cost-benefit analysis of early support and diversion
www.humanrights.gov.au/ August 2013
People with mental health disorders and cognitive impairment are significantly over-represented in the criminal justice system. This is the case for defendants through to the population in custody. For example, in NSW people with mental health disorders and cognitive impairment currently make up a significant proportion of people entering the criminal justice system, being 3 to 9 times more likely to be in prison than the general NSW population. People with mental health disorder and/or cognitive impairment are 3 to 9 times more likely to be in prison than their non-diisabled counterparts in the general NSW population...

 

Brian Stettin, Frederick J. Frese, H. Richard Lamb | Treatment Advocacy Center
# Mental Health Diversion Practices. A Survey of the States
http://tacreports.org/ August 2013
A 2010 study by the Treatment Advocacy Center found that more than three times as many severely mentally ill persons in the U.S. are doing time in jails and prisons than receiving treatment in hospitals. Other studies indicate a near-tripling over the last 30 years of the percentage of U.S. inmates who suffer from severe mental illness, to a current level of at least 16%...

 

Alan de Freitas Passos, Bárbara Perdigão Stumpf, Fábio Lopes Rocha
# Victimization of the mentally ill
Rev Psiq Clín. 40(5); 2013
Patients with severe mental disorders present higher risk of victimization when compared to the general population. The main factors associated with victimization in this group were substance use, young age, severe symptomatology, recent history of perpetration of violence, engagement in criminal activity, male gender and homelessness; data which corroborates previous reviews. Prevention and intervention programs must be implemented, and high-risk groups should be prioritized.

 

Giancarlo Nivoli, Liliana Lorettu
# La responsabilità professionale dello psichiatra nella prescrizione di farmaci off-label e dei farmaci originali e generici
Riv Psichiatr 2013; 48(3): 215-223
Gli autori mettono in luce criteri psichiatrico-forensi alla base di una corretta prescrizione del farmaco, in generale, e in particolare nella prescrizione di farmaci off-label e dei farmaci originali e generici. Nell’ambito della prescrizione dei farmaci off-label, viene sottolineata la necessità di procedere secondo la normativa che prevede, tra l’altro, l’acquisizione del consenso del paziente. Per quanto concerne la prescrizione dei farmaci generici vengono illustrate le criticità legate agli eccipienti presenti nei farmaci, l’equivalenza con i farmaci originali, la corrispondenza delle indicazioni terapeutiche. Vengono, inoltre, illustrati i profili di responsabilità del medico prescrittore e del farmacista dispensatore. La conoscenza di tali aspetti può risultare un utile strumento per il medico prescrittore nell’ambito di una corretta pratica clinica rispettosa dell’autonomia del medico e delle normative vigenti. L’illustrazione degli errori e dei pregiudizi che più frequentemente sono presenti  nelle aule giudiziarie in tema di prescrizione farmacologica possono costituire la base per un confronto critico interdisciplinare con gli altri protagonisti del processo che, in sede di giustizia, avranno il compito di valutare la responsabilità dello psichiatra in ambito prescrittivo.

 

Salvatore Aleo
# Imputabilità e pericolosità sociale dell'individuo infermo di mente
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 2 - 2013

La pericolosità sociale è nozione poco scientifica. E la seminfermità mentale è nozione poco credibile. Tutte queste nozioni sono altresì estremamente discrezionali, lasciate al giudizio scarsamente controvertibile. Premesso che la materia è molto difficile, certo essa richiede una profonda revisione, concettuale e pratica. Si propone qui di limitare la detenzione agli autori di reati gravi. Si mette pure in discussione a tal proposito la distinzione fra imputabili e non imputabili.

 

Maria Laura Fadda
# Misure di sicurezza e detenuto psichiatrico nella fase dell'esecuzione
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 2 - 2013

La legislazione vigente, penale e civile, disciplina diversamente la salute del corpo da quella della mente e ancora diversamente la cura dei malati psichici a seconda che siano o no autori di reato. Il principio, accolto dalla riforma Basaglia e cardine della legislazione civile e amministrativa vigente, della “volontarietà” della cura non vige per i malati psichici autori di reato. Per queste persone, qualora ritenute socialmente pericolose, la cura può essere imposta. A chi spetta tale valutazione di pericolosità sociale? Al medico o al giudice? Qual è l’ambito delle risposte della scienza e quello del diritto? In che modo possono dialogare il giudice e il perito?

 

Cour européenne des droits de l’homme CEDH - ECHR
# Affaire Claes c. Belgique, 10 janvier 2013 - Définitif 10/04/2013
http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/
8
4. Le requérant allègue que sa détention pendant plus de quinze ans dans une annexe psychiatrique de prison où il ne bénéficie pas des soins et de l’encadrement appropriés à son état et sans perspective réaliste de reclassement constitue un traitement inhumain et dégradant contraire à l’article 3 de la Convention»... 102. La Cour conclut, en l’espèce, à un traitement dégradant en raison du maintien en détention du requérant pendant une période significative dans les conditions examinées ci-dessus. Partant, il y a eu violation de l’article 3 de la Convention.

 

Tom Burns, Jorun Rugkåsa, Andrew Molodynski, John Dawson, Ksenija Yeeles, Maria Vazquez-Montes, Merryn Voysey, Julia Sinclair, Stefan Priebe
# Community treatment orders for patients with psychosis (OCTET): a randomised controlled trial
Lancet 2013; 381: 1627–33
Our results do not support our hypothesis. Despite a more than three-fold increase in time under initial supervised community care, the rate of readmis sion to hospital was not decreased by CTOs. Neither was the time to readmission decreased nor was there any significant difference in  the number or duration of hospital admissions. We also recorded no differences in clinical or social outcomes.

 

Tracy D. Gunter, John T. Chibnall, Sandra K. Antoniak, Robert A. Philibert, Donald W. Black
# Childhood Trauma, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Mental Health Disorders Associated With Suicidal Ideation and Suicide-Related Behavior in a Community Corrections Sample
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 41:245–55, 2013
Suicidal ideation and suicide-related behavior among community-supervised offenders are significant public health problems. In a sample of 418 subjects served by the community corrections office of Iowa’s Sixth Judicial District, 56 percent of subjects denied suicidal ideation and suicide- elated behavior (control group), 17 percent reported suicidal ideation without suicide-related behavior (ideator group), and 27 percent reported engaging in suiciderelated behavior (actor group). A model comprising five independent variables differentiated the ideator and actor groups from the control group: Caucasian race, depressive symptom sum, brain injury, childhood trauma, and avoidant personality. These five factors, combined with the additional variables of PCL:SV Factor 2 (Psychopathy Checklist-Screening Version) score and lifetime anxiety disorder, differentiated the actor group from the control group.

 

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ | Joann Fontanarosa, Stacey Uhl, Olu Oyesanmi, Karen M. Schoelles
# Interventions for Adult Offenders With Serious Mental Illness
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ AHRQ Publication August 2013
We identified some promising treatments for individuals with serious mental illness during incarceration or during transition from incarceration to community settings. Treatment with antipsychotics other than clozapine appears to improve psychiatric symptoms  more than clozapine in an incarceration setting. Two interventions, discharge planning with  Medicaid-application assistance and integrated dual disorder treatment programs, appear to be  effective interventions for seriously mentally ill offenders transitioning back to the community.  The applicability of our findings may be limited to the populations and settings in the included  studies.

 

Jean Trounstine
# Are Massachusetts Prisons Becoming the New Asylums? A recent study by The Wall Street Journal revealed that U.S. prisons are warehousing the mentally ill. How does Massachusetts stack up?
Boston Daily | October 21, 2013

Prisons are designed to keep those convicted of a crime locked within secure walls—not to take the place of mental-health facilities. But over the past decade, that’s exactly what has happened.

 

Clare McInerney, Mary Davoren, Grainne Flynn, Diane Mullins, Mary Fitzpatrick, Martin Caddow, Fintan Caddow, Sean Quigley, Fergal Black, Harry G Kennedy, Conor O’Neill
# Implementing a court diversion and liaison scheme in a remand prison by systematic screening of new receptions: a 6 year participatory action research study of 20,084 consecutive male remands
International Journal of Mental Health Systems 2013, 7:18
A landmark paper on Mental Health in prisons internationally by Fazel and Baillargeon recommended that greater health-care resources should be targeted at prisons since they provide “a rare public health opportunity” for screening and treatment. While ideally, diversion services should be delivered at the earliest stage of contact with the criminal justice system, such as police stations and courts, the centralized model described here provides for a standardized and equitable approach for large population aggregates, as well as economies of scale through integration with prison inreach services for remand prisoners.

 

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
# Antisocial personality disorder. Treatment, management and prevention
www.nice.org.uk/ Issued: January 2009 last modified: September 2013
Criminal behaviour is central to the definition of antisocial personality disorder, although it is often the culmination of previous and long-standing difficulties, such as socioeconomic, educational and family problems... The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among prisoners is slightly less than 50%. It is estimated in epidemiological studies in the community that only 47% of people who meet the criteria for antisocial personality disorder have significant arrest records. A history of aggression, unemployment and promiscuity were more common than serious crimes among people with antisocial personality disorder. The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder in the general population is 3% in men and 1% in women...

 

James Gilligan, Bandy Lee
# Report to the New York City Board of Correction
http://solitarywatch.com/ September 5, 2013
The nation’s jails and prisons have become de facto mental hospitals over the past halfcentury, in large part as the after-math and unintended consequence of the de-institutionalization of people with mental illness. The movement of the severely mentally ill from mental hospitals to prisons and jails has created a situation in which major jail systems, such as those in Los Angeles and NYC, house more mentally ill people than all the mental hospitals combined...

 

Sagar V. Parikh, Benjamin Goldstein
# CANMAT 2013 Update of Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Bipolar Disorder
Mood and Anxiety Disorders Rounds 2013 Vol. 2, Issue 1
The 2013 update to the CANMAT guidelines both re-emphasizes the essential diagnostic and management approaches to the significant global health issue of BD and provides important new therapeutic options for its various components and presentations. Therapies must be tailored to the individual patient, optimally with pharmacological and psychotherapeutic components and with ongoing regular comprehensive patient assessment to maximize outcomes and safety...

 

Adrian Mundt | Rubén Alvarado, Rosemarie Fritsch, Danilo Jimenez, Sinja Kastner, Alberto Minoletti, Diego Piñol, Stefan Priebe, Catalina Poblete, Carolina Villagra

# Prevalencias de trastornos mentales en cárceles Chilenas
Departamiento de Psiquiatría y salud mental, Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile | Unit for Social & Community Psychiatry, Barts & The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London |
Agosto 2013

 

Jan Looman, Jeffrey Abracen
# The Risk Need Responsivity Model of Offender Rehabilitation: Is There Really a Need for a Paradigm Shift?
International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 2013, Vol. 8, NO. 3-4
The Risk, Need and Responsivity (RNR) model has been the prominent approach to the treatment of offenders in Canada, as well as other parts of the world (e.g., the U.K, New Zealand, and Australia) for three decades. The RNR approach and the theoretical model on which it is based have resulted in measurable gains in terms of the reliable assessment of offenders, as well as significant reductions in rates of recidivism among offenders treated in programs that have adopted this perspective...

 

Fred C. Osher
# Integrating Mental Health and Substance abuse Services for Justice-Involved Persons with co-occurring disorders
http://gainscenter.samhsa.gov/ August 2013
Jails and prisons are constitutionally obligated to provide general and mental health care. In fact, incarcerated individuals are the only U.S. citizens with legally protected access to health care. Jails may be the firstopportunity to identify CODs (co-occurring mental and addictive disorders), initiate treatment, and develop reentry plans that address individual risks and needs.

 

Stacie Anne Deslich, Timothy Thistlethwaite, Alberto Coustasse
# Telepsychiatry in Correctional Facilities: Using Technology to Improve Access and Decrease Costs of Mental Health Care in Underserved Populations
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ The Permanente Journal/ Summer 2013/ Volume 17 No. 3
Telepsychiatry has been demonstrated to have substantial ability to transform the way psychiatric services are delivered in mental health care. This literature review has revealed that utilization of telepsychiatry in correctional facilities has increased access to effective mental health care for inmates and has decreased the costs of providing such care...

 

Lisa Watson, Kelly Marschall | Nevada Department of Health and Human Services
# Comprehensive Gaps Analysis of Behavioral Health Services
http://health.nv.gov/ 2013
Nevada currently has one of the most restrictive civil commitment laws in the country. The state forces individuals to deteriorate to the point of dangerousness before help can be provided. In Nevada, there are almost ten seriously mentally ill persons in jails and prisons for every one person in a hospital.

 

Denis Robiliard
# Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Sociales sur la proposition de loi relative aux soins sans consentement en psychiatrie
www.assemblee-nationale.fr/ Enregistré à la Présidence de l'Assemblée nationale le 17 juillet 2013

L’encadrement qui nous est proposé prévoit des conditions spécifiques pour les malades ayant commis des actes pour lesquels les peines encourues sont d’au moins cinq ans d’emprisonnement s’agissant des atteintes à la personne et de dix ans d’emprisonnement s’agissant des atteintes aux biens. Il s’agit donc de malades très dangereux. Quant aux malades qui seront condamnés à deux ou trois ans d’emprisonnement, ils pourront sortir beaucoup plus facilement, ce qui pose un problème de sécurité.

 

Denis Robiliard
# Rapport d'information en conclusion des travaux de la mission sur la santé mentale et l’avenir de la psychiatrie: rapport d’étape
www.assemblee-nationale.fr/
Enregistré à la Présidence de l’Assemblée nationale le 29 mai 2013

S’agissant d’ailleurs des prisons, nous visitions hier, lundi, à Bron, près de Lyon, l’unité hospitalière spécialement aménagée (UHSA) dans le centre hospitalier Le Vinatier. L’enveloppe extérieure de l’unité est administrée par les services pénitentiaires tandis qu’à l’intérieur, c’est un hôpital. L’odeur que l’on y sent ne trompe pas : c’est une odeur d’hôpital et non de prison...

 

Christina Lund
# Mentally disordered offenders - a longitudinal study of forensic psychiatric assessments and criminal recidivism
University of Gothenburg 2013
Overall, a plausible conclusion from the findings in the present thesis studies seems to be the need for legal support to prevent exposition of  alcohol and drugs to young people. It would also be beneficial with a promotion of research within the area (including gene-interaction and brain functioning, alone and in relation to context depending factors) in order to understand underlying mechanisms of dependency and  substance- ediated emotional states facilitating violent criminality. One should be aware of that the proportion of convicted crimes is a smaller part of criminal acts, reported to the police. A postponement of crimes will in the longer perspective reduce criminality and even a minor “postponement” in occurrence of criminal activity is advantageous both from human and economic perspectives.

 

Anne Comeaux, Deidre Ashley | Teton County Court Supervised Treatment Program
# Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program: Planning
www.tetonwyo.org/ 7.30.2013

 

Kenneth A. Ray, Mark Goldman
# Jail Mental Health Design and Programming “Options & Opportunities”
National Institute of Corrections , July 23-26, 2013
Current research indicates that, on any given day, approximately 64 percent of people booked into our Nation’s 3200 local jails are diagnosed or have a diagnosable mental illness or problem. The high prevalence of mentally ill inmates can be traced to the deinstitutionalization of mental health programs throughout the country, draconian reductions in community mental health funding, and the closing of public mental health facilities resulting in an unprecedented incarceration of the mentally ill. 

 

Christine M. Sarteschi
# Mentally Ill Offenders Involved With the U.S. Criminal Justice System
http://sgo.sagepub.com/ SAGEopen, 16 July 2013

This paper sought to synthesize what is currently known about mentally ill offenders in American jails and prisons based upon the most recent government and congressional reports and relevant literature review. The primary goal is to provide a detailed picture of the status of mentally ill offenders—including prevalence, basic demographic information, bio-psycho-social status, mental health, and family histories—and also to identify the problems, conditions, and obstacles faced while under the jurisdiction of the criminal justice system. Mentally ill offenders are constitutionally guaranteed basic mental health treatment. A review of the literature indicates that this constitutional guarantee is not being adequately fulfilled. Implications and suggestions for change are discussed.

 

Alan R. Felthous
# The Ninth Circuit’s Loughner Decision Neglected Medically Appropriate Treatment
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 41:105–13, 2013
Effective voices in support of the treatment needs of the mentally ill continue to fade in the face of mounting deficits, diminishing state budgets, and political-action committees with more popular priorities. It now becomes ever more critical for amicus briefs for future cases involving involuntary medication of pretrial defendants and for lobby efforts for legislation on mental health services to mentally ill offenders to emphasize not only the timeliness and sufficiency of medically appropriate treatment, but also the medically proper setting for such treatment to be provided.

 

Kelly Paull
# Alexithymia, attachment and psychological wellbeing in young adults leaving care
University and the South Wales Doctoral Programme in Clinical Psychology, May 2013

 

Stephanie C. Kennedy, Stephen J. Tripodi, Carrie Pettus-Davis
# The Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Psychosis for Women Prisoners: Assessing the Importance of Frequency and Type of Victimization
http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/ Psychiatric Quarterly, 2013, 84

Results indicate that women who experienced multi-victimization were 2.4 times more likely to report current symptoms of psychosis than other women prisoners who experienced only physical or sexual victimization in childhood. Likewise, a one-unit increase in frequency of childhood victimization was associated with a 3.2% increased likelihood of having reported symptoms of current psychosis. These results provide support for the dose-response model hypothesis that multi-victimization is an important predictor of psychosis for the women prisoner population.

 

Giandomenico Dodaro
# Morire di contenzione nel reparto psichiatrico di un ospedale pubblico: la sentenza di primo grado sul caso Mastrogiovanni | Nota a # Tribunale della Lucania, 30 ottobre 2012 (dep. 27 aprile 2013), Giud. Garzo
www.penalecontemporaneo.it 12 Giugno 2013

 

Andrea Pugiotto
# L'ergastolo nascosto (e altri orrori) dietro i muri degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari
Quaderni Costituzionali, a. XXXIII, n. 2, giugno 2013
Secondo l'impostazione del codice Rocco, pena e misura di sicurezza non sono assimilabili, anche se entrambe limitative della libertà personale. Sono diverse per natura: punitiva l'una, non punitiva l'altra. Sono diverse per funzione: retributiva e rieducativa la prima, curativa e precauzionale la seconda. Questa diversità ontologica le fa partire da stazioni differenti. La pena, infatti, presuppone la capacità di intendere e di volere del soggetto agente. Diversamente, il reo non imputabile verrà prosciolto ma, se pericoloso, andrà sottoposto ad una misura di sicurezza, perché «se posso rimproverarti, ti punisco», ma «se non posso punirti (...) posso comunque difendermi da te»...

 

Claudia Sale
# La responsabilità penale in psichiatria -
Tesi di Dottorato di Ricerca in Diritto ed Economia dei Sistemi Produttivi - Università degli Studi di Sassari 2013

... L’espressione posizione di garanzia è correttamente riferita alle sole ipotesi di responsabilità omissiva. Non può parlarsi, pertanto, di posizione di garanzia quando oggetto di accertamento sia una condotta commissiva. L’art. 40 comma II c.p., con l’espressione “non impedire un evento”, fa appunto riferimento ad una condotta omissiva, cioè al mancato inserimento di un fattore ostacolante il processo causale che autonomamente può sfociare nell’evento lesivo.

 

Gary Fields
# Families of Violent Patients: 'We're Locked Out' of Care
http://online.wsj.com/ The Wall Street Journal June 7, 2013
For imprisoned convicts, there are stiff restrictions on forcible treatment as well. In the early 19th century many mentally ill people were confined to jails. Activist Dorothea Dix in 1841 discovered the abusive system and worked to change it, giving birth to state mental hospitals. Over the next century, the hospital population soared, topping 550,000 by the 1950s. But abuses there, including forced hospitalizations, as well as the introduction of new medications, led to dismantlement and a movement toward the modern approach of outpatient care. States passed laws to protect the civil rights of people released from hospitals and to make it tougher to force treatment.

 

Karen M. Abram, Linda A. Teplin, Devon C. King, Sandra L. Longworth, Kristin M. Emanuel, Erin G. Romero, Gary M. McClelland, Mina K. Dulcan, Jason J. Washburn, Leah J. Welty, Nichole D. Olson
# PTSD, Trauma, and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Youth
www.ojjdp.gov/ Juvenile Justice Bulletin, June 2013
Each year there are approximately 2.11 million arrests of youth, accounting for 16 percent of all violent crime and 26 percent of all property crime arrests (Puzzanchera, 2009). On a typical day, approximately 81,000 youth are detained (Sickmund, 2010). The number of youth with psychiatric disorders in the juvenile justice system is a considerable public health problem. Two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females in juvenile detention have one or more psychiatric disorders...

 

Gilien Silsby
# Saks Institute evaluates the criminalization of mental illness
http://news.usc.edu/ June 7, 2013
Rikers Island Correctional Facility. Los Angeles County Jail. Texas State Penitentiary. Today they are considered the largest psychiatric facilities in the country. “This is a national scandal and national tragedy,” said USC Gould School of Law Professor Elyn Saks at the Criminalization of Mental Illness symposium. “We need to find alternatives to this transinstitutionalization. People with mental disorders should get treatment not punishment.”

 

H. Richard Lamb, Linda E. Weinberger
# Some Perspectives on Criminalization
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 41:287–93, 2013
In recently published articles, there has been an underemphasis on the role serious mental illness (SMI) plays in causing persons to be in the criminal justice system. Increasing attention has been paid to other factors, including criminogenic needs. While these needs may be present and contribute to criminal behavior, persons with SMI who are at greatest risk of criminalization are those who are not receiving adequate treatment, structure, social control, and, when necessary, 24-hour care in the mental health system. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been used to reduce recidivism for prisoners, including those with SMI, but persons impaired by their untreated psychotic symptoms may not be able to profit from it. The importance of psychiatric treatment must not be underestimated. Moreover, given their current constraints, correctional systems may not be able to continue accepting large numbers of persons with SMI. Many offenders with serious mental illness pose difficult and expensive problems in treatment and management, such as nonadherence to medication, potential for violence, and substance abuse. The mental health system needs to be given more funding and to take more responsibility for these challenging individuals.

 

Hanne Stevens
# Crime and Mental Disorders
School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, May 2013
Prison studies offer an insight in the host of various mental problems that do occur, and occur at a higher rate than in the background population, in incarcerated offenders, but the merits of these studies consist primarily of identifying the problems and treatment needs of offenders. Any causal link there may be between offending and mental disorders is difficult to address in these studies since it is not clear whether the presence of mental disorders has contributed to the person offending in the first place or whether it is rather the case that mental disorders have arisen as a reaction to life in prison, just as the contribution from common causes cannot be addressed. Also, the various selection mechanisms, varying from country to country, diverting mentally ill persons out of normal correctional settings and into more appropriate institutions at different stages in the criminal justice process can affect the reported levels.

 

Sergio Apfelbaum, Pilar Regalado, Laura Herman, Julia Teitelbaum, Pablo Gagliesi
# Comorbidity between bipolar disorder and cluster B personality disorders as indicator of affective dysregulation and clinical severity
Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2013;41(5):269-78
The relation between bipolar disorder (BD) and cluster B personality disorders (PD-B) has been extensively debated, mainly due to the symptomatic overlapping between BD and borderline personality disorder (PD).1,2 At present, the classification of personality disorders has not yet been shown to be satisfactory to either researchers or clinicians. Some authors even question the usefulness of the existence of Axis II as they consider that Axes I and II are state and trait characteristics, respectively, of the same psychopathologic phenomenon. This argument weighs so heavily that it was a decisive factor for classification in the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)...

 

Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs
# Inmates with Mental Health Problems Reported High Rates of Sexual Victimization in 2011-12
www.ojp.gov/ May 16, 2013

 

Allen J. Beck, Marcus Berzofsky, Rachel Caspar, Christopher Krebs

# Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011–12. National Inmate Survey, 2011–12
www.bjs.gov/ BJS May 2013,
An estimated 36.6% of prison inmates and 43.7% of jail inmates reported being told by a mental health professional that they had a mental health disorder... Inmates who had been told by a mental health professional that they had a mental disorder were more likely than other inmates to report being sexually victimized while in prison or jail. Among inmates who had been told they had a specific DSM-IV disorder— ? During 2011-12, an estimated 3.8% of prison inmates and 2.9% of jail inmates reported that they were sexually victimized by another inmate. ? Approximately 3.4% of prison inmates and 2.5% of jail inmates reported that they were sexually victimized by staff during 2011-12.

 

New South Wales Law Reform Commission
# People with cognitive and mental health impairments in the criminal justice system. Criminal responsibility and consequences
www.lawreform.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/ May 2013

The focus of this report, broadly speaking, is on the law relating to people with mental health and/or cognitive impairments who have committed serious offences. We consider fitness to plead, the defence of mental illness, substantial impairment,  and infanticide. We also examine the procedures that follow a finding of unfitness or not guilty by reason of mental illness (NGMI), and the management of people who  become forensic patients. Further, we consider issues relating to apprehended  violence orders against people who have cognitive and/or mental health  impairments...

 

Jeremy Kenney-Herbert, Mark Taylor, Ramneesh Puri, Jaspreet Phull | College Centre for Quality and Improvement (CCQI) of the Royal College of Psychiatrists

# Standards for Community Forensic Mental Health Services
www.rcpsych.ac.uk/ April 2013
Integrated and Parallel Models The terms „integrated‟ and „parallel‟ that essentially are now used to define models of forensic aftercare in the community were coined by John Gunn in 1977 and later developed by Snowden et al in 1999 . The integrated approach refers to patient care passing from forensic services to generic community teams at the point of discharge, or soon after, with appropriate planning and support. In contrast the parallel model involves forensic services retaining responsibility for outpatient follow up and community care. The so called “hybrid” model  includes a combination of the two with some patients being returned to the care of more general services and others remaining with forensic services...

 

Franck Johannès
# 80 % des détenus présentent au moins un trouble psychiatrique
Le Monde | 13.04.2013
Il existe peu de données récentes sur la santé mentale en prison, la dernière enquête d'ampleur remonte à 2006 et ses résultats étaient plus qu'inquiétants : de 35 % à 42 % des détenus sont considérés comme "manifestement ou gravement malades". Huit hommes détenus sur 10 et plus de 7 femmes sur 10 "présentent au moins un trouble psychiatrique, la grande majorité cumulant plusieurs troubles"

 

Vittorio Lingiardi
# Di cosa parliamo quando parliamo di cura
www.repubblica.it/ 12 aprile 2013

 

Rob Reardon, Marie Collins
# The New Asylum. Behavioral Health and the Criminal Justice System
www.lafayettesheriff.com/ 2013

 

Michael S Martin, Ian Colman, Alexander IF Simpson, Kwame McKenzie
# Mental health screening tools in correctional institutions: a systematic review
BMC Psychiatry 2013, 13:275
Screening is a critical component to a correctional mental health strategy, and there appear to be some improvements in screening tools in recent years. Five tools with replicated results warrant consideration for implementation. A small number of tools that have been less extensively studied may also warrant further research. We have suggested four potential standards that could be used to determine what adequate performance of a screening tool means within each specific  context.

 

Hans Joachim Salize

# Routinedaten – Wer hat die Deutungshoheit? | Routine Data in Psychiatry – Who has the Interpretative Power?
Psychiat Prax 2013; 40: 241–243

Daten sind der Roh- und Treibstoff der Informationsgesellschaft, ähnlich wie es Erdöl im 20. Jahrhundert und Kohle während der Industrialisierung war. Spätestens seit der flächendeckenden Einführung von mobilen elektronischen Endgeräten ist die Verfügbarkeit und Interpretationshoheit über telematische Informationen und Daten die Bedingung für politische und ökonomische Dominanz. Die exponentielle Wachstumsdynamik, mit der elektronische Daten anfallen und verarbeitet werden können, ist dabei nicht nur der entscheidende gesellschaftspolitische Machtfaktor unserer Zeit, sondern viel weitreichender noch prägt diese Dynamik immer stärker die Art und Weise, wie die Welt wahrgenommen und interpretiert wird.

 

Robert B. Zipursky, Thomas J. Reilly, Robin M. Murray
# The Myth of Schizophrenia as a Progressive Brain Disease
Schizophrenia Bulletin vol. 39 no. 6 pp. 1363–1372, 2013
This idea of schizophrenia as a progressive disease of the brain has also been an important part of the rationale for developing early intervention services. Indeed, the notion that psychosis itself may be toxic to the brain provided a major impetus for programs designed to minimize the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in order to prevent further brain tissue loss.

 

Marianne Bourke
# Therapist’s emotional, cognitive and linguistic responses to patients with borderline personality disorder in psychotherapy
Doctor of Philosophy thesis, School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, 2013
Clinical and theoretical literature frequently report that mental health professionals experience interpersonal challenges and emotional distress in providing treatment for patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). This thesis involved a series of four studies which compared therapists’ (N = 20), responses to patients with BPD (N = 40) to patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; N = 40)...

 

Defensor del Pueblo Andaluz
# La situacion de los enfermos mentales en Andalucia
www.defensordelpuebloandaluz.es/ Abril 2013
También el informe especial elaborado por esta Defensoría en diciembre de 1997, sobre la “Situación de los enfermos mentales internados en centros  penitenciarios andaluces”, detectó que muchos internos afectados por trastornos  mentales, acaban siendo tratados en las enfermerías de los centros penitenciarios,  en lugar de en el Hospital Psiquiátrico. Existe unanimidad entre los especialistas sobre la inadecuación de mantener en prisión a los enfermos mentales, por dos razones: la carencia en el centro de recursos especializados y de una atención integral para dichos enfermos y la incidencia negativa sobre el enfermo derivada de la propia permanencia en la cárcel. En nuestro país existen únicamente dos centros de estas características, cuales son el Hospital psiquiátrico penitenciario de Sevilla y el de la provincia de Alicante, dependientes de la Dirección General de Instituciones Penitenciarias del Ministerio del Interior, el primero de los cuales, además, solo es para hombres.

 

Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers, Joseph P. Newman
# Differentiating the Cognition-Emotion Interactions that Characterize Psychopathy versus Externalizing
http://psych.wisc.edu/ University of Wisconsin-Madison 2013
Psychopathic individuals are characterized by difficulty establishing genuine relationships, minimal and superficial affective experience, an impulsive behavioral style, and a chronic antisocial lifestyle that entails great costs to society as well as for the affected individual (e.g., incarceration). Alternatively, externalizing individuals often display excessive reward seeking, intense hostility and reactive aggression, and poor impulse control...

 

Allen Frances
# Prison Or Treatment For the Mentally ill
www.psychologytoday.com/ March 10, 2013

The public revulsion over repeated mass shootings has placed mental health in the spotlight. This is both good and bad. Bad because focusing on the mentality of the shooter diverts attention away from the lethality of the weapon – and from the fact that many mass shooters had no history of mental health involvement. We will never be able to predict who will commit random acts of violence, but we can reduce our ridiculously high rates of gun death by having a sane gun control policy.
Good because our current (non)system of mental health care is badly broken and cries out for fixing and better funding.

 

Robert E. Brutcher
# Effects of sleep disruption and quetiapine on cocaine abuse: the path to development of a monkey model of PTSD
Wake Forest University, May 2013

 

Federico Fortugno, Christina Katsakou, Stephen Bremner, Andrzej Kiejna, Lars Kjellin, Petr Nawka,
Jiri Raboch, Thomas Kallert, Stefan Priebe

# Symptoms Associated with Victimization in Patients with Schizophrenia and Related Disorders
www.plosone.org 1 March 2013 | Volume 8 |
The findings suggest that manic symptoms indicate a higher risk of becoming a victim of physical violence. Such symptoms should be considered in risk assessments and addressed in treatment plans for reducing the risk of victimization. Future research should explore the mediating factors that put patients with more severe manic symptoms at a higher risk of victimization, and develop and test specific treatment strategies to reduce the risk for such patients.

 

Michael G. Vaughn, Christopher P. Salas-Wright, Matt DeLisi and Brandy R. Maynard
# Violence and Externalizing Behavior Among Youth in the United States: Is There a Severe 5%?
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 15 March 2013
Despite research demonstrating that approximately 5% of study populations are composed of severely antisocial persons who account for a disproportionate share of problem behaviors, there have been no nationally representative studies assessing this phenomenon among adolescents. Using a large nationally representative sample (N ¼ 18,614), we identified a severe group (4.7% of respondents) characterized by involvement in varied and intensive externalizing behaviors, greater internalizing, lower academic achievement, and less parental involvement. The current study is the first nationally representative study of criminal careers/externalizing behaviors among adolescents in the United States, which is convergent with prior research and theory.

 

Jeremy W. Coid, Simone Ullrich, Constantinos Kallis, Robert Keers, Dave Barker,Fiona Cowden, Rebekah Stamps
# The Relationship Between Delusions and Violence Findings From the East London First Episode Psychosis Study
JAMA Psychiatry, March 6, 2013
Anger due to delusions is a key factor that explains the relationship between violence and acute psychosis. A subset of delusional beliefs may be causally linked to violence, and certain uncommon beliefs demonstrated a direct association with minor violence. Highly prevalent delusional beliefs implying threat were associated with serious violence, but they were mediated by anger.

 

Katrina Witt, Richard van Dorn, Seena Fazel
# Risk Factors for Violence in Psychosis: Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of 110 Studies
PLoS ONE 8(2) 2013
There were 110 eligible studies reporting on 45,533 individuals, 8,439 (18.5%) of whom were violent. A total of 39,995 (87.8%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 209 (0.4%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and 5,329 (11.8%) were diagnosed with other psychoses. Dynamic (or modifiable) risk factors included hostile behaviour, recent drug misuse, non-adherence with psychological therapies (p values,0.001), higher poor impulse control scores, recent substance misuse, recent alcohol misuse (p values,0.01), and non-adherence with medication (p value ,0.05). We also examined a number of static factors, the strongest of which were criminal history factors. When restricting outcomes to severe violence, these associations did not change materially. In studies investigating inpatient violence, associations differed in strength but not direction.

 

Alexander I. F. Simpson, Jeffry J. McMaster, Steven N. Cohen,
# Challenges for Canada in Meeting the Needs of Persons with Serious Mental Illness in Prison
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 41:501–9, 2013
The number of prison inmates is predicted to rise in Canada, as is concern about those among them with mental illness. This article is a selective literature review of the epidemiology of serious mental illness (SMI) in prisons and how people with SMI respond to imprisonment. We review the required service components with a particular focus on care models for people with SMI in the Canadian correctional system. An estimated 15 to 20 percent of prison inmates have SMI, and this proportion may be increasing. The rate of incarceration of aboriginal people is rising.

 

M. Lejoyeux , H. Embouazza
# Troubles psychiatriques et addictions
Addictologie 2013
Les conduites addictives sont souvent associées à des troubles psychiatriques. Les comorbidités psychiatriques les plus fréquentes sont la dépression , l'anxiété  et les troubles de la personnalité . Le repérage de ces troubles psychiatriques  revêt une grande importance pour la prise en charge des patients. L'association  d'un trouble psychiatrique peut, dans certains cas, modifier les modalités du  traitement et aussi l'évolution de la conduite de dépendance. Elle impose une  prise en charge intégrée et simultanée des pathologies psychiatriques et de la  conduite addictive.

 

Anthony C. Tamburello, MD, Zoe¨ Selhi
# Commentary: Bridging the Gaps for Former Inmates with Serious Mental Illness
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 41:510 –3, 2013
Serious mental illness is a prominent and vexing problem within the correctional systems of North America. Simpson and colleagues draw attention to the epidemiology, special characteristics, and management problems relevant to Canadian inmates with serious mental illness. Of great interest to those in the forensic psychiatric field is the matter of continuation of care for mentally ill prisoners, in that untreated or undertreated psychiatric problems are strongly associated with poor social functioning and criminal recidivism. In this commentary, we expand on the discussion in Simpson et al. of the effectiveness of assertive community treatment teams for those former inmates at greatest risk for future involvement with the criminal justice system. We also propose outpatient civil commitment as one strategy to facilitate the successful return of select inmate patients to the community.

 

Jacqueline P. Camp, Jennifer L. Skeem, Kimberly Barchard, Scott O. Lilienfeld
# Psychopathic Predators? Getting Specific About the Relation Between Psychopathy and Violence
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2013, Vol. 81, No. 3, 467–480
Because criminal behavior in general, and instrumental violence in particular, are most likely the product of multiple interacting factors (e.g., disinhibition, social disadvantage, and social learning), clinicians and researchers should avoid conveying the impression that psychopathy-specific traits cause “predatory” violence. Moving beyond studying the predictive utility of measures of psychopathy to test competing hypotheses from alternative perspectives (e.g., psychological, sociological) will help researchers to more precisely explain violence and inform useful intervention and prevention strategies.

 

Glen I. Spielmans, Margit I. Berman, Eftihia Linardatos, Nicholas Z. Rosenlicht, Angela Perry,
Alexander C. Tsai
# Adjunctive Atypical Antipsychotic Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Depression, Quality of Life, and Safety Outcomes
PLOS Medicine | www.plosmedicine.org 3 March 2013 | Volume 10 | Issue 3

Atypical antipsychotic medications for the adjunctive treatment of depression are efficacious in reducing  observer-rated depressive symptoms, but clinicians should interpret these findings cautiously in light of (1) the small-to moderate-sized benefits, (2) the lack of benefit with regards to quality of life or functional impairment, and (3) the abundant evidence of potential treatment-related harm.

 

David Cloud, Chelsea Davis
# Treatment Alternatives to Incarceration for People with Mental Health Needs in the Criminal Justice System: The Cost-Savings Implications
www.vera.org/ VERA Institute of Justice, February 2013
The rate of serious mental illness is two to six times higher among incarcerated populations than it is in the general population. Serious mental illness has been documented in 14.5 percent of men and 31 percent of women in jail settings.1 The vast majority of this population is charged with minor, non-violent crimes.2 Over 70 percent of people in jails with serious mental illness also have a co-occurring substance-use disorder.3 Veterans returning from combat are also at higher risk for mental health and substance-use problems and are therefore more apt to be involved in the justice system

 

Nathan Stall
# Imprisoning the mentally ill

# Agony behind bars
CMAJ February 19, 2013 vol. 185 no. 3
It was, to be sure, a sobering and disturbing observation. “Federal penitentiaries are fast becoming our nation’s largest psychiatric facilities and repositories for the mentally ill,” Correctional Investigator of Canada Howard Sapers wrote in a report on the state of affairs in the nation’s federal prisons. “As a society, we are criminalizing, incarcerating and warehousing the mentally disordered in large and alarming numbers,” he added...

