1560 documenti


 

autolesionismo e suicidio ◄  ► dell'omicidio

 

 


.Giulia Melani, Katia Poneti, Lisa Roncone, Franco Corleone (eds)
# Ricerca intervento per un nuovo modello di assistenza psichiatrica e di tutela della salute mentale in carcere dopo l’abolizione degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari (OPG)
www.societadellaragione.it/ Luglio 2022


Giuseppe Monaco
# REMS: riserva di legge e competenze del Ministro della giustizia. Dopo un’ampia istruttoria, ancora una pronuncia di incostituzionalità accertata ma non dichiarata. Osservazioni su Corte cost. n. 22/2022
Osservatorio Costituzionale, 7 giugno 2022
1. Premessa: molteplici profili di interesse della sentenza n. 22 del 2022. – 2. Assegnazione in REMS e riserva assoluta di legge. – 3. REMS e competenze del Ministro della giustizia. – 4. Utilizzo delle risultanze dell’istruttoria svolta ai sensi dell’art. 12 N.I. – 5. Ancora una incostituzionalità accertata ma non dichiarata.


Paolo Scarlatti
# Tutela dei diritti e trattamento dei detenuti vulnerabili. A proposito del recente caso Sy contro Italia
Dirittifondamentali.it - Fascicolo 1/2022 - 11 aprile 2022

# Cedu, Sentenza Sy contro Italia, 24 gennaio 2022

Stefano Anastasìa (Garante delle persone private della libertà della Regione Lazio)
# Attenzione: così ritornano i manicomi criminali
Il Riformista, 5 aprile 2022


# European Court of Human Rights, Affaire SY c. ITALIE, 24/01/2022 [Rems]

Vladimiro Zagrebelsky
# Malati psichiatrici dietro le sbarre, l'ultima vergogna del sistema carcerario
La Stampa, 6 dicembre 2021

Le Rems sono appena 32 e nemmeno distribuite su tutto il territorio. In attesa che si liberi un posto continua la detenzione negli istituti di pena. La Corte europea ha posto la questione della natura sistemica delle violazioni della Convenzione europea dei diritti umani da parte dell'Italia nei confronti di coloro che continuano ad essere  detenuti, non ostante l'ordine del giudice di ricovero. Occorrono concreti provvedimenti urgenti, poiché è prevedibile che la attuale situazione sia "condannata" sia dalla Corte costituzionale che dalla Corte europea,  come illegale, pericolosa e produttiva di trattamenti inumani.

 

Società della Ragione
# Appello al governo italiano perché in sede di Consiglio d’Europa si pronunci contro il Protocollo Aggiuntivo alla Convenzione di Oviedo circa il trattamento e l’internamento coatti delle persone con disabilità mentali

www.societadellaragione.it/ 26 ottobre 2021

 

Pietro Pellegrini

# Dopo l'Opg e oltre le Rems: un sistema giudiziario e di cura di comunità
www.sossanita.org/ 21 ottobre 2021

Il sistema delle REMS deve restare sanitario ed è del tutto fuori luogo ogni tentativo di riportarlo nell’ottica giudiziaria, di comandarlo e disporne facendolo gestire ad una sanità sottomessa. Una deriva di questo tipo aprirebbe, almeno per me, un’obiezione etica e tecnica perché, una REMS staccata dal territorio e magari forzata nel numero chiuso, diventerebbe con buona pace delle migliori intenzioni, inevitabilmente un nuovo pericoloso miniOPG.

 

Damian Santomauro (ed) - COVID-19 Mental Disorders Collaborators
# Global prevalence and burden of depressive and anxiety disorders in 204 countries and territories in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic
www.thelancet.com/ October 8, 2021
We estimated an additional 53·2 million (44·8 to 62·9) cases of major depressive disorder globally (an increase of 27·6% [25·1 to 30·3]) due to the COVID-19 pandemic, such that the total prevalence was 3152·9 cases (2722·5 to 3654·5) per 100000 population. We also estimated an additional 76·2 million (64·3 to 90·6) cases of anxiety disorders globally (an increase of 25·6% [23·2 to 28·0]), such that the total prevalence was 4802·4 cases (4108·2 to 5588·6) per 100 000 population. Altogether, major depressive disorder caused 49·4 million (33·6 to 68·7) DALYs and anxiety disorders caused 44·5 million (30·2 to 62·5) DALYs globally in 2020...

 

Allen Frances
# Save Trieste’s mental health system
www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 8 September 2021
Saving Trieste is not just a local Italian question; it is symbolic of saving decent community psychiatry and housing for people with mental illnesses everywhere.