 

Pompidou Group of the Council of Europe |Co-operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs.
# Mental Health and Addiction in Prisons. Written controbutions to the International Conference on Mental Health and Addiction in Prisons.
27-28 Febrary 2013, Bucharest - http://www.coe.int/ 2013
Introduction, by Robert Teltzrow, Pompidou Group | Drug use, mental health and drugs in prisons by Prof Heino Stöver | Professional independence of health care workers in the penitentiary system by Dr Jörg Pont | Opiate Substitution Treatment and Harm Reduction in prisons: the Geneva model by Dr Hans Wolff | Mental Health Services in the Belgian prison system by Dr Sven Todts | Romania and illegal drugs at a glance – Trends and services by Dr Mihai Corciova | Drug treatment and risk assessment of drug-using inmates in Serbia: Treating drug users in prison | Prison reforms in the Republic of Macedonia – Drug treatment in Macedonian prisons by Ms Elisaveta Sekulovska | Psychological and medical care for drug users in prison establishments in the Republic of Moldova by Svetlana Doltu and Iuliana Adam | Art Therapy in Prisons by Prof Peter Sinapius | Drugs and mental health in prisons: constant concerns of the Health in prisons Programme (HIPP) of WHO/Europe by Mr Stefan Enggist

 

Charlotte White, Richard Byrt
# Understanding and caring for people with personality disorders. Positive attitudes from professionals are crucial for interventions with people with personality disorders to be successful
mentalhealth today January/February 2013
About 4% of the population, roughly half of mental health inpatients, and “between 60 and 70% of people in prison” have been found to have a personality disorder. Individuals can have a mental illness and a personality disorder, but features
of the latter do not include symptoms of mental illness. Thorough psychiatric assessment is crucial to establish diagnosis, including any comorbid conditions, such as bipolar disorder and problematic substance use...

 

Adam Moll | Mental health foundation
# Losing track of time. Dementia and the ageing prison population: treatment challenges and examples of good practice
www.mentalhealth.org.uk/ February 2013
Across much of the developed world, the number of older men serving prison sentences has risen to unprecedented levels. This swelling population is accompanied by an abundance of healthcare needs unfamiliar to prisons primarily designed to manage younger people. In recent years there has been an increase in research focusing on both the physical and mental health needs of older prisoners, but as yet very little attention has been given to the management and treatment of inmates with dementia.

 

Community and Mental Health team, Health and Social Care Information Centre | Claire Thompson
# Mental Health Bulletin: Sixth report from Mental Health Minimum Dataset returns – England 2011/12, initial national figures
www.ic.nhs.uk / Health and Social Care Information Centre 19 February 2013
Over 1.5 million people were in contact with specialist mental health services in 2011/12 and the rate of access to services is 3,032 per 100,000 population (approximately one person in 32 in England)... The data for 2011/12 show that 42.4% per cent of people (43,051 out of 101,424) who spent time in hospital during the year were also subject to the Mental Health Act at some point during the year. .. The number of men detained in hospital under the most restrictive sections of the Mental Health Act (court and prison disposals) was nearly five times higher than the number of women (3,665 compared with 759).

 

E. Fuller Torrey
# Fifty Years of Failing America's Mentally Ill. JFK's dream of replacing state mental hospitals with community mental-health centers is now a hugely expensive nightmare
http://online.wsj.com/ The Wall Street Journal, Feb. 4, 2013
According to multiple studies summarized by the Treatment Advocacy Center, these untreated mentally ill are responsible for 10% of all homicides (and a higher percentage of the mass killings), constitute 20% of jail and prison inmates and at least 30% of the homeless. Severely mentally ill individuals now inundate hospital emergency rooms and have colonized libraries, parks, train stations and other public spaces.

 

Ana Natasha Cervantes, Annette Hanson
# Dual Agency and Ethics Conflicts in Correctional Practice: Sources and Solutions
The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Volume 41, Number 1, 2013

Psychiatrists working in corrections, particularly in smaller systems, where there may be a limited number of providers, may find themselves simultaneously assuming a treatment role and the role of a forensic evaluator. Psychiatrists who assume care of an inmate, for purposes of treatment, are expected to act in the inmate’s best interests, whereas forensic evaluators serve the interests of the judicial system. It is now a well-established and widely accepted principle that acting in dual roles (as a forensic evaluator and a treatment provider) for the same individual is not advisable and can lead to ethics-based conflicts...

 

Michael Ostermann, Jason Matejkowski
# Estimating the Impact of Mental Illness on Costs of Crimes: A Matched Samples Comparison
Criminal Justice and Behavior 2013
This study uses a propensity scoring and matching approach to compare the costs of crimes committed by former inmates with mental illness (MI) and without MI. Our findings indicate that the recidivism costs of those with MI over the course of 3 years of follow-up are nearly 3 times as large as similar reintegrating former inmates without MI. However, prior to matching on mental health indicators, the costs of the reoffense patterns of the average reintegrating individual with MI are less than half those of the average former prisoner without MI. Our discussion centers on the identification of relevant groups that corrections officials should focus their rehabilitative resources on and whether those with MI should be a group they focus on during this process.

 

Akihiro Shiina
# Research Questions Regarding Mental Disorders and Violence
International Journal of Forensic Science & Pathology (IJFP) 2013, Volume I Issue No.1
Some reports deny the relationship between mental disorders and violence. An analysis of homicide offenders found that psychotic symptoms were not associated with the use of excessive violence. In the study by MacArthur, it was shown that individuals discharged from mental hospitals with no history of substance abuse had the same risk of violence as those without the history of either mental disorders or substance abuse. This survey also suggests that delusions did not increase the overall risk of violence. Although these findings have been broadly discussed, the results of the study by MacArthur have been used as a standard for risk assessment in patients with mental disorders...

 

James Bonta, Julie Blais, Holly A. Wilson | Corrections Research: User Report
# The Prediction of Risk for Mentally Disordered Offenders: A Quantitative Synthesis
www.publicsafety.gc.ca/ 2013-01
In Canada, the results from a computerized mental health screening inventory found that 38.4% of federal prison admissions reported both a history and current high levels of psychological distress (Stewart et al., 2010). Nowhere has this become a more serious problem than in the United States where the percentage of prison inmates with a “mental condition” has risen from 16% of state prison inmates in 1998 (Ditton, 1999) to 56% of state inmates in 2005 (James & Glaze, 2006). Setting aside substance abuse as a mental health issue (estimated at approximately 55% of state and jail inmates), 15.4% of state prison inmates and 23.9% of jail inmates reported symptoms that met the criteria for a psychotic disorder (James & Glaze, 2006). A similar picture emerges in community corrections...

 

Terry L. Schell
# Can Improved Mental Health Care Prevent Gun Crimes? The Truth Is, We Don't Know
www.rand.org/ January 17, 2013
Many policymakers and commentators in the media have suggested that mental health care has a substantial role to play in reducing gun violence. Indeed, one of the prominent criticisms of the recently announced presidential plan to address gun violence is that it focuses efforts too much on guns and not enough of mental illness. Unfortunately, those suggesting that mental health treatment is the key to preventing gun crimes often mischaracterize the current state of the science in two ways.

 

Jan Volavka
# Violence in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
Psychiatria Danubina, 2013; Vol. 25, No. 1, pp 24-33
There were statistically significant increases of risk of violence in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder in comparison with general population. The evidence suggests that the risk of violence is greater in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. The risk of violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is increased by comorbid substance use disorder. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathwaysone associated with antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute   psychopathology of schizophrenia. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second line of treatment. Treatment adherence is of key importance. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone does not suffice.

 

Carol Jonas
# Médias et psychiatrie : liaison dangereuse ou dangerosité aliénée ?
L’Information psychiatrique 2013 ; 89 : 775–7
Toute activité humaine est porteuse de risques et d’incertitude. Les soins aux malades mentaux n’y font pas exception. Cette affaire conduit à nouveau à s’interroger sur l’image que la Société veut se forger du malade mental qu’elle assimile trop souvent à un être différent et de ce fait dangereux. N’est-ce pas une position profondément discriminatoire ? À ceux qui s’en défendraient, il faut opposer le type de réflexion que l’on voit à nouveau se faire jour : l’institution psychiatrique a d’abord pour mission d’isoler les patients du reste de la population.

 

James L. Knoll IV, Robert Wilbur
# Drugging Aggression Behind Bars
http://truth-out.org/ Truthout | Op-Ed Sunday, 31 March 2013

... Any good psychiatrist will tell you that drugs and psychotherapy work best when they work hand in hand. The politicians who dole out money to our "correctional" system have not gotten the message.

 

Simona Cacace
# Il medico e la contenzione: aspetti risarcitori e problemi d'autodeterminazione
Riv. It. Med. Leg. 1/2013
Se la condotta del medico che prescrive una contenzione illegittima integra al contempo un fatto illecito (per la natura dei beni che vengono così violati) e un inadempimento contrattuale, l’omessa applicazione di una misura costrittiva al ricorrere di un’ipotesi di stato di necessità configura una responsabilità aquiliana ex art. 2047 c.c., prevista in capo a colui che è tenuto alla sorveglianza dell’incapace per il danno da questi commesso, salva la prova di non aver potuto impedire il fatto.

 

Cecilie Schou Andreassen, Mark D. Griffiths, Siri Renate Gjertsen, Elfrid Krossbakken, Siri Kvan, Ståle Pallesen
# The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality
Journal of Behavioral Addictions 2(2), pp. 90–99 (2013)

... Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, videogame addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors...

 

Europea Court of Human Rights | Cour Européenne des Droits de l'Homme
# Prison et maladie mentale . Condition de détention
www.echr.coe.int/ janvier 2013
La détention d’une personne malade peut poser des problèmes sous l’angle de l’article 3 (interdiction des traitements inhumains ou dégradants) de la Convention. L’article 3 impose à l’État de s’assurer que tout prisonnier est détenu dans  des conditions qui sont compatibles avec le respect de la dignité humaine.

 

Interbranch Advisory Committee on Mental Health Initiatives
# Improving Responses to Individuals with Mental Illness in New Jersey.
www.judiciary.state.nj.us/ Submitted to the New Jersey Supreme Court: December, 2012
The large number of mentally ill inmates has prompted the description of prisons and jails as “surrogate psychiatric hospitals” and the wide-spread belief that individuals with severe psychiatric illnesses are being criminalized. According to a 2010 study, there are now three times more seriously mentally ill people in jails and prisons than in hospitals.

 

Emily Turner | Council of State Governments Justice Center
# Improving Outcomes for People with Mental Illnesses Involved with New York City’s Criminal Court and Correction Systems
http://www.nyc.gov/ December 2012
In March 2011, New York City Mayor sought support to develop and implement data-driven strategies to improve the City’s response to people with mental illnesses who are involved in the adult criminal justice system. In particular, the City wanted to understand and address how even as crime in New York City has decreased and the jail population has declined, individuals with mental illnesses represent an increasing percentage of the City’s jail population (less than 25 percent of the average daily population in 2005 vs. about 33 percent in 2011).

 

Alain Milon | Sénat Session Ordinaire de 2012-2013
# Rapport d'information fait au nom de la commission des affaires sociales relatif à la prise en charge psychiatrique des personnes atteintes de troubles mentaux
http://www.senat.fr/ Enregistré à la Présidence du Sénat le 19 décembre 2012
A partir de l’idée que la prévalence actuelle des maladies mentales est surestimée, ce sont les modalités de définition des pathologies mentales qui sont remises en cause. La maladie mentale, aux Etats-Unis, est en effet diagnostiquée sur la base de symptômes, c’est-à-dire de manifestations subjectives de la maladie, comme la douleur, et de comportements et non de signes, qui sont des manifestations objectives, comme une inflammation...

 

# Note de synthèse

 

New York Civil Liberties Union NYCLU
# Boxed in. The True Cost of Extreme Isolation in New York’s Prisons

New York 2012

Every day, nearly 4,500 prisoners across New York live in extreme isolation, deprived of all meaningful human interaction or mental stimulation, confined to the small, barren cells where they spend 23 hours a day. Disembodied hands deliver meals through a slot in the cell door. “Recreation” offers no respite: An hour, alone, in an empty, outdoor pen, no larger than the cell, enclosed by high concrete walls or thick metal grates. No activities, programs or classes break up the day. No phone calls are allowed. Few personal possessions are permitted. These prisoners languish in isolation for days, weeks, months and even years on end. What occurs inside our prisons may seem remote, but it affects all New Yorkers. It impacts public safety: Of the roughly 56,000 people incarcerated in New York’s prisons,1 about 25,000 are released and return to our communities each year, bringing their prison experiences home with them.2 It reflects how we allocate increasingly scarce public resources: New York spends about $60,000 a prisoner – or $2.7 billion on state prisons – per year.3 And it raises essential questions about how we value and protect human dignity.

 

Eno Louden, J., Skeem, J. L., Blevins, A.
# Comparing the Predictive Utility of Two Screening Tools for Mental Disorder Among Probationers
Psychological Assessment, 2012, December 17
To increase the likelihood that probationers with serious mental disorder can be identified by probation agencies, we tested the utility of two promising mental health screening tools, the K6 and the Brief Jail Mental Health Screen (BJMHS), in identifying probationers with DSM-IV Axis I mental disorders. In this study, 4,670 probationers completed the screening tools as part of routine intake procedures at a probation agency. We interviewed a subset of 149 probationers using a structured clinical interview to determine whether they met criteria for an Axis I anxiety, mood, or psychotic disorder at any point during their lifetimes. The BJMHS correctly identified 77% of probationers with mental disorder overall, and contrary to our hypotheses, the measure was as sensitive with women as it was with men. Adding items assessing posttraumatic stress disorder provided some incremental utility to the measure...

 

Ralph Ashford
# An Issue of Perceptions: Mental illness, the Police and the Media
http://dtpr.lib.athabascau.ca/ Athabasca University, December 2012
The deinstitutionalization of persons with mental illness began about 50 years ago and created an environment that would find many of them face to face with the police. A neoliberal notion that these persons would be better served by leaving them in the hands of various community health networks, as well as their families, was well-intentioned. But what was unintended was the disproportionate numbers of the mentally ill who would find themselves institutionalized instead in the nation’s correctional facilities. Somehow having a mental disorder became associated with having a criminal or violent nature. This widely held view is shared not only amongst the public in general, but also amongst police officers. This association is a consequence not only of a lack of education but also from exposure to an omnipresent media that too frequently presents the mentally ill in a negative fashion.

 

Psychiatry on line
# La ricerca sui disturbi psichiatrici nei pazienti tossicodipendenti ed alcolisti
www.psychiatryonline.it/ 1 dicembre 2012

 

Maria Teresa Collica
# La crisi del concetto di autore non imputabile “pericoloso”
www.penalecontemporaneo/ 9 Novembre 2012

1. La pericolosità sociale dell'imputato. - 2. Dalle presunzioni di pericolosità sociale alla legge Gozzini. - 3. Gli ostacoli nell'accertamento in concreto della pericolosità sociale: a) i limiti generali della perizia psichiatrica. - 3.1 (Segue) b) i limiti della prognosi della pericolosità sociale. - 3.1.1 (Segue) c) Le resistenze degli psichiatri forensi. - 4. Nuove basi scientifiche per la valutazione della pericolosità sociale: i suggerimenti delle neuroscienze. - 5. Dalla pericolosità sociale medica alla pericolosità sociale situazionale. - 6. La necessità di una ridefinizione della pericolosità sociale. - 7. La via alternativa del superamento della pericolosità sociale come presupposto delle misure di sicurezza. - 8. Il trattamento del malato di mente autore di reato. L'ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario. - 9. Il ruolo della Corte Costituzionale nel superamento dell'ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario. - 10. La svolta segnata dalla sentenza della Corte Costituzionale n. 253 del 2003. - 11. I tentativi di equiparare gli infermi di mente ai soggetti imputabili in recenti iniziative legislative. - 12. La proposta a favore della medicalizzazione. - 13. Verso una revisione della disciplina sanzionatoria dei malati di mente autori di reato.

 

Seena Fazel, Katharina Seewald
# Severe mental illness in 33,588 prisoners worldwide: systematic review and meta-regression analysis
The British Journal of Psychiatry (2012) 200: 364-373
High levels of psychiatric morbidity are consistently reported in prisoners from many countries over four decades. Further research is needed to confirm whether higher rates of mental illness are found in low- and middle-income nations, and examine trends over time within nations with large prison populations.

David J. Vinkers, Micha van de Vorst, Hans W. Hoek
# Severe mental illness in prisoners worldwide
The British Journal of Psychiatry (2012) 201: 327-328

 

Chiara Fante
# La coscienza delle emozioni: l'Alessitimia fra normalità e patologia
Università degli Studi di Parma. Dipartimento di Psicologia, 2012

... Evidenze empiriche suggeriscono quindi la possibilità di considerare l'Alessitimia come una dimensione clinica transdiagnostica lungo un continuum, dalla normalità alla patologia. Particolare attenzione viene poi riservata dalla comunità scientifica allo studio dei processi implicati nella genesi di tale deficit, evidenziando come le teorie sullo sviluppo emozionale affermino l'importanza della dimensione interpersonale per il buon funzionamento individuale adulto...

 

Catherine Louisa Parry
# The Nature of the Association between Male Violent Offending and Alexithymia
Edith Cowan University, July 2012
A substantial body of research on violence exists that details a number of factors associated with violent behaviour, including personality, impulsivity and emotional and developmental factors, such as low emotional expressiveness and abuse and violence in family-of-origin. A number of factors associated with violent offending have also been reported in the alexithymia literature. Alexithymia, however, is a relatively unexplored factor in relation to violent offending.

 

Rosemary Allgeier
# Literature review: pharmaceutical services for prisoners
https://www2.nphs.wales.nhs.uk/ Public Health Galles 08 October 2012
Few studies have been published on pharmaceutical services in prison settings. The studies identified have focused on specific aspects of pharmaceutical services to prisoners.  Overall, they found pharmacist-led and joint pharmacist-physician collaboration services  to be feasible and effective. However, lack of clinical information technology within prisons  can impact on the effectiveness of the medicines management process.

 

Karin Arbach-Lucioni, Marian Martinez-Garcia, Antonio Andrés-Pueyo
# Risk Factors for Violent Behavior in Prison Inmates. A Cross-Cultural Contribution
Criminal Justice and Behavior, vol. 39, n. 9, Sept. 2012
In the past decade, there has been increasing interest in personality and psychological factors as predictors of inmate adjustment and misbehavior. There is evidence that inmates who are emotionally disturbed or who receive mental health care are disproportionately involved in prison infractions and also in violent incidents. The psychopathy construct has been studied in detail and has been measured by a range of instruments; the overall results indicate that the antisocial behavioral dimension, more than the affective dimension, explains the relation with institutional aggression

 

Riccardo Zerbetto, Cinzia Foglia
# Gioco d’azzardo e detenzione, una ricerca nelle carceri milanesi
Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga, Settembre 2012

 

Nadica Buzina
# Psychopathy - Historical Controversies and New Diagnostic Approach
Psychiatria Danubina, 2012; Vol. 24, No. 2, pp 134-142
Psychopathy as a mental disorder or construct, although not included in the currently valid classification systems, is increasingly attracting the attention of professionals and researchers involved in the field of mental health. Interest in psychopathy has particularly grown after the announcement of the new classification system DSM V, in which psychopathy is referred to as a defined diagnosis in the context of six new personality disorders. This paper presents the historical development of psychopathy, classification systems, the PCL-R as a measuring instrument for assessing psychopathy, similarities and differences with Dissocial or Antisocial personality disorder, and its biological correlates. In accordance  with the new trends in the diagnosis of mental disorders, the need for training in the application of the mentioned instrument for the precise diagnosis of psychopathy is highlighted. 

 

Seena Fazel, Jay P Singh, Helen Doll, Martin Grann
# Use of risk assessment instruments to predict violence and antisocial behaviour in 73 samples involving 24 827 people: systematic review and meta-analysis
BMJ 345, 24 July 2012

Risk assessments were conducted on 73 samples comprising 24 847 participants from 13 countries, of whom 5879 (23.7%) offended over an average of 49.6 months. When used to predict violent offending, risk assessment tools produced low to moderate positive predictive values (median 41%, interquartile range 27-60%) and higher negative predictive values (91%, 81-95%), and a corresponding median number needed to detain of 2 (2-4) and number safely discharged of 10 (4-18). Instruments designed to predict violent offending performed better than those aimed at predicting sexual or general crime.

 

Ines Ciolli
# I Trattamenti Sanitari Obbligatori e il paziente con problemi psichici. Profili costituzionali
www.amministrazioneincammino.luiss.it/ 09.07.2012
1. La tutela della salute mentale nell’ordinamento italiano. – 2. La disciplina dei trattamenti sanitari obbligatori in Costituzione. – 3. La riserva di legge prevista dall’art. 32, comma 2. – 4. La legge n. 180 del 1978, le successive modifiche e le tutele approntate dal giudice ordinario . – 5. Considerazioni conclusive.

 

Abogacía Española
# Los enfermos mentales en el sistema penitenciario. Un analisis juridico
www.abogacia.es/ 2012
La Abogacía Española reclama un estatuto jurídico diferenciado para las personas con enfermedad mental o discapacidad intelectual que se encuentran en prisión, para garantizar la efectiva protección de sus derechos y facilitar su completa y rápida integración en la sociedad. De esta forma, se dotaría de garantías y derechos que harían posible su integración en la sociedad a los más de 4.000 internos con trastornos psicóticos o discapacidad intelectual que hay en las cárceles españolas. La Abogacía considera también que gran parte de los encarcelamientos podrían evitarse si se potenciaran las medidas alternativas y los tratamientos adecuados.

 

Sarah Anderson | Revolving Doors Agency
# Big Diversion Project. Current State Analysis of Diversion Services in the North East Region – Final Report
Revolving Doors Agency 13th April 2012
All of the prison mental health team managers expressed concern that a number of people with severe mental illnesses who were inappropriate for detention in prison were still making it through the criminal justice system as far as prison undetected. Many reported difficulties finding bed spaces to enable prisoners to be transferred out. The view was expressed that sentencers needed to be provided with sufficient health information at the remand and sentencing stages so that they had other choices but to engage in the false hope of sending vulnerable people to prison for the purposes of getting their needs identified and met.

 

Hans Joachim Salize
# Die Psychiatrische Rehabilitation wird zu einem der Zukunftsthemen der Psychiatrie – Pro & Kontra | Psychiatric Rehabilitation will be a Future Topic for Psychiatry – Pro & Contra
Psychiat Prax 2012; 39: 317–318

Nachgewiesene Effektivität ist jedoch zunehmend der Maßstab, anhand dessen die Notwendigkeit von Maßnahmen in der Gesundheitsversorgung gemessen wird. Institutionen wie das Institut für Qualität und Wirtschaftlichkeit im Gesundheitswesen (IQWIG) haben den Auftrag, hierfür die notwendige Informationsbasis zu schaffen. Dies ist grundsätzlich zu begrüßen. Gegenwärtig beschränken sich die Analysen des IQWIG noch weitgehend auf den Bereich der klinischen und pharmakologischen Therapien. Die Ausweitung der IQWIG-Aktivitäten auf rehabilitative Ansätze oder komplexere Versorgungsstrategien dürfte jedoch nur eine Frage der Zeit sein.

 

Wouter Vanderplasschen, Jessica De Maeyer, Kathy Colpaert, Serge Cogels, Andrea Rea, Geert Dom, Bernard Sabbe, Eric Broekaert
# Poly substance use and mental health among individuals presenting for substance abuse treatment
Academy Press 2012

Poly substance use is the rule rather than the exception. At least 64% of the clients currently in treatment for substance use problems report poly substance use during the last 30 days before treatment entry. One can assume that this number is an underestimation of the reality, since numerous individuals included in the study were living in a controlled environment (e.g. hospital, prison) the last 30 days before entering treatment...

 

Chiara Costantini
# Qualità della vita e alessitimia nel trattamento con antidepressivi
Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, 2012
La riduzione della qualità della vita (QoL) associata alla sintomatologia depressiva è paragonabile a quella osservata nei pazienti affetti da condizioni mediche generali croniche. Il concetto di QoL è legato a condizioni obiettive di disagio ma è ancor più correlato a come l’individuo vive tale disagio. In tale prospettiva il costrutto della QoL non è sovrapponibile a quello di “piacere” e dunque la compromissione della QoL è un concetto più ampio rispetto all’anedonia depressiva anche se ne può condividere alcuni aspetti.

 

Richard P. Bentall, Sophie Wickham, Mark Shevlin, Filippo Varese
#  Do Specific Early-Life Adversities Lead to Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? A Study from the 2007 The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey
Schizophrenia Bulletin, April 2012
In all likelihood, there is no such thing as the cause of any psychiatric symptom, and each emerges as a consequence of complex interactions between psychosocial and biological factors... The first-order associations between bullying and the different kinds of adversity were all statistically significant... As animal studies indicate that victimization leads to profound biological changes, including sensitization of the dopamine system...

 

Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga - Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri
# Il gioco d'azzardo patologico in Italia
Italian Journal on Addiction, Volume 2, Numero 3-4, 2012

 

Stefanie Rezansoff
# Mental disorders, substance use disorders and recidivism: exploring a complex inter-relationship in the British Columbia correctional population
Simon Fraser University, Spring 2012
Abundant research confirms a high prevalence of substance use and mental disorders in correctional samples. It is unclear, however, how these contribute to the risk of repeat offending. The present study examined offence trajectories among a Canadian Provincial population (N= 31,014), and observed that offenders with non-substance related mental disorders were at no greater risk of recidivism than those with no diagnosis. However, odds of recidivism were significantly higher among those with substance use and/or co-occurring disorders. These findings add strength to the emerging conclusion that non-substance related mental disorders are, as a group, less likely to predict recidivism than substance use disorders. Notably, nearly 50% of the offender population had a physician-diagnosed substance use disorder in the five years prior to their index offence. Results are discussed in relation to necessity for evidence-based partnerships between health and corrections sectors that are responsive to both public health and safety.

 

Carly Speed
# Self-Inflicted Deaths in Prison: An Exploration of INQUEST’s Challenges to State Power
Internet Journal of Criminology, 2012
Self-inflicted deaths in prison are a ‘persistent problem’. This is confirmed by the 61 suicides in 2009, 58 in 2010 and 57 in 2011. These deaths demonstrate that prison is not the legitimate and safe place the state and prison service lead us to believe and contributes to the view that prisons are a ‘secret death penalty’.

 

Nathalie Gourmelon
# La prise en charge pénitentiaire des délinquants sexuels sous le sceau de la gestion des risques et de la lutte contre la récidive
déviance et société 2012, vol. 36, n°4

Using a «new penology» matrix, the articles suggests an analysis of the development of psychiatric and social care of sex offenders in penal establishments. Psychotherapeutic treatment, like social care and rehabilitation today is moving towards psycho-social-educational support using cognitive behavioural techniques, stemming from a pragmatic perspective of risk management and reducing recidivism. This movement has been questioned by several professionals, but its generalisation also brings into play some basic paradoxes of these domains of practice.

 

Lamiece Hassan, Mohammed Shaiyan Rahman, Carlene King, Jane Senior, Jenny Shaw
# Level of Mental Health Intervention and Clinical Need Among Inmates With Mental Illness in Five English Jails
Psychiatric Services 63:1218–1224, 2012
Although health care is not the primary function of a jail, incarceration provides an opportunity to detect, diagnose, and treat mental illness in a socially excluded population that is often reluctant to engage in health care services outside of custody... For care in early custody to be efficient as well as effective, triage mechanisms and coordination between primary and secondary care services must be improved to ensure that resources are used wisely and that patients are allocated to appropriate types and levels of intervention.

 

Jennifer Eno Louden, Jennifer L. Skeem
# How Do Probation Officers Assess and Manage Recidivism and Violence Risk for Probationers With Mental Disorder? An Experimental Investigation
http://riskreduction.soceco.uci.edu/ Law and Human Behavior 2012
Persons with mental disorder are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. Once involved in the criminal justice system, offenders with mental disorder are more likely to return to custody while on probation than their nondisordered counterparts, often for breaking the rules of community supervision. Risk assessments and risk management strategies employed by probation officers can lead to higher rates of returns to custody for probationers with mental disorder, and the current study is the first to examine these experimentally. Here, 234 probation officers provided risk assessments and risk management decisions based on a vignette portraying a probationer with mental disorder, substance abuse disorder, both, or neither. Although substance abuse is a relatively stronger risk factor than mental disorder, mental disorder had a stronger effect on officers’ risk assessments. In terms of risk management, mental disorder had the strongest effect on officers’ desire to manage risk with forced mental health treatment. These findings suggest that training for probation officers in the relative utility of mental disorder in predicting risk, in addition to evidence-based risk management strategies that take the focus off mental disorder, may improve outcomes for probationers with mental disorder.

 

Anette Kinley, Lindsay Zibrik, Jennifer Cordeiro, Helen Novak Lauscher, Kendall Ho
# TeleHealth for Mental Health and Substance Use
http://ehealth.med.ubc.ca/ August 24, 2012
Videoconferencing technology has been applied in a number of countries, including Australia, the US and the UK, for remote consultations with inmates in hospitals and correctional facilities. The features and benefits of videoconferencing can enable “an expanded range of services, including  neuropsychological and competency assessments, diagnosis, and treatment” in correctional settings. Many of the forensics-focused articles referred to incarcerated youth, and indicate that this population group responds well to videoconferencing interventions.

 

Jeffrey A. Mattes
# Medications for Aggressiveness in Prison: Focus on Oxcarbazepine
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 40:234 – 8, 2012
Oxcarbazepine is a more recently marketed anticonvulsant that is structurally similar to carbamazepine. Like carbamazepine, it appears to be particularly helpful for temporal lobe (or complex partial) seizures, and it may also have mood-stabilizing effects... It seems that oxcarbazepine should be more widely considered for impulsively aggressive prison inmates (and for impulsively aggressive patients not in prison). In states that allow it, placebo-controlled studies would be helpful and important in evaluating efficacy.

 

Amanda Pustilnik
# Calling Mental Illness “Myth” Leads to State Coercion
www.cato-unbound.org/ Cato Unbound. A Journal of Debate, August 13, 2012
The United States uses its prison system as a warehouse for adults and children with severe mental illnesses. This might be acceptable if it reflected the greater average criminality of this group. But it does not. As a group, people with these conditions are no more likely than typical people to break the law or to commit a violent crime. Their overrepresentation in the criminal system results from a host of factors including poor ability to communicate with police and attorneys, low socioeconomic status, confusion, and inability to follow directions—which leads to unintentional violations of parole or conditions of release, which leads to reincarceration

 

Allen Frances
# A Clinical Reality Check
www.cato-unbound.org/ Cato Unbound. A Journal of Debate, August 8, 2012

I agree completely with Schaler and Szasz that mental disorders are not diseases and that treating them as such can sometimes have noxious legal consequences. But I strongly disagree that mental disorders are worthless “myths” and think it greatly over-simplifies a complex clinical and legal conundrum to categorically assert that involuntary treatment should be completely eliminated.

 

Rusty Reeves
# Guideline, Education, and Peer Comparison to Reduce Prescriptions of Benzodiazepines and Low-Dose Quetiapine in Prison
Journal of Correctional Health Care, 18(1) 45-52 | 2012
Benzodiazepines (antianxiety medications) and quetiapine (an antipsychotic medication) are subject to abuse in prison. Quetiapine is also expensive and has serious side effects. The prescription of these medications in prison for anxiety and insomnia is not the preferred choice. In order to reduce these prescriptions, the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey–University Correctional HealthCare (UCHC), working within the New Jersey Department of Corrections, provided its psychiatrists with a guideline to the treatment of insomnia in prison...

 

Jeffrey A. Schaler
# Strategies of Psychiatric Coercion
www.cato-unbound.org/ Cato Unbound. A Journal of Debate, August 6, 2012

I am not an anti-psychiatrist. I do not object to people who want to believe or go to a psychiatrist who believes in mental illness. I do not think the state should prohibit people from ingesting strong drugs to change the way they feel, either by prescription or by using those drugs that are currently illegal. I believe in the repeal of all drug prohibition, including prescription drugs. In my opinion, drugs are intrinsically neither safe nor dangerous, neither good nor bad. This all depends on how one uses a drug. My concern here is with institutional or coercive psychiatry. In contractual or consensual psychiatry, the psychiatrist is an agent of the patient. The patient can fire the psychiatrist any time he wants to do so. In institutional or coercive psychiatry, the psychiatrist pretends to be an agent of the patient, but is really an agent of a state institution. The patient cannot fire his psychiatrist.

 

Rosemary Purcell, Richard Fraser, Catherine Greenwood-Smith, Gennady N. Baksheev, Jennifer McCarthy, David Reid, Anthea Lemphers, Danny H. Sullivan
# Managing risks of violence in a youth mental health service: a service model description
Early Intervention in Psychiatry 2012; 6: 469–475
Assessing and managing risks of violent offending among young patients are both clinically indicated for a proportion of patients and feasible via a forensic outreach model. Given the proliferation of early psychosis services worldwide, the issue of managing, and ideally preventing, patient risk of violence will almost certainly have wide application. However, a comprehensive evaluation of this model is required to ultimately determine the effectiveness of this approach for improving patient outcomes.

 

Administrative Office of the Courts AOC Literature Review
# Mental Health Courts. An overview of the literature on mental health diversion programs and mental health courts
Judicial Council of California/Administrative Office of the Courts 2012
Mental illness is a considerable problem within jails and prisons and juvenile detention facilities. A large amount of research argues that adult jails  and prisons and juvenile detention centers are the new asylums for mentally ill adults and juveniles and that correctional institutions are now the primary providers of services...

 

Eleonora Fungher
La pericolosità sociale nel procedimento del Tribunale di Sorveglianza
Associazione Italiana di Psicologia Giuridica - 2012

Sia nella fase di giudizio che in quella di esecuzione della pena di pertinenza della Magistratura di Sorveglianza, risulta evidente l’importanza assunta dalla nozione di pericolosità sociale (in rapporto all’infermità mentale) quale presupposto per l’applicazione, in via esclusiva o cumulativa, delle misure di sicurezza in un’ottica coerente, secondo le moderne concezioni presentate, con la finalità terapeutica, rieducativa e  risocializzatrice insita nella loro definizione.

 

Antonella Pomilla
# Rischio di Violenza e Pericolosità Sociale: quali influenze? Applicazione delle scale HCR-20 e PCL-R ad un campione di internati presso gli OPG di Italia
Università la Sapienza - Roma | Anno Accademico 2011-2012
La riflessione clinica attuata in primo luogo sulla gravità del vizio di mente e di conseguenza sulla pericolosità sociale, si trasforma poi in un percorso di trattamento che trova viceversa valenza giuridica, e che viene definito in termini di sedi, regimi di vigilanza e necessità di cautela (dal potenziale offensivo del soggetto, a favore/per la collettività). Sorgono a questo punto alcuni interrogativi...

 

M Mars, S Ramlall, S Kaliski
# Forensic telepsychiatry : a possible solution for South Africa?
Afr J Psychiatry 2012;15:244-247
411 papers were found of which 13, published between 1997 and 2008 were relevant. The use of videoconferencing for forensic psychiatric assessment was reported from four countries. The courts in those jurisdictions have accepted the use of videoconferencing for assessment and no successful appeals have been mounted on the basis of the use of videoconferencing for assessment. User satisfaction has not been reported for assessing adjudicative competence. Forensic telepsychiatry has been found to be cost effective, improve access to scarce specialist skills and reduce transport of prisoners under guard to hospitals or psychiatrists to prisons. Conclusion: There is nothing in the literature to suggest that a forensic telepsychiatry service is not feasible in South Africa and a pilot project is being planned.

 

Jérôme Englebert
# Le corps du détenu: Études psychopathologiques de l’homme en situation
Université de Liège, 2012

Nous avons étudié, entre autres, les dimensions de l’espace, du temps, du corps, de l’imaginaire pour parvenir à un essai de définition de ce que nous appelons l’univers carcéral et discuter du statut de l’identité carcérale. Ces différents points de repère nous ont permis d’aborder la question de la subjectivité et de la sensation qui sont des contrées d’une complexité fondamentale que le psychologue se refuse souvent d’affronter dans le domaine de la recherche, mais auxquelles il est pourtant confronté quotidiennement dans sa pratique clinique...

 

Anthony C. Tamburello, Jordan A. Lieberman, Ray M. Baum, Rusty Reeves
# Successful Removal of Quetiapine From a Correctional Formulary
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 40:502– 8, 2012
The abuse of medications in prison is a phenomenon well known among correctional health care professionals, and quetiapine has emerged as a drug of abuse in these settings. Considering the risks of abuse and diversion and the high cost compared with effective alternative antipsychotic medications, the New Jersey Department of Corrections (NJDOC) Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee voted to remove quetiapine from the formulary...

 

Tim Exworthy, Chiara Samele, Norman Urquía, Andrew Forrester
# Asserting Prisoners’ Right to Health: Progressing Beyond Equivalence
http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/ Psychiatric Services 63:270–275, 2012
The concept of the “right to health,” regardless of a person’s legal status, is a guiding force in establishing adequate standards of health care for all, including prisoners with mental illness. Prison health care in the United States, however, often falls below acceptable minimum standards. In the United Kingdom, the notion of equivalence has been the main driving force in improving prison mental health care. Although improvements have been made over the past ten years, demand for services continues to outstrip supply, as in the U.S. prison system. In both prison systems, prisoners often present with complex and multiple needs, much greater than those found in community samples. Even mental health care equivalent to that provided in the community falls significantly short of what is required.

 

Luigi Ferranini, Paolo F. Peloso
# I trattamenti senza consenso in psichiatria e in medicina tra norme, culture e pratiche. Appunti per una discussione
Noos, 1, 2012 (27-42)
... Crescente diffusione di provvedimenti che, pur rappresentando a tutti gli effetti trattamenti obbligatori, in gran parte di carattere sanitario, non derivano dalla normativa sanitaria della Legge 833, ma da disposizioni dell’Autorità Giudiziaria: sia attraverso provvedimenti di carattere penale alternativi all’internamento in ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario o alla detenzione, che attraverso provvedimenti di carattere civile mediati dal tutore o dall’amministrazione di sostegno.... In Italia questa pratica (la presenza di prescrizioni di carattere sanitario nell’ambito di dispositivi giudiziari) è piuttosto diffusa pur senza essere mai stata messa realmente in discussione e sufficientemente problematizzata; senza una riflessione sufficiente su cui possano essere basate l’estensione, le conseguenze e il posizionamento reciproco dei diversi attori, in primo luogo giudici, psichiatri e soggetti...

 

Regione Abruzzo
# Protocollo operativo per la tutela della salute mentale in carcere nella Regione Abruzzo
Bollettino Ufficiale della Regione Abruzzo Anno XLIII - N. 26 (9.05.2012)

 

Vincenzo Mastronardi, Antonio Del Casale
# Simulazione di malattia mentale
Supplemento alla Rivista di psichiatria, 2012, 47, 4
Il DSM-IV-TR definisce la simulazione una «produzione intenzionale di sintomi fisici o psicologici falsi o grossolanamente esagerati, motivata da incentivi esterni». Il primo punto da tenere in considerazione è che essa ha una prevalenza vicina allo zero nella popolazione media, presentandosi quasi esclusivamente in soggetti detenuti in carcere, trattati in Ospedale Psichiatrico Giudiziario, in individui sottoposti a giudizio, o in personalità in ogni caso deviate dal punto di vista criminologico. Vengono presi in considerazione sia i criteri per porre diagnosi di simulazione già esaminati da Foreal e Kaufman fin dal 1943 sia i relativi indicatori di sospetto, non disgiunti dai “motivi del comportamento simulatorio”. Il lavoro affronta anche gli altri diversi significati dei gesti autolesivi proposti da Bachler, nonché le teorie meccaniciste e associazioniste del modello dinamico classico e la diagnosi differenziale con altre condizioni di interesse psichiatrico e conclude con l’argomento della premeditazione.

 

Cristiano Cupelli
# La responsabilità colposa dello psichiatra tra ingovernabilità del rischio e misura soggettiva
Diritto penale e processo 9/2012
Un paziente, affetto da schizofrenia di tipo paranoide e degente di una comunità terapeutica protetta, veniva rinvenuto al suolo con gravi lesioni personali a seguito della caduta da una finestra della struttura. Ricoverato in ospedale, decedeva a causa di affezione polmonare. Il direttore sanitario della casa di cura è condannato per omicidio colposo, per avere omesso, quale garante, di adottare misure atte ad impedire il suicidio del paziente...

 

Sara Paiero
# La follia criminale. Appunti sul superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, 2011-2012

 

Amnesty International
# USA: THE Edge of Endurance. Prison Conditions of California's Security Housing Units
www.amnestyusa.org/ Amnesty International September 2012
More than 3,000 prisoners in California are held in high security isolation units known as Security Housing Units (SHUs), where they are confined for at least 22 and a half hours a day in single or double cells, with no work or meaningful rehabilitation programs or group activities of any kind. Over 1,000 are held in the SHU at Pelican Bay State Prison, a remote facility where most prisoners are confined alone in cells which have no windows to the outside or direct access to natural light. SHU prisoners are isolated both within prison and from meaningful contact with the outside world: contact with correctional staff is kept to a minimum, and consultations with medical, mental health and other staff routinely take place behind barriers; all visits, including family and legal visits, are also non-contact, with prisoners separated from their visitors behind a glass screen.

 

Armour, Cherie
# Mental Health in Prison: A Trauma Perspective on Importation and Deprivation
International Journal of Criminology and Sociological Theory, Vol. 5, No.2, August 2012, 886-894
Imprisonment increases vulnerabilities and heightens mental ill health. Studies across a variety of counties have reported that the prevalence of mental illness in prison far exceeds that of the general population... Many studies report that trauma precipitates the development of mental illness. Trauma is often prevalent for individuals prior to imprisonment and often experienced during imprisonment. Thus, it is suggested that the adverse effects of trauma are cumulative and thus likely to precipitate severe mental illness suggesting that mental illness in prison is attributable to both importation and deprivation perspectives.

 

Adrian P. Mundt, Tanja Frančišković, Isaac Gurovich, Andreas Heinz, Yuriy Ignatyev, Fouad Ismayilov, Miklós Péter Kalapos, Valery Krasnov, Adriana Mihai, Jan Mir, Dzianis Padruchny, Matej Potočan, Jiří Raboch, Stefan Priebe

# Changes in the Provision of Institutionalized Mental Health Care in Post-Communist Countries Post- Communist Countries

www.plosone.org/ PLoS ONE 7(6) 2012
In 1939, Lionel Sharples Penrose (1898–1972) described for the first time inverse relationships between psychiatric bed numbers and the size of the prison population analysing data from 18 European countries. The so called Penrose hypothesis or Penrose law suggests that decreasing psychiatric bed numbers are related to an increase in the prison population. Even though this hypothesis may be a simplification, the issue continues to be of importance and has been replicated and discussed in different settings. One study questions this relationship for high-  income countries and postulates a direct, not inverse, relationship of psychiatric bed numbers and prison populations for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The direct relationship was explained by a lack of all resources for either kind of institution in LMICs and a positive association of the indicators with economic measures and development. Nevertheless, it has been suggested that severely mentally ill and other people who fall below a certain level of adaptation to societal norms have a risk for voluntary or involuntary institutionalisation...

 

Peter Lehmann
# About the Intrinsic Suicidal Effects of Neuroleptics. Towards Breaking the Taboo and Fighting Therapeutical Recklessness
www.peter-lehmann-publishing.com/ July 24, 2012

There are a lot of well-known factors that can trigger depression and suicidal behavior, but neuroleptics are never mentioned. At people with the diagnosis of "schizophrenia" - in general ending in the administration of neuroleptics - suicidality in found about 50 times more frequent than in the averrage society...

 

Suzanne Yang, Edward P. Mulvey
# Violence risk: re-defining variables from the first-person perspective
Aggress Violent Behav. 2012 ; 17(3): 198–207
In a key theoretical paper, Bentall and Taylor discuss aspects of paranoia that may link it to violence. After an overview of the psychology of paranoia, including perceptual and cognitive processes, they highlight the perception of threat, theory of mind deficits and attributional bias as potential candidates to explain the relationship between paranoia and violence. They emphasize that a dimensional view is needed in order to understand how processes such as jumping to conclusions or anomalous perceptual experiences contribute to paranoid states. Although their focus is on dimensions within delusions, aspects of their theoretical formulation could be productively extended to a non-clinical population, as done by Freeman and colleagues.

 

E. Lea Johnston
# Theorizing Mental Health Courts
Washington University Law Review , Volume 89 2012
While this Article contends that the two theories identified by mental health court advocates are inadequate to justify the current incarnation of mental health courts, other theories may fill the void. Some theories may justify the courts as they currently exist; others may support the diversion and treatment of a limited cohort of offenders with mental illnesses; still others may support treating a broader population if the purported ends of the courts were broadened beyond decreasing specific recidivism of offenders with mental illnesses. The viability of each of these theories depends on empirical data on the effect and workings of mental health courts. These courts potentially hold great promise, but more analysis is needed to examine whether a coherent and compelling theory can be offered to justify their existence.

 

James R.P. Ogloff ; Michael R. Davis ; George Rivers ; Stuart Ross
# Identification of Mental Disorders in the Criminal Justice System: Criminology Research Council Consultancy
Criminology Research Council 2012
The literature review shows that the prevalence rates of a wide variety of mental disorders are disproportionately high in Australia’s criminal justice system; however, research shows that a relatively poor job is done in identifying the needs of mentally disordered offenders prior to the time they enter the criminal justice system. Police services are generally the first point of contact with the criminal justice system. The increased prevalence of mental disorders among jail inmates suggests that, at least in the past, arrest has been the predominant action police have pursued with persons having mental disorders. Several formal screening tools have been developed for identifying mentally disordered offenders...

 

Elena L. Grigorenko (ed)
# Handbook of Juvenile Forensic Psychology and Psychiatry
http://www.pitt.edu/ 2012
Juvenile justice officials increasingly understand the critical role that mental health services play in rehabilitating the youth in their care. At the same time, juvenile justice reformers seek ways to connect youth to the behavioral health services they need without having courts become the primary means for youth to access care. Budget pressures are forcing states to be more careful about how they spend their juvenile justice funds, and communities are searching for ways to keep youth in programs closer to home rather than relying on expensive, sometimes less effective out- f- home placements for youth far from their families and other supports. Mental health care providers play critical roles in these public policy dialogues, while also fulfilling essential evaluation and treatment functions in the community, through the courts, and in locked settings. The authors brought together in this publication have produced rich resources that can inform both policy and practice...

 

Charlie Brooker, Coral Sirdifield, Robert Blizard, Dean Maxwell-Harrison, Diane Tetley, Paul Moran, Graham Pluck, Anne Chafer, David Denney, Michael Turner
# An Investigation into the Prevalence of Mental Health Disorder and Patterns of Health Service Access in a Probation Population
www.ohrn.nhs.uk/ Criminal Justice and Health Research Group University of Lincoln 2012
Depression is recognised in nearly three-quarters of identified cases but  thereafter the ability to detect a mental health disorder declines steeply from 47% of anxiety disorders, 33% of psychosis, no eating disorders (there were only four cases) and finally 21% of personality disorders are recognised. Interestingly for substance misuse the recognition was much higher —83% of drug problems and 79% of alcohol problems.

 

James Phillips, Allen Frances, Michael A Cerullo, John Chardavoyne, Hannah S Decker, Michael B First, Nassir Ghaemi, Gary Greenberg, Andrew C Hinderliter, Warren A Kinghorn, Steven G LoBello, Elliott B Martin, Aaron L Mishara, Joel Paris, Joseph M Pierre, Ronald W Pies, Harold A Pincus, Douglas Porter, Claire Pouncey, Michael A Schwartz, Thomas Szasz, Jerome C Wakefield, G Scott Waterman, Owen Whooley and Peter Zachar

# The six most essential questions in psychiatric diagnosis: a pluralogue part 1: conceptual and definitional issues in psychiatric diagnosis | # Part 2 | # Part 3 | # Part 4

Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 2012

The six essential  questions on the DSM involve: 1) the nature of a mental disorder; 2) the definition of mental disorder; 3) the issue of whether, in the current state of psychiatric science, DSM-5 should assume a cautious, conservative posture or an assertive, transformative posture; 4) the role of pragmatic considerations in the construction of DSM-5; 5) the issue of utility of the DSM - whether DSM-III and IV have been designed more for clinicians or researchers, and how this conflict should be dealt with in the new manual; and 6) the possibility and advisability, given all the problems with DSM-III and IV, of designing a different diagnostic system.

 

Sachiko Donley, Leah Habib, Tanja Jovanovic, Asante Kamkwalala, Mark Evces, Glenn Egan, Bekh Bradley, Kerry J. Ressler
# Civilian PTSD Symptoms and Risk for Involvement in the Criminal Justice System
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 40:522–9, 2012
The objective of this study was to determine whether civilian PTSD is associated with increased risk of incarceration and charges related to violence in a low-income, urban population. Participants (n 4,113) recruited from Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, completed self- report measures assessing history of trauma, PTSD symptoms, and incarceration. Both trauma exposure and civilian PTSD remained strongly associated with increased risk of involvement in the criminal justice system and charges of a violent offense, even after adjustment for sex, age, race, education, employment, income, and substance abuse in a regression model. Trauma and PTSD have important implications for public safety and recidivism.

 

Paul Lichtenstein, Linda Halldner, Johan Zetterqvist, Arvid Sjölander, Eva Serlachius, Seena Fazel, Niklas Långström, Henrik Larsson
# Medication for Attention Deficit–Hyperactivity Disorder and Criminality
N Engl J Med 2012
Among patients with ADHD, rates of criminality were lower during periods when they were receiving ADHD medication. These findings raise the possibility that the use of medication reduces the risk of criminality among patients with ADHD. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others.)

 

# L’Équipe du SMPR des Baumettes, Le SMPR de Marseille a 30 ans : Histoire et engagement, regards croisés.
Présentation de la journée d'études 18e Journée Régionale du SMPR de Marseille. Jeudi 24 juin 2010
# Daniel Glezer, La Psychiatrie publique à l’épreuve des murs de la prison
# Daniel Liotta, Les raisons de la dangerosité

# Gilles Chantraine, Le soin sous pression
# Catherine Paulet, Le Secteur de Psychiatrie en Milieu Pénitentiaire : Solutions de continuité ?
https://criminocorpus.revues.org/ 17 octobre 2012

 

Julien Dubreucq
# La contrainte: un outil de soins en psychiatrie?
http://dumas.ccsd.cnrs.fr/ Université Joseph Fourier 2012
Il faut noter que, la population générale a une représentation assez négative de la plupart des utilisations de la contrainte (à l‟exception des soins ambulatoires obligés, de l‟obligation à la prise d‟un traitement retard et des obligations à but citoyen) qui évoquent pour elle une mauvaise image de la psychiatrie, et notamment celle de l‟asile psychiatrique ou de la prison. Elle les estime cependant nécessaires pour la protection des autres en raison d‟une mauvaise image des malades mentaux et donc est favorable à leur utilisation.

 

Rongqin Yu, John R. Geddes, Seena Fazel
# Personality Disorders, Violence and Antisocial Behavior: A Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis
Journal of Personality Disorders, 26(5), 775-792, 2012
We identified 14 studies from 11 publications that reported on risk of antisocial behavior in individuals with PD (see Appendix Table). The total number of individuals with PD in these studies was 10,007, of whom 1,362 (13.6%) were involved in antisocial behavior (including violence) at a median follow- up of 4.5 years (with a range of 19 weeks to 60 years). These persons were compared with 12,742,916 individuals from the general population, of whom 442,057 (3.5%) reported antisocial behavior. Studies were conducted in the United States, Denmark, England, Switzerland, Canada, Finland, and Israel. All studies were conducted after 1977.

 

Yvette Giblin, Andy Kelly, Enda Kelly, Harry G Kennedy, Damian Mohan
# Reducing the use of seclusion for mental disorder in a prison: implementing a high support unit in a prison using participant action research
www.ijmhs.com/ International Journal of Mental Health Systems 2012, 6:2
The prison studied is a committal centre for sentenced prisoners with an official bed capacity of 630... In December 2010 a 10 bed High Support Unit (HSU) was established within the prison. During the first year, 96 prisoners were admitted. A third (35%) reported psychotic symptoms, 28% were referred due to the immediate risk of self-harm, 17% were accommodated for medical treatments and increased observation, 13% received specialised treatment by the Addiction Psychiatry team, 6% presented with emotional distress. One prisoner was accommodated on the HSU due to the acute risk he posed to others. A major mental illness was diagnosed in 29%, 20% required short-term increased support for crisis intervention and were found not to have a mental illness. A further 10% were deemed to be feigning symptoms of mental illness to seek refuge in the HSU. 7% had personality disorder as their primary diagnosis and 4% had a learning disability.

 

Jack Pemment
# The neurobiology of antisocial personality disorder: The quest for rehabilitation and treatment
http://neuroscience.olemiss.edu/ 2012
Psychopathy is perhaps one of the most misused terms in the American public, which is in no small part due to our obsession with those who have no conscience, and our boldness to try and profile others with this disorder. Here, I present how psychopathy is seen today, before discussing the classification of psychopathy. I also explore the neurological differences in the brains of those with psychopathy, before finally taking a look at genetic risk factors. I conclude by raising some questions about potential treatment.

 

Roberto Flores de Apodaca
# Over-diagnosing Bipolar Disorder; History, Causes and Forensic Consequences
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 20 [Special Issue – October 2012]
What was once classified some 60 years ago as a “Manic-Depressive Psychosis” and considered a rare disorder affecting only adults has come to represent one point along a broad spectrum of presumptively kindred conditions ranging from the mild to the severe, afflicting infants to adults. The formal definitions have expanded over the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Along with a number of earlier authors, we maintain that there has been an overexpansion of this diagnosis on the basis of theory rather than scientific findings. The reasons for this overexpansion have included; the advent of managed care (with its economic incentives to certain remunerable conditions, and pressure to treat conditions with medications whenever possible), the development of effective medications for use with genuine Bipolar Disorders, and an unconscious collusion between therapists and patients for the over-diagnosing of Bipolar Disorder, which ostensibly (but actually does not) serve the needs of both groups. This phenomenon of over-diagnosing can have adverse consequences in the forensic arena...

 

Gwen Adshead
# Their Dark Materials: Narratives and Recovery in Forensic Practice
www.rcpsych.ac.uk/ 2012
My experience of listening to the narratives of offenders is that there is a process of transformation from an incoherent ‘cover story’ to more coherent narrative of tragedy, regret and hope. This transformation takes time, and needs reflective, secure thinking spaces where people who have done terrible things can learn to trust enough to say what could not previously be spoken of safely. Such therapy needs therapists who are trained and ready to listen to what the offenders have to say, in their own time and in their own way. Therapists have to be acute listeners for the small shifts in narrative emphasis, tone or metaphor that indicate shifts in perspective, coherence or agency. It is a long game, but one worth playing; as one man said, ‘If I can do something with my life in the future, then two lives will not have been lost… and she will not have died in vain’.

 

Fred Osher, David A. D’Amora, Martha Plotkin, Nicole Jarrett, Alexa Eggleston | National Institute of Corrections (NIC) | Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA) | Council of State Governments (CSG) Justice Center
# Adults with Behavioral Health Needs under Correctional Supervision: A Shared Framework for Reducing Recidivism and Promoting Recovery
http://csgjusticecenter.org/ September 27, 2012
In order to identify individuals’ needs that are associated with mental illness, substance abuse, and recidivism, corrections administrators need to ensure that personnel use evidence-based screening and assessment tools. Shortly after individuals’ entry into the criminal justice system, and as needed thereafter, they should be screened for substance use, mental health disorders, and the potential presence of both by trained.  Determining which screening and assessment tools are the most appropriate to use and how they should be applied will depend largely on the population for which risk and need are being assessed.

 

Goupe Hospitalier Paul Guiraud
# Soins psychiatriques aux personnes placées sous main de justice. Immersion au sein des services du Groupe Hospitalier Paul Guiraud
http://horizons.paulguiraud.fr/ Dossier de presse – 27 septembre 2012
... il existe de fait un mal surreprésenté et parfois inhérent à la condition carcérale : la souffrance psychique. Pour mémoire, - 3,8 % des personnes détenues souffrent de schizophrénie nécessitant un traitement, soit trois fois plus que l’ensemble de la population française ; - 17,9 % présentent un état dépressif majeur, soit cinq fois plus que l’ensemble de la population ; - 12 % sont victimes d’une anxiété généralisée ; - Les cas de suicide sont multipliés par onze en prison et un tiers de la population carcérale présente un problème de consommation d’alcool ou de toxiques à l’extérieur.

 

Valérie Moulin, Jacques Gasser
# Intérêt et limites de l’évaluation du risque de récidive d’actes illégaux das les expertises psychiatriques
Rev Med Suisse 2012 ; 8 : 1775-80
Les évolutions législatives impliquent un recours de plus en plus important à l’expertise psychiatrique afin d’évaluer la dangerosité potentielle d’un sujet. Or, malgré le développement de techniques et d’outils pour son évaluation, l’appréciation de la dangerosité d’un sujet demeure extrêmement complexe dans la pratique et controversée dans la littérature scientifique. Le passage de la notion de dangerosité à celle de risque a impliqué une technicisation de son évaluation qui ne doit pas faire oublier les limites de ces outils et la nécessité de restituer le sujet, le sens et la clinique dans cette évaluation.

 

Darran Flynn, Damian Smith, Luke Quirke, Stephen Monks, Harry G Kennedy
# Ultra high risk of psychosis on committal to a young offender prison: an unrecognised opportunity for early intervention
www.biomedcentral.com/ BMC Psychiatry 2012
The ultra high risk state for psychosis has not been studied in young offender populations. Prison populations have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and substance use disorders. Due to the age profile of young offenders one would expect to find a high prevalence of individuals with pre-psychotic or ultra-high risk mental states for psychosis (UHR). Although psychotic symptoms are common in community samples of children and adolescents, the prevalence of the UHR state in young offenders was higher than reported for community samples. The association with impaired function also suggests that this may be part of a developing disorder. Much more attention should be paid to the relationship of UHR states to substance misuse and to the health needs of young offenders.

 

Sean H. Yutzy, Chad R. Woofter, Christopher C. Abbott, Imad M. Melhem, Brooke S. Parish

# The Increasing Frequency of Mania and Bipolar Disorder: Causes and Potential Negative Impacts
J Nerv Ment Dis. 2012 May ; 200(5): 380–387
The frequency of mania has not changed during the last century even with the development of new diagnostic criteria sets. More specifically, from the mid-1970s to 2000, the rate of mania (variably labeled major affective disorder–bipolar disorder and bipolar I disorder) was consistently identified in US and international studies as ranging from 0.4% to 1.6%. By the late 1990s to the 2000s, the prevalence reported by some researchers for bipolar disorders (I and II and others) was in the 5% to 7% and higher ranges. The purpose of this paper was to review explanations for this change and the potentially negative impacts on the field. 

 

E. Fuller Torrey
# Bedlam Revisited: Jails, Police, & Mental Health Courts as the New Psychiatric Care System
http://www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ May 6, 2012

My thesis is simple: I. New psychiatric inpatient system: Jails & Prisons II. New psychiatric outpatient system: Police & mental health courts

 

E. Fuller Torrey, E. Fuller Torrey, Jeffrey Geller, Carla Jacobs, Kristina Ragosta
# No Room at the Inn: Trends and Consequences of Closing Public Psychiatric Hospitals
Treatment Advocacy Center, 2012
Per capita state psychiatric bed populations by 2010 plunged to 1850 levels. In 1850, at the beginning of the movement to provide more humane care by treating seriously mentally ill persons in hospitals, there were 14 beds per 100,000 population. In 2010, the supply was virtually identical at 14.1. In the absence of needed treatment and care, individuals in acute or chronic disabling psychiatric crisis increasingly gravitate to hospital emergency departments, jails and prisons. 

 

E. Mori, A. Drago, D. De Ronchi, A. Serretti
# Alessitimia, personalità e outcome: uno studio naturalistico in pazienti con depressione maggiore e disturbi d’ansia
Journal of Psycopathology 2012;18:138-144

 

Antonella Pomilla, Alberto D'Argenio, Vincenzo Mastronardi
# Stalking: considerazioni clinico-criminologiche tramite i risultati di un contributo di ricerca
Supplemento alla Rivista di psichiatria, 2012, 47, 4
Tra i considerevoli risultati forniti dalla letteratura psichiatrica in tema di stalking, pochi studi si concentrano sull’analisi delle condotte persecutorie agite nei confronti dei professionisti della salute mentale, che pure vengono individuati come uno dei campioni vittimologici più colpiti. In particolare, per gli studi condotti in tal senso, ulteriore approfondimento necessita la differenziazione secondo l’identità di genere per ciò che concerne sia le caratteristiche socio-anagrafiche degli autori sia le modalità comportamentali da essi agite nei confronti delle vittime...

 

Mindy J. Vanderloo, Robert P. Butters
# Treating Offenders with Mental Illness: A Review of the Literature
Utah Criminal Justice Center, University of Utah, Spring 2012
Many researchers and practitioners have highlighted the importance of collaboration between criminal justice and mental health. It is also suggested those within the two systems who work  with this population be cross-trained in both criminal justice (criminogenic need) and mental health (recognizing and responding to the needs of the seriously mentally ill). Furthermore, continuity between the two systems, in addition to the various points of contact within the systems is recommended.

 

Fernando Espi Martinez, Fernando Espi Forcen, Arlenne Shapov, Amparo Martinez Moya
# Biperiden Dependence: Case Report and Literature Review
www.hindawi.com/ Case Reports in Psychiatry (2012)
Anticholinergic drugs are frequently used in psychiatry for the prophylaxis and treatment of extrapiramidal symptoms caused by neuroleptics. Abuse of anticholinergic agents has been reported in patients with psychotic disorders, on treatment with neuroleptics, and polysubstance use disorders. We are reporting the case of a patient who presented with hypoactive delirium as a consequence of biperiden dependence. The clinician must pay special attention to detect anticholinergic misuse in patients presenting with delirium of unknown cause.

 

Richelle Isaak
# Early Antisocial Markers and Attachment Styles: Their Influence on Psychopathic Characteristics in High-Risk Boys and Girls
Simon Fraser University, spring 2012

Based on the above admittedly limited research, it appeared that lack of attachment was positively related to psychopathy. Theoretically, it can be argued that the attachment avoidance type is the most consistent with key psychopathy traits since it reflects discomfort with close relationships and dependence on others. Also, attachment avoidance was a risk factor for interpersonal violence and antisocial behaviours.

 

John L. Schwab
# Due process and “the worst of the worst”: Mental competence in sexually violent Predator civil commitment proceedings
Columbia Law Review vol 112 2012
Sexually Violent Predator (“SVP”) civil commitment statutes have been adopted by a number of states and by the federal government. The statutes provide for the indefinite post-incarceration detention of individuals whom the state determines have a strong potential for committing violent sex acts if released. Thus, when an individual convicted of a violent sex crime has finished serving his sentence for that crime, the state may retain custody over him by proving that he is an SVP. The Supreme Court has held that these statutes are constitutional and, in particular, that they satisfy substantive due process...

 

Vincenzo Mastronardi, Antonio Del Casale
# Simulazione di malattia mentale
Supplemento alla Rivista di psichiatria, 2012, 47, 4
La simulazione ha una prevalenza vicina allo zero nella popolazione media, presentandosi quasi esclusivamente in soggetti detenuti in carcere, trattati in Ospedale Psichiatrico Giudiziario, in individui sottoposti a giudizio, o in personalità in ogni caso deviate dal punto di vista criminologico. Diagnosticare la simulazione di malattia mentale può essere non semplice in alcuni casi, poiché tale comportamento si colloca in stretto rapporto con diverse patologie: sindrome di Ganser, stati isterici, stati psicotici, disturbo fittizio, forme pseudo-demenziali, ipomaniacali e disturbi di personalità sono solo alcune delle entità nosologiche vicine alla simulazione...

 

Zhaoyu Gan, Zili Han, Kanglai Li, Feici Diao, Xiaoli Wu, Nianhong Guan, Jinbei Zhang
# Validation of the Chinese version of the “Mood Disorder Questionnaire” for screening bipolar disorder among patients with a current depressive episode
www.biomedcentral.com/ BMC Psychiatry 2012, 12:8
Many studies have reported that patients with BPD are frequently misdiagnosed with other disorders. The frequency of initial misdiagnosis was reported to be as high as 69%, with more than one third of patients with BPD incorrectly diagnosed for up to ten years or longer. At the same time, over-diagnosis of BPD is also reported to be common. Previous studies showed that the frequency of over-diagnosis could be more than 50%. Inaccurate and delayed diagnosis can often lead to inappropriate treatment, which in turn results in poor outcome. A number of strategies have been proposed to improve the detection of BPD in clinical practice. Using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is one of the common strategies.

 

S Naidoo, DL Mkize
# Prevalence of mental disorders in a prison population in Durban, South Africa
Afr J Psychiatry 2012;15:30-35
There is a high prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in a prison population in Durban, South Africa. The majority of these prisoners are untreated in prison, related to non detection of the mental disorder. Greater mental health awareness and provision of mental health services focusing on staff training programmes to detect mental illnesses are needed and further research is recommended throughout South Africa.

 

Jochem Willemsen, Paul Verhaeghe
# Psychopathy and internalizing psychopathology
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 35 (2012) 269–275
Although our sample consists of the most violent segment of offenders in the Belgian prison population and demonstrates a high level of externalizing pathology (a mean PCL-R score of 22.8), the level of internalizing psychopathology is considerably high: 20% of the participants manifest at least one current diagnosis of internalizing psychopathology. The distribution is asymmetrical with a large number of participants displaying no symptoms and a smaller number of participants displaying serious symptoms. The occurrence of internalizing psychopathology in our sample is more or less comparable to what has been found in previous studies.

 

Iñaki Markez y Cristina Iñigo (Coords.) | Grupo de trabajo sobre Salud Mental en Prisión (GSMP): Sociedad Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria (SESP) Asociación Española de Neuropsiquiatría (AEN)
# Guía. Atención y tratamientos en prisión por el uso de drogas

http://sesp.es/ GSMP: SampAEN y SESP 2012

Según datos de Instituciones Penitenciarias a 31 de diciembre de 2010, en España estaban encarceladas 63.403 personas de las cuales 5.041 eran mujeres (8%) (1). La prevalencia de la enfermedad mental ronda el 25-40%. De este porcentaje, entre el 4 y 6%, presenta un trastorno mental grave y entre un 30-50% de ellos tendría un trastorno relacionado con el consumo de drogas. Un 17,6% de los presos presenta antecedentes psiquiátricos previos a su ingreso en prisión; Entre ellos: un 2,6% padece trastornos de tipo psicótico; el 6,9% tiene antecedentes de un trastorno afectivo y un porcentaje igual padece algún trastorno de la personalidad. A estos datos hay que añadir el 9,6% de los internos de las prisiones tiene antecedentes de patología dual al coexistir en un mismo paciente un problema de abuso o dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas unido a cualquier otro trastorno psiquiátrico.

 

Australian Government | Australian Institute of Health andWelfare
# The mental health of prison entrants in Australia - 2010
Bulletin 104 • June 2012
Prisoners are more likely to have complex health needs and poor mental health, as well as higher use of illicit drugs and alcohol consumption than the general population. In addition, the prison environment, including crowded conditions, may have a further detrimental effect on prisoners’ physical and mental health...  Previous research has found a higher prevalence of mental health problems in the Australian prison population than in the general population. According to one diagnostic study in New South Wales, the overall prevalence of at least one mental health disorder, including drug and alcohol abuse, was 80% in the prison population compared with 31% in the general population.

 

Marco Pelissero
# Il doppio binario nel sistema penale italiano
www.law.unc.edu/ Conference Preventive Detention and Criminal Justice, Ravenna, May 11-12, 2012
Nel nostro sistema è oramai da anni in corso una profonda crisi del doppio binario che solleva problemi di compatibilità con i principi
costituzionali e, specie dopo le prese di posizione della CorEDU sulla disciplina della custodia di sicurezza in Germania, anche con le garanzie della CEDU. Tuttavia la crisi del sistema sanzionatorio a doppio binario non significhi affatto crisi dell’idea di un controllo penale della pericolosità dell’autore: dal doppio binario si è infatti passati alla pluralità dei binari preventivi all’interno ed al di fuori della pena.

 

Christopher Slobogin
# Preventive Detention in Europe and the United States
www.law.unc.edu/ Preventive Detention and Criminal Justice, Ravenna, May 11-12, 2012
The absence of a psychotic disorder would not necessarily mean that post-sentence preventive detention or preventive detention in lieu of sentence is impermissible, however. Some offenders with severe impulse control problems, although not as compromised as people with psychosis, might also be said to be undeterrable at the time of their crime

 

Sarah Ryan, Darius Whelan
# Diversion of Offenders with Mental Disorders: Mental Health Courts
http://webjcli.ncl.ac.uk/ Web Journal of Current Legal Issues Ltd 2012
At present, if people with mental disorders appear before the criminal courts in Ireland, unless they are unfit for trial or not guilty by reason of insanity, the system governing their case will be the general one which applies to all criminal cases. In recent decades, a number of other common law jurisdictions have begun to set up mental health courts as a means of diverting some people with mental disorders from the criminal justice system and into more appropriate treatment. This article begins with a review of the background to mental health courts, focusing on the concept of diversion from the criminal justice system and the role of Therapeutic Jurisprudence theory as an inspiration for the establishment of mental health courts. The main features of mental health courts are identified and the features of those in existence in the United States are contrasted with those in Canada and England and Wales. Some of the main arguments against the use of these courts will be discussed, including the contentions that defendants‟ participation may not be truly voluntary and that their due process rights are not adequately protected.. The question of whether a mental health court should be established in Ireland is considered.

 

Clayton Cramer
# Madness, Deinstitutionalization & Murder
Engage Volume 13, Issue 1, March 2012
Deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill was one of the truly remarkable public policy decisions of the 1960s and 1970s, and yet its full impact is barely recognized by most of the public. Partly this was because the changes did not happen overnight, but took place state-by-state over two decades, with no single national event. While homelessness received enormous public attention in the early 1980s, the news media’s reluctance to acknowledge the role that deinstitutionalization played in this human tragedy meant that the public safety connection was generally invisible to the general public. The solution remains unclear, but recognizing the consequences of deinstitutionalization is the first step.

 

Lisa Cosgrove, Sheldon Krimsky
# A Comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Panel Members’ Financial Associations with Industry: A Pernicious Problem Persists
PLoS Med 9(3): March 2012
- The American Psychiatric Association (APA) instituted a financial conflict of interest disclosure policy for the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). - The new disclosure policy has not been accompanied by a reduction in the financial conflicts of interest of DSM panel members. - Transparency alone cannot mitigate the potential for bias and is an insufficient solution for protecting the integrity of the revision process. - Gaps in APA’s disclosure policy are identified and recommendations for more stringent safeguards are offered.

 

Steven Penney
# Impulse Control and Criminal Responsibility: Lessons from Neuroscience
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 2012

Almost all of the world’s legal systems recognize the “M’Naghten” exception to criminal responsibility: the inability to appreciate the wrongfulness of action. This exception rests on the assumption that punishment is morally justified only if the defendant was able to choose whether to do wrong. Jurists and jurisdictions differ, however, on whether to extend M’Naghten’s logic to cases where the defendant understood the wrongfulness of an act but was incapable of resisting an impulse to commit it. In this article I ask whether contemporary neuroscience can help lawmakers to decide whether to adopt or retain this defence, known variously as the “irresistible impulse” defense or the “control” or “volitional” test for insanity.

 

Alec Buchanan, Renee Binder, Michael Norko, Marvin Swartz
# Resource Document on Psychiatric Violence Risk Assessment
Am J Psychiatry 169:3, March 2012
As deinstitutionalization advanced with the depopulation of state hospitals from their peak census of 550,000 in 1955, patients moved from hospitals to the community or, as some have argued, were  “trans-institutionalized” to other institutions such as adult care facilities and criminal justice settings. Community mental health centers  were often unprepared to accept the responsibility for the most impaired patients.

 

William B. Hawthorne, David P. Folsom, David H. Sommerfeld, Nicole M. Lanouette, Marshall Lewis, Gregory A. Aarons, Richard M. Conklin, Ellen Solorzano, Laurie A. Lindamer, Dilip V. Jeste
# Incarceration Among Adults Who Are in the Public Mental Health System: Rates, Risk Factors, and Short-Term Outcomes
Psychiatric Services 63:26–32, 2012
Incarceration of people with mental illness has become a major social, clinical, and economic concern, with an estimated 2.1 million incarcerations in 2007. Prior studies have primarily focused on mental illness rates among incarcerated persons. This study examined rates of and risk factors for incarceration and reincarceration, as well as shortterm outcomes after incarceration, among patients in a large public mental health system. Modifiable factors affecting incarceration risk include homelessness, substance abuse, lack of medical insurance, and timely receipt of outpatient or case management services after release from incarceration.

 

Michel Huyette
# Les malades mentaux et la prison, une condamnation de la France par la CEDH
www.huyette.net/ 24 Février 2012

 

Forum Santé Mentale
# Enjeux, Innovations et perspectives
www.ars.iledefrance.sante.fr/ Mardi 14 février 2012

Au 1er septembre 2011, l’Ile-de-France comptait 12 853 personnes détenues dans les établissements pénitentiaires ou sous contrôle de  l’administration  pénitentiaire  par  l’intermédiaire  du  bracelet électronique. Les 13 établissements pénitentiaires qu’elle comporte présentent  de façon endémique une surpopulation carcérale et des lieux de vie  en  détention  dégradés  malgré  les  efforts  engagés  depuis  plusieurs  années. La prise en charge de la santé mentale des détenues constitue l’un des principaux problèmes sanitaires constatés. Aussi, l’ARS Ile-de-
France entend développer une réelle politique de santé publique adaptée au milieu pénitentiaire à l’aide d’un programme régional spécifique en  faveur  de  la santé  des  personnes sous  main  de justice, appuyé sur une dynamique partenariale. Parmi  les  objectifs  de  ce  programme,  il  s’agira  notamment  de renforcer  la  prévention  du  suicide  et  plus  largement l’accompagnement en santé mentale. 

 

Jane Senior, Sharon McDonnell, Charlotte Lennox, Li Yao, Ning Zhang
# The Development of a Pilot Electronic Multi-Agency Information Sharing System for Offenders with Menta IllnessQ
www.nets.nihr.ac.uk/ National Institute for Health Research, February 2012
For people leaving prison with mental health problems, making contact with community mental health services can be difficult because they may not be registered with a family doctor, or have anywhere permanent to live. This study aims to establish a web-based eWorkbench service. This will provide browser-based fine-grain controlled access to the health records of mentally ill prisoners upon their release from the Multi Agency Information Sharing (MAIS) network prison. The study will evaluate the MAIS network and examine the feasibility of expansion to national roll-out...

 

Daniele Piccione
# Morte di un'istituzione totale? Il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
Associazione Italiana dei Costituzionalisti, Rivista n. 1/2012
1.- Premessa: la peculiarità del sistema italiano dopo la soppressione degli ospedali psichiatrici, nel 1978. 2.- L'azione della Commissione di inchiesta sul servizio sanitario nazionale e i prodromi dell'intervento legislativo. 3.- Caratteristiche dell'originario intervento normativo proposto dai componenti della Commissione di inchiesta. 4.- Il contenuto dell'art. 3-ter introdotto dalla l. 17 febbraio 2012, n. 9: le nuove strutture per l'esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza detentive. 5.- Una nuova occasione per lo studio del controllo sociale: il neo-isitituzionalismo e le politiche delle libertà costituzionali.

 

Ivan Zinger
# Mental Health in Federal Corrections: Refl ections and Future Directions
Health Law Review • 20:2, 2012
The latest internal CSC (Correctional Service of Canada) data suggest that 38% of the male federal offenders admitted to penitentiary require further assessment to determine if they have mental health needs. For admitted women offenders, more than 50% require further mental health assessment.

 

Ministère chargé de la Santé
# Plan Psychiatrie et Santé mentale 2011-2015
http://affairesjuridiques.aphp.fr/ 29 février 2012
La stigmatisation et l’exclusion sociale, qui constituent à la fois les facteurs de risque et parfois les conséquences des troubles mentaux, peuvent fortement entraver la demande d’aide et la guérison.  Les personnes qui vivent avec des troubles mentaux peuvent présenter une certaine vulnérabilité qui  demande une prise en compte particulière, lorsque la pathologie conduit au déni des troubles, au  refus de se faire soigner et à des difficultés à faire valoir ses droits, en particulier dans des  environnements perçus comme stigmatisants.  Il y a une responsabilité collective à prendre des mesures pour lutter efficacement contre  l’incompréhension et le jugement trop souvent porté sur les personnes et leur entourage.

 

Pat Bracken, Philip Thomas, Sami Timimi, Eia Asen, Graham Behr, Carl Beuster, Seth Bhunnoo, Ivor Browne, Navjyoat Chhina, Duncan Double, Simon Downer, Chris Evans, Suman Fernando, Malcolm R. Garland, William Hopkins, Rhodri Huws, Bob Johnson, Brian Martindale, Hugh Middleton, Daniel Moldavsky, Joanna Moncrieff, Simon Mullins, Julia Nelki, Matteo Pizzo, James Rodger, Marcellino Smyth, Derek Summerfield, Jeremy Wallace, David Yeomans
# Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm
The British Journal of Psychiatry (2012)
A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry’s identity as essentially ‘applied neuroscience’. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

 

Sophie Davison; Aleksandar Janca
# Personality Disorder and Criminal Behaviour. What Is the Nature of the Relationship?
Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2012;25(1):39-45.
Cluster A, B and C personality disorders are each associated with different types of offences. Although rates of personality disorder are high in all serious offenders, the role played by personality disorder may be greater in some offences than others, for example, in rapists compared with child molesters, men who kill their fathers rather than their mothers, men who kill their children compared with mothers who kill their children; and in less severe stalking behaviour compared with those who get convictions...

 

Giovanni Fossa, Elisa Zanelli, Alfredo Verde
# Il malato di mente autore di reato nelle strutture residenziali: una ricerca in una comunità terapeutica
Rassegna Italiana di Criminologia, anno VI, n. 2, 2012
Obiettivo principale di questo studio è comprendere se e quanto, in una struttura residenziale, i malati di mente autori di reato differiscono dai pazienti non autori di reato. A tale scopo è stata condotta un’analisi delle caratteristiche di 147 pazienti, di cui 66 autori di reato e 81 non-autori di reato, limitatamente ai pazienti ospitati dalla comunità Pra’ Ellera tra il 2005 e il 2010... In particolare i pazienti psichiatrici autori di reato condividono il medesimo tasso di insuccesso (uno su quattro non ce la fa); permangono mediamente in comunità per periodi solo leggermente superiori e non sono maggiori protagonisti di eventi critici (autolesioni, tentati suicidi). A differenza degli altri pazienti i malati di mente autori di reato registrano una diminuzione significativa del disturbo psicotico, che rimane comunque la diagnosi più frequente in comunità. 

 

Arthur Kleinman
# Culture, bereavement, and psychiatry
www.thelancet.com / Vol 379 February 18, 2012

The reframing of experience shows that medicine and its doctors may well be among the most effective and usually unrecognised agents of cultural change. Next time a bereaved person comes into the clinic and is asked about his or her background to assess how culture affects his or her
health condition, the physician, before deciding whether to treat the grief as depressive disorder, should fi rst look in the mirror to see where culture is also at work.

 

Arthur Kleinman
# Medical Anthropology and Mental Health: Five Questions for the Next Fifty Years
www.marciainhorn.com/ Medical Anthropology at the Intersections: Histories, Activisms, and Futures
Editor(s): Marcia C Inhorn, Emily A. Wentzell, 2012

It is also my personal observation that just as psychiatry has moved away from social research and the social sciences, almost turning its back on anthropology in its romance with genetics and neuroimaging, anthropology has gotten much more involved with infectious diseases, the female reproductive life cycle, transplantation surgery, biomedical research, and bioethics, and, while not turning away from global mental health, has become less excited by it.

 

Alan R. Felthous
# The Involuntary Medication of Jared Loughner and Pretrial Jail Detainees in Nonmedical Correctional Facilities
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 40:98 –112, 2012
In United States v. Loughner the Ninth Circuit will soon address the constitutionality of involuntarily medicating an incompetent pretrial defendant through a Harper order that could serve to render him competent to stand trial without the added procedural protection of a judicial hearing. Judicial support for applyingHarper orders to pretrial defendants is likely to be used to justify Harper orders for pretrial jail detainees, allowing them to be involuntarily medicated in a jail setting, even though the place of involuntary medication was not at issue in the Loughner case. Because of the critical clinical, ethics-related, and legal concerns for such practice, the potential misapplication of the Loughner ruling should be considered by the Ninth Circuit before rendering its decision. This is, however, unlikely because the Ninth Circuit has just determined that Loughner will continue to be involuntarily medicated, regardless of whether this occurs in a hospital or in a nonmedical correctional facility.

 

Eileen Baldry, Leanne Dowse, Melissa Clarence
# People with mental and cognitive disabilities: pathways into prison
www.mhdcd.unsw.edu.au/ Background Paper for Outlaws to Inclusion Conference - February 2012
The presence of people with mental health disorders and cognitive disability (MHDCD) in
criminal justice systems (CJS) in Australia, and internationally is not a new phenomenon but the rate of people with MHDCD and of those with cooccurring disorders in the CJS appears to have increased. International and national evidence points to widespread over representation of these persons in police work, the courts and juvenile and adult  prisoner  populations,  both  as  victims  and offenders.

 

Service correctionnel Canada
# Vers un continuum de soins. Stratégie en matière de santé mentale du Service correctionnel du Canada
www.csc-scc.gc.ca/ Date de modification: 2012-02-10
Une attention considérable a été accordée à la prévalence accrue des besoins en santé mentale des délinquants et des implications liées à l'évolution de leur profil. Satisfaire les besoins en santé mentale des délinquants permet de promouvoir une meilleure qualité de vie, de réduire les souffrances, de respecter les droits fondamentaux de la personne et de satisfaire aux exigences énoncées dans la LSCMLC concernant la prestation des services de santé essentiels et l'accès raisonnable aux services non essentiels. Par ailleurs, la promotion de la stabilité mentale peut contribuer à accroître la sécurité publique directement (en réduisant les symptômes de troubles mentaux associés au cycle de délinquance du délinquant) ou indirectement (en permettant au délinquant de participer à des programmes correctionnels pour traiter les facteurs qui l'incitent à poursuivre ses activités criminelles, comme la toxicomanie, les attitudes criminelles, etc.).

 

Vicky Short, Charlotte Lennox, Caroline Stevenson, Jane Senior, Jenny Shaw | The Offender Health Research Network OHRN
# Mental Illness, Personality and Violence: A Scoping Review
www.ohrn.nhs.uk/ January 2012
A relationship between Personality Disorder and offending had been reported, relating to both violent and sexual crimes. In particular, a link between Cluster B  disorders such as Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic and Narcissistic has been shown,  as these are the most prevalent within offender samples. As above, more research,  over longer periods of time, using larger samples would clarify the nature of this  relationship... Overall, studies have shown that a number of mental illnesses are linked to  offending, but as yet, no causal relationships have been established. Further  research exploring the nature of these links and addressing well-documented  methodological problems is therefore required. 

 

Laura Batstra, Allen Frances
# Holding the Line against Diagnostic Inflation in Psychiatry
Psychother Psychosom 2012;81:5–10
Stepped diagnosis is a tool to help physicians and mental health workers make more accurate diagnoses and to reduce the provision of unnecessary and possibly harmful treatment. It is intended to reduce false-positive diagnoses and consequential artificially elevated rates of mental illness without risking missed diagnosis and undertreatment. It should also improve the allocation of resources by redirecting diagnosis and care away from those who do not really need them towards those who really do.

 

Santhushi Mendis, Richard E. Hodgson
# Ganser syndrome: examining the aetiological debate through a systematic case report review
Eur. J. Psychiat. Vol. 26, N.° 2, (96-106) 2012
The aetiology of the syndrome described by Ganser in 1898 has been the subject of disagreement. Proposed causes include hysteria, psychosis and stress. In addition, the presence of the syndrome in association with medical conditions raises the possibility of an organic aetiology... The absence of a comorbid mental illness in the majority of cases may suggest a specific aetiological mechanism which supports the argument that Ganser syndrome should be ranked as a distinct nosological entity along with some other rare psychiatric disorders...

 

Singh JP, Grann, Lichtenstein, Niklas Långström, Seena Fazel
# A Novel Approach to Determining Violence Risk in Schizophrenia: Developing a Stepped Strategy in 13,806 Discharged Patients
www.plosone.org/ PLoS ONE 7(2) 2012
Clinical guidelines recommend that violence risk be assessed in schizophrenia. Current approaches are resource-intensive as they employ detailed clinical assessments of dangerousness for most patients. An alternative approach would be to first screen out patients at very low risk of future violence prior to more costly and time-consuming assessments. In order to implement such a stepped strategy, we developed a simple tool to screen out individuals with schizophrenia at very low risk of violent offending. We merged high quality Swedish national registers containing information on psychiatric diagnoses, socio-demographic factors, and violent crime. A cohort of 13,806 individuals with hospital discharge diagnoses of schizophrenia was identified and followed for up to 33 years for violent crime. Cox regression was used to determine risk factors for violent crime and construct the screening tool, the predictive validity of which was measured using four outcome statistics. The instrument was calibrated on 6,903 participants and cross-validated using three independent replication samples of 2,301 participants each. Regression analyses resulted in a tool composed of five items: male sex, previous criminal conviction, young age at assessment, comorbid alcohol abuse, and comorbid drug abuse. At 5 years after discharge, the instrument had a negative predictive value of 0.99 (95% CI = 0.98–0.99), meaning that very few individuals who the tool screened out (n = 2,359 out of original sample of 6,903) were subsequently convicted of a violent offence. Screening out patients who are at very low risk of violence prior to more detailed clinical assessment may assist the risk assessment process in schizophrenia.

 

Peter Lehmann
# About the Intrinsic Suicidal Effects of Neuroleptics: Towards breaking the taboo and fighting therapeutic recklessness
International Journal of Psychotherapy, 2012, vol. 16, n. 1
Suicide is a frequent cause of death in people diagnosed with “schizophrenia.” These patients generally receive neuroleptics, which have an intrinsic suicidal effect. There are placebo studies, epidemiological surveys, first-hand reports, self-experiments and clinical research  providing evidence about neuroleptic-caused depression and suicidality. Publications about  the suicidal effects of neuroleptics – currently taboo – and suicide registers might reduce  suicidality in “schizophrenics.

 

Melissa Northcott
# Intimate Partner Violence Risk Assessment Tools: A Review
http://www.justice.gc.ca/ 20.10.2012

The majority of risk assessment tools used in criminal justice settings contain two types of risk factors: static and dynamic. Static risk factors are risk factors that are fixed and unchangeable, such as demographic factors (e.g., age, gender), childhood history and criminal history. Dynamic risk factors “fluctuate over time and reflect internal states or temporary circumstances of the individual, such as beliefs and cognitions, everyday associates, and feelings of hostility”. Dynamic risk factors are factors that can change and these changes may be associated with changes in risk level. Dynamic risk factors are also known as “criminogenic needs”...

 

Stefan Leucht, Sandra Hierl, Werner Kissling, Markus Dold, John M. Davis
# Putting the efficacy of psychiatric and general medicine medication into perspective: review of meta-analyses
The British Journal of Psychiatry (2012) 200: 97-106

We included 94 meta-analyses (48 drugs in 20 medical diseases, 16 drugs in 8 psychiatric disorders). There were some general medical drugs with clearly higher effect sizes than the psychotropic agents, but the psychiatric drugs were not generally less efficacious than other drugs. Any comparison of different outcomes in different diseases can only serve the purpose of a qualitative perspective. The increment of improvement by drug over placebo must be viewed in the context of the disease’s seriousness, suffering induced, natural course, duration, outcomes, adverse events and  societal values.

 

Florian Seemüller, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Sandra Dittmann, Richard Musil
# Is the efficacy of psychopharmacological drugs comparable to the efficacy of general medicine medication?
www.biomedcentral.com/ BMC Medicine 2012
There is an ongoing debate concerning the risk benefit ratio of psychopharmacologic compounds. With respect to the benefit, recent reports and metaanalyses note only small effect sizes with comparably high placebo response rates in the psychiatric field. These reports together with others lead to a wider, general critique on psychotropic drugs in the scientific community and in the lay press. In a recently published article, Leucht and his colleagues compare the efficacy of psychotropic drugs with the efficacy of common general medicine drugs in different indications according to results from reviewed meta-analyses. The authors conclude that, overall, the psychiatric drugs were generally not less effective than most other medical drugs. This article will highlight some of the results of this systematic review and discuss the limitations and the impact of this important approach on the above mentioned debate.

 

Vicky Short, Charlotte Lennox, Caroline Stevenson, Jane Senior, Jenny Shaw
# Mental Illness, Personality Disorder and Violence: A Scoping Review
www.ohrn.nhs.uk/ The Offender Health Research Network, January 2012
Studies report a high prevalence rate of personality disorders, in particular Cluster B. However, none of these studies attempted to establish a causal link between sexual offending and personality disorder as most studies measure only point prevalence in offenders located either in prison or treatment centres. Therefore, it cannot be presumed that the personality disorders were present at the commission of the sexual offence. More research is needed with larger sample sizes and more importantly, comparison groups. 

 

Steven Raphael, Michael A. Stoll
# Assessing the Contribution of the Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill to Growth in the U.S. Incarceration Rate
https://gspp.berkeley.edu/ January 2012
For the twenty year period from 1980 to 2000, we find significant trans-institutionalization rates for all men and women, with relatively large trans-institutionalization rate for men in comparison to women, and the largest trans-institutionalization rate observed for white men. Our stimates suggest that between 4 and 7 percent of incarceration growth between 1980 and 2000 is attributable to deinstitutionalization. While this is a relatively small contribution to prison growth overall, the results do suggest that a sizable portion of the mentally ill behind bars would not have been incarcerated in years past.

 

A. Haines, B. Goldson, A. Haycox, R. Houten, S. Lane, J. McGuire, T. Nathan, E. Perkins, S. Richards, R. Whittington | University of Liverpool
# Evaluation of the Youth Justice Liaison and Diversion (YJLD) Pilot Scheme. Final Report
www.gov.uk/ January 2012
The specific objectives of the YJLD pilot scheme are: To improve early identification at the point of entry into the youth justice system (YJS) (usually the police custody suite) of under 18 year olds with mental health, learning, communication difficulties or other vulnerabilities affecting their well being; To enhance access for these groups of vulnerable young people in the YJS to multi agency support equipped to meet their needs; Evaluation of the Youth Justice Liaison and Diversion Pilot Scheme. As appropriate, to divert young people either from the YJS towards personalised packages of health and social care or, within the YJS, to services better equipped to meet their health, emotional well being and welfare needs; To promote more timely and cost effective disposal...

 

The Royal Society
# Neuroscience and the Law
http://royalsociety.org/ December 2011
Is it possible that evidence from neuroscience or behavioural genetics could one day be used, along with existing techniques, to increase the accuracy of risk assessment? Might it be possible to find neurobiological markers of a propensity to violent or impulsive behaviour that could be used in decisions about probation and parole? Whilst such identification might not of itself be accurate enough to make a decision on the fate of an individual when taken alone, it might be useful in combination with other information in the assessment of risk. In addition, evidence from neuroscience or behavioural genetics might help to provide a basis for effective treatment or rehabilitation.

 

Rick Ruddell, G. Larry Mays
# Trouble in the Heartland: Challenges Confronting Rural Jails
International Journal of Rural Criminology, Volume 1, Issue 1 (December), 2011
A follow-up study finds that the operations of rural jails were shaped by changing inmate populations and that special needs inmates (e.g., persons with mental illness) placed a significant demand on staff time and resources... Participants were also asked to rate how unruly these inmates were based on a list of disruptive or criminal behaviors within the facility (e.g., engaging in assaults or causing a disturbance). Respondents were given seven different examples of  disruptive behavior, and the values were summed for each group; the most disruptive  group had a maximum possible ranking of seven. Not surprisingly, persons with mental illness were identified as the most disruptive group, and they are commonly encountered in local corrections...

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile
http://iapdeathsincustody.independent.gov.uk/ December 2011
10% of men and 30% of women have had a previous psychiatric admission before they come into prison. Neurotic and personality disorders are particularly prevalent - 40% of male and 63% of female sentenced prisoners have a neurotic disorder, over three times the level in the general population. 62% of male and 57% of female sentenced prisoners have a personality disorder. According to Michael Spurr, then NOMS Chief Operating Offi cer, at any one time 10% of the prison population has ‘serious mental health problems’.

 

The Offender Health Research Network | Jane Senior, Charlotte Lennox, Heather Noga, Jenny Shaw
# Liaison and Diversion Services: Current Practices and future directions
www.ohrn.nhs.uk/ November 2011
The presence of people with mental illness in the England and Wales prison system has been of  concern for several centuries. In 1990, the Home Office (HO) issued guidance to courts, reminding them of existing powers to divert people with mental illness away from criminal justice system (CJS) processes, into health and social care, where no public interest was to be served by continuing prosecution. More recently, an independent review into diversion from custody for offenders with mental health problems or learning disabilities was published, making recommendations to government about the organisation of effective court liaison and diversion arrangements and the services needed to support them...

 

Francesca Maria Zanasi
# Stalking. Nozioni, informazioni, statistiche
www.personaedanno.it/ 28.11.2011
Il campo d’azione dello stalking non ha più confini: dagli ultimi studi emerge chiaramente che non esiste un unico profile di stalker: tale sindrome raccoglie “sotto un denominatore comune un ampio spettro di soggetti imputati di molestie assillanti e una variegata costellazione di comportamenti intrusivi. La diversità del campionamento non permette ancora di inquadrare con chiarezza e precisione la percentuale dell’incidenza di disturbi psichiatrici nelle sindromi di stalking”.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
# Mortality related to drug use in Europe
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ November 2011
In terms of contextual factors, the period following release from prison is a time of particularly high overdose risk for drug users, due to relapse into heroin use and reduced tolerance to opioids. A recent meta-analysis of studies in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States of America found a three to eight-fold increased risk of drug-related death in the first one to two weeks after release compared with weeks 3 to 12. The study found that the risk remained elevated up to at least the fourth week...

 

Royal College of General Practioners | Marcus Bicknell, Iain Brew, Cathy Cooke, Howard Duncalf, Jan Palmer, Jimi Robinson
# Safer Prescribing in Prisons. Guidance for clinicians
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ November 2011
Within prisons the incidence of patients requesting treatment for pain is high and clinicians who issue these prescriptions should be aware of the abuse potential of prescription drugs. Clinicians should be acutely aware of the problems associated with analgesia abuse and dependence. The main area of concern is opiate based analgesia.

 

Jan Volavka, Leslie Citrome
# Pathways to Aggression in Schizophrenia Affect Results of Treatment
Schizophr Bull. Sep 2011; 37(5): 921–929.
There is a general agreement that schizophrenia is associated with elevated risk for aggressive behavior and violent crime. There is also relatively robust evidence indicating that clozapine is the most effective pharmacological treatment for hostility and persistent overt aggression in schizophrenia.

 

Johnathan Fish
# Overcrowding of the Ship of Fools: Health Care Reform, Psychiatry, and the Uncertain Future of Normality
www.law.uh.edu/ Hous J. Health L. & Pol’y, 2011
The inverse relationship between psychiatric treatment and mental illness is not disputable. The more Americans submit to mental health care, the more mentally ill the nation becomes. The primary drivers of increases in mental health spending are psychotropic drugs, and increasing drug consumption is a function of supply (new drug treatments) as well as demand (the increasing number of people diagnosed as mentally ill). It is also attributable  to more generous insurance coverage. In light of the prior editions of DSM and the proposals for DSM-V, it is clear that psychiatry is stubbornly committed to increasing the prevalence of mental illness. Therefore, new federal entitlement to mental health coverage all but guarantees more diagnostic expansion, a larger  drug market, and a surge in diagnoses and psychotropic drug use.

 

Michele Miravalle

# La riforma della sanità penitenziaria: il caso Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari. Esigenze etiche e giuridiche dell'oltre

www.altrodiritto.unifi.it/ (2011)

 

Sandeep Kumar Goyal, Paramjit Singh, Parshotam D. Gargi, Samta Goyal, Aseem Garg
# Psychiatric morbidity in prisoners
Indian J Psychiatry. 2011 Jul-Sep; 53(3): 253–257.
The prevalence of psychiatric illness in correctional settings is significantly elevated, with higher than community rates reported for most mental disorders... 500 convicts were assessed for psychiatric morbidity: 23.8% of the convicted prisoners were suffering from psychiatric illness excluding substance abuse. 56.4% of the prisoners had history of substance abuse / dependence prior to incarceration.

 

Jay P. Singh, Mark Serper, Jonathan Reinharth, and Seena Fazel
# Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Schizophrenia and Other Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review of the Validity, Reliability, and Item Content of 10 Available Instruments
Schizophrenia Bulletin vol. 37 no. 5 pp. 899–912, 2011
While a number of violence risk assessment tools exist that can be used to predict the likelihood of community violence in psychiatric patients, there is currently little direct evidence for their utility in individualswith schizophrenia. In addition, there is large variation in item content between instruments, and further research is necessary todeterminewhether theinclusionof alternative factors could improve risk assessment.

 

Blagov, Pavel S.; Patrick, Christopher J.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Powers, Abigail D.; Phifer, Justine E.; Venables, Noah; Hudak, Marissa; Herres, Daniel J.; Lieb, Kate; Leigh, Sophia C. Garvin; Cooper, Gabrielle
# Personality Constellations in Incarcerated Psychopathic Men
Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment 2011, Vol. 2, No. 4, 293–315
We conducted a classification study of 91 incarcerated men who met conventional criteria for high levels of psychopathy using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. We expanded on the methodology of previous research on psychopathy subtypes by utilizing a comprehensive personality assessment instrument and a prototype matching approach to classification. The analyses revealed a primary (narcissistic) subtype and a secondary (hostile and dysregulated) subtype that were broadly consistent with the previous literature.

 

Jennifer L. Skeem, John Monahan
# Current Directions in Violence Risk Assessment
Current Directions in Psychological Science 20(1) 38-42 2011
Over recent years, a variety of instruments that improve clinicians’ ability to forecast the likelihood that an individual will behave violently have been published. Increasingly, these instruments are being applied in response to laws that require specialized risk assessments. In this article, we present a framework that goes beyond the ‘‘clinical’’ and ‘‘actuarial’’ dichotomy to describe a continuum of structured approaches to risk assessment. Despite differences among validated instruments, there is little evidence that one predicts violence better than another.We believe that these group-based instruments are useful for assessing an individual’s risk and that an instrument should be chosen based on an evaluation’s purpose (i.e., risk assessment vs. risk reduction). The time is ripe to shift attention from predicting violence to understanding its causes and preventing its (re) occurrence.

 

Tarun Dua, Corrado Barbui, Nicolas Clark, Alexandra Fleischmann, Vladimir Poznyak, Mark van Ommeren, M. Taghi Yasamy, Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Gretchen L. Birbeck, Colin Drummond, Melvyn Freeman, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Itzhak Levav, Isidore S. Obot, Olayinka Omigbodun, Vikram Patel, Michael Phillips, Martin Prince, Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar, Atif Rahman, Josemir W. Sander, John B. Saunders, Chiara Servili, Thara Rangaswamy, Jürgen Unützer, Peter Ventevogel, Lakshmi Vijayakumar, Graham Thornicroft, Shekhar Saxena
# Evidence-Based Guidelines for Mental, Neurological, Substance Use Disorders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Summary of WHO Recommendations
www.plosmedicine.org/ PLoS Med 8, November 2011
The treatment gap for mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders is more than 75% in many low- and middle-income countries. In order to reduce the gap, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a model intervention guide within its Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP). The model intervention guide provides evidence-based recommendations developed with the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology.

 

Francisco Pérez-Fernández, Joanne Mampaso-Desbrow, Nereida Bueno-Guerra
# El Psicólogo de Prisiones en España
Psychologia Latina, 2011, Vol. 2, No. 2, 132-143
Persiste la tópica confusión en torno al papel del psicólogo y del psiquiatra en lo tocante a sus diferentes actividades. De hecho, ambos comparten tradicionalmente una metodología similar, con las variaciones normales debidas a los diversos ámbitos de aplicación de sus trabajos respectivos, que difiere, moderadamente, en el peso que unos y otros otorgan a las diferentes tipologías de tests mentales –cuantitativos, proyectivos, neuropsicológicos y etcétera– si bien nadie los consideraría contraproducentes en algún sentido y sea cual fuere su tipo...

 

Medco
# America's State of Mind
World Health Organization, Washington 2011

Overall, the number of Americans on medications used to treat psychological and behavioral disorders has substantially increased since 2001; more than one]in]five adults was on at least one of these medications in 2010, up 22 percent from ten years earlier. Women are far more likely to take a drug to treat a mental health condition than men, with more than a quarter of the adult female population on these drugs in 2010 as compared to 15 percent of men. Women ages 45 and older showed the highest use of these drugs overall. Yet surprisingly, it was younger men (ages 20 to 44) who experienced the greatest increase in their numbers, rising 43 percent from 2001 to 2010.

 

Mweene Tembalami Nseluke, S Siziya
# Prevalence and Socio-Demographic Correlates for Mental Illness Among Inmates at Lusaka Central Prison, Zambia
Medical Journal of Zambia, Vol. 38, No. 2 (2011)
Of the 206 inmates in Lusaka, 63.1% had current mental illness. Among the factors considered in the study, only marital status was significantly associated with mental illness. Married participants were 40% (OR=0.60; 95% CI [0.36, 0.98]) less likely to have mental illness compared with participants who were who were separated/divorced.

 

Anne Laporte, Pierre Chauvin (Directeurs scientifiques) | Observatoire du Samusocial de Paris et INSERM
# La Santé Mentale et les Addictions chez les personnes sans logement personnel d'Ile-de-France
http://observatoire.samusocial-75.fr/ Rapport final - Janvier 2010

 

Anne Laporte, Erwan Le Méner, Pierre Chauvin
# La santé mentale et les addictions des personnes sans logement personnel en Île-de-France
La lettre - Observatoire de la Pauvreté et de l'Exlusion Sociale, n. 5 septembre 2010

 

A. Laporte, M-A Détrez A Détrez, C. Douay, Y. Le Strat, E. Le Mener, P. Chauvin et l’équipe de recherche Samenta

# L’enquête Samenta

www.onpes.gouv.fr/ 2011

 

Haut Conseil de la santé publique
# Évaluation du Plan Psychiatrie et Santé mentale 2005-2008
www.hcsp.fr/ Octobre 2011
Trois types de mesures ont concerné les personnes détenues de façon générale : l’amélioration des soins psychiatriques en milieu hospitalier et en milieu pénitentiaire (élaboration de recommandations de bonnes pratiques par la HAS, renforcement des  équipes hospitalières de secteur, déploiement des Unités hospitalières spécialement aménagées - UHSA)... La relance d’outils permettant une prise en charge globale et coordonnée... La mise en place d’un programme santé/justice développant la prévention du suicide des personnes détenues...

 

Liat Ben-Moshe
# Genealogies of Resistance to Incarceration: Abolition Politics within Deinstitutionalization and Anti-Prison Activism in the U.S.
Sociology - Dissertations Paper 70 - 2011
Even for those of us who find deinstitutionalization, anti- psychiatry and prison abolition movements to be “too radical” or problematic for whatever reason, I believe activists and scholars could benefit greatly from connecting them to each other and paying attention to the path of abolition of oppressive institutions. People or ideas, which are perceived as radical are often characterized as dangerous, and sometimes “crazy,” and these are exactly the populations we still hold behind bars and locked doors. But in terms of abolition, people who called for the abolition of slavery were also called dangerous and some lost their lives in the struggle, but you would be hard pressed to find people who advocate for slavery today. One can hope that this will be the case in relation to prisons and institutions in the imminent future.

 

Ashley M. Hosker-Field
# Psychopathy and Aggression: Examining the Role of Empathy
https://dr.library.brocku.ca/ Brock University August 2011
Empirical research has consistently demonstrated a positive association between psychopathic traits and physical aggression. Moreover, research has also found that the emotional/interpersonal psychopathy traits tend to be more closely associated with goal oriented, proactive aggression, whereas the social deviance psychopathy characteristics have been more closely linked to reactive aggression, which is perpetrated in response to threat or provocation...

 

Lamiece Hassan, Luke Birmingham, Mari A. Harty, Manuela Jarrett, Peter Jones, Carlene King, Judith Lathlean, Carrie Lowthian, Alice Mills, Jane Senior, Graham Thornicroft, Roger Webb, Jenny Shaw
# Prospective cohort study of mental health during imprisonment
http://bjp.rcpsych.org/ The British Journal of Psychiatry (2011)
The ‘diversion agenda’ has gathered momentum in recent years, with increasing calls for non-custodial alternatives for vulnerable groups. By reporting group differences in response to early imprisonment, our findings may usefully contribute to the growing policy and research literature surrounding this debate. Growth in the UK prison population means that for the foreseeable future, the number of people with mental illness in prisons is expected to rise...

 

Eduard Vieta, Elena Blasco-Colmenares, Maria Luisa Figueira, Jens M Langosch, Miriam Moreno-Manzanaro, Esteban Medina
# Clinical management and burden of bipolar disorder: a multinational longitudinal study (WAVE-bd Study)
BMC Psychiatry 2011, 11:58
Studies in bipolar disorder (BD) to date are limited in their ability to provide a whole-disease perspective - their scope has generally been confined to a single disease phase and/or a specific treatment. Moreover, most clinical trials have focused on the manic phase of disease, and not on depression, which is associated with the greatest disease burden. There are few longitudinal studies covering both types of patients with BD (I and II) and the whole course of the disease, regardless of patients’ symptomatology... This study will provide detailed descriptions of the management of BD in different countries, particularly in terms of clinical outcomes and resources used. Thus, it should provide psychiatrists with reliable and up- o-date information about those factors associated with different management patterns of BD.

 

David M. Fergusson, Joseph M. Boden, L. John Horwood, Allison L. Miller, Martin A. Kennedy
# MAOA, abuse exposure and antisocial behaviour: 30-year longitudinal study

The British Journal of Psychiatry (2011) 198, 457–463
Regression models were fitted to five antisocial behaviour outcomes (self-reported property offending; self-reported violent offending; convictions for property/violent offending; conduct problems; hostility) observed from age 16 to 30, using measures of childhood exposure to sexual and physical abuse. The analyses revealed consistent evidence of G6E interactions, with those having the low-activity MAOA variant and who were exposed to abuse in childhood being significantly more likely to report later offending, conduct problems and hostility. These interactions remained statistically significant after control for a range of potentially confounding factors. Findings for convictions data were somewhat weaker.

 

Association for Criminal Justice Research & Development ACJRD
# Mental Health in the Criminal Justice System - The deliverables of the Governments ‘Vision for Change’
www.acjrd.ie/ Friday 14th October 2011
Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System - Working Together - Jimmy Martin, Bairbre Nic Aongusa | Severe Mental Illness, Vision for Change and the Criminal Justice System - Harry Kennedy | Bringing recovery principles to the secure environment: Deborah Alred | Mental Health Issues in Criminal Trials - Dara Robinson, | Mental Health in the Criminal Justice System - The Perspective from the IPS - Fergal Black | Mental Health in Prisons – Because you’re worth it - Andrew Fraser

 

Zen Faulkes
# Can Brain Imaging Replace Interrogation and Torture?
Global Virtue Ethics Review - Volume Six, Number 2, pp. 55-78 2011
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the best known brain imaging technique, and can already be used to determine hidden conscious states of an individual, and to determine true and false statements with accuracy greater than chance. Thus, the main empirical question is no longer if brain imaging can be used productively in security situations, but rather how practical it might be and how confident users may be in the information obtained. Ethical questions about appropriate uses of brain imaging technology in security situations are immediate and urgent,  but ethical concerns about privacy and similar issues raised by brain imaging appear minor compared to the ethical issues raised by torture.

 

Bernard E. Harcourt
# Reducing Mass Incarceration: Lessons from the Deinstitutionalization of Mental Hospitals in the 1960s
Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law Vol 9:1 2011
In a message to Congress in 1963, President John F. Kennedy outlined a federal program designed to reduce by half the number of persons in custody. The institutions at issue were state hospitals and asylums for the mentally ill, and the number of such persons in custody was staggeringly large, in fact comparable to contemporary levels of mass incarceration in prisons and jails. President Kennedy’s message to Congress—the first and perhaps only presidential message to Congress that dealt exclusively with the issue of institutionalization in this country—proposed replacing state mental hospitals with community mental health centers, a program ultimately enacted by Congress in 1963 under the Community Mental Health Centers Act.

 

Elisa Brietzke, Ary Gadelha Araripe Neto, Álvaro Dias, Rodrigo Barbachan Mansur, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan
# Early intervention in psychosis: a map of clinical and research initiatives in Latin America
Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria • vol 33 • Supl II • out2011
In the majority of the cases, schizophrenia is associated with a devastating impact in the life of affected individuals, their families, and society. Uncountable losses related to professional life, social relationships, scholar achievements, and economic burden associated with schizophrenia spectrum disorders have been considered as major reasons to develop endeavors to prevent, reduce severity, and rehabilitate individuals with psychosis...

 

Jill E. Rogstad
# Psychopathy and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Gender Differences in Empathy and Alexithymia
University of North Texas, August 2011

 

Sidney M. Wolfe (ed.)
# Criminalizing the Seriously Mentally Ill: Two Decades Later
http://www.citizen.org/ Healt Letter, July 2011, vol. 27, n. 7
The number of seriously mentally ill individuals in jails has increased sharply during the last two decades. As state psychiatric hospitals have increasingly been shut down, more individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder wander the streets untreated. Many commit minor crimes, such as shoplifting, but a few commit major crimes, including homicides, thus landing in jail. By 2000, the percentage of jail inmates with serious mental illnesses had increased to at least 10 percent and has now risen to 20 percent or higher.

 

Carol Trevey
# “Prisoners of the Mind”?: The Inappropriateness of Comparing the Involuntarily Committed Mentally Ill to Pretrial Detainees in Fourth Amnedment Analyses
Journal of Constitutional Law Vol. 13:5 June 2011
Part I will discuss the Fourth Amendment as applied to convicted prisoners, pretrial detainees, and the civilly committed. Part II will outline the role  of individualized suspicion in Fourth Amendment jurisprudence.Part III will discuss the legal status of the involuntarily committed, particularly precedents comparing the involuntarily committed and pretrial detainees, and civilly committed patients’ right to be free from punishment. Part IV will discuss the role of dangerousness in legal standards for civil commitment. Part V will discuss institutional concerns, including institutional violence and how individualized suspicion may be reconciled with the requirement that courts defer to the judgment of mental health professionals in Fourth Amendment analysis.

 

Lois M. Davis, Malcolm V. Williams, Kathryn Pitkin Derose, Paul Steinberg, Nancy Nicosia, Adrian Overton, Lisa Miyashiro, Susan Turner, Terry Fain, Eugene Williams III
# Understanding the Public Health Implications of Prisoner Reentry in California. State-of-the-State Report
RAND Infrastructure, Safety, and Environment Safety and Justice Program 2011
As an increasing number of prisoners are released from prisons and return to local communities, there are key questions about what health care needs they have and what role health plays in affecting their success at integrating back into communities. In terms of the first issue, prior research has found that the prison population is disproportionately sicker, on average, than the U.S. population in general, with substantially higher burdens of infectious diseases (such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and hepatitis B and C), serious mental illness, and comorbidities, or co-occurring disorders (National Commission on Correctional Health Care, 2002).

 

Antonio Salvati
# La pericolosità sociale nell’ordinamento giuridico italiano
Amministrazione in cammino, 11 maggio 2011
1. Premessa. – 2. L'evoluzione storica del profilo giuridico della pericolosità sociale. – 3. Aspetti e considerazioni critiche dell'accertamento giudiziale della pericolosità sociale.

 

Heidi J. Wehring, William T. Carpenter
# Violence and Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia Bulletin vol. 37 no. 5 pp. 877–878, 2011
In public perception, schizophrenia is often associated with violence. This view is reinforced each time there are media reports of violent acts by purported mentally ill persons. There has been inadequate scientific attention to this domain of pathology, especially in therapeutic development. This may be changing, and we note that there have been many recent submissions to the Bulletin related to violence, some of which are now available in this issue, the May 2011 issue, and on line.Persons with schizophrenia are undoubtedly at increased risk of becoming victims of violence in the community setting,  with risks up to 14 times the rate of being victimized compared with being arrested as a perpetrator. Although persons with schizophrenia are more likely to be the victims of violence than to perpetrate violence, the majority of the literature published since 1990 regarding violence in severe mental illness has focused on perpetration rather than victimization.

 

Danièle Gilis
# Psychiatrie : les malades abandonnés
Cerveau & Psycho - n°46 juillet-août 2011
La situation des malades mentaux en France est indigne. Face à une réduction des capacités d’accueil en hôpitaux psychiatriques, les malades se retrouvent souvent à la rue ou en prison... Quand aucune prise en charge n’est possible, la situation du malade continue à se dégrader : il se retrouve expulsé, à la rue, voire en détention. Depuis que nous avons fermé les lits hospitaliers, beaucoup de malades mentaux vivent dans la rue ou en prison...

 

Grupo PRECA (Prevalencia Carceles)
# Informe prevalencia de trastornos mentales en centros penitenciarios españoles (Estudio PRECA)
Barcelona Junio 2011
La prevalencia en el último mes de presentar cualquier trastorno mental fue del 41,2%. El trastorno más prevalente fue el de ansiedad (23,3%) seguido del trastorno  por uso de sustancias (17,5%), trastorno afectivo (14,9%) y trastorno psicótico (4,2%).  Dentro de las categorías mencionadas previamente, los trastornos más frecuentes  fueron el trastorno por uso de cannabis (14,4%), trastorno de ansiedad no especificado  (9,2%) y el trastorno depresivo mayor (7,8%).

 

Suresh Bada Math, Pratima Murthy, Rajani Parthasarthy, C Naveen Kumar, S Madhusudhan
# Mental Health and Substance Use Problems in Prisons: Local Lessons for National Action
Publication, National Institute of Mental Health Neuro Sciences, Bangalore
(2011).
World over, it has been established that prisons have a high prevalence of mental health and substance use problems. Estimates from different countries suggest that the prevalence of mental health problems in prisons is three to five times higher than in the general population. The World Health Organization in 2008 noted that of the nine million prisoners world-wide, at least one million suffer from a significant mental disorder and even more suffer from common mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. There is often co-morbidity with conditions such as personality disorder, alcohol and drug dependence. Mental disorders and substance use (tobacco, alcohol and other drugs) may either be present prior to prison entry or get exacerbated in prison.

 

Centonze, Alessandro
# L'inquadramento dei disturbi mentali atipici, la capacità giuridica penale e l'accertamento della pericolosità sociale dell'imputato
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, 2011 - Vol. 14 - Fasc. 3 (53-75)
1. Il dibattito scientifico sui disturbi mentali atipici e l’evoluzione della giurisprudenza di legittimità in tema di accertamento dell’imputabilità dell’imputato. – 2. L’inquadramento dei disturbi mentali atipici, il finalismo rieducativo della pena e i pericoli di intuizionismo giudiziario nell’accertamento delle infermità psichiche. – 3. L’incapacità giuridica penale dell’infermo di mente e l’accertamento dell’imputabilità nel rapporto di collaborazione tra giustizia penale e psichiatria forense. – 4. L’accertamento del nesso eziologico tra il disturbo mentale atipico e il comportamento illecito e la crisi del principio di causalità nelle scienze biologiche. – 5. L’inquadramento dei disturbi mentali atipici e la valutazione della pericolosità sociale dell’imputato nella prospettiva interpretativa prefigurata dalla sentenza della Corte Costituzionale n. 253 del 18 luglio 2003.

 

Michael Soyka
# Neurobiology of Aggression and Violence in Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia Bulletin vol. 37 no. 5 pp. 913–920, 2011
There is much evidence that schizophrenia patients have an increased risk for aggression and violent behavior, including homicide. The neurobiological basis and correlates of this risk have not been much studied. While genome-wide association studies are lacking, a number of candidate genes have been investigated. By far, the most intensively studied is the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene on chromosome  22. COMT is involved in the metabolism of dopamine, a key neurotransmitter in schizophrenia pathophysiology... Frontal and temporal lobe abnormalities are found consistently in aggressive schizophrenia patients. Positron emission tomography and single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) data indicate deficits also in the orbitofrontal and temporal cortex. Some functional magnetic resonance imaging studies found a negative association of violent behavior with frontal and right-sided inferior parietal activity. Neuroimaging studies may well help further elucidate the interrelationship between neurocognitive functioning, personality traits, and antisocial and violent behavior.

 

National Alliance on Mental Illness NAMI | Ron Honberg, Sita Diehl, Angela Kimball, Darcy Gruttadaro, Mike Fitzpatrick
# State Mental Health Cuts: A National Crisis. A report by the National Alliance on Mental Illness
www.nami.org/ NAMI, March 2011
In recent years, the worst recession in the U.S. since the Great Depression has dramatically impacted an already inadequate public mental health system. From 2009 to 2011, massive cuts to non-Medicaid state mental health spending totaled nearly $1.6 billion dollars. And, deeper cuts are projected in 2011 and 2012. States have cut vital services for tens of thousands of youth and adults living with the most serious mental illness. These services include community and hospital based  psychiatric care, housing and access to medications. Massive cuts to mental health services also potentially impact public safety. As a whole, people  living with serious mental illness are no more violent than the rest of the population. In fact, it is well documented that these individuals are far more frequently the victims of violence than the perpetrators of violent acts. “You will see…people (who lose mental health services) ending up in prison, jails, emergency rooms, homeless, harassing tourists and breaking into homes.”

 

Sandra Sassaroli
# Il disturbo narcisistico di personalità, intervista al prof. Vittorio Lingiardi
www.stateofmind.it/ Intervista del 14-03-2011

 

Alec Buchanan
# Psychiatry in Prisons:A Comprehensive Handbook
The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Volume 39, Number 2, 2011
More broadly, one of the themes of Psychiatry in Prisons is that imprisonment should be seen as an opportunity to get treatment to a hard to reach population. The editors have some suggestions. Case identification could focus on areas where mental ill health is particularly prevalent, such as disciplinary infractions.

 

Scott Weich, Traolach Brugha, Michael King, Sally McManus, Paul Bebbington, Rachel Jenkins, Claudia Cooper, Orla McBride and Sarah Stewart-Brown
# Mental well-being and mental illness: findings from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey for England 2007
The British Journal of Psychiatry (2011) 199, 23–28
Most empirical research has focused on hedonic (happiness and life satisfaction) and eudaemonic (optimal psychological functioning and self- efficacy) well-being, with the latter generally being judged to include social well-being – including maturity (the capacity to move from self-interest to community participation) and emotional intelligence (the capacity for rewarding close personal relationships). Our results indicate two broad well-being domains, corresponding to the hedonic and eudaemonic traditions, albeit with a degree of item and scale overlap...

 

Allen Frances, Michael B. First
# Paraphilia NOS, Nonconsent: Not Ready for the Courtroom
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 39:555– 61, 2011
Sexually violent predators (SVP) constitute a serious potential risk to public safety, especially when they are released after too short a prison sentence. Twenty states and the federal government have developed a seemingly convenient way to reduce this risk. They have passed statutes that allow for the involuntary (often lifetime) psychiatric commitment of mentally disordered sexual offenders after prison time is up. In three separate cases, the Supreme Court has accepted the constitutionality of this procedure, but only if the offender’s dangerousness is caused by a mental disorder and is not a manifestation of simple criminality.

 

Seth J. Prins
# Does Transinstitutionalization Explain the Overrepresentation of People with Serious Mental Illnesses in the Criminal Justice System?
Community Ment Health J (2011) 47:716–722
Although there is broad consensus that people with serious mental illnesses (SMI) are overrepresented in correctional settings, there is less agreement about the policy trends that may have created this situation. Some researchers and policymakers posit a direct link between deinstitutionalization and increased rates of SMI in jails and prisons, a phenomenon described as transinstitutionalization. Others offer evidence that challenges this hypothesis and suggest that it may be a reductionist explanation.

 

H.U. Wittchen, F. Jacobi, J. Rehm, A. Gustavsson, M. Svensson, B. Jönsson, J. Olesen, C. Allgulander, J. Alonso, C. Faravelli, L. Fratiglioni, P. Jennum, R. Lieb, A. Maercker, J. van Os, M. Preisig, L. Salvador-Carulla, R. Simon, H.-C. Steinhausen

# The size and burden of mental disorders and other disorders of the brain in Europe 2010

European Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 21, 655–679

In every year over a third of the total EU population suffers from mental disorders. The true size of “disorders of the brain” including neurological disorders is even considerably larger. Disorders of the brain are the largest contributor to the all cause morbidity burden as measured by DALY in the EU. No indications for increasing overall rates of mental disorders were found nor of improved care and treatment since 2005; less than one third of all cases receive any treatment, suggesting a considerable level of unmet needs. We conclude that the true size and burden of disorders of the brain in the EU was significantly underestimated in the past.

 

Gloria D. Eldridge, Mark E. Johnson, Christiane Brems, Staci L. Corey
# Ethical Challenges in Conducting Psychiatric or Mental Health Research in Correctional Settings
AJOB Primary Research, 2(4): 42–51, 2011
The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, with more than 2.3 million individuals housed in federal or state prisons and local jails and 5 million under parole or probation supervision. Due to deinstitutionalization, lack of access to community mental health services (Markowitz 2006), and criminalization of the mentally ill, prisons and jails have become “America’s new mental hospitals”. Rates of psychiatric disorders in U.S. prisons and jails dramatically exceed general population rates, with 49.2% of individuals in state prisons, 39.8% of individuals in federal prisons, and 60.5% of individuals in local jails meeting criteria for major depression, mania, or psychotic disorders

 

H. Richard Lamb, Linda E. Weinberger
# Meeting the Needs of Those Persons With Serious Mental Illness Who Are Most Likely to Become Criminalized
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 39:549 –54, 2011
However, a substantial minority exists who receive little attention in the literature. They may not believe that they are mentally ill (the possible result of anosognosia), are nonadherent to psychiatric treatment, may have acute psychotic symptoms and serious substance abuse problems, may become violent when stressed, and may show less potential for recovery. This minority is at most risk for criminalization. High degrees of structure may help reduce this risk. They need a range of outpatient and inpatient treatment, including assertive community treatment, intensive case management, assisted outpatient treatment, structured housing, co-occurring substance abuse treatment, pre- and postbooking diversion, and available hospital beds. The mental health system can reduce criminalization by taking  greater responsibility for these challenging persons.

 

Annette S. Crisanti, B. Christopher Frueh
# Risk of trauma exposure among persons with mental illness in jails and prisons: what do we really know?
Current Opinion in Psychiatry 2011, 24:431-435
Additional research is needed to improve our understanding of this issue and inform change efforts. Future research should include:  epidemiological studies to improve our knowledge of risk factors and correlates of victimization; prospective studies to determine causality between trauma victimization and mental illness or other adverse outcome; and intervention studies to examine strategies for reducing violence and traumatic victimization inside correctional facilities, effective treatments for posttraumatic psychopathology, and improved re-entry outcomes.

 

Roberto Catanesi, Felice Carabellese
# Suicidio e responsabilità professionale
Rivista di psichiatria, 2011, 46, 2
Alcuni recenti pronunciamenti in tema di responsabilità dello psichiatra per suicidio dei pazienti hanno suscitato  un vivace dibattito sugli obblighi assistenziali dei servizi psichiatrici pubblici, destando un diffuso clima di allarme fra i sanitari. In discussione in primo luogo i contenuti della "posizione di garanzia" dello psichiatra, in particolare i doveri di "protezione e sorveglianza" in relazione al pericolo di condotte autolesive, richiamati da recenti sentenze della Cassazione non solo quando il paziente si trovava in trattamento sanitario obbligatorio ma anche in regime volontario, in presenza di valido consenso alle cure. II tema del suicidio richiama inevitabilmente quello della prevedibilità delle condotte autolesive e, soprattutto,della loro prevenibilità; gli Autori mettono a confronto dati di letteratura scientifica in argomento, il modello organizzativo psichiatrico territoriale con i principi dettati dalle sentenze, in particolare con la richiesta di "ulteriori e più rigorose regole cautelari", ponendo in evidenza la loro difficile sintesi.

 

Melissa S. Caldwell
# Avoiding the Overdiagnosis of Bipolar Disorder in Correctional Populations
http://community.nicic.gov/ Corrections & Mental Health 2011
Correctional health care providers should be conscious of the dangers of labeling patients with a severe mental illness such as bipolar disorder that is based more on impressions than adequate evidence. Key factors include a firm grounding in the phenomenology of genuine mental illness and a willingness to invest resources to buy time toward an accurate diagnosis. In doing so, practitioners actually preserve resources while gaining confidence that patients are being cared for correctly. Although diagnostic certainty can be challenging, correctional practitioners can avoid the pitfalls of overdiagnosis and improve the state of care not only in the correctional setting, but also in the community at large. Likely causes of overdiagnosis include practitioners’ interviewing styles, use of incomplete data, emphasis on certain symptoms, and neglect of important time frames.

 

Seena Fazel, Rongqin Yu
# Psychotic Disorders and Repeat Offending: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Schizophrenia Bulletin vol. 37 no. 4 pp. 800–810, 2011
A recent study of 79 211 prisoners found associations between psychosis and the number of repeat incarcerations in a dose-response manner. Another study of community offenders found no association between being diagnosed with schizophrenia and repeat violent offending. Recent reviews have been descriptive and not quantitatively synthesized the evidence or explored sources of heterogeneity.  Therefore, we have undertaken a systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk of repeat offending in patients with psychotic disorders.

 

John Petrila, Corine de Ruiter
# The Competing Faces of Mental Health Law: Recovery and Access versus the Expanding Use of Preventive Confinement
Amsterdam Law Forum, vol 3:1, 2011
There have been great advances in treatment of mental illnesses in the last two decades, and the emergence of recovery as the goal of treatment, even in the most serious cases, raises hope that individuals with serious mental illnesses can return in greater numbers to productive participation in society. However, the growing use of preventive detention in which mental health professionals play an active role, stands in contrast to this more hopeful vision of mental health treatment. In an era of scarce resources, with no foreseeable improvement in national economies, political decisions to focus resources on the putatively dangerous can only further postpone the implementation of effective community focused public mental health systems while potentially contributing to the erosion of broader due process protections and basic rights.

 

Jay P. Singh, Martin Grann, Seena Fazel
# A comparative study of violence risk assessment tools: A systematic review and metaregression analysis of 68 studies involving 25,980 participants
Clinical Psychology Review 2011
Recent work has suggested that the influence of risk assessment tools appears to be growing in both general and forensic settings. For example, violence risk assessment is now recommended in clinical guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia in the US and the UK. In the US, risk assessment tools are used routinely in the mental health care systems of the majority of the 17 states that have civil commitment laws. Recent studies in England have found that two thirds of mental health clinicians in general settings are using structured risk assessment forms, as are clinicians working in over 70% of forensic psychiatric units. Risk measures are also being used with increasing regularity in both criminal and civil court cases in the US and the UK. The widespread, often legally required use of risk measures necessitates the regular and high-quality review of the evidence base.

 

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence NHS
# Common mental health disorders. Identification and pathways to care
NICE clinical guideline 123 , May 2011
Common mental health disorders, such as depression, generalised anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and social anxiety disorder , may affect up to 15% of the population at any one time. Depression and anxiety disorders can have a lifelong course of relapse and remission. There is considerable variation in the severity of common mental health disorders, but all can be associated with significant long-term disability. For example, depression is estimated to be the second greatest contributor to disability-adjusted life years throughout the developed world. It is also associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality, and is the most common disorder contributing to suicide.

 

Gregory T. Bogart, Carol A. Ott
# Abuse of second-generation antipsychotics: What prescribers need to know
Current Psychiatry, May 2011
Residents of jails and prisons misuse quetiapine for reasons similar to those cited by outpatients: sedation, relief of anxiety, and hallucinogenic effects or “getting high.” Clinicians must differentiate inmates who have legitimate psychiatric symptoms that require antipsychotic treatment from those who are malingering to obtain the drug.

 

Protecteur du citoyen
# Pour des services mieux adaptés aux personnes incarcérées qui éprouvent un problème de santé mentale
https://protecteurducitoyen.qc.ca/ 11 Mai 2011
À partir des codes diagnostics1 obtenus de la base de données de la Régie de l’assurance maladie, l’étude a révélé que 61 % des personnes incarcérées dans les centres de détention du Québec avaient à leur dossier, au cours des cinq années précédentes, au moins un diagnostic évoquant un problème de santé mentale et/ou une consommation problématique d’alcool ou de drogues. Il faut souligner que la proportion de personnes éprouvant des problèmes de santé mentale pendant leur incarcération est un peu moindre puisque certains problèmes sont transitoires et leur durée limitée dans le temps.

 

Jennifer L. Skeem, Devon L. L. Polaschek, Christopher J. Patrick, Scott O. Lilienfeld
# Psychopathic personality: bridging the gap between scientific evidence and public policy
http://gcecs.edu.au/ Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2011, 12(3): 95-162
Few psychological concepts evoke simultaneously as much fascination and misunderstanding as psychopathic personality, or psychopathy. Typically, individuals with psychopathy are misconceived as fundamentally different from the rest of humanity and as inalterably dangerous. Popular portrayals of "psychopaths" are diverse and conflicting, ranging from uncommonly impulsive and violent criminal offenders to corporate figures who callously and skillfully manuever their way to the highest rungs of the social ladder.

 

Giorgio Bignami
# Scienza e droga, le forzature medico patologiche. La ricerca su cannabis e schizofrenia del BMJ
il Manifesto, 27 aprile 2011

 

Ugo Fornari
# Il metodo scientifico in psichiatra e psicologia forensi (parte 1 e 2)
www.brainfactor.it/ 2011
Il modello medico psichiatrico è “sufficiente e appropriato” in ambito forense? Possiamo realmente abbinare le categorie giuridiche e le categorie cliniche, “divergenti per significato, statuto epistemologico, obiettivi e fini”? Che tipo di “prove scientifiche” possono fornire psicologi e psichiatri forensi? I dati utilizzati nei Tribunali appartengono alla scienza o sono solo il frutto della nostra “meravigliosa” tecnologia? 

 

H. Belli, C. Ural, M. K. Vardar, B. Tezcan
# Schizophrenia, Violence and Homicidal Act: Assessing The Risks, Preventive Measures and Place of Clozapine in The Treatment
The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences 2011
Although the risk of homicidal behaviors is higher in the schizophrenic individuals compared to the overall population, little is known about the relevant conditions triggering this act of violence among criminals. The available results suggest that certain factors, including some socio-demographic characteristics, male gender, young age, alcoholism, substance abuse, incompliance with the treatment, fulfillment of the criteria for antisocial personality disorder and paranoid subtype, history of suicidal ideation and attempts, and history of frequent hospitalization increase the probability for occurrence of violent episodes.

 

Shlomit Flaisher-Grinberg, Haim Einat
# Amphetamine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference and Modeling Domains of Bipolar Disorder
The Open Neuropsychopharmacology Journal, 2011, 4, 18-24
The present study does not support the pharmacological validity of the amphetamine-induced CPP paradigm to model reward seeking behavior in the context of BPD. It is however possible that other drugs utilized in the treatment of BPD such as different mood stabilizers or atypical antipsychotics will be effective and experiments are planned to evaluate valproate and risperidone in the paradigm.

 

Haute Autorité de Santé
# Audition publique – Rapport d’orientation de la commission d’audition Dangerosité psychiatrique : étude et évaluation des facteurs de risque de violence hétéro-agressive chez les personnes ayant des troubles schizophréniques ou des troubles de l’humeur
www.has-sante.fr/ Haute Autorité de Santé – 2011
Ces dernières décennies, de nombreuses études ont montré une association modérée mais significative entre troubles mentaux graves et comportements violents envers autrui, en  particulier en cas de troubles schizophréniques, même si les personnes ayant des troubles  mentaux représentent de 3 à 5 %, voire 10 %, des actes de violence en général. Si dans  les pays industrialisés le taux des homicides est compris entre 1 et 5 pour 100 000 habitants,  les personnes atteintes de troubles mentaux graves ne seraient responsables que de  0,16 homicide pour 100 000 habitants, soit environ un homicide sur 20...

 

Emmanuelle Bernheim
# Les décisions d’hospitalisation et de soins psychiatriques sans le consentement des patients dans des contextes clinique et judiciaire: une étude du pluralisme normatif appliqué
Faculté de droit de l’Université de Montréal | l’École Normale supérieure de Cachan, mars 2011
Comment les acteurs qui évoluent dans le champ commun entre droit et psychiatrie choisissent-ils d’interner ou de soigner un patient contre son gré? Appliquent-ils simplement les dispositions légales supposées régir les interventions du champ, ou bien se réfèrent-ils à d’autres formes de normativité? Plus globalement, comment ces acteurs s’approprient-ils les normes et en quoi le choix normatif est-il lié au rôle des individus dans le lien social? Voici, très brièvement exposées, les questions auxquelles nous nous intéresserons dans cette thèse.

 

Caroline Mandy
# La prison et l'hopital psychiatrique du XVIIIe au XXIe siecle: institutions totalitaires ou services publics? Contribution à l'étude de la privation de liberté en France et du paradigme de l'institution totale
Université de Nantes, Année 2011

Créée par la loi n°2008-174 du 25 février 2008, la mesure de rétention de sûreté marque une rupture dans les principes républicains fondateurs du droit pénal. Il s'agit de maintenir un individu condamné enfermé au-delà de son temps de peine. Mesure ante delictum ne visant qu'à prévenir un risque de récidive, s'appuyant sur des prédictions de risque et non sur des faits, elle entre de plain-pied dans la logique de défense sociale : il s'agit de neutraliser l'individu probablement dangereux en vue de protéger la société, seul objectif recherché par le droit pénal dans le cadre de ce courant de pensée positiviste porté par Cesare LOMBROSO au XIXe siècle...

 

Catherine E. Hewitt, Amanda E. Perry, Barbara Adams, Simon M. Gilbody
# Screening and case finding for depression in offender populations: A systematic review of diagnostic properties
Journal of Affective Disorders 128 (2011) 72–82
Diagnosis of depression in offender populations is particularly difficult for health professions because of the many vulnerable complex problems associated with this population. As offender populations represent an ‘at risk population’, one feasible approach is the use of brief standardised mood assessments that can be either self-completed or completed by a nonspecialist... In total, thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Instruments validated in offender populations included both general depression questionnaires as well as specific measures that had been developed for use in offender populations. The most frequently validated instruments were the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Referral Decision Scale (RDS).

 

Protecteur du citoyen | Assemblée nationale Quèbec
# Toward Services That Are Better Adjusted to Detainees with Mental Disorders
www.protecteurducitoyen.qc.ca/ Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, 2011
The data do show that there are more multiple probations and prior detentions among people with mental health disorders. In all, 28.6% of detainees with  mental health disorders had multiple probations in their records (compared to 9.9% of  other detainees), and 81% had previously been detained (compared to 58.2% of other  detainees). It is important to mention that studies have not documented linkages  between mental disorders and criminality. Other factors such as age, sex, socioeconomic  background, educational level and residential location are more correlated with  criminality.

 

Krzysztof Krysta, Irena Krupka-Matuszczyk, Małgorzata Janas-Kozik and Małgorzata Stachowicz
# Comorbidity of a Serious Mental Illness with an Addiction to Psychoactive Substances
Medical University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland) 2011
In the diagnostic process in psychiatry it often happens to set two or more diagnoses in the same patient. "Dual diagnosis" is a concept that doesn't appear in the official nomenclature of mental health and is not included in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV classifications. In a very general sense it concerns a patient who presents a psychopathological picture, in which we find simultaneously fulfilled criteria for two different psychiatric disorders.

 

Bernard E. Harcourt
# An Institutionalization Effect: The Impact of Mental Hospitalization and Imprisonment on Homicide in the United States, 1934–2001
Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 40 (January 2011)
Previous research suggests that mass incarceration in the United States may have contributed to lower rates of violent crime since the 1990s but, surprisingly, finds no evidence of an effect of imprisonment on violent crime prior to 1991. This raises what Steven Levitt has called “a real puzzle.” This study offers the solution to the puzzle: the error in all prior studies is that they focus exclusively on rates of imprisonment, rather than using a measure that combines institutionalization in both prisons and mental hospitals. Using state-level panel-data regressions over the 68-year period from 1934 to 2001 and controlling for economic conditions, youth population rates, criminal justice enforcement, and demographic factors, this study finds a large, robust, and statistically significant relationship between aggregated institutionalization (in mental hospitals and prisons) and homicide rates, providing strong evidence of what should now be called an institutionalization effect—rather than, more simply but inaccurately, an imprisonment or incapacitation effect.

 

Liat Ben-Moshe
# Genealogies of Resistance to Incarceration: Abolition Politics within Deinstitutionalization and Anti-Prison Activism in the U.S.
http://surface.syr.edu/ Sociology - Dissertations, Paper 70, 12-1-2011
“Genealogies of resistance to incarceration: Abolition politics within de-institutionalization and anti- prison activism in the U.S.” looks at two main sites in which abolition of “total institutions” is enacted. The first site is activism around penal and prison abolition. The second site is  deinstitutionalization- the move to close down institutions for people labeled “mentally retarded” (or intellectual/developmental disabilities) and “mental illness” (or psychiatric disabilities). My goals in this study are twofold and interrelated...

 

Tawandra L. Rowell, Jeffrey Draine, Elwin Wu
# Depression in a random sample of incarcerated African-American men
Psychiatr Serv. 2011 January ; 62(1): 103–104
This study was conducted between April and August 2008 in one of the largest maximumsecurity male correctional institutions in the U.S. The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to assess depressive symptoms among 134 randomly selected incarcerated African-American men

 

Marc Renneville

# Le glaive et le caducée : évolution historique des rapports entre le droit pénal et la psychiatrie

| La psychiatrie à l’épreuve de la justice, contribution au débat

www.twicedaily.fr/ Twice Daily 2011

Quel est le nombre exact de malades mentaux en prison ? Que peut-on attendre de l’examen de l’état mental d’un prévenu ou d’un condamné ? Faut-il punir les malades mentaux ? Les soins pénalement ordonnés ne sont-ils pas une utopie ? Ces quelques questions illustrent l’intensité du débat contemporain entre la psychiatrie et la justice pénale.

 

M. M. Burke, M. Griggs, E. M. Dykens, R. M. Hodapp
# Defendants with intellectual disabilities and mental health diagnoses: faring in a mental health court
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 2011
Approximately 11% of defendants in the mental health court also had intellectual disabilities (IDs). Compared with individuals with mental health disorders alone, individuals with dual diagnoses were more likely to be younger, male, African-American and less welleducated; these defendants were also more likely to show externalising, ‘turning- against-others’ symptoms, less likely to show internalising, ‘turningagainst-self’ symptoms. Defendants with IDs (vs.those without) more often received behavioural, vocational rehabilitation and other services, although the two groups did not differ on most outcome variables.

 

Suresh Bada Math, Pratima Murthy, Rajani Parthasarthy, C Naveen Kumar, S Madhusudhan 
# Minds Imprisoned: Mental Health Care in Prisons

# High Risk Behaviours in Prison: the Need forBehavioural Rehabilitation
www.nimhans.kar.nic.in/ National Institute of Mental Health Neuro Sciences, Bangalore
(2011)

The common saying about prison is that it houses the „SAD, MAD and BAD‟ of the society. Sad indicates that at least 50-75% of the prison population suffer from depression, Mad depicts that at least 30-15% of them have mental illness and Bad suggests that 20-10% of them are psychopaths. Persons suffering from personality disorders have their reasoning powers fully intact; hence none of the countries have granted insanity defence to those with personality disorders. However, they have been provided with an opportunity for treatment and rehabilitation.

 

Laurent Mucchielli
# Délinquance et psychiatrie : réflexions sociologiques sur la définition et le rôle de la « maladie mentale » | La psychiatrie à l’épreuve de la justice, contribution au débat

www.twicedaily.fr/ Twice Daily 2011

Le traitement médiatique des faits divers ne cesse de renouveler la peur très ancienne des « fous criminels ». Dans le langage d’aujourd’hui, ce sont les tueurs ou violeurs en série, les pédophiles, les détenus dangereux. Ils incarnent plus que jamais la figure du « Mal ». Cette médiatisation se trouve par ailleurs reprise et réutilisée par un pouvoir politique qui a enclenché une véritable « frénésie sécuritaire » dans les années 2000 multipliant les lois, souvent à l’occasion des faits divers en question.

 

Lefteris Lykouras, Athanassios Douzenis
# The dangerousness of schizophrenia
Psychiatriki 22 (2), 2011
Our knowledge about the dangerousness of the patients suffering from schizophrenia has evolved through various stages. Initially it was accepted that all schizophrenics are dangerous, belief which was based on solitary case reports. Based on epidemiological studies with more solid methodology, this assumption was challenged and the “pendulum” swung in the other direction... New data however have challenged this assumption and now it is accepted that: "Individuals suffering from schizophrenia are more likely to commit violent acts in comparison with the general public”. One has to underline though that this law-breaking behaviour has a very limited effect on violence and law breaking in our society.

 

Michèle Lévy
# Le malade mental et la prison | La psychiatrie à l’épreuve de la justice, contribution au débat
www.twicedaily.fr/ Twice Daily 2011
Si l’on juge l’état d’une société à la façon dont elle traite ses fous, comment pouvonsnous juger celle dont le système global sanitaire et pénal aboutit à les mettre en prison ? De nombreux rapports ont analysé et critiqué cette situation. Il faudrait une vraie volonté politique et sociale afin d’enrayer ce mouvement régressif.

 

Jennifer Fleming, Natalie Gately, Sharan Kraemer
# Creating HoPE: Mental Health in Western Australian Maximum Security Prisons
Edith Cowan University 2011
This article presents the mental health findings from the 2008 Health of Prisoner Evaluation (HoPE) pilot project in which 146 maximum security prisoners were interviewed across two prisons in Western Australia. Results revealed significant discrepancies across gender and Indigenous status regarding the history and treatment of mental health complaints, use of prescribed psychiatric medication, and experience of psychosocial distress. Illicit drug use and dependency, as well as patterns of self-harm and suicide are also reported. These findings highlight that imprisonment is an opportune time to screen for mental health problems and provide appropriate evidence-based treatment. Although this process may initially increase government costs, it will reduce overall expenditure by improving prisoners' ability to cope with prison to community transitions, and reduce the high rate of recidivism.

 

Cristina Iñigo e Iñaki Markez (Coords.) | Grupo de trabajo sobre Salud Mental en Prisión (GSMP): Sociedad Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria (SESP) - Asociación Española de Neuropsiquiatría (AEN)
# GUÍA. Atención primaria de la salud mental en prisión
http://sesp.es/ GSMP: SaMPAEN y SESP 2011
En estos dos últimos años, más de 75.000 personas han estado ingresadas en el sistema penitenciario español, en torno al 8% mujeres. Los datos disponibles en este momento señalan que la prevalencia de enfermedad mental entre los reclusos es muy alta, entre el 25 y el 40% según los estudios presenta algún trastorno mental, entre el 4 y el 6% un proceso mental grave y entre el 30 y el 50% un trastorno relacionado con el consumo de drogas. La patología dual, la combinación de enfermedad mental y adicción a drogas, está presente en una proporción de internos que se sitúa entre el 20 y 30% del total. Todo ello se asocia a que la gran mayoría de estos enfermos pertenecen a grupos sociales de alta vulnerabilidad, debido a su exclusión social y alejamiento habitual de los recursos asistenciales...

 

Fiona O’Connell, Lesley-Ann Black, Helena Maginness
# Prisoners and Mental Health
www.niassembly.gov.uk/ Northern Ireland Assembly - 9 March 2011

There is a need for early screening, assessment and diversion of persons with mental health issues from the criminal justice system into health and social services in the community. This puts the focus on the need for improved community services in order to address levels of reoffending and recidivism. Some of the literature examined for this paper suggests that imprisonment may exacerbate mental health problems increasing likelihood of reoffending and emerging policies have acknowledged that mental health is a contributing factor in offending behaviour...

 

Kathryn A. Burns
# Psychiatry behind bars: Practicing in jails and prisons
Current Psychiatry Vol. 10, No. 2, February 2011
Convicted persons have a constitutional right to medical and mental health treatment under extension of the Eighth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution, which prohibits cruel and unusual punishment. In 1976, the U.S. Supreme Court concluded that “deliberate indifference to serious medical needs of prisoners constitutes the ‘unnecessary and wanton infliction of pain’… proscribed by the Eighth Amendment.” This coverage was expanded to mental health needs when the court found “…no underlying distinction between the right to medical care for physical ills and its psychological or psychiatric counterpart.” Correctional facilities also are obligated to provide medical and mental health treatment for persons in custody who are not yet convicted of an offense.8 In subsequent litigation, the court formulated components of a minimally adequate correctional mental health treatment program...

 

Milena Pereira Pondé, Antonio Carlos Cruz Freire, Milena Siqueira Santos Mendonça
# The Prevalence of Mental Disorders in Prisoners in the City of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil
Journal of Forensic Sciences · February 2011
The number of individuals affected by serious psychiatric disorders in Brazilian prisons is unknown. This cross-sectional study was conducted in prison complexes within the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The sample consisted of 497 prisoners... The prevalence rates found in the closed and semi-open prison systems, respectively, were: depression 17.6% and 18.8%; bipolar mood disorder 5.2% and 10.1%; anxiety disorders 6.9% and 14.4%; borderline personality disorder 19.7% and 34.8%; antisocial personality disorder 26.9% and 24.2%; alcohol addiction 26.6% and 35.3%; drug addiction 27.9% and 32.4%; psychosis 1.4% and 12.6%; attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood 10.3% and 22.2%; and ADHD in adulthood 4.1% and 5.3%. 

 

Damien T. Ridge, Carol Emslie, Alan White
# Understanding how men experience, express and cope with mental distress: where next?
Sociology of Health & Illness Vol. 33 No. 1 2011
In line with the shift towards prioritising lay accounts and narratives of chronic illness in sociology, there is an emerging literature on men, their subjectivities and experiences of mental distress. We argue in this paper that subjectivities and distress among men are an important area for critical sociological research. Very little is known about mens’ subjectivities or the meanings they give to – and how they cope with or seek help for – distress.

 

Sébastien Saetta
# L'intervention de l'expert psychiatre dans les affaires criminelles. De la production d'un discours à sa partecipation au jugement
http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ Université du Luxembourg | Université de Toulouse - Thèse présentée le 18 janvier 2011

 

Roy H. Perlis, Rudolf Uher, Michael Ostacher, Joseph F. Goldberg, Madhukar H. Trivedi, A. John Rush, Maurizio Fava

# Association Between Bipolar Spectrum Features and Treatment Outcomes in Outpatients With Major Depressive Disorder
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011;68(4):351-360
The distinction between major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder remains a challenging clinical problem when individuals present with a major depressive episode. A number of illness features have been proposed to indicate risk of bipolar disorderin this setting, including earlier age of illness onset, greater number of depressive recurrences or briefer episodes, family history of bipolar disorder, and aspects of temperament such as hyperthymia and cyclothymia. Symptomatic differences have also been proposed, among them presence of irritability or anger, presence of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, and atypical neurovegetative symptoms including psychomotor agitation or slowing. Moreover, even in individuals who do not meet full syndromal criteria for bipolar I or II disorder, it has been suggested that these illness features may be markers for an underlying bipolar diathesis or bipolar spectrum illness.

 

Giovanna Del Giudice, Peppe Dell’Acqua e Michela Rondi (a cura di)
# OPG | Leggi, norme e pratiche
www.news-forumsalutementale.it/ 10 gennaio 2011

 

Ministry of Justice | Jackie Craissati, Phil Minoudis, Jake Shaw, Stuart John Chuan, Sarah Simons, Nick Joseph
# Working with personality disordered offenders. A practitioners guide
www.justice.gov.uk/ January 2011
Personality disorder is a recognised mental disorder. Studies have estimated that it affects between 4 and 11% of the UK population and between 60 and 70% of people in prison. Until recently personality disorder was neglected by services and often regarded as untreatable. However, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence has published guidance on management and treatment  and, gradually, more services are recognising and catering for this disorder. The evidence base is developing and the prognosis is no longer as negative as once thought.

 

Michael G. Vaughn, Matt DeLisi, Tracy Gunter, Qiang Fu, Kevin M. Beaver, Brian E. Perron, Matthew O. Howard
# The Severe 5%: A Latent Class Analysis of the Externalizing Behavior Spectrum in the United States
Journal of Criminal Justice 39 (2011) 75–80
Data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a nationally representative sample of 43,093 non-institutionalized U.S. residents aged 18 years and older were analyzed using latent class analysis to assess sociodemographic, psychiatric, and behavioral characteristics. Results: Four-classes of respondents were identified vis-à-vis lifetime externalizing behaviors. A normative class (66.1% of respondents) demonstrated little involvement in antisocial conduct. A low substance use/high antisocial behavior class (20.7% of respondents) and high substance use/moderate antisocial behavior (8.0% of respondents) class evinced diverse externalizing and psychiatric symptoms. Finally, a severe class (5.3% of respondents) was characterized by pathological involvement in more varied and intensive forms of antisocial and externalizing behaviors and extensive psychiatric disturbance. 

 

Haute Autorité de Santé | Audition publique – Textes des experts
# Dangerosité psychiatrique: étude et évaluation des facteurs de risque de violence hétéro-agressive chez les personnes ayant une schizophrénie ou des troubles de l’humeur
www.has-sante.fr/ Décembre 2010
L’augmentation du risque de violence chez les schizophrènes relativement à la population générale retrouvée dans toutes les études à la méthodologie rigoureuse (à l’exception notable de l’étude Mac Arthur [3, 48] qui apporte des conclusions plus nuancées – lesquelles du reste ont été rediscutées depuis [72]), mais aussi la grande hétérogénéité du risque ainsi calculé ; • la majoration de ce risque par la co-occurrence d’un abus de substances et par le nombre de diagnostics associés; • l’importance des biais méthodologiques et des facteurs de confusion représentés par les données biographiques et sociodémographiques associées (âge, sexe, trajectoire personnelle, isolement social, etc..) ; • le risque considérablement plus important représenté par l’abus de substances que par les troubles schizophréniques ;  • enfin l’impossibilité de conclure sur la nature du lien statistique mis en évidence entre  schizophrénie et violence : la démonstration d’une corrélation n’est pas celle d’une  relation de cause à effet.

 

Kathrin Ritter, Isabel Dziobek, Sandra Preißler, Anke Rüter, Aline Vater, Thomas Fydrich, Claas-Hinrich Lammers, Hauke R. Heekeren, Stefan Roepke
# Lack of empathy in patients with narcissistic personality disorder
Psychiatry Res. (2010)
The study's objective was to empirically assess cognitive and emotional empathy in patients with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD). To date, “lack of empathy” is a core feature of NPD solely based on clinical observation. The study's method was that forty-seven patients with NPD, 53 healthy controls, and 27 clinical controls with borderline personality disorder (BPD) were included in the study. Emotional and cognitive empathy were assessed with traditional questionnaire measures, the newly developed Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). The study's results were that individuals with NPD displayed significant impairments in emotional empathy on the MET. Furthermore, relative to BPD patients and healthy controls, NPD patients did not show deficits in cognitive empathy on the MET or MASC. Crucially, this empathic profile of NPD is not captured by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis II Disorders (SCID-II). The study's conclusions were that while NPD involves deficits in emotional empathy, cognitive empathy seems grossly unaffected

 

Michelle L. Esterberg, Sandra M. Goulding, Elaine F. Walker
# A Personality Disorders: Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Personality Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence
J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2010 December 1; 32(4): 515–528
Cluster A personality disorders (PD), including schizotypal personality disorder (SPD), paranoid personality disorder (PPD), and schizoid PD, are marked by odd and eccentric behaviors, and are grouped together because of common patterns in symptomatology as well as shared genetic and environmental risk factors. The DSM-IV-TR describes personality disorders as representing stable and enduring patterns of maladaptive traits, and much of what is understood about Cluster A personality disorders in particular stems from research with adult populations...

 

Fundación Atenea
# La metodología de la Comunidad Terapéutica
http://www.fundacioncsz.org/ Diciembre 2010
Las Unidades Penitenciarias de Reinserción Social. Las instituciones penitenciarias son “centros residenciales totales” en las que parece un poco paradójico, es necesario combinar las necesidades de control con la metodología de una Comunidad Terapéutica. Sin embargo existe una cierta demanda, por parte de organizaciones sociales que trabajan en dicho ámbito, para adaptar tal metodología a la prisión y la demostración de tal demanda lo constituyen la casi docena de Módulos de Comunidad Terapéutica, puestos en marcha en diferentes prisiones con desigual contenido y resultados.

 

New Zealand. Law Commission.
# Mental impairment decision-making, and the insanity defence
www.lawcom.govt.nz/ 16 December 2010
The defence therefore tends to mix up the defendant-focused question of criminal responsibility with a second and different question: who needs to be detained  for the protection of the public (because of the likelihood that their disorder,  which in turn produces criminal behaviour, will recur).  this has been regarded as unprincipled and, in practice, the defence does not  serve either of its purposes particularly well. It has archaic and inappropriate terminology: “insanity”, “natural imbecility”,  “disease of the mind”. there is also a gulf between the section 23 language and  case law on the one hand, and on the other, psychiatric concepts and practices.  this makes psychiatrists’ jobs difficult in practice, and may be a ground on  which the New Zealand defence could be held to breach international human  rights obligations.

 

The Economist
# Socially challenging. Psychopathy seems to be caused by specific mental deficiencies
www.economist.com/ Nov 11th 2010

WHAT makes people psychopaths is not an idle question. Prisons are packed with them. So, according to some, are boardrooms. The combination of a propensity for impulsive risk-taking with a lack of guilt and shame (the two main characteristics of psychopathy) may lead, according to circumstances, to a criminal career or a business one.

 

Talha Burki
# Grasping the nettle of mental illness in prisons
www.thelancet.com Vol 376 November 6, 2010
There are few data for the burden of mental illness in the prison population, but the data that are available suggest that 66% of prisoners have a personality disorder, 45% are dependent on drugs, 30% dependent on alcohol, and 45% have a neurotic disorder. Perhaps 10% of prisoners have some form of psychosis. Between 20–30% of prisoners are thought to have a learning disability that adversely affects their ability to cope within the criminal justice system...

 

Florida Council for Community Mental Health
# Mentally Ill Individuals and Jails
www.fccmh.org/ November 2010
Of those jail inmates with a mental illness, 44% had a past violent offense, 26% had three or more prior incarcerations, 76% were dependent on substances or a substance abuser, 62% used drugs in the month prior to  arrest, 17% were homeless in the year before arrest, 24% suffered past physical or sexual abuse, and 37% had parents who abused alcohol or drugs...

 

Carmen Valiente, Regina Espinosa, Carmelo Vàzquez, Dolores Cantero, Filiberto Fuentenebro
# World Assumptions in Psychosis Do Paranoid Patients Believe in a Just World?
www.jonmd.com/ The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease • Volume 198, Number 11, November 2010
We examined whether these beliefs in a just world (BJW) were associated with the severity of psychopathology of participants. Our results showed that, compared with a healthy control group, the current persecutory beliefs group had weaker beliefs in a just world related to themselves (BJW-P), but there were no differences between both groups in their beliefs in general justice in the world (BJW-G). Regression analyses showed that BJW, particularly weaker beliefs in personal justice, significantly associated with more severe symptoms of depression and paranoia as well as with lower scores of psychological well-being. Our results support the relevance of the BJW framework in exploring world views in patients with persecutory beliefs.

 

Antonio Salvati
# Il profilo giuridico del trattamento psichiatrico in carcere
www.amministrazioneincammino.luiss.it/ 5.10.2010
Sommario: 1. Premessa. – 2. La tutela della salute fisica e mentale dei detenuti. – 3. L’assistenza ai malati psichiatrici nelle strutture detentive. – 4. Gli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari. 5. Conclusioni... Uno dei principali obiettivi che un carcere e i suoi operatori dovrebbero darsi è quello di lavorare per non dimenticare che il sistema carcere “produce” naturalmente una selezione che spinge i deboli in una condizione ancor più marginale. Tra i deboli vanno annoverati di diritto coloro che risultano deboli anche fuori dal carcere, i portatori di un disturbo psichico, e coloro che, non riuscendo ad adattarsi in maniera utile alla detenzione, finiscono con lo sviluppare un disturbo psichico secondario alla carcerazione. Il lavoro comune a cui operatori del carcere e operatori della psichiatria sono chiamati riguarda l’approccio a questa zona grigia costituita da “deboli” finiti in carcere anche a causa della loro sofferenza psichica oppure divenuti tali dopo il loro ingresso in carcere.

 

Giuliano Balbi
# Dove la Legge Basaglia non è arrivata. Alcune considerazione in tema di infermità di mente e pericolosità sociale
Centro Interuniversitario di Ricerca Bioetica - Cirb 2010

Le Sezioni unite della suprema Corte, con la nota sentenza 9163 del 25 gennaio 2005, hanno recepito un modello estremamente ampio di infermità mentale rilevante per il sistema penale, ricomprendendovi anche i disturbi della personalità, per quanto atipici. Che questa decisione abbia davvero contribuito ad innalzare il complessivo standard di garanzie è, quanto meno, discutibile. Quello di disturbo della personalità, infatti, è un paradigma tutt’altro che rigido; basti pensare che il DSM (Manuale Diagnostico e Statistico dei Disturbi Mentali, IV edizione) lo definisce come «un modello di esperienza interiore e di comportamento che devia marcatamente rispetto alle aspettative della cultura dell'individuo».

 

Michael L. Perlin
# “They Keep It All Hid”: The Ghettoization of Mental Disability Law and Its Implications for Legal Education
Saint Louis University School of Law, Vol. 54:857 (2010)
I contend that the ghettoization reflects a hard truth that has passed under the radar of most civil rights teachers and civil rights students. Mental disability law is simply not a topic taken seriously as a civil rights topic (or as  a constitutional law topic or as a federal courts topic). And this failure of inclusion goes directly to the heart of the challenge of teaching mental disability law. It is hidden (nearly totally hidden) from the traditional law school curriculum. It is not even in the curriculum at many law schools. It is largely invisible to students and professors alike.

 

Heather Y. Bersot, Bruce A. Arrigo
# Inmate Mental Health, Solitary Confinement, And Cruel and Unusual Punishment: an Ethical and Justice Policy Inquiry
Journal of Theoretical and Philosphical Criminology Inmate Mental Health & Solitary Confinement, Special Edition Vol 1, Nov, 2010: pp. 1-82
In a recent study by Sellers and Arrigo (2009), the researchers questioned whether the theory and method of a critically-animated psychological jurisprudence (PJ) could advance the ethical and justice policy dynamics of automatic adolescent waiver, given the literature on developmental maturity and adjudicative competence. Situated within the law, psychology, and justice framework, the jurisprudential intent of the extant case law and the moral philosophy informing this intent were the source of qualitative scrutiny. This paper follows a similar trajectory. At issue is the relevant case law addressing Eighth Amendment challenges for persons with preexisting mental health conditions subjected to long-term disciplinary solitary confinement. Guided by interpretive textual analysis, both the jurisprudential intent and the ethical reasoning that informs it are the source of legal exegeses. Mindful of how insights derived from commonsense justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, and restorative justice promote the aims of PJ consistent with the philosophy of virtue ethics, this article speculatively and provisionally enumerates several policy recommendations.

 

Dan J. Stein, Katharine A. Phillips, Derek Bolton, K.W.M Fulford, John Z. Sadler, Kenneth S. Kendler
# What is a Mental/Psychiatric Disorder? From DSM-IV to DSM-V
Psychol Med. 2010 November ; 40(11): 1759–1765
DSM-IV notes that “… although this manual provides a classification of mental disorders, it must be admitted that no definition adequately specifies precise boundaries for the concept of ‘mental disorder.’ The concept of mental disorder, like many other concepts in medicine and science, lacks a consistent operational definition that covers all situations. All medical conditions are defined on various levels of abstraction...

 

Liselotte Pedersen, Camilla Kunz, Kirsten Rasmussen, Peter Elsass
# Psychopathy as a Risk Factor for Violent Recidivism: Investigating the Psychopathy Checklist Screening Version (PCL:SV) and the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) in a Forensic Psychiatric Setting
International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 9:4, 308-315, 2010

 

Allnutt, S., O’Driscoll, C., Ogloff, J.R.P., Daffern, M. & Adams, J.

# Clinical Risk Assessment & Management: A Practical Manual for Mental Health Clinicians.
www.justicehealth.nsw.gov.au/ Sydney, NSW
2010

Mental health clinicians use tools for the identification of risk factors for future aggression and the assessment of level of risk widely. These tools provide the clinician with limited guidance on how to assess risk but more importantly they provide little guidance in relation to how a risk management plan should be developed... In New South Wales the Sentinel Events Review Committee reported on the analysis of homicides committed by persons who were receiving care or who had recently received care from public Mental Health Service in NSW during 2005/06...

 

Ontario Ministry of Community & Correctional Services | Federal-Provincial-Territorial Partnership
# Mental Health Strategy for Corrections in Canada
www.csc-scc.gc.ca/ November 2010
The Canadian Mental Health Association (2009) attributes, in part, the expanding rate of incarceration of individuals with mental health problems and/or mental illnesses to the lack of a national mental health strategy for Canada. It stresses the importance of developing a strategy to assist the vulnerable men and women who come into conflict with the law.

 

National Justice Chief Executive Officers’ Group | Victorian Government Department of Justice
# Diversion and support of offenders with a mental illness. Guidelines for best practice
www.aic.gov.au/ State of Victoria, Department of Justice, 2010
While it is clearly preferable that all people with mental illness receive appropriate treatment to achieve an optimal state of mental health, the fact is that a significant portion of people who come into contact with the criminal justice system are receiving little or no care. Diversion and support programs  for people with mental illness can act as a gateway to care, redirecting people in need of supports to the services that can provide them. By focusing on the underlying causes of offending behaviour, diversion and support programs also help to make our communities safer.

 

Ji Seun Sohn, David Webb, Soo Jung Lee
# Can Korean PCL-R Predict Implicit Aggression Among Korean Inmates?
Asia Pacific Journal of Police & Criminal Justice, vol. 8 n. 2 2010
This paper focuses on the relationship between psychopathy scores measured by the Korean Psychopathy Checklist—Revised and inmates’ implicit  aggression (as opposed to verbally/physically explicit aggression) by correctional staf ’s evaluations to suggest the utilization of Korean PCL-R. Numerous studies identified the Factor 2 score of the PCL-R as being a more significant predictor of higher levels of disruptive institutional behavior and recidivism than the Factor 1 score...

 

Gerry Akland 
# Prisons & Jails are North Carolina’s New Mental Hospitals
National Alliance on Mental Illness NAMI - October 12, 2010
Jails and prisons are not created to be de facto mental hospitals. They are not structurally appropriate for severely mentally ill patients, and the staffs are not  recruited as psychiatric caretakers. It costs more to take care of mentally ill inmates. For example, Texas has estimated the average cost to be about $22,000/year, but mentally ill inmates costs from $30,000 to $50,000 a year. Medication costs are a significant portion of the increased costs. Another identified problem relates injuries associated with treatment by other prisoners or staff while in prison.

 

Judge Steven Leifman
# Decriminalizing Mental Illness: Miami Dade County Tackles a Crisis at the Roots
www.scattergoodfoundation.org/ National Council Magazine 2010
On any given day, the county jail houses approximately 1,200 people with mental illness receiving psychotherapeutic medications. This number represents 17 percent of the total inmate population and costs taxpayers more than $50 million annually. The Miami-Dade County jail serves as the largest psychiatric institution in the state of Florida, housing more beds serving people with mental illness than any inpatient hospital in the state and nearly half as many beds as there are in all state civil and forensic mental health hospitals combined.

 

Royal College of Nursing | Centre for Mental Health
# Prison mental health: vision and reality
www.rcn.org.uk/ September 2010
The need for better mental health care in prisons has been evident for some time. Reports throughout the last two decades have shown that prisoners have dramatically higher rates of the whole range of mental health problems compared to the general population. Not only is prison itself a risk factor for emotional distress but the prison population is comprised disproportionately of people from disadvantaged backgrounds with a history of trauma, loss and low resilience to distress.

 

Roberto Nuevo, Somnath Chatterji, Emese Verdes,Nirmala Naidoo, Celso Arango, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos
# The Continuum of Psychotic Symptoms in the General Population: A Cross-national Study
Schizophrenia Bulletin, September 2010
In the last few years, the traditional view of psychosis as a categorical entity (involving a qualitative change from normality to illness), an assumption of the main diagnostic systems such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) or the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10),1 has been challenged for epidemiological, experimental, and theoretical reasons supporting the idea that psychotic symptoms may in fact be distributed along a continuum...

 

Ceri Evans, Phil Brinded, Alexander I. Simpson, Chris Frampton, Roger T. Mulder
# Validation of Brief Screening Tools for Mental Disorders Among New Zealand Prisoners
ps.psychiatryonline.org ♦ Psychiatric Services, September 2010 Vol. 61 No. 9

Although the BJMHS (Brief Jail Mental Health Screen) and EMHS (English Mental Health Screen) did not perform well in terms of screening for MINI diagnoses, they appeared to be good at identifying a core group of prisoners who are psychotic and most likely to require urgent or semi- urgent intervention by mental health services. The most favorable clinical outcomes were achieved by defining a positive screen as one in which either the EMHS or the BJMHS criteria were fulfilled.

 

Tim Aubry, John Sylvestre, Jaclynne Smith, Donna pettey, Marnie Smith
# An Evaluation of the Outcomes of a Court Outreach Program for People with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness Who Are Legally Involved
Canadian Journal of CommunitY Mental Health, vol. 29 Special Issue Supplement 2010
The current study evaluated the outcomes of an outreach program that provides individualized services to people with severe mental illness who are legally involved. Client outcomes included increased community ability and reduced homelessness for a group of 45 clients still receiving services from the program, and increased community ability and diminished severity of mental health symptoms for 50 clients who had been discharged from the program. Only 2 of the 50 discharged clients (4%) were found to be incarcerated at termination.

 

Nancy S. Koven, Robert M. Roth, Matthew A. Garlinghouse, Laura A. Flashman, Andrew J. Saykin
# Regional gray matter correlates of perceived emotional intelligence
http://library.allanschore.com/ 2010

 

Karen J. Cusack, Joseph P. Morrissey, Gary S. Cuddeback, Annabel Prins, David M. Williams
# Criminal Justice Involvement, Behavioral Health Service Use, and Costs of Forensic Assertive Community Treatment: A Randomized Trial
Community Ment Health J. 2010 August ; 46(4): 356–363
Jail diversion and forensic community treatment programs have proliferated over the past decade, far outpacing evidence regarding their efficacy. The current study reports findings from a randomized clinical trial conducted in California for frequent jail users with serious mental illness that compares a forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) intervention with treatment as usual (TAU). Outcomes are reported at 12 and 24 months post-randomization for criminal justice outcomes, behavioral health services and costs...

 

Robert D. Morgan, William H. Fisher, Naihua Duan, Jon T. Mandracchia, Danielle Murray
# Prevalence of Criminal Thinking among State Prison Inmates with Serious Mental Illness
Law Hum Behav. 2010 August ; 34(4): 324–336.
It was recently estimated that persons with serious mental illness are 1.5 times as likely to be incarcerated as to be hospitalized for treatment of their psychiatric disorders. This observation is among the latest evidence fueling a longstanding concern that persons with serious mental illness are disproportionately represented in America’s jails and prisons. In many jurisdictions, local jails have superseded mental health facilities as principal providers of mental health treatment; indeed, more than 15 years ago it was noted that the Los Angeles County Jail system had surpassed all state and private psychiatric specialty hospitals to become the nation’s largest provider of institutionally based mental health services.

 

Jeslyn A. Miller
# Sex Offender Civil Commitment: The Treatment Paradox
California Law Review Volume 98 | Issue 6 | 2010
According to state legislative findings, sexually violent predators have behavioral abnormalities that render them unamenable to "traditional mental illness treatment modalities."  Thus, unlike mentally ill persons serviced by existing involuntary commitment procedures, violent sex offenders require a separate commitment process to address their long-term treatment needs as well as the elevated threat they pose to society. Because "the prognosis for rehabilitating sexually violent predators in a prison setting is poor," states intend an independent system of confinement with unique treatment modalities.

 

Robert D. Hare, Craig S. Neumann
# Psychopathy: Assessment and Forensic Implications
Final draft of a chapter that appeared in L. Malatesti & J. McMillan (Eds). (2010). Responsibility and Psychopathy: Interfacing Law, Psychiatry and Philosophy (93-123). N. Y. Oxford University Press
Psychopathy commonly is viewed as a personality disorder defined by a cluster of interpersonal, affective, lifestyle, and antisocial traits and behaviors, including grandiosity, egocentricity, deceptiveness, shallow emotions, lack of empathy or remorse, irresponsibility, impulsivity, and a tendency to violate social norms. In this chapter we outline standard methods for the assessment of psychopathy, its  association with antisocial personality disorder, its implications for clinical and forensic issues, and its pivotal role in current debates about neuroimaging and legal responsibility.

 

Brant P. Hasler, Daniel J. Buysse, David J. Kupfer, Anne Germain
# Phase relationships between core body temperature, melatonin, and sleep are associated with depression severity: Further evidence for circadian misalignment in non-seasonal depression
Psychiatry Res. 2010 June 30; 178(1): 205–207.
Misalignment between the timing of sleep and the circadian pacemaker has been linked to depression symptoms. This study sought to extend earlier findings by comparing sleep and circadian markers in healthy controls and individuals with major depression. Two markers of circadian misalignment correlated with depression severity in the depressed group...

 

Piero Porcelli, Joni L. Mihura
# Assessment of AlexithymiaWith the Rorschach Comprehensive System: The Rorschach Alexithymia Scale (RAS)
Journal of Personality Assessment, 92(2), 128–136, 2010
In this study, we developed the Rorschach Alexithymia Scale (RAS) to be used with protocols scored with the Comprehensive System. A total of 92 patients with medical disease and 127 psychiatric outpatients were administered the Rorschach and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale. We used a systematic approach, including cross-validation, to reduce a pool of 27 CS codes issued from an earlier investigation to 3 variables: Form%, CDI, and Pop. The RAS showed excellent diagnostic accuracy (hit rate of 92%, sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 94%, and area under the curve of .96).We suggest that the RAS can be used as a reliable integrative tool in a multimethod assessment approach to measuring alexithymia.

 

Matteo Fiorani
# Bibliografia di storia della psichiatria italiana 1991-2010
www.fupress.com/ Firenze University Press 2010

 

Angelo Puccia, Corrado Benatti, Francesca Savazzi (Eds)
# Autore e vittima di reato tra valutazione e riconoscimento: un'analisi comparata
FDE Institute Press - Mantova 2010
L'ampliamento della nozione di infermità mentale ha trovato riscontro altresì in alcuni dei vari progetti di riforma del codice penale dagli anni ‟90 agli inizi del 2000: il cosiddetto Progetto Pagliaro che, tra i  possibili casi di esclusione dell'imputabilità, includeva «la infermità o altra anomalia (…) in grado di porre il soggetto in tale stato di mente da  escludere la capacità di intendere e di volere»; il cosiddetto Progetto  Grosso, che prevedeva tra le cause di esclusione dell'imputabilità, accanto all'infermità, «altra grave anomalia», locuzione poi sostituita con quella di «grave disturbo della personalità». Segna invece un revirement verso il Codice Rocco il Progetto Nordio, che rimane rigorosamente fermo al richiamo alla sola infermità mentale, ritenuta irrinunciabile (un aspetto innovativo va comunque rinvenuto nel riferimento al necessario nesso di condizionamento tra l‟infermità ed il fatto commesso).

 

Kevin Stoloff, John Joska
# Mental Health in HIV – Manual for Primary Healthcare Workers
www.anovahealth.co.za/ First published 2010
Mental illness (problems or disorders) are more common in PLWHA (People living with HIV/AIDS). These may be caused by stress (such as money, relationship problems or stigma), the direct effect of HIV on the brain, or medications that are taken for HIV or TB.People with mental illness (with or without HIV) are more likely to engage in risky sex and the abuse of substances.

 

Max Rutherford
# Blurring the Boundaries. The convergence of mental health and criminal justice policy, legislation, systems and practice
www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/ Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health 2010
It is clear from the evidence in this report that convergence between mental health and criminal justice (policy, legislation, systems and practice) has occurred significantly in the last twenty years, and that the Bradley Report and the Government’s National Delivery Plan are likely to lead to some further convergence in the future. There have been a number of improvements to services and benefits for offenders with mental health problems as a result of convergence. There are also examples where convergence has not occurred, where a number of major improvements can still be made. There have also been positive and negative implications to convergence. The latter have most prominently been seen when the fundamental differences between the objectives of health and criminal justice agencies are brought to the fore. These differences will undoubtedly remain, but convergence may offer some answers in how to bridge this divide, to share best practice, to replicate what works, to commission strategically, to work across agencies and professions, to strengthen workforces, to spend effectively, to enhance skills and, fundamentally, to improve services.

 

Donald W. Black, Tracy Gunter, Peggy Loveless, Jeff Allen, Bruce Sieleni
# Antisocial personality disorder in incarcerated offenders: Psychiatric comorbidity and quality of life
Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, May 2010;22(2):113-120
ASPD is relatively common among both male and female inmates and is associated with comorbid disorders, high suicide risk, and impaired quality of life. Those with comorbid ADHD were more impaired than those without ADHD. ASPD occurs frequently in prison populations and is nearly as common in women as in men. These study findings should contribute to discussions of appropriate and innovative treatment of ASPD in correctional settings.

 

A. K. L. von Borries, I. A. Brazil, B. H. Bulten, J. K. Buitelaar, R. J. Verkes, E. R. A. de Bruijn
# Neural correlates of error-related learning deficits in individuals with psychopathy
Psychological Medicine (2010), 40, 1559–1568
Individuals with psychopathy (PP) show little concern about the consequences of their actions for others and themselves. They often show poor planning skills and fail to avoid behaviours that have been punished previously. The latter is reflected in, for example, the amount and types of incidents occurring in clinical settings and in their poor response to treatment and the high relapse rates of criminal behaviour.

 

National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University
# Behind Bars II: Substance Abuse and America’s Prison Population
www.centeronaddiction.org/ February 2010
Governments’ continued failure to prevent and treat addiction actually increases crime and results in a staggering misuse of government funds; in 2005, federal, state and local governments spent $74 billion in court, probation, parole and incarceration costs of adult and juvenile substance-involved offenders. In comparison, federal and state governments spent only $632 million on prevention and treatment for them.

 

Nazilla Khanlou, Beth Jackson (Intr) | Public Health Agency of Canada
# Immigrant Mental Health. La santé mentale des immigrants
www.metropolis.net/ Canadian Issues - Thèmes Canadiens Summer / Été 2010
Contributeurs: Nazilla Khanlou - Laura Simich - Edward Ng - D. Walter Rasugu Omariba - Mengxuan Annie Xu - James Ted McDonald - Biljana Vasilevska - Morton Beiser - Ruth Marie Wilson - Rabea Murtaza - Yogendra B. Shakya - Alice W. Chen - Charmaine C. Williams - Joanna Ochocka - Elin Moorlag - Sarah Marsh - Karolina Korsak - Baldev Mutta - Amandeep Kaur - Kwame McKenzie - Emily Hansson - Andrew Tuck - Steve Lurie - Lin Fang - Miu Chung Yan - Shahlo Mustafaeva - Regan Shercliffe - Ginette Lafrenière - Lamine Diallo - Cécile Rousseau - Ghayda Hassan - Nicolas  Moreau - Uzma Jamil - Myrna Lashley - Yvonne Lai - Michaela Hynie - Yogendra B. Shakya - Nazilla Khanlou - Tahira Gonsalves - Yuk-Lin - Renita Wong - Josephine P. Wong - Kenneth P. Fung - Sepali Guruge - Enid Collins - Amy Bender

 

Jean-Luc Roelandt
# Pour en finir avec la confusion entre psychiatrie et justice, hôpital psychiatrique et prison, soins et enfermement
L'Information Psychiatrique, Vol. 85, N. 6 - Juin-Juillet 2009
Une question reste toujours sans réponse fiable: quel est le nombre exact de persoimes ayant des troubles psychiques en prison? Au XIX siècle, le psyçhiatre Sérieux disait déjà qu'il y avait 30 % de malades mentaux en prison! Aujourd'hui, plus de 200 psychiatres exercent en prison et réalisent l'évaluation diagnostique de la population carcérale. En fonction des enquêtes, 10 à 60 % des personnes emprisonnées auraient des troubles psychiques. Ces chiffres surprenants sont à manier avec précaution...

 

Julian Elliott Thomas | National Justice Mental Health Initiative Working Group
# Diversion and support of offenders with a mental illness. Guidelines for best practice
www.justice.vic.gov.au/ State of Victoria, Department of Justice, August 2010
The Mental Health Diversion List (MHDL) which commenced as a pilot program in the Hobart registry of the Magistrates Court of Tasmania in 2007 has a strong basis in the therapeutic jurisprudence approach. The MHDL seeks to provide defendants who have a mental illness linked to their offending behaviour with an opportunity to address their mental health issues through court mandated treatment programs or interventions. This approach aims to reducing re-offending and improve community safety. The MHDL is available to adults with a mental illness who are charged with either a summary offence or a minor indictable offence (triable summarily) where the offence is linked to their mental illness.

 

Jane L. Ireland
# Validity of the DSM-IV and the Four A’s Personality Disorder Clusters Among an Adult Male Prisoner Sample
International Journal of Prisoner Health IJPH, Volume 6 Number 1, June 2010
The structure of personality disorder traits among adult male prisoners is considered using confirmatory and exploratory analyses with two independent samples (n = 280 and 339). All completed the International Personality Disorder Examination Screening Questionnaire (IPDE-SQ). It was predicted that: 1) personality disorder traits would be represented via a multidimensional structure; 2) the DSM-IV-TR independent three-cluster structure of personality disorder would not be replicated; and 3) there would be some convergence for the Four A’s published factor model of personality disorder. Evidence of clusters were found but these did not support a straightforward replication of the DSM-IV-TR cluster model or support the Four A’s model. A two-cluster model with narcissistic and paranoid traits removed and a DSM-IV-TR three-factor model with correlating factors fitted the data to an acceptable level. The only good model fit though was for an adapted DSM-IV-TR three-factor model with correlating factors, where the “dramatic” cluster B was characterised by the removal of narcissistic and antisocial. The results highlight the lack of validity for the DSM-IV-TR and the Four A’s published clusters, arguing for a more parsimonious cluster model for prison samples. The importance of validating personality clusters across samples is discussed and the implications highlighted.

 

Northern Ireland Assembly
# Prisoners and Mental Health
Research and Library Service, Paper 46/11, 9 March 2010
It has been noted by the Criminal Justice Inspection Northern Ireland (CJINI) that mental health problems in prisons is prevalent and ―imprisonment may not be the best response to their offending behaviour; it frequently does them no good and risks further harming their mental health, making them more likely to reoffend. This paper highlights issues facing the criminal justice system in relation to prisoners with mental health problems... Some of the key statistics suggest: o In the UK, 70% of sentenced prisoners suffer from two or more mental health problems; 4% of sentenced male prisoners and 50% of female prisoners are personality disordered. 78% of male prisoners on remand are personality disordered...

 

Peter Lehmann
# Some Proposals to Combat Suicidality Triggered by Neuroleptics
www.peter-lehmann-publishing.com/ 2010
Suicide is the most frequent death cause in people diagnosed as “schizophrenics”. Psychiatrists administer neuroleptics to people diagnosed as “schizophrenics”. A main effect of neuroleptics is depression up to suicidality. It is understandable, that members of the psychiatricpharmaceutical complex taboo this topic in their general denial of responsibility and their greed of gain. But should it be ignored in the circles of humanistic antipsychiatry?

 

Amresh Shrivastava
# Suicide, schizophrenia and antipsychotics: Perspectives
http://earlypsychosis.net/ The University of Western Ontario, 2010

 

Camilo J. Ruggero, Mark Zimmerman, Iwona Chelminski, Diane Young
# Borderline Personality Disorder and the Misdiagnosis of Bipolar Disorder
J Psychiatr Res. 2010 April ; 44(6): 405–408
Recent reports suggest bipolar disorder is not only under-diagnosed but may at times be overdiagnosed. Little is known about factors that increase the odds of such mistakes. The present work explores whether symptoms of borderline personality disorder increase the odds of a bipolar misdiagnosis. Psychiatric outpatients (N = 610) presenting for treatment were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality for DSM-IV axis II disorders (SIDP-IV), as well as a questionnaire asking if they had ever been diagnosed with bipolar disorder by a mental health care professional. Eighty-two patients who reported having been previously diagnosed with bipolar disorder but who did not have it according to the SCID were compared to 528 patients who had never been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Patients with borderline personality disorder had significantly greater odds of a previous bipolar misdiagnosis, but no specific borderline criteria was unique in predicting this outcome. Patients with borderline personality disorder, regardless of how they meet criteria, may be at increased risk of being misdiagnosed with bipolar disorder.

 

Mark Zimmerman, Janine N. Galione, Camilo J. Ruggero, Iwona Chelminski, Diane Young, Kristy Dalrymple, Joseph B. McGlinchey

# Screening for Bipolar Disorder and Finding Borderline Personality Disorder

J Clin Psychiatry 2010;71(9):1212–1217

Bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder share some clinical features and have similar correlates. It is, therefore, not surprising that differential diagnosis is sometimes difficult. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) is the most widely used screening scale for bipolar disorder. Borderline personality disorder was 4 times more frequently diagnosed in the MDQ positive group than the MDQ negative group (21.5% vs 4.1%, P < .001). The results were essentially the same when the analysis was restricted to patients with a current diagnosis of major depressive disorder (27.6% vs 6.9%, P = .001). Of the 98 patients who screened positive on the MDQ in the entire sample of patients, including those diagnosed with bipolar disorder, 23.5% (n = 23) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and 27.6% (n = 27) were diagnosed with borderline personality disorder.

 

Philip B Mitchell, Colleen K Loo and Bronwyn M Gould
# Diagnosis and monitoring of bipolar disorder in general practice
www.mja.com.au/ Med J Aust 2010; 193 (4): 10
In Australia, bipolar disorder affects 1.3% of the population at some stage of their life.1 General practitioners are often consulted for first presentations of this condition, and are frequently involved in ongoing monitoring and care of patients in conjunction with specialised mental health services. As with other persistent complex illnesses, GPs are well placed to coordinate the care of patients with bipolar disorder as they continue to provide other aspects of medical care and develop an understanding of the patient’s circumstances.

 

Joie Acosta, Janice C. Blanchard, Craig Evan Pollack, Rhondee Benjamin-Johnson, David M. Adamson, Carole Roan Gresenz, Brendan Salones
# Guide to the Behavioral Health Care System in the District of Columbia
www.rand.org/ August 2010
CORE Choosing Options for Recovery and Empowerment program goals are to provide culturally sensitive substance abuse treatment and recovery
support services over the three-year federal grant period. The key target populations for the program are the estimated 20,000 substance abusers who annually exit jail or prison and return to the District's streets; single women; women with dependent children; and methamphetamine users.

 

Heathcote W. Wales, Virginia Aldigé Hiday, Bradley Ray
# Procedural justice and the mental health court judge's role in reducing recidivism
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 2010
Based on qualitative observation and quantitative data from eight mental health courts (MHCs), this articleargues that observed reductions in recidivism from participation in MHC are caused in part by the role of the judge in conveying elements of procedural justice. Specifically, the judge provides: (1) a heightened level of interpersonal treatment of participants that accords them dignity, respect, and voice; (2) accountability forparticipants and service providers alike; and (3) transparency for decisions reached through an opennegotiation process. 

 

Mindy S. Bradley-Engen, Gary S. Cuddeback, Mathew D. Gayman, Joseph P. Morrissey, David Mancuso
# Trends in State Prison Admission of Offenders With Serious Mental Illness
Psychiatric Services ps.psychiatryonline.org, December 2010 Vol. 61 No. 12
Our examination of trends over a nineyear period of admissions to the Washington State prison system revealed that growth in the numbers of prisoners with serious mental illness and cooccurring substance use disorders was not due primarily to increases in admission base rates. These findings help to temper alarmist claims that prisonsare used increasingly as new asylums for persons with serious mental illness.

 

Ariel Eytan, Dagmar M. Haller, Hans Wolff, Bernard Cerutti, Paul Sebo,
Dominique Bertrand, Gérard Niveau
# Psychiatric symptoms, psychological distress and somatic comorbidity among remand prisoners in Switzerland
www.lsdh.ch/ International Journal of Law and Psychiatry (2010)
The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms and complaints among remand prisoners in Switzerland and to analyze the relationships between psychiatric symptoms, physical health and substance abuse problems in this population... Results: A total of 1510 files were analyzed. Several associations between psychological symptoms (anxiety and insomnia) and physical health problems (skin, respiratory and circulatory) were observed. Substance abuse was also frequently associated with somatic health problems. Conclusions: These data provide the first comprehensive description of the mental health of detainees in Switzerland's largest remand prison. Our findings emphasize the need for coordinated health care services in detention settings

 

Jean-Luc Roelandt
# De la psychiatrie vers la santé mentale, suite: bilan actuel et pistes d’évolution
L’Information psychiatrique 2010 ; 86 : 777-83
La psychiatrie est la discipline médicale la plus liée à l’organisation sociale et politique de la société dans laquelle elle se met en œuvre. Depuis 50 ans, a été confié à la psychiatrie seule (et malheureusement seule) l’ensemble de la question de la santé mentale – prévention, post-cure, réadaptation et soins. Or, cette question ne peut se concevoir qu’avec la participation de toute la société et de la médecine dans son ensemble : soins de santé primaire, logement, travail et insertion, loisirs, familles et environnement social, justice et police. L’enjeu est ici de réintroduire la question de la santé mentale, en tant qu’élément de la santé publique, dans le débat politique et social

 

Randy A. Sansone, Lori A. Sansone
# Fatal Attraction Syndrome: Stalking Behavior and Borderline Personality
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Psychiatry (Edgemont) 2010;7(5):42–46
We examine the possible association between stalking behavior and borderline personality disorder. Five studies report prevalence rates of borderline personality disorder among stalkers, with four reporting rates between 4 and 15 percent (i.e., a small minority). However, three of these studies represent forensic populations and one consists of patients who stalked their psychiatrists. In contrast, in the remaining sample of stalkers, where being charged with a crime was not an inclusion criterion, the prevalence of borderline personality disorder was considerably higher at 45 percent. 

 

Jeffrey L. Metzner, Jamie Fellner
# Solitary Confinement and Mental Illness in U.S. Prisons: A Challenge for Medical Ethics
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 38:104 – 8, 2010
In recent years, prison officials have increasingly turned to solitary confinement as a way to manage difficult or dangerous prisoners. Many of the prisoners subjected to isolation, which can extend for years, have serious mental illness, and the conditions of solitary confinement can exacerbate their symptoms or provoke recurrence. Prison rules for isolated prisoners, however, greatly restrict the nature and quantity of mental health services that they can receive. In this article, we describe the use of isolation (called segregation by prison officials) to confine prisoners with serious mental illness, the psychological consequences of such confinement, and the response of U.S. courts and human rights experts. We then address the challenges and human rights responsibilities of physicians confronting this prison practice. We conclude by urging professional organizations to adopt formal positions against the prolonged isolation of prisoners with serious mental illness.

 

Michael Vitiello
# Addressing the Special Problems of Mentally Ill Prisoners: A Small Piece of the Solution to Our Nation's Prison Crisis
Denver University Law Review, vol. 88, 2010
As a result of the deinstitutionalization movement, mentally ill patients who were released from mental health facilities were sent back into their communities. The effect has been a change of venue for the mentally ill from mental hospitals to prisons, not just to nursing homes or the streets. While there are few data on incarcerations of mentally ill people prior to the deinstitutionalization movement,48 evidence suggests that, since deinstitutionalization, the rate of incarceration of mentally ill people has increased significantly.

 

G. Escuder Romeva, L.G. Gomollón Rubio, S. Ochoa Güerre, M.J. Ramos Miravet, A. González Cáceres, Stuart D. M. Thomas
# Clinical validation of the CANFOR scale (Camberwell Assessment of Need-Forensic version) for the needs assessment of people with mental health problems in the forensic services
Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2010;38(3):129-137
Few studies have been performed in Spain on the prevalence of mental disease in prisons. According to the data published in 2007 regarding the penitentiary population in Catalonia, it has been confi rmed that there is a greater prevalence of mental disorders in the penitentiary setting than in the general population. A total of 40.9% of Convicted Offenders have been diagnosed of severe mental disorder (SMD), 44.3% of them being subjected to Security Measures. As a fi rst diagnosis, the most prevalent are Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders, since they are found in 44.5% of the security measures and 26% of the convicted offenders population seen by the Psychiatry Services.

 

Jack JM Dekker, Jan Theunissen, Rien Van, Jaap Peen, Pim Duurkoop, Martijn Kikkert
# Victimization of patients with severe psychiatric disorders: prevalence, risk factors, protective factors and consequences for mental health. A longitudinal study
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ BMC Public Health 2010
This is a longitudinal study conducted among a survey sample of psychiatric patients in mental health care institutions in Amsterdam, who are long-term care dependent. The research population consists of patients with chronic psychiatric problems, as defined by using research criteria for chronicity in the information systems of the mental healthcare institutions 5 years ago. Patients who participated in the first measurement at that time were informed that follow-up research was possible and were asked to participate. For the second measurement patients will be contacted and asked to participate in this follow-up study, after obtaining verbal or written consent from their therapist...

 

Adrienne Rivlin, Keith Hawton, Lisa Marzano, Seena Fazel
# Psychiatric disorders in male prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts: case–control study
The British Journal of Psychiatry (2010) 197, 313–319.
A matched case–control study of 60 male prisoners who made near-lethal suicide attempts (cases) and 60 prisoners who had never carried out near-lethal suicide attempts in prison (controls) was conducted. Psychiatric disorders were identified with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and information on sociodemographic characteristics and criminal history was gathered using a semi-structured interview. Results Psychiatric disorders were present in all cases and 62% of controls. Although cases were more likely than controls to meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder, the difference was not statistically significant. Comorbidity was also significantly more common among cases than controls for both current and lifetime disorders.  Conclusions In male prisoners, psychiatric disorders, especially depression, psychosis, anxiety and drug misuse, are  ssociated with near-lethal suicide attempts, and hence probably with suicide.  

 

Olav Nielssen, Matthew Large
# Rates of Homicide During the First Episode of Psychosis and After Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Schizophrenia Bulletin 2010 vol. 36 no. 4 pp. 702–712
The findings of this study suggest that the rate of lethal violence by patients with previously treated schizophrenia is lower than previous estimates. In contrast, the rate of homicide prior to treatment of psychotic illness is higher than has previously been recognized. Homicide is a rare event, and it might never be possible to accurately predict who will commit homicide. However, awareness of the increased risk of homicide in patients in the first episode of psychosis  should alert health care workers to the need for urgent treatment of emerging psychosis.

 

The Offender Health Research Network
# The pathway of prisoners with mental health problems through prison health services and the effect of the prison environment on the mental health of prisoners
www.ohrn.nhs.uk/ April 2010
There is widespread concern that the prison environment, with its rules and regimes, may have a detrimental impact on the mental health of prisoners, and those with mental illnesses in particular (Birmingham, 2003). It is well documented that the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity and substance misuse is higher among prisoners than the general population. Indeed, the growing prison population means that there are now more
people in prison with mental illnesses than ever before...

 

Chris Fitch, Melba Wilson, Adrian Worrall | Royal College of Psychiatrists -  National Mental Health Development Unit - National Mental Health Equalities Programme
# Improving In-Patient Mental Health Services for Black and Minority Ethnic Patients. Recommendations to inform accreditation standards
The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2010
There are 4.6 million people from Black and minority ethnic1 groups in the Uk. reported problems which members of these groups can face in relation to in-patient mental health service provision include: sociocultural difficulties (health beliefs and mistrust of services), systemic problems (lack of culturally competent practices in mental health services), economic issues, and individual barriers (denial of mental health problems). research shows that Bme groups are more likely than average to be admitted to mental health hospitals. some Bme groups also experienceedifferent pathways into acute care, and it is important to avoid aggregating  all ethnic groups together where possible.

 

E. Fuller Torrey, Sheriff Aaron D. Kennard, Sheriff Don Eslinger, Richard Lamb, James Pavle
# More Mentally Ill Persons Are in Jails and Prisons Than Hospitals: A Survey of the States
www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ May 2010
In 1939 Lionel Penrose, a British psychiatrist and mathematician, published a paper on the relationship between the population of psychiatric hospitals and that of prisons. He postulated that the two populations were inversely correlated: as one decreases, the other increases.67 It has become known as the balloon theory—push in on one side and the other side bulges out. What Penrose did not know when he published his paper was that the United States was about to embark on a grand social experiment— deinstitutionalization—that would test his theory.

 

Mairead Dolan, Regine Blattner
# The utility of the Historical Clinical Risk -20 Scale as a predictor of outcomes in decisions to transfer patients from high to lower levels of security-A UK perspective
BMC Psychiatry, 2010, 10:76
Structured Professional Judgment (SPJ) approaches to violence risk assessment are increasingly being adopted into clinical practice in international forensic settings. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive validity of the Historical Clinical Risk -20 (HCR-20) violence risk assessment scale for outcome following transfers from high to medium security in a United Kingdom setting. The mean length of follow up was 6 years. The total HCR-20 score was a robust predictor of failure at lower levels of security and return to high security. The Clinical and Risk management items contributed most to predictive accuracy. Although the HCR-20 was designed as a violence risk prediction tool our findings suggest it has potential utility in decisions to transfer patients from high to lower levels of security.

 

Pål Hartvig
# Mental disorder and violence in the mental health and the correctional system: different services with overlapping challenges?
Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry - Oslo University Hospital - University of Oslo 2010
In the late 1930s, the British psychiatrist Lionel Penrose published a classic study, covering most European countries, in which he demonstrated an inverse numerical relationship between prison and mental hospital beds. This cross-sectional study found that low numbers of mental hospital beds were paralleled by high numbers of prison beds and vice versa across all the countries. Penrose concluded that provision of more mental health beds would have a preventive effect on serious violent crime. However, a replicated study is needed to determine whether the results are valid in a modern welfare society. Since the late 1960s there has been a definite and well acknowledged mental deinstitutionalisation in Norway as in other Western countries. This has made possible a longitudinal study to evaluate whether this mental health deinstitutionalisation has been paralleled by changes in correctional institutions and violent crime rates.

 

Brian E. Perron, Alicia Bunge2, Kimberly Bender, Michael G. Vaughn, Matthew O. Howard
# Treatment Guidelines for Substance Use Disorders and Serious Mental Illnesses: Do They Address Co-Occurring Disorders?
Subst Use Misuse, 2010 June ; 45(0): 1262–1278
Substance use disorders (SUDs) and serious mental illnesses (SMIs) are significant public health concerns. Approximately 22 million people in the United States were classified with substance use or dependence in the past year 2004) and 44 million people have experienced a SMI within the past year. Furthermore, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) estimated in 1997 that the United States expended roughly $85 billion for these disorders, and 56% of this amount was from public sources in that year alone.

 

F.A.J. Fluttert, Arnhem, The Netherlands
# Management of Inpatient Aggression in Forensic Mental Health Nursing. The application of the Early Recognition Method
www.veiligezorgiederszorg.nl/ 2010
Forensic mental health nurses work in a very dynamic field. Their main concerns are ‘security versus therapy’, ‘dangerousness’ and ‘management of  violence’. On the interface of security and treatment professionals in forensic mental health care are confronted with two conflicting perspectives, namely the necessity of psychiatric treatment and care on the one hand, and the public outcry for more severe restrictions to prevent society from risk behaviour of the patient on the other hand...

 

Aidan G. C. Wright, Mark R. Lukowitsky, Aaron L. Pincus, David E. Conroy
# The Higher Order Factor Structure and Gender Invariance of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory
Assessment 2010 17: 467
The Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) is a recently developed multidimensional inventory for the assessment of pathological narcissism. The authors describe and report the results of two studies that investigate the higher order factor structure and gender invariance of the PNI. The results of the first study indicate that the PNI has a higher order factor structure that conforms to the theoretical structure of pathological narcissism with one factor representing narcissistic grandiosity and the other capturing narcissistic vulnerability. 

 

Royal College of Psychiatrists London
# No health without public mental health
www.rcpsych.ac.uk/ Approved by Council: October 2010
Risk factors disproportionately affect the mental health of people from higher-risk and marginalised groups. Those at higher risk include looked-after children, children who experienced abuse, Black and minority ethnic individuals,b,29–31 those with intellectual disability and homeless people. Prisoners have a twenty-fold higher risk of psychosis,32 with 63% of male remand prisoners having antisocial personality disorder,33 compared with 0.3% of the general population.8 Such groups are also at a higher risk of stigma and discrimination. Targeted intervention for groups at higher risk of mental illness can prevent a widening of inequalities in comparison with the general population.

 

Anne Wyvekens
# La rétention de sûreté en France: une défense sociale en trompe-l’oeil (ou les habits neufs de l’empereur)
déviance et société 2010, vol. 34, n° 4, pp. 503-525
La législation pénale française n’a pendant longtemps été que modérément influencée par les théories positivistes. La loi du 25 février 2008 crée la rétention de sûreté, qualifiée de « révolution en droit pénal français ». Aboutissement d’une évolution placée sous le signe de la lutte contre la récidive, où la dangerosité et les mesures de sûreté tendent à supplanter les notions de responsabilité et de peine, elle ne représente pas pour autant la mise en oeuvre d’une politique moderne de défense sociale. La rupture évoquée, bien réelle sur le plan des principes, renvoie plutôt à une rhétorique, dissimulant mal la difficulté de répondre à la question soulevée en des termes autres que de neutralisation.

 

T. E. Mofftt, A. Caspi, A. Taylor, J. Kokaua, B. J. Milne, G. Polanczyk, R. Poulton
# How common are common mental disorders? Evidence that lifetime prevalence rates are doubled by prospective versus retrospective ascertainment
Psychological Medicine (2010), 40, 899–909
Prospective longitudinal studies complement retrospective surveys by providing unique information about lifetime prevalence. The experience of at least one episode of DSM-defined disorder during a lifetime may be far more common in the population than previously thought. Research should ask what this means for etiological theory, construct validity of the DSM approach, public perception of stigma, estimates of the burden of disease and public health policy.

 

Serap Erdogan
# Quetiapine in Substance Use Disorders, Abuse and Dependence Possibility: A Review
Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 2010
When evaluated in terms of DSM IV criteria it is noteable that quetiapine abuse and dependence were first reported among prisoner populations. In the Los Angeles County Jail, which is referred to as the “world’s biggest mental health institution”, it is reported that approximately 30% of prisoners pretend to have a severe psychiatric disorder by reporting symptoms (hearing noises, having paranoid thoughts) in order to get quetiapine...

 

Lynn A. Stewart, Andrew Harris, Geoff Wilton, Kyle Archambault, Colette Cousineau, Steve Varrette
# An Initial Report on the Results of the Pilot of the Computerized Mental Health Intake Screening System (CoMHISS)
Correctional Service of Canada March 2010
Mental health problems among offenders are of increasing concern for the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC). Between the time period of March 1997 and March 2008, the percentage of in-custody male offenders identified at intake as having a past mental health diagnosis almost doubled from 10% to 18% (CSC, 2008). Similarly, the proportion with a current diagnosis increased from 7% to 13% and the proportion currently prescribed medication for mental health issues increased from 9% to 21% (CSC, 2008). Recent rates are even higher for women. The percentage of women offenders with past mental health diagnoses rose from 20% to 31%, while the percentage with a current diagnosis at intake increased from 13% to 24%, and the rate of women offenders currently prescribed medication escalated from 34% to 46% (CSC, 2008). Even higher rates of psychiatric disorders in prison populations have been quoted in some studies where lifetime prevalence rates have ranged from 64% to 81%...

 

Steven Raphael, Michael A. Stoll
# Assessing the Contribution of the Deinstitutionalization of the Mentally Ill to Growth in the U.S. Incarceration Rate
http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/ March 2010
Over half of state prison inmates, slightly less than half of federal prison inmates, and over 60 percent of jail inmates report having mental health problems or symptoms indicative of mental illness. The relative prevalence of severe mental illness is particular high (nearly five times that of the general adult population). Applying these prevalence rates to the 2008 incarcerated population yields the estimate that roughly 316,000 severely mentally ill people are inmates in the nation’s prison and jails (approximately 115,000 jail inmates and 201,000 state and federal prison inmates).

 

Xavier Bébin
# Maladie mentale, troubles de la personnalité et dangerosité. Quels liens, quelles réponses?
www.institutpourlajustice.org/ Institut pour la Justice, Études & Analyses N°11 Août 2010
Depuis les années 1970, on a constaté chez bon nombre de praticiens et de familles de patients un refus de principe d‟envisager qu‟il puisse y avoir un lien entre violence et schizophrénie – i.e., que la schizophrénie puisse accroître le risque de passage à l‟acte violent de l‟individu. Cette position était éminemment compréhensible : le fait de souffrir d‟une maladie mentale constitue déjà un handicap, et il convient d‟éviter tout risque de stigmatisation supplémentaire. Et ce d‟autant plus que la grande majorité des malades mentaux ne sont pas violents, et que les malades mentaux ont plus de dix fois plus de chances d‟être victimes de violence qu‟une personne non malade...

 

Alexandra H. Smith, Jennifer J. Parish | Urban Justice Center’s Mental Health Project
# When a Person with Mental Illness Goes to Prison- How to Help. A Guide for Family Members and Friends
Urban Justice Center 2010
There are some separate residential mental health units within the prison system. People assigned to the Intermediate Care Program (ICP), Intensive ICP (IICP), and Transitional ICP (TrICP or TICP) reside in separate housing areas from those in general population. These programs are staffed by both DOCS and OMH. The ICP and IICP are designed to serve as day treatment programs within the prison for people who are unable to function in the general prison population because of impairments related to their mental illness. People in the Transitional ICP have cells in a separate housing area from general population, have some separate programming, but may spend a portion of their time in and with the general population.

 

Rich Daly
# Psychiatrists Decry Punishment That Isolates Prisoners
http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/ Psychiatric News September 03, 2010

At the center of the debate are state-run supermax prisons, which have grown to house at least 25,000 prisoners nationally. These facilities hold the most violent inmates. Typically prisoners are kept alone in small cells for 23 hours a day, plus an hour of solo recreation in a caged area. Meals are delivered through a slot in a solid door, and radios and TVs are not allowed. Supermax units within some prisons operate in a similar manner...
the prevalence of psychiatric illness among supermax inmates can reach over 50 percent, said forensic psychiatrist Paul Appelbaum, M.D., a member and former chair of APA's Council on Psychiatry and Law and a past APA president.

 

Gusztáv Stubnya, Zoltán Nagy, Claas-Hinrich Lammers, Zoltán Rihmer, István Bitter
# Deinstitutionalization in Europe: Two Recent Examples from Germany and Hungary
Psychiatria Danubina, 2010; Vol. 22, No. 3, pp 406–412
Deinstitutionalization has made possible the development of modern community psychiatric services, however radical decrease in the number of hospital beds may result in a reduction in the overall standard of psychiatric care and disruptions in service delivery. The authors present an example of deinstitutionalisation in Hungary, which led to serious difficulties in the provision of healthcare in the field of psychiatry, contrasted with a case from Germany serving as an example of an alternative solution.

 

Martyn Pickersgill
# From psyche to soma? Changing accounts of antisocial personality disorders in the American Journal of Psychiatry
History of Psychiatry 21(3) 294–311, 2010
Psychopathy, diagnosed in individuals considered wanton and recidivist criminals who rarely showed signs of any other severe mental disorder, formed a principal focus for clinical psychiatry in relation to antisocial behaviour in the 1950s. Originating in nineteenth-century Europe, psychopathy was and remained an ambiguous concept 

 

Alice Keski-Valkama
# The Use of Seclusion and Mechanical Restraint in Psychiatry . A Persistent Challenge over Time
Faculty of Medicine of the University of Tampere, February 24th, 2010
The use of seclusion and mechanical restraint varies considerably across psychiatric institutions. Among studies conducted mostly at the individual psychiatric hospital level, the proportion of secluded and mechanically restrained patients has varied from 0–66%, and the average duration of the measures has ranged from 1.5 hours to 50.6 hours... Empirical studies indicate that reasons for using seclusion and mechanical restraint varied
in clinical practice. In many studies, actual violence has been identified as the most frequent reason for seclusion and mechanical restraint, accounting for 20.8%–44% of the reasons for seclusion and mechanical restraint. Other evidence suggests that merely threatening violence accounts for 33%–62% of the reason, and is the most common determinant of seclusion and mechanical restraint...

 

the WI Inspiring Women |National Federation of Women’s Institutes (NFWI)
# Care not Custody
http://www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ 2010
More than two-thirds of all men, women and children in prison have two or more mental health problems such as depression and anxiety. Many have a history of attempted suicide and self-harm, while significant numbers have severe and ongoing illnesses such as schizophrenia and personality disorders. Prison mental health care is too often a catch-all for people who would be better cared for outside the criminal justice system altogether. Those not getting the care they need can end up harming themselves or even committing suicide. They can also find it difficult to adjust to life when they leave prison – putting a huge strain on families and leading many to reoffend.

 

Sarah Santelé
# La prise en charge des détenus déficients mentaux
www.sireas.be/ Analyses  &  Études Société  2010/02
A l’heure actuelle en Belgique, on compte environ 4000 internés dont 1100 se trouvent en prison et 450 environ dans un établissement de Défense Sociale. En Wallonie et à Bruxelles, les internés sont répartis au sein des annexes psychiatriques des prisons de Mons, Namur, Jamioulx et Forest ainsi que l’établissement de Défense Sociale de Paifve et de l’hôpital psychiatrique «LesMarronniers» à Tournai.

 

Senat | M. Gilbert Barbier, Mme Christiane Demontès, MM. Jean-René Lecerf, Jean-Pierre Michel - Sénateurs
# Rapport d'information fait au nom de la commission des affaires sociales et de la commission des lois constitutionnelles, de législation, du suffrage universel, du Règlement et d’administration générale, par le groupe de travail sur la prise en charge des personnes atteintes de troubles mentaux ayant commis des infractions
www.senat.fr/ Enregistré à la Présidence du Sénat le 5 mai 2010
La présence en prison de personnes atteintes de troubles mentaux résulte-t-elle de l’application des dispositions de l’article 122-1 du code pénal qui, si elles excluent la responsabilité pénale des personnes dont le discernement était aboli au moment des faits, la prévoient, au contraire, lorsque ce discernement est seulement altéré ? Faut-il mettre en cause le système psychiatrique dans son ensemble, marqué par la réduction drastique en un quart de siècle du nombre de lits d’hospitalisation à temps complet dédiés à la psychiatrie, faisant apparaître la prison comme le seul lieu où des  soins peuvent être prodigués dans des conditions de sécurité satisfaisantes ?  Au-delà, ce phénomène traduit-il, en écho à la souffrance des victimes, un mouvement difficilement réversible du corps social en faveur de la responsabilisation ?

 

Randy A. Sansone, Lori A. Sansone
# Is Seroquel Developing an Illicit Reputation for Misuse/Abuse?
Psychiatry 2010, Vol. 7, N. 1, January
Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, has been the subject of a series of case reports that suggest a potential for misuse/abuse. The available cases indicate a male predominance; oral, intranasal, or intravenous routes of administration; misuse/abuse in jail or inpatient psychiatric settings; and subjects with extensive histories of polysubstance abuse. While possible pharmacological explanations have been proffered, compared to the other atypical antipsychotics, there is no clear explanation for an alleged higher risk... 

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
# Traumatic Brain Injury in Prisons and Jails
http://www.brainline.org/ January 2010
Many people in prisons and jails are living with traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related problems that complicate their management and treatment while they are incarcerated. Because most prisoners will be released, these problems will also pose challenges when they return to the community. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognizes TBI in prisons and jails as an important public health problem.

 

Maria Laura Fadda
# Disagio Psichico e Condizione Carceraria

www.associazionemagistrati.it/ "La Magistratura", luglio/dicembre 2009

 

Cour Européenne des Droits de l'Homme - European Court of Human Rights

# Causa Maiorano e altri c. Italia (Ricorso n. 28634/06)
Strasburgo 15 dicembre 2009

I ricorrenti ... sono parenti delle signore Maria Carmela Linciano e Valentina Maiorano che, in base alle dichiarazioni confessorie di Angelo Izzo, furono da lui assassinate il 28 aprile 2005...

 

California HealthCare Foundation
# Telepsychiatry in the Emergency Department: Overview and Case Studies
www.chcf.org/ December 2009
Patients who present in the emergency department (ED) with mental health issues often encounter long delays before being evaluated and admitted, transferred, or discharged. Arranging appropriate evaluation for these patients often disproportionately affects the operation of the ED, particularly in its space and staffing. Some hospitals are using telemedicine to help evaluate ED patients. This report examines the operational structure, financial support, and challenges encountered with seven ED telepsychiatry programs. It also looks at the potential value that telepsychiatry could bring to the efficient operation of the ED and improved patient care.

 

Hassan Ziaaddini, Mansoureh Nasirian, Rezvan Amiri
# Personality Disorder Diagnosis in Substance Dependent Women in Iran : Relationship to childhood Maltreatment
Iran J Psychiatry 2009; 4:52-55
Results suggested that all types of maltreatment, including neglect are related to higher levels of personality disorder and substance use and should be considered serious risk factors during adolescence. Such studies are important for  a more understanding of these problems and for practical efforts for alleviating them in female victims of childhood maltreatment.

 

# The Bradley Report. Lord Bradley’s review of people with mental health problems or learning disabilities in the criminal justice system
www.cambridgeshire.gov.uk/ April 2009

... There is a growing consensus that prison may not always be an appropriate environment for those with severe mental illness and that custody can exacerbate mental ill health, heighten vulnerability and increase the risk of self-harm and suicide. In addition, recent studies of mental health services for prisoners suggest that there is still some way to go in achieving equivalence with mental health services in the community. The 1998 publication of a survey for the Office for National Statistics on psychiatric morbidity among prisoners was a comprehensive attempt to provide robust baseline information about the prevalence of psychiatric problems among male and female, remand and sentenced prisoners.

 

Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health
# Briefing 39: Mental health care and the criminal justice system
www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/ August 2009
Responsibility for prison health care lies with the NHS. It aims to give prisoners access to the same quality and range of health services as the general public receives in the community. This is an enormous challenge. Many prisoners have a combination of mental health  problems, substance misuse and personality disorder, as well as a range of other issues to deal with. Overcrowding and a lack of staff skilled in identifying and managing mental health problems are major  problems that need to be addressed. There is growing evidence that prisons are not effective at reducing offending and that the costs, both financial and social, of containing people in prison without access to appropriate health care are too high.

 

Laura Knight, Mike Stephens
# Mentally Disordered Offenders in Prisons: a Tale of Neglect?
Internet Journal of Criminology 2009
The Prison Service’s increased emphasis on security and control has generated many obstacles for the effective delivery of psychiatric care to mentally disordered prisoners. Such prisoners do not have the necessary mental strength or coping mechanisms to deal with the ‘prison culture’ and this is particularly so for women, young people and ethnic minorities. Conflicting ideologies between the prison regime and the NHS mean that the mental health services available to prisoners are limited. Therapeutic communities offer a potential solution to the dire situation the Prison Service finds itself in.

 

Mélanie Voyer, Jean-Louis Senon, Christelle Paillard, Nemat Jaafari

# Dangerosité psychiatrique et prédictivité

L'information psychiatrique 8/ 2009 (Volume 85), p. 745-752
La dangerosité psychiatrique a été définie comme une manifestation symptomatique liée à l’expression directe de la maladie mentale alors que la dangerosité criminologique est un phénomène psycho-social caractérisé par des indices révélateurs de la très grande probabilité de commettre une infraction contre les personnes ou les biens...

 

Graham D. Glancy, Michael Saini
# The Confluence of Evidence-Based Practice and Daubert Within the Fields of Forensic Psychiatry and the Law
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 37:438–41, 2009
The articles focus on providing transparency in the methods of assessing evidence, with careful considerations made to the strengths and limitations of the evidence in the areas common to forensic psychiatry: competency measures, assessment of sex offenders, neuroscience, diversion initiatives, and the treatment of anger and aggression.

 

Seth Jacob Prins, Laura Draper
# Improving Outcomes for People with Mental Illnesses under Community Corrections Supervision: A Guide to Research-Informed Policy and practice
Council of State Governments Justice Center, N. Y., 2009
People with mental illnesses, most of whom have co-occurring substance use disorders and face significant clinical, legal, and socioeconomic challenges, are overrepresented among probation and parole populations. These individuals are twice as likely as people without mental illnesses to have their community supervision revoked. The best predictors of probation or parole revocation for people with mental illnesses are similar to predictors of revocation for people without mental illnesses (for example, criminal history, substance use, problematic circumstances at home), but people with mental illnesses have more of these risk factors. In addition, people with mental illnesses face unique risk factors related to their clinical conditions (for example, some may have functional impairments).

 

Antonio Lora
# An overview of the mental health system in Italy
Ann Ist Super Sanità 2009 | Vol. 45, no. 1: 5-16
The ESEMeD survey was carried out in Italy in 2001-2003, and interviewed a sample of 4712 Italian citizens. The annual prevalence for common mental disorders was 7.3%, anxiety disorder was 5.1%, mood disorder 3.5% and alcohol disorder 0.1%. The most common mental disorders were major depression (3%) and specific phobia (2.7%). Women were twice as likely as men to report a mood disorder and four times as likely as men to report an anxiety disorder, while men were twice as likely as women to report an alcohol disorder. There was a high co-morbidity of mood and anxiety disorders.

 

Mariam A-Zanganeh
# The assessment and Management of Violence in Forensic Populations
The University of Birmingham May 2009
The present research offers support for the ability of the HCR-20 risk assessment scheme to predict future acts of violence in a UK sample of mentally/personality disordered  males under the care of a community forensic mental health service. The study offers further knowledge and understanding on the risk assessment and management process in UK samples and more specifically outlines the importance of both static and dynamic factors.

 

Lacey N. Oldemeyer
# Demographic and Historical Factors in Violent and Nonviolent Offenders with Psychotic Disorders
School of Professional Psychology Pacific University December 11, 2009
Individuals with severe mental illness, and more specifically, psychotic disorders, have become more present in the criminal justice system in the last few decades. Understanding background and historical factors that may be associated with crime, violent and nonviolent, is an important step in identifying and preventing these individuals from becoming involved in the system. More research in the area of risk assessment for this population is warranted and is an important step in reducing the number of psychotic individuals in jails and prisons.

 

James A. Cranford, Daniel Eisenberg, Alisha M. Serras
# Substance use behaviors, mental health problems, and use of mental health services in a probability sample of college students
Addictive Behaviors 34 (2009) 134–145
This research examined 1) the prevalence of substance use behaviors in college students, 2) gender and academic level as moderators of the associations between mental health problems and substance use, and 3) mental health service use among those with co-occurring frequent binge drinking and mental health problems. As part of the Healthy Minds Study, a probability sample of 2843 college students completed an Internet survey on mental health problems, substance use behaviors, and utilization of mental health care. Response propensity weights were used to adjust for differences between respondents and non-respondents. Major depression, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder were positively associated with cigarette smoking. Frequent binge drinking was negatively associated with major depression and positively associated with generalized anxiety disorder, and these associations were significantly stronger for males than females. Among students with co-occurring frequent binge drinking and mental health problems, 67% perceived a need for mental health services but only 38% received services in the previous year. There may be substantial unmet needs for treatment of mental health problems and substance use among college students.

 

Jacques Baillargeon, Ingrid A. Binswanger, Joseph V. Penn, Brie A. Williams, Owen J. Murray
# Psychiatric Disorders and Repeat Incarcerations: The Revolving Prison Door
Am J Psychiatry 2009; 166:103–109
The study population included 79,211 inmates who began serving a sentence between September 1, 2006, and August 31, 2007. Data on psychiatric disorders, demographic characteristics, and history of incarceration for the preceding 6-year period were obtained from statewide medical information systems and analyzed. Results: Inmates with major psychiatric disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and nonschizophrenic psychotic disorders) had substantially increased risks of multiple incarcerations over the 6-year study period. The greatest increase in risk was observed among inmates with bipolar disorders, who were 3.3 times more likely to have had four or more previous incarcerations compared with inmates who had no major psychiatric disorder. Conclusions: Prison inmates with major psychiatric disorders are more likely than those without to have had previous incarcerations.

 

Jacques Baillargeon, Brie A. Williams, Jeff Mellow, Amy Jo Harzke, Steven K. Hoge, Gwen Baillargeon, Robert B. Greifinger
# Parole Revocation Among Prison Inmates With Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders
Psychiatr Serv. 2009 November ; 60(11): 1516–1521
Parolees with a dual diagnosis of a major psychiatric disorder (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder) and a substance use disorder had a substantially increased risk of having their parole revoked because of either a technical violation (adjusted odds ratio [OR]=1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–2.4) or commission of a new criminal offense (OR=2.8, 95% CI=1.7–4.5) in the 12 months after their release. However, parolees with a diagnosis of either a major psychiatric disorder alone or a substance use disorder alone demonstrated no such increased risk.

 

The American Civil Liberties Union ACLU
# Human Rights at Home: Mental Illness in U.S. Prisons and Jails
www.aclu.org/ September 15, 2009
Empirical studies across custodial settings have found that mentally disabled detainees and inmates are held for longer periods of time than persons without mental disabilities, despite the fact that providing mental health treatment services in a custodial setting is the most costly and least effective form of mental health care.

 

Fred Arne Thorberg, Ross McD Young, Karen A. Sullivan, Michael Lyvers
# Alexithymia and alcohol use disorders : a critical review
Addictive Behaviors, 34(3). pp. 237-245, 2009
All human beings experience emotion. However a number of individuals have difficulties recognizing, processing and regulating their emotions. This set of emotional “deficits’ is classified as alexithymia. The prevalence rate of alexithymia in alcohol use disorders is between 45 to 67%. The objective of this paper is to review the published research on alexithymia and alcohol use..

 

Lisa K. Richardson, B. Christopher Frueh, Anouk L. Grubaugh, Leonard Egede, Jon D. Elhai
# Current Directions in Videoconferencing Tele-Mental Health Research
Clin Psychol (New York). 2009 September 1; 16(3): 323–338
The provision of mental health services via videoconferencing tele-mental health has become an increasingly routine component of mental health service delivery throughout the world. Emphasizing the research literature since 2003, we examine: 1) the extent to which the field of tele-mental health has advanced the research agenda previously suggested; and 2) implications for tele-mental health care delivery for special clinical populations. Previous findings have demonstrated that tele-mental health services are satisfactory to patients, improve outcomes, and are probably cost effective.

 

Massimo Clerici
# La comorbilità per disturbi mentali e uso di sostanze: evidenze dalla realtà italiana (PADDI - Psychiatric and Addictive Dual Diagnosis in Italy – Study)
5° Conferenza Nazionale sulle Politiche Antidroga - Roma, 15.09.2009
Ipotesi eziologiche • GENETIC MODEL: due separati rischi genetici nello stesso individuo • SECONDARY PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER MODEL: interazioni  reciproche tra uso di sostanze e SMI (esordio, decorso, gravità, caratteristiche cliniche) • SELF-MEDICATION MODEL: l’uso di sostanze come strategia di coping  utilizzata da individui con SMI, con preferenza di una sostanze sulla base di specificità psicofarmacologica • CONTESTO SOCIALE: disponibilità di sostanze, fattori demografici e locali culturali

 

Stephen P. Kliewer, Melissa McNally, Robyn L. Trippany
# Deinstitutionalization: Its Impact on Community Mental Health Centers and the Seriously Mentally Ill
The Alabama Counseling Association Journal, Volume 35, Number 1 2009
Deinstitutionalization and the CMHCA initiated in 1963 has had a profound effect upon the counseling profes-sion. While it has encouraged the development of the profession, it has also provided the profession with new challenges. Counselors have been forced to respond to the need to gain new competencies and encourage col-laborative relationships with other mental health providers. The biggest challenge remains with the funding of programs to support the continued deinstitutionalization of those with SMI, although from the institution of imprisonment rather than psychiatric hospitalization. Mental health services for those individuals with SMIs who are incarcerated need to be improved, including an aftercare component once released from jail or prison.

 

Frank Sirotich
# The Criminal Justice Outcomes of Jail Diversion Programs for Persons With Mental Illness: A Review of the Evidence
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 37:461–72, 2009
Diversion programs are initiatives in which persons with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system are redirected from traditional criminal justice pathways to the mental health and substance abuse treatment systems. This article is a review of the research literature conducted to determine whether the current evidence supports the use of diversion initiatives to reduce recidivism and to reduce incarceration among adults with serious mental illness with justice involvement. A structured literature search identified 21 publications or research papers for review that examined the criminal justice outcomes of various diversion models. The review revealed little evidence of the effectiveness of jail diversion in reducing recidivism among persons with serious mental illness. However, evidence was found that jail diversion initiatives can reduce the amount of jail time that persons with mental illness serve. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

 

Thomas Hugh Richardson
# Conceptual and Methodological Challenges in Examining the Relationship Between Mental Illness and Violent Behaviour and Crime
www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/ Internet Journal of Criminology 2009
A significant problem in research into the relationship between crime and mentally illness is what has become known as the ‘criminalisation’ of the mentally ill. Abramson first noted that a large proportion of the mentally ill were being dealt with by the criminal justice system rather than mental health services. Since this initial argument, a large body of evidence suggests that the mentally ill are arrested,  convicted and sent to prison in proportions that surpass their actual criminal behaviour.

 

SpearIt
# Mental Illness in Prison: Inmate Rehabilitation & Correctional Officers in Crisis
Berkeley Journal of Criminal Law, vol. 14, 2009
The aggregate impact of the mentally ill population on prisoners and correctional officers cannot be overstated. In general, scholars, the government, and the media all characterize California's prison system as deeply flawed or completely broken. Consequences of this crisis will certainly arise in the coming decades as tens of thousands of psychologically damaged inmates return to society without proper acclimation.

 

Brian G. Sellers, Bruce A. Arrigo
# Adolescent Transfer, Developmental Maturity, and Adjudicative Competence: An Ethical and Justice Policy Inquiry
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Volume 99 Issue 2 Winter 2009
Based on the empirical evidence, automatic adolescent transfer to adult criminal court poses significant processing, treatment, and recidivism problems for youths, especially when issues of developmental maturity and trial fitness are brought to the fore. These concerns notwithstanding, legal tribunals increasingly rely on mandated waivers (both legislative and prosecutorial) as a basis to further judicial decision-making whose aim is punishment for serious juvenile offending and the protection of society from such future criminality. This qualitative study examines the prevailing state supreme court and appellate court opinions on this matter.

 

Bernhard Pedersen, Arnulf Kolstad
# De-institutionalisation and trans-institutionalisation - changing trends of inpatient care in Norwegian mental health institutions 1950-2007
International Journal of Mental Health Systems 2009, 3:28
De-institutionalisation means fewer beds but not fewer patients treated, neither in institutions in general nor in psychiatric hospitals. The periods represent different kinds of de-, trans-, and even re-institutionalisation. Expansion of the welfare state, increased professional focus on active treatment and increased focus on patients' preferences are the factors that best explain de-institutionalisation in Norway.

 

Joseph Morrissey, Jeffrey Fagan, Joseph Cocozza
# New Models of Collaboration Between Criminal Justice and Mental Health Systems
Am J Psychiatry 166:11, November 2009
Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders associated with deviant behavior and harsh sanctions for drug-related offenses are principal factors driving criminal involvement among persons with mental illness. However, the inattention of the mental health community to risk assessments and the over-reliance of the criminal justice system on such measures have created disconnects in care. In the last two decades, these two systems have formed new relationships where accommodation and antagonism have given way to joint efforts to find shared solutions. These newer arrangements integrate roles, rules, and relationships between the two systems in ways that appear to allow the needs of mentally ill persons to be addressed without undermining public safety goals. Three collaborative models (crisis intervention teams, mental health courts, and mental health probation and parole personnel) have received the most attention from practitioners and policy makers in both adult and juvenile systems.

 

Ian Needham, Patrick Callaghan, Tom Palmstierna, Henk Nijman, Nico Oud
# Violence in Clinical Psychiatry
Proceedings of the 6th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry, Stockholm 21–24 October 2009
In Jiri Svarc, Jan Vevera, Marek Susta, Appropriate access to psychiatric hospitalization protects patients from criminal behaviour... Penrose in 1939 published a cross-sectional study from 18 European countries, in which he demonstrated an inverse relationship between the number of mental hospital beds and the number of prisoners. He also found strong negative correlations between the number of mental hospital beds and the number of deaths attributed to murder. He argued that by increasing the number of mental institution beds, a society could reduce serious crimes  and imprisonment rates. The Penrose’s Law was viewed as oversimplification but 70 years later Hartvig and Kjelsberg (2009)2 have found the inverse relationship between mental institution beds and prison population and also crime rate in Norway...

 

Randy A. Sansone, Lori A. Sansone
# Borderline Personality and Criminality
Psychiatry, n. 10, October 2009

According to the findings of the majority of studies in this area, compared to rates expected in the community, BPD is over-represented in prison populations. This finding may be particularly evident among female prisoners. Rates vary, depending on the methodology, but generally appear to be in the range of 25 to 50 percent. Factors that may be associated with the presence of BPD among criminals include being female, having a history of childhood  sexualabuse, committing an impulsive and violent crime (e.g., murder), having antisocial personality disorder traits, and perpetrating domestic violence

 

Flaminia Chizzola
# Normalità vs devianza/differenza. L’eclissi del normale
Diritto & Questioni pubbliche, n. 9/2009

L’impossibilità di valutare la devianza del comportamento umano rispetto a un modello (materiale o formale) a-storico, fissato una volta per tutte, ha condotto parte del mondo scientifico – si veda ad esempio, in sociologia la teoria dell’etichettamento di Howard S. Becker e in psichiatria l’antipsichiatria... – a ritenere che della devianza (umana) non si possa giudicare affatto, e conseguentemente a cancellare la distinzione tra il normale e il patologico.

 

Arindam Basu, David Brinson
# The effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptom management for people with dementia in residential care settings
HSAC Health Services Assessment Collaboration, July 2010

 

Harald Dressing, Christine Kief, Hans-Joachim Salize
# Prisoners with mental disorders in Europe
The British Journal of Psychiatry BJP 2009, 194:88.
The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in prisoners is substantially higher than in the general population. Additionally, there is scientific evidence that the number of prison inmates with mental disorders is rising. As a consequence, the World Psychiatric Association has repeatedly voiced concern about the increasing number of mentally ill individuals who are being placed in correctional facilities...

 

Human Rights Watch
# Mental Illness, Human Rights, and US Prisons
http://www.hrw.org/ September 22, 2009
Many of the men and women who cannot get mental health treatment in the community are swept into the criminal justice system after they commit a crime. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 56 percent of state prisoners and 45 percent of federal prisoners have symptoms or a recent history of mental health problems. Prisoners have rates of mental illness—including such serious disorders as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression—that are two to four times higher than members of the general public. Studies and clinical experience consistently indicate that 8 to 19 percent of prisoners have psychiatric disorders...

 

Eric B. Elbogen, Sally C. Johnson
# The Intricate Link Between Violence and Mental Disorder. Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions
Arch Gen Psychiatry 2009; 66(2):152-161
Because severe mental illness did not independently predict future violent behavior, these findings challenge perceptions that mental illness is a leading cause of violence in the general population. Still, people with mental illness did report violence more often, largely because they showed other factors associated with violence. Consequently, understanding the link between violent acts and mental disorder requires consideration of its association with other variables such as substance abuse, environmental stressors, and history of violence.

 

Jean-Louis Senon, Mélanie Voyer, Christelle Paillard, Nemat Jaafari
# Dangerosité criminologique: données contextuelles, enjeux cliniques et expertaux
L’Information psychiatrique 2009 ; 85 : 719-25
Dans une société devenue de plus en plus sécuritaire, alors que les droits pénaux européens abandonnent le modèle welfare pour un modèle néolibéral, les psychiatres sont expressément sollicités pour l’évaluation de la dangerosité ou plutôt du risque de violence. Depuis la nouvelle pénologie et surtout les critiques apportées par les travaux de Monahan, l’évaluation clinique individuelle est abandonnée dans tous les pays anglo-saxons mais aussi européens. Après la loi rétention de sûreté de février 2008 et le rapport Lamanda de mai 2008, la justice exige des psychiatres  experts français une évaluation actuarielle de la dangerosité.

 

Martin P. Kafka
# The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Paraphilia Not Otherwise Specified
Arch Sex Behav 2009

The category of ‘‘Not Otherwise Specified’’ (NOS) forDSM-based psychiatric diagnosis has typically retained diagnoseswhose rarity, empirical criterion validation or symptomatic expression has been insufficient to be codified. This article reviews the literature on Telephone Scatologia, Necrophilia, Zoophilia, Urophilia, Coprophilia, and Partialism. Based on extant data, no changes are suggested except for the status of Partialism. Partialism, sexual arousal characterized by ‘‘an exclusive focus on part of the body,’’ had historically been subsumed as a type of Fetishism until the advent of DSM-III-R.

 

Henry J. Steadman, Fred C. Osher, Pamela Clark Robbins, Brian Case, Steven Samuels
# Illness Among Jail Inmates
Psychiatric Services 60:761–765, 2009
Across jails and study phases the rate of current serious mental illness for male inmates was 14.5% and for female inmates it was 31.0%. There is broad consensus that jails are not the optimal settings to provide acute psychiatric treatment. In line with the recommendations of the Criminal Justice/Mental Health Consensus Project report and the President’s New Freedom Commission on Mental Health, many communities have instituted mechanisms to divert individuals with serious mental illnesses from the front door of the jail to community-based services or have established linkages to services by way of transition planning at the back door.

 

Helinä Häkkänen-Nyholm, Robert D. Hare
# Psychopathy, Homicide, and the Courts: Working the System

The final, definitive version of this paper will be published in Criminal Justice and Behavior, 2009

A sample of 546 offenders prosecuted for a homicide and convicted in Finland during 1995-2004 was examined. Their post-offense behavior, self-reported reasons for the killing, charges, sentences, and psychopathic traits, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist- Revised, were coded from official file information. Offenders with high PCL-R scores were more likely than others to leave the crime scene without informing anyone of the killing, to deny the charges, to be convicted for involuntary manslaughter rather than for manslaughter or murder, and to receive permission from the Supreme Court to appeal their lower court sentence. Given the risk that psychopathic offenders pose for violent crime, the finding that they are able to manipulate the criminal justice system is cause for concern.

 

Peter O. Ajiboye, Abdullah D. Yussuf, Baba A. Issa, Olusola A. Adegunloye, Olubunmi N. Buhari
# Current and Lifetime Prevalence of Mental Disorders in a Juvenile Borstal Institution in Nigeria
Research Jownal MedicaI Sciences 3 (I): 26-30, 2009
A greater percentage of the inrnates of the juvenile borstal home (64.2%) had lifetime diagnosis of conduct disorder and 15.1% had current diagnosis of Attention Deficit!Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Conduct disorder and ADHD have been reported to have a close association with SUD. Ii has also been observed that male juvenile delinquents with greater ADHD symptomatology show more severe and earlier onset of conduct disorder, SUDs diagnoses. Our study also recorded 7.5% had cwrent diagnosis ofPost Trawnatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).

 

Teresa Ambrosio, Antonio Minopoli, Maria Beatrice Toro, Tonino Cantelmi
# Disregolazione emotiva e agito sessuale nel sex offender: uno studio comparativo su rabbia e alessitimia all'interno del contesto carcerario
Modelli per la mente, 2009

 

Gianluigi Basile, Lauro Quadrana, Gianluigi Monniello
# Alessitimia e Disturbi di Personalità in Adolescenza
Psichiatria dell’infanzia e dell’adolescenza (2009), vol. 76: 513-531 513

 

Howard Sapers | Enquêteur correctionnel Canada
# Rapport annuel du bureau de l’enquêteur correctionnel 2008-2009
www.oci-bec.gc.ca/ Le 29 juin 2009
Lors de ma comparution devant le Comité permanent de la sécurité publique et nationale le 2 avril 2009, le ministre de la Sécurité publique a fait des remarques perspicaces au sujet des délinquants souffrant de troubles de santé mentale et s’est demandé si les prisons étaient le meilleur endroit pour les traiter. Le ministre a signalé qu’au cours des 30 dernières années, nous sommes passés progressivement vers un système de traitement externe et communautaire en faisant sortir les personnes souffrant de troubles mentaux de nos établissements psychiatriques provinciaux pour nous rendre compte que nous étions en train de les faire entrer en prison. Le ministre a résumé le problème en quelques mots, en suggérant que nous « criminalisons les malades mentaux ».

 

SpearIt
# Mental Illness in Prison: Inmate Rehabilitation&Correctional Officers in Crisis
Berkeley Journal of Criminal Law, Volume 14 | Issue 1 Article 10 (2009)
In July 2005, the state of California Department of Corrections (CDC) adopted "Rehabilitation" as a part of its official title, becoming the "California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation" (CDCR).1 This change in name, however, has not inspired a change in substance, and there is much doubt as to whether rehabilitation can be realized in any meaningful sense. Since the word "Corrections" was already extant in the title, the symbolic change of name must signify that "Rehabilitation" has a different meaning than "Corrections.". Without a genuine attempt to treat the mental hell behind bars, the CDCR may as well change its "R" from "Rehabilitation" to "Recidivism," to reflect more accurately its achievements.

 

Robert A Bowen, Anne Rogers, Jennifer Shaw
# Medication management and practices in prison for people with mental health problems: a qualitative study
International Journal of Mental Health Systems 2009, 3:24
Changes to medication management which accompany entry to prison appear to contribute to poor relationships with prison health staff, disrupts established self-medication practices, discourages patients from taking greater responsibility for their own conditions and detrimentally affects the mental health of many prisoners at a time when they are most vulnerable. Such practices are likely to inhibit the integration and normalisation of mental health management protocols in prison as compared with those operating in the wider community and may hinder progress towards improving the standard of mental health care available to prisoners suffering from mental disorder.

 

Anna Scheyett, Jennie Vaughn, Melissa Floyd Taylor
# Screening and access to services for individuals with serious mental illnesses in jails
Community Mental Health Journal, 45(6), 439-446, 2009
Over the past four decades, individuals with serious mental illnesses (SMI) have come into increased contact with the criminal justice system, leading some to describe the current situation as a crisis where prisons and jails have become the new psychiatric hospitals for those with SMI. A national study estimated that approximately 16% of jail and prison inmates have a mental disorder, defined as either selfreport of a “mental or emotional condition” or an overnight stay in a psychiatric hospital...

 

Julio ArboledA-Flórez
# Mental patients in prisons
World Psychiatry 2009; 8:187-189
Reluctantly, prisons have accepted the mentally ill ever since their invention over 200 years ago. Despite multiple government commissions and voluminous parliamentary reports in many countries, and the introduction of several alternatives to care, the problem persists and appears to be getting worse. In many cities, the large number of mental patients in the local jails has made the jail a practical extension of the general mental health services. The trans-institutionalization of mentally ill persons from hospital to prisons has been documented in a plethora of studies that have also estimated their numbers at different points of the justicecorrectional system.

 

Kimmett Edgar, Dora Rickford
# Too Little Too Late: an independent review of unmet mental health need in prison
Prison Reform Trust 2009
Diversion and liaison schemes, usually funded, where they exist, by primary care trusts, cover police stations, the courts and prisons.These are intended to identify mental health problems early, ensure that appropriate help and treatment is provided to people who are charged with, or convicted of, offences, and divert those who are mentally ill from the criminal justice system to an appropriate NHS mental health service.

 

Giuseppe Tibaldi, Lia Govers
# Evidence-based hope. La proposta di una prospettiva comune
Psichiatria di Comunità – Vol VIII n 3 settembre 2009
La ragionevole speranza della guaribilità consente anche una riformulazione evidence-based di una parte dei principi ispiratori di una riforma come quella italiana. I diritti di cittadinanza non sono un concetto astratto o un’eredità scomoda della lotta contro le istituzioni totali: oggi (e domani) essi vanno garantiti a tutti coloro che vanno incontro a esperienze psicotiche a lungo termine perché ognuno di essi, individualmente, ha una sua ragionevole speranza di guarigione (e di ripresa del pieno esercizio dei propri diritti e dei propri talenti). Nessuno ha la certezza di poterla raggiungere, ma le probabilità positive sono più elevate di quelle negative.

 

E Vicens-Pons, Grupo PRECA
# Aproximación a la Metodología para el estudio de los Trastornos mentales en población penitenciaria. El estudio PreCa
Rev Esp Sanid Penit 2009; 11: 17-25
El trabajo de campo del proyecto se inició en octubre de 2006 finalizando en octubre de 2007. Se han realizado un 94,4% (708) del total de entrevistas previstas (750) con unos resultados que permiten disponer de datos sobre la epidemiología española de los trastornos mentales en medio penitenciario sin precedentes hasta el momento.

 

Mª del Carmen Núñez, Mª José López
# Psicopatología y delincuencia. Implicaciones en el concepto de imputabilidad
Revista Electrónica de Ciencia Penal y Criminología. 2009, núm. 11-r2
Sí sería posible considerar imputable a un individuo que ha cometido un delito y que diagnosticado de trastorno antisocial de la personalidad y, consecuentemente, debería ingresar en prisión, mientras que en el caso del delincuente que presenta los criterios que describen a la psicopatía, independientemente de que se le considere imputable, semimmputable o inimputable, debería ser internado en un centro que ofrezca garantías sobre la aplicación de tratamientos acordes a este problema.

 

Nina Lindberg, Taina Laajasalo, Matti Holi, Hanna Putkonen, Ghitta Weizmann-Henelius, Helinä Häkkänen-Nyholm
# Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescent
www.biomedcentral.com/ BMC Psychiatry 2009, 9:18
According to a recent study on Finnish homicidal adolescents, approximately 50% were diagnosed as having a conduct disorder or a personality disorder, while 7% of these offenders suffered from schizophrenia. Sixty-four percent of the adolescents were intoxicated by alcohol and 21% were under the influence of drugs at the time of the killing; however, as many as 32% of the offenders were considered not to suffer from a mental illness or substance abuse.

 

Joséfina Alvarez, Nathalie Gourmelon
# La prise en charge penitentiaire des auteurs d’agressions sexuelles : un objet revelateur d’evolutions institutionnelles et professionnelles
www.gip-recherche-justice.fr/ Novembre 2009
... Fortement sollicitée dans le traitement des AAS (Auteurs d‟agressions sexuelles), la psychiatrie en milieu pénitentiaire s‟interroge aujourd‟hui sur son rôle à jouer, s‟il en est, et sur les moyens à mettre en place sans risquer de perdre les fondements toujours fragiles de cette clinique particulière, plus qu‟ailleurs sujette à instrumentalisation. Par ailleurs, mis à mal dans ses rapports avec ces justiciables de plus en plus nombreux, le travailleur social « conseiller d‟insertion et de probation » (CIP), s‟efforce de répondre à ses missions par la sollicitation de partenariats (notamment vers la psychiatrie) et la mise en place de dispositifs nouveaux comme les groupes de parole.

 

Jari Tiihonen, Jouko Lönnqvist, Kristian Wahlbeck, Timo Klaukka, Leo Niskanen, Antti Tanskanen, Jari Haukka
# 11-year follow-up of mortality in patients with schizophrenia: a population-based cohort study (FIN11 study)
www.thelancet.com/ July 13, 2009
Although the proportional use of second-generation antipsychotic drugs rose from 13% to 64% during follow-up, the gap in life expectancy between patients with schizophrenia and the general population did not widen between 1996 (25 years), and 2006 (22·5 years). Compared with current use of perphenazine, the highest risk for overall mortality was recorded for quetiapine (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1·41, 95% CI 1·09–1·82), and the lowest risk for clozapine (0·74, 0·60–0·91; p=0·0045 for the difference between clozapine vs perphenazine, and p<0·0001 for all other antipsychotic drugs). Long-term cumulative exposure (7–11 years) to any antipsychotic treatment was associated with lower mortality than was no drug use (0·81, 0·77–0·84). In patients with one or more filled prescription for an antipsychotic drug, an inverse relation between mortality and duration of cumulative use was noted.

 

Douglas Mossman
# The Imperfection of Protection Through Detection and Intervention
Journal of Legal Medicine, 2009 30:1, 109-140

“All patients with serious mental illnesses—not just those at risk of violence—could benefit from accurate assessment of their problems, timely services . . . evidence-based interventions, diligent clinical follow-up, and appropriate outreach,” writes Professor Swanson, “and if they did, it is likely that much patient violence—and a great deal of human heartache all around— would be averted.” However, one can give many solid (and better) reasons for treating mental illness besides reducing violence, and mental illness contributes to just a small fraction of the violence that Americans experience.

 

Doron Menashe
# Is judicial proof of facts a form of scientific explanation? A preliminary investigation of ‘clinical’ legal method
http://papers.ssrn.com/ May 27, 2009
This article examines the relationship between judicial proof of facts and positivistic explanation in the natural and social sciences. Although these two forms of factual inquiry share evident similarities, it is argued that, on closer analysis, legal fact-finding is not even a proximate model of scientific explanation. Judicial proof more closely resembles clinical deliberations, such as those encountered in a medical context, than classical scientific method. Comparison with clinical practices should therefore promote understanding and serve as a basis for further research, critical appraisal and practical improvement of the processes of judicial proof.

 

Leucht S, Corves C, D Arbter, Engel R R, Li C, Davis J M.
# Second-generation versus first-generation antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia: a meta-analysis
www.crd.york.ac.uk/ 07/04/2009
There is substantial variation in the properties of second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Small to medium effects are possible following treatment with amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone in terms of overall efficacy and positive and negative symptoms. Second generation drugs can also result in fewer extrapyramidal side effects, but can induce weight gain.

 

Germana Agnetti, Antonio Amatulli, Angelo Barbato, Stefania Borghetti, Arcadio Erlicher, Maria Frova, Giorgio Legnani, Umberto Mazza, Pasquale Pismataro, Gianfranco Pittini, Edoardo Re, Michele Stuflesser, Enrico Varrani.
# Lettera aperta a tutti coloro che operano nella Salute Mentale in Lombardia
Milano, Marzo 2009

Occorre poi contrapporsi in modo netto, attivo e propositivo agli orientamenti culturali, politici e tecnici che oggi ripropongono con forza la paura per il diverso, l’allontanamento dell’estraneo, la separazione e reclusione del malato, giustificando queste scelte conservatrici con le esigenze di sicurezza dei cittadini italiani “normali e bene integrati”. Quanto alla tendenza attuale di attribuire alla psichiatria compiti crescenti di tutela dell’ordine sociale e un prevalente profilo criminologico, occorre ricordare e far capire a tutti che ciò finisce per escludere un vero lavoro clinico-terapeutico  e riabilitativo.

 

Antonino Calogero
# La donna da vittima ad autrice di reato
www.siaecm.org/ Castiglione delle Stiviere, 04 febbraio 2009
Sono stati presi in considerazioni i comportamenti aggressivi delle donne affette da Disturbi di Personalità (dati preliminari di una ricerca in corso presso l’OPG di Castiglione delle Stiviere). Questi casi sono rappresentati, in particolare, da Disturbo narcisistico o bordeline di  Personalità ed è stato correlato il reato grave (per lo più omicidio) con l’imputabilità. La valutazione dei profili delle varie dimensioni della personalità di questi soggetti permettono di identificare la natura ed il ruolo di fattori di rischio capaci di interferire negativamente nel loro equilibrio personologico, nel passaggio all’atto. Disturbo di personalità e Psicopatia al femminile sono in aumento sui reati gravi contro la persona....

 

Denis Lafortune, Marion Vacheret
# La prescription de médicaments psychotropes aux personnes incarcérées dans les prisons provinciales du Québec
Santé mentale au Québec, vol. 34, n° 2, 2009, p. 147-170.
Dans cet article, les auteurs tentent de mieux cerner la pratique de la prescription de médicaments psychotropes auprès des personnes incarcérées dans les prisons provinciales du Québec. Bien que la prescription de ces médicaments s’avère le « traitement psychiatrique » le plus utilisée, rares sont les études qui portent sur sa prévalence. L’étude porte sur un échantillon de 671 personnes détenues, soit 500 hommes et 171 femmes. Globalement, 40,3 % des incarcérés ont reçu au moins une ordonnance de médicament psychotrope dans la période comprise entre 2002 et 2007.

 

Wayne A. Ray, Cecilia P. Chung, Katherine T. Murray, Kathi Hall, B.S., and C. Michael Stein
# Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs and the Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death
N Engl J Med 2009;360:225-35
Users of typical antipsychotic drugs have an increased risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, less is known regarding the cardiac safety of the atypical antipsychotic drugs, which have largely replaced the older agents in clinical practice.

 

JM Arroyo, E Ortega
# Los trastornos de personalidad en reclusos como factor de distorsión del clima social de la prisión
Rev Esp Sanid Penit 2009; 11: 11-15
Se estudia la prevalencia de los Trastornos de Personalidad (TP) en una prisión y su efecto en el clima social del establecimiento. El trabajo demuestra una relación estadísticamente significativa entre indicadores de desajuste del clima social en una prisión, como por ejemplo las conductas interpersonales agresivas o la demanda compulsiva de psicofármacos en las consultas médicas y el diagnóstico de TP. Este tipo de trastorno mental, uno de los más frecuentes en prisión, requiere especial atención por parte de los servicios sanitarios y su manejo es extraordinariamente complejo en el medio penitenciario.

 

Stephanie Leigh Sullivan
# Mental illness, co-occurring factors and aggression as examined in an American prison
University of Nevada Las Vegas, 2009
More recently research has begun to focus on testing the hypotheses that mental illness is not an independent risk factor for aggressive behavior and bringing forth statistical data that shows more variables are involved, such as co-occurring factors of alcohol and/or substance abuse and history of  severe head injury. Studying and identifying co-occurring factors could lead to a more grounded knowledge and understanding of risk factors specifically when dealing with the mentally ill and the prison population.

 

Treatment Advocacy Center Briefing Paper
# Jails and Prisons
www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ (updated 4/2009)
Jails and prisons: The nation’s largest psychiatric facilities. The best studies suggest that approximately 10 percent of prisoners have severe psychiatric disorders. Thus, approximately 231,000 individuals with severe psychiatric disorders are incarcerated in the nation’s jails and prisons at any given time.  This number is equivalent to the population of such cities as Akron, Ohio; Madison, Wisconsin; Montgomery, Alabama; Richmond, Virginia; or Tacoma, Washington.

 

Aino Mattila
# m
Tampere School of Public Health, January 30th, 2009

 

Astrid Birgden
# Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Offender Rights: A Normative Stance Is Required
www.law.arizona.edu/ Revista Juridica UPR, n. 1, 2009
The explicit stance of a normative framework for offender rehabilitation is that community protection is enhanced by balancing community rights and offender rights (and deontological and consequential positions). Therapeutic jurisprudence can provide the framework to balance justice and therapeutic principles.

 

Washington State Department of Social and Health Services - Washington State Department of Corrections
# Mentally Ill Offender - Community Transition Project | Annual Report to the Legislature - December 1, 2008
www.dshs.wa.gov/

Studies of general offenders and mentally ill offenders in Washington and elsewhere have identified
a set of variables significantly correlated with recidivism. Many of these were tested against the control subject dataset to determine which subset of 7-10 variables provided optimal accuracy in predicting recidivism. The nine predictor variables used in the matching procedure are: 1) Past Felonies 2) Drug-related offenses 3) Past Misdemeanors 4) Mental Health Residential Days 5) First- Time Sex Offender status 6) Race 7) Age of Release 8) Annual Infraction Rate 9) Volatile diagnosis

 

Pål Gjerden, Jørgen G. Bramness, Lars Slørdal
# The use and potential abuse of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs in Norway: a pharmacoepidemiological study
Br J Clin Pharmacol / 2008/ 67:2 / 228–233
Anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs were prescribed to 4.5% of all outpatients who used antipsychotic drugs. This outnumbered sales to patients with Parkinson’s disease by >20 to 1.We found indications of abuse of benzodiazepine tranquillizers among patients using antipsychotics, but there were no clear indications of abuse of anticholinergics, even among patients who were strongly suspected of abuse of benzodiazepines.   

 

Michael L. Perlin, Harold Bursztajn, Kris Gledhill, Eva Szeli | Israel National Commission for UNESCO
# Psychiatric Ethics and the Rights of Persons with Mental Disabilities in Institutions and the Community
UNESCO Chair in Bioethics Office 2008
B was convicted of a criminal offence in the Netherlands and also found to be suffering from a mental disorder which meant that he was assessed as being dangerous for the future. The court imposed an order of preventive detention, which required that B spend time in an appropriate psychiatric institution after he had served the appropriate prison sentence for his offending. Dutch law provided that a person subject to a preventive detention order could continue to be held in a prison until the relevant psychiatric institution had been found, but this was supposed to occur within 6 months. It did not occur in B’s case, which meant that he was held in prison for an additional 14 months despite the basis for his ongoing detention being his mental disorder and the need for treatment for that. The problem was the lack of capacity to hold people who were subject to preventive detention. B brought a claim that since his detention was on the basis of mental disorder, he had to be detained in an appropriate setting, namely a hospital.

 

Maria R. Sahuquillo
# La cárcel es el manicomio del siglo XXI
http://elpais.com/ El Pais 19 de noviembre de 2008
Uno de cada cuatro reclusos españoles (el 25%) padece alguna enfermedad mental, según datos de Instituciones Penitenciarias... No sólo eso, la mayoría de ellos (el 17,6%) tiene antecedentes psiquiátricos previos a su ingreso en prisión. La falta de detección y de atención adecuada -muchas veces motivada por la saturación de los centros especializados- provocan que muchos de estos enfermos pierdan el contacto con la realidad, caigan en la marginalidad y terminen cometiendo algún delito. Dos décadas después de la reforma que cerró los psiquiátricos, muchos consideran que las prisiones se han convertido en los manicomios del siglo XXI.

 

Marina Morrow, Paul K. B. Dagg, Ann Pederson
# Is Deinstitutionalization a ‘Failed Experiment’? The Ethics of Re-institutionalization
Journal of Ethics in Mental Health, November 2008
In the current neo-liberal context of mental health reform and welfare state restructuring, re-institutionalization is attractive to policy makers and community leaders seeking to make homelessness and poverty in urban centres less visible. Indeed, because neo-liberalism justifi es policies and programs that emphasize individual responsibility and bio-medical explanations of mental illnesses over social and systemic analyses, it contributes to a climate of opinion in which calls for re-institutionalization are not easily contested.

 

Jeremy Coid
# Epidemiological Linkages Between Mental Ill-health and Violence: Risk Factors and Wider Consequences
www.dti.gov.uk/ Government Office for Science - September 2008
One additional subgroup of antisocial individuals at exceptionally high risk of violence includes those with psychopathic personalities. The prevalence of this condition is approximately 0.5% in the general population, but among male sentenced prisoners it is 6% and among female prisoners, 1.9%. This would suggest that persons with psychopathic disorder might be suitable for targeted intervention. This subgroup had the highest rates of violence of any form of psychiatric disorder.

 

Melle Mélanie Voyer
# Dangerosité psychiatrique: l’état de la question. Réflexions autour d’une meilleure prévention et prise en charge de la violence physique des malades mentaux
Université de Poitiers - Faculté de Médecine et Pharmacie - 23 septembre 2008
Plusieurs méthodes ont été élaborées pour évaluer le risque de dangerosité des malades mentaux et des prises en charge psychiatriques et judiciaires conçues pour prévenir les comportements violents au sein de l’institution comme à l’extérieur. La recherche qui est présentée est centrée sur l’existence de caractéristiques particulières concernant la violence physique des malades mentaux en milieu hospitalier, à partir d’une étude rétrospective. Le but de cette étude est de mieux connaître les contextes et les pathologies ainsi que les facteurs en lien avec le risque de comportements violents en milieu hospitalier, afin de réfléchir à la mise en place de stratégies d’évaluation et de prévention de cette violence.

 

Vincent Lamanda
# Amoindrir les risques de récidive criminelle des condamnés dangereux. Rapport à M. le Président de la République
www.ladocumentationfrancaise.fr/ 30 mai 2008
Ostracisme? Depuis la plus haute antiquité, la société se protège en excluant ceux qu’elle juge dangereux. Mais pour combien de temps? Le danger et l’isolement seront-ils durables, voire définitifs? Toute la question est de trouver le plus juste équilibre entre, d’une part, la nécessaire protection de la société et de ses membres, en premier lieu les plus fragiles, et, d’autre part, la non moins nécessaire garantie des droits fondamentaux de la personne humaine dont le comportement peut évoluer avec le temps...

 

E. Fuller Torrey, Kurt Entsminger, Jeffrey Geller, Jonathan Stanley, D. J. Jaffe
# The Shortage of Public Hospital Beds for Mentally Ill Persons. A Report of the Treatment Advocacy Center
Treatment Advocacy Center - March 17, 2008
In 2005 there were 17 public psychiatric beds available per 100,000 population compared to 340 per 100,000 in 1955. Thus, 95 percent of the beds available in 1955 were no longer available in 2005. The total estimated shortfall of public psychiatric beds needed to achieve a minimum level of psychiatric care is 95,820 beds. The consequences of the severe shortage in public psychiatric beds could be improved with the widespread utilization of PACT (Program of Assertive Community Treatment) programs and assisted outpatient treatment (AOT), both of which have been proven to decrease hospitalization. It could also be improved with greater flexibility in federal and state regulations allowing for the development of alternatives to hospitalization.

 

E. Fuller Torrey, John Monahan, Jonathan Stanley, Henry J. Steadman, the MacArthur Study Group
# The MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study Revisited: Two Views Ten Years After Its Initial Publication
PSYCHIATRIC SERVICES ps.psychiatryonline.org February 2008 Vol. 59 No. 2
T
his article presents two views of the results of the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study, which was conducted between 1992 and 1995 in order to ascertain the prevalence of community violence in a sample of people discharged from acute psychiatric facilities. The initial findings, which were published in 1998 in the Archives of General Psychiatry, have been cited by some advocates as proof that discharged psychiatric patients are not more dangerous than other persons in the general population. For the article presented here, Dr. Torrey and Mr. Stanley examined additional articles, book chapters, and a book about the MacArthur Study that have appeared since 1998 in order to ascertain whether the study’s original conclusion should be modified and whether additional conclusions can be drawn from the subsequently published data. They present six points on which they disagree with the findings or fault the design of the MacArthur Study. After each point, Dr. Monahan, Dr. Steadman, and other authors of the MacArthur Study Group respond

 

Michael B. First, Robert L. Halon
# Use of DSM Paraphilia Diagnoses in Sexually Violent Predator Commitment Cases
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 36:443–54, 2008
There is legitimate concern in the psychiatric community about the constitutionality of sexually violent predator (SVP) commitment statutes. Such constitutionality depends on the requirement that a sexual offender have a mental abnormality that makes him commit violent predatory sex offenses and reflects almost exclusively a concern for public safety, with little regard for notions of clinical sensibility or diagnostic accuracy. However, given that mental health experts’ diagnostic opinions are, and will continue to be, important to the triers of fact in regard to the application of the SVP statutes, we describe valid means of making a DSM-IV-TR paraphilic diagnosis. We also provide a three-step approach for the judicious application of the diagnosis in the context of SVP commitment evaluations that emphasizes the importance of not making a paraphilia diagnosis based solely on the sexual offenses themselves. Finally, we discuss the appropriate use of a paraphilia NOS diagnosis in SVP cases.

 

Kristin Davis, John Fallon, Sue Voge, Alexandra Teachout
# Integrating into the Mental Health System from the Criminal Justice System: Jail Aftercare Services for Persons with a Severe Mental Illness
Probation and Parole: Current Issue, 2008

This article describes a mental health evidence based practice. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). While ACT has scientific support, it has not been rigorously tested for persons with a severe mental illness and repeated forensic involvement. This article provides preliminary evidence that ACT is best suited for reentry into the mental health system by reporting reduced arrests and hospital admissions for an ACT jail aftercare team. ACT both facilitates formal diversion and linkage mechanisms between the criminal and mental health systems and engages and prepares persons with mental illness for integration into the mental health system.

 

Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health
# On the Outside. Continuity of care for people leaving prison
www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/ 2008
Continuity of care is critical for released prisoners with mental health problems. Men recently released from prison are eight times more likely to commit suicide than the general population. One-fifth of these suicides occur within 28 days of release. Released prisoners are also at risk of death from a reduced tolerance to substances because they have detoxed while in prison. One study reported that one in 200 adult males who inject substances are likely to die within a fortnight of being released

 

Sheilagh Hodgins
# Violent behaviour among people with schizophrenia: a framework for investigations of causes, and effective treatment, and prevention
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2008) 363, 2505–2518
Treatment of persons with schizophrenia which successfully reduced aggressive behaviour would contribute to lowering rates of violent criminality. As noted above, it would reduce not only the homicide rate but also the rate of other forms of violence. For example, in the Danish cohort described above, 2.2% of the men had severe mental illness and they committed 8.4% of the physically aggressive sex offences, 9.0% of the nonphysically aggressive sex offences, and in all they comprised 8.1%of the sex offenders ...

 

Samuel Lézé
# Les Politiques de l'expertise psychiatrique. Enjeux, démarches et terrains. Séminaire GERN "Longues peines et peines indéfinies. Punir la dangerosité" (Paris, 21 mars 2008)
http://champpenal.revues.org/ Champ pénal 2008 ; 5
Si la peine punit le crime passé qui établit une culpabilité, la dangerosité implique un expert chargé d'évaluer le risque d'un crime futur et l'existence d'un type d'institution aux confins du champ carcéral et médical, chargé de le réduire ou de l'annuler... Si la dangerosité est bien au centre du dispositif, c'est pour mieux en distinguer deux dimensions exclusives, “criminologiques” (Risque de commission d'une infraction liée à un trouble de la personnalité) et “psychiatriques” (passage à l'acte lié à un trouble psychiatrique).

 

Reitske Meganck, Stijn Vanheule, Mattias Desmet
# Factorial Validity and Measurement Invariance of the 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale in Clinical and Nonclinical Samples
Assessment, Volume 15, No. 1, March 2008
The construct of alexithymia, first coined by Sifneos (1973), reflects difficulties in affective self-regulation and includes four characteristics: (a) difficulty identifying feelings and distinguishing between feelings and the bodily sensations of emotional arousal, (b) difficulty describing feelings to other people, (c) constricted imaginal processes, and (d) a stimulus-bound, externally oriented style. The concept of alexithymia originated within psychoanalysis, but wider scientific interest has since been established...

 

Greg A. Greenberg, Robert A. Rosenheck
# Jail Incarceration, Homelessness, and Mental Health: A National Study
Psychiatric Services 59:170–177, 2008)
Recent homelessness was 7.5 to 11.3 times more common among jail inmates than in the general population. Homelessness and incarceration appear to increase the risk of each other, and these factors seem to be mediated by mental illness and substance abuse, as well as by disadvantageous sociodemographic characteristics.

 

Jeremy W. Coid, James B. Kirkbride, Dave Barker, Fiona Cowden, Rebekah Stamps, Min Yang, Peter B. Jones

# Raised Incidence Rates of All Psychoses Among Migrant Groups. Findings From the East London First Episode Psychosis Study
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008;65(11):1250-1258
Both first- and second-generation immigrants were at elevated risk for both nonaffective and affective psychoses, but this varied by ethnicity. Our results suggest that given the same age structure, the risk of psychoses in first and second generations of the same ethnicity will be roughly equal. We suggest that socioenvironmental factors operate differentially by ethnicity but not generation status, even if the exact specification of these stressors differs across generations. Research should focus on differential rates of psychoses by ethnicity rather than between generations.

 

Jennifer Rubin, Federico Gallo, Adam Coutts
# Violent crime Risk models, effective interventions and risk management
www.nao.org.uk/ Rand Europe 2008
Clinical versus research perspectives. Traditionally, the risk of violent behaviour has been assessed from at least two distinct research perspectives: 1) clinical 2) non-clinical. Clinicians have traditionally assessed violence risk on an individual basis, using a case formulation approach, i.e. “unaided clinical judgment”. On the other hand, until recently, research tended to focus on the accuracy of risk prediction variables in large, often heterogeneous, populations using statistical or actuarial models.

 

Melissa Thompson
# Gender, Mental Illness, and Crime
www.ncjrs.gov/ September 2008
Criminology, sociology, and criminal justice literature point to an important link between mental illness (particularly depression and drug abuse) and crime; however, the degree to which gender alters these relationships has not yet been demonstrated. This study focuses on the gendered relationships between depression, substance abuse, and crime using data from the NSDUH, given to members of the non-institutionalized U.S. civilian population aged 12 or older. Logistic regression models predicting the odds of crime, drug use, and depression are estimated for male and female respondents...

 

Erik Bulten, Annelies Vissers, Karel T. Oei
# A theoretical framework for goal-directed care within the prison system
Mental Health Review Journal, 13(3), Sept. 2008

When it comes to mental health care and treatment in prison, several ‘stakeholders’ are of importance in defining the availability, the aims and the quality of care and treatment. This group of stakeholders consists of prisoners, the providers of care, the prison system, the government and society. As a consequence, the goals involved in care are divergent...

 

Harvard Law Review Association
# Developments in the Law. The Law of Mental Illness
http://www.harvardlawreview.org/ Harvard Law Review, vol. 121, 2008

The Supreme Court's decision in United States v. Booker dealt a strong blow to a system of federal sentencing guidelines that many viewed as unfair and unsuccessful... By permitting judges greater reliance on 18 U.S.C. § 3553(a) (the statute that sets forth Congress's sentencing objectives), the federal sentencing regime initiated by Booker allows for prison sentences for violent mentally ill offenders longer than those suggested by the Federal Sentencing Guidelines. The claim is not that defendants have been given longer sentences purely on account of mental illness. Rather, judges have imposed prison sentences beyond what the Guidelines recommend on some mentally ill offenders they view as dangerous or in need of treatment instead of supplementing Guidelines sentences as necessary with civil commitment.

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) | Tomris Atabay
# Handbook for Prison Managers and Policymakers on Women and Imprisonment
United Nations New York 2008

Toughening criminal justice policies worldwide has meant that a growing number of  women are being imprisoned for petty offences. In some countries tough legislation for drug-related offences has had a significant impact on the numbers of women in prison and the rate of their increase. In countries where legislation derives from certain interpretations of religious laws, women are often discriminated against, and imprisoned for so- called moral crimes. The umbrella term mental disability is used to include major psychiatric disorders, e.g. schizophrenia and  bipolar disorder; more minor mental health problems, often referred to as psychosocial disabilities, e.g. mild anxiety disorders; as well as intellectual disabilities, following the terminology used by the Special Rapporteur on the right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health.

 

Perrine Adam, Charlotte Richoux and Michel Lejoyeux
# Screening for Impulse Control Disorders Among Patients Admitted to a French Psychiatric Emergency Service
The Open Psychiatry Journal, 2008, Volume 2
Our work shows that a significant proportion (25%) of patients examined in a French psychiatric emergency service show at least one diagnosis of ICD (impulse control disorders). ICD are commonly observed in psychiatric patients, whatever they are outpatients, hospitalized or examined in emergency. ICD complicate the clinical picture and the evolution of most psychiatric disorders.

 

In the United States District Courts for the Eastern District of California and the Northern District of California - United States District Court Composed of Three-Judge | Ralph Coleman - Marciano Plate et a., v. A. Schwarzenegger et al.
# Expert Report of James Gilligan
August 15, 2008
However, it has been found that the mentally ill are far more likely to be victims of violent crime than perpetrators of it.34 That is, they are likelier to be injured by someone else than they are to injure someone else. The research regarding mental illness and violence "does not support the stereotype that persons with severe mental illness are typically violent" toward others, but instead should raise more concerns regarding the vulnerability of the mentally ill to victimization...

 

D Nagaraja, Pratima Murthy (eds)  | National Human Rights Commission New Delhi - National Institute of Mental Health
and Neuro Sciences Bangalore
# Mental Health Care and Human Rights
www.bhrc.bih.nic.in/ National Human Rights Commission 2008
Many international studies have shown a high prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners. There are many public interest litigations regarding the issue of detaining mentally ill persons in jails. Unfortunately, only a few prisons in India have attending psychiatrists. This issue of mental health examination and assessment of prisoners requires to be streamlined and a system should be developed in which a copy of the FIR and charges framed against the referred mentally ill prisoner are made available to the treating psychiatrist. This will not only help the psychiatrist in understanding the mental condition of the prisoner during the crime, but also enable proper precautions to be taken with regard to his/her treatment and care.

 

William W. Eaton, Silvia S. Martins, Gerald Nestadt, O. Joseph Bienvenu, Diana Clarke, and Pierre Alexandre
# The Burden of Mental Disorders
Epidemiologic Reviews, Vol. 30, 2008
In the last decade, there has been an increase in interest in the burden of chronic and disabling health conditions that are not necessarily fatal, such as the mental disorders. This review systematically summarizes data on the burden associated with 11 major mental disorders of adults. The measures of burden include estimates of prevalence, mortality associated with the disorders, disabilities and impairments related to the disorders, and costs. This review expands the range of mental disorders considered in a report on the global burden of disease, updates the literature, presents information on the range and depth of sources of information on burden, and adds estimates of costs. The purpose is to provide an accessible guide to the burden of mental disorders, especially for researchers and policy makers who may not be familiar with this subfield of epidemiology.

 

R. Zoccali, M.R.A. Muscatello, A. Bruno, R. Cambria, L. Cavallaro, G. D'Amico, S. Isgrò, V. Romeo, M. Meduri
# Mental disorders and request for psychiatric intervention in an Italian local jail
http://cab.unime.it/ International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 31 (issue 5) - 2008

The issue of the prevalence of psychiatric illnesses in Italian prison samples has not received the same attention paid at an international level. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria among an Italian prisoner population, and to examine prisoners' requests for psychiatric intervention in relationship to the presence or absence of different psychiatric disorders. One hundred fortytwo Italian male subjects from the Casa Circondariale of Messina, Italy, were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R Non-Patient Version — SCID I and SCID II. A very high rate of disorders was found among inmates: 85.2% (n= 121) of the sample were affected by a psychiatric disorder. Of the total sample, 51.4% (n= 73) had requested psychiatric treatment during detention...

 

Kenneth Adams, Joseph Ferrandino
# Managing Mentally Ill Inmates in Prisons
Criminal Justice and Behavior 2008; 35; 913
Mentally ill inmates now comprise a substantial portion of the prison population and pose administrative and therapeutic challenges to prison administrators and mental health professionals. Some evidence suggests that both the size of the population and the seriousness of their illnesses are increasing. Given this context, several issues are highlighted and discussed in terms of contemporary efforts to deal with mentally ill inmates. Specifically, discussion centers on the use of actuarial devices for prediction and classification, the conflict between treatment and control and the relation between treatment and management, the distinction between risks and stakes and use of the environment as therapy, use of medication and isolation, and the role of correction officers in mental health treatment. The authors make an argument for more sophisticated approaches in dealing with mentally ill inmates that rely on expanded therapeutic options, broader role definitions for prison staff, and an evidence-based approach for individualizing treatment.

 

Jennifer M. Kilty
# Governance through Psychiatrization: Seroquel and the New Prison Order
https://socialsciences.uottawa.ca/ Radical Psychology, 2(7), 2008
Med