Laura M. Maruschak, Jennifer Bronson, Mariel Alper
# Indicators of Mental Health Problems Reported by Prisoners: Survey of Prison Inmates, 2016
https://bjs.ojp.gov/ June 2021

 
Franco Corleone
# Abbattere il muro dell'imputabilità. Una proposta che guarda oltre
La legislazione penale, 5 giugno 2021
1. Considerazioni introduttive. – 2. La «rivoluzione gentile». Tra conquiste, punti fermi e criticità – 2.1. Le conquiste: la legge n. 81/2014 e l’esperienza felice delle REMS – 2.2. Punti fermi da confermare e preservare. Contro le nostalgie del manicomio – 2.3. Criticità da monitorare. Per iniziare a guardare oltre. – 3. Una rivoluzione «che aspetta la riforma». I nodi da affrontare – 4. La responsabilità è terapeutica. Una proposta radicale. – 4.1. Breve storia delle proposte – 4.2. La radicale continuità – 4.3. I contenuti – 5. Conclusioni.

 

Eleonora Martini
# Rems, una questione di cura. Ma la giustizia dov'è?
Il Manifesto, 11 giugno 2021
Sulle Residenze per l'esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza, che hanno sostituito gli Opg, pende il giudizio della Consulta e della Corte Edu. Alla Camera depositate due leggi per modificare il percorso dedicato ai folli-rei. A fine mese, dopo vent'anni, la II Conferenza nazionale sulla salute mentale.


Chiara Princivalli, Alvise Sbraccia

La "manica stretta". Ipotesi di regolazione della somministrazione di psicofarmaci in carcere

www.rapportoantigone.it/ XVII rapporto dulle condizioni di detenzione, 27 maggio 2021

 

Michele Passione
# Come una terra che diventa straniera
https://dirittodidifesa.eu/ 18 maggio 2021
... Sarebbe il caso di riflettere sulle cause del fenomeno, che si rinvengono nella percentuale prossima al 40% dei presenti in REMS e nelle liste di attesa di soggetti destinatari di misure di sicurezza provvisorie, disposte in dispregio del criterio di extrema ratio previsto dalla L.n.81/2014.

 

David C. Yamada

# Therapeutic Jurisprudence: Foundations, Expansion, and Assessment

Uiniversity of Miami Law Review, 2021


Antonella Calcaterra
# Il soggetto pericoloso: misure personali di sicurezza e di prevenzione, tra tradizione e modernità. Le misure di sicurezza psichiatriche nella prassi: il ruolo dei protocolli operativi
Diritto Penale e Uomo (DPU), 7 aprile 2021
1. Introduzione. 2. Brevi cenni alla normativa di rif erimento. 3. I profili problematici nella realtà applicativa. 3.1. Nella fase di cognizione penale. 3.2. Nella fase di esecuzione penale. 4. Il ruolo dei protocolli operativi. 5. Riflessioni conclusive.


# Camera dei Deputati, N. 2939, Proposta di legge d'iniziativa del deputato Magi: "Modifiche al codice penale, al codice di procedura penale e alla legge 26 luglio 1975, n. 354, in materia di imputabilità e di misure alternative alla detenzione per le persone con disabilità psicosociale", Presentata l’11 marzo 2021

 

Madeline Petrillo
# ‘We’ve all got a big story’: Experiences of a Trauma-Informed Intervention in Prison
The Howard Journal, 2021
Victimisation and trauma are prevalent among women in the justice system but are not perceived to be amenable to criminal justice intervention, and there are compelling arguments that correctional environments are inappropriate settings for trauma-informed programmes. This article analyses focus group discussions with women who completed Healing Trauma to examine the legitimacy of developing trauma-informed practice in prisons. The women’s testimonies indicate that Healing Trauma offers a mean ingful opportunity to begin to explore past victimisation that has contributed to their crim inalisation.

 

Jessica Reichert, Lindsay Bostwick
# Post-traumatic stress disorder and victimization among female prisoners in Illinois
Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority, November 2020
A total of 217 female inmates were randomly selected to be interviewed... Eighty-three percent of the sample reported being bothered by a PTSD symptom in the past month (n=136). Three-fourths of the sample reported being bothered in the past 30 days by the PTSD symptom of feeling very upset when something reminded them of a stressful past experience (n=122). Seventy-one percent reported being bothered by repeated, disturbing  memories, thoughts, or images of a stressful experience from the past, and the same percentage (71 percent) reported avoiding thinking about or talking about a stressful past experience to avoid having feelings related to it (n=116)


Colin Cameron, Najat Khalifa, Andrew Bickle, Hira Safdar, Tariq Hassan
# Psychiatry in the federal correctional system in Canada
BJPsych International , Volume 18 , Issue 2 , May 2021 , pp. 42 - 46
The unique challenges of the correctional healthcare environment are well-documented. Access to community-equivalent care, voluntary informed consent of offenders with mental disorder, violence risk, suicide risk, medication misuse, and clinical seclusion, confinement and segregation are just a few of the challenges faced by correctional psychiatric services. This paper shares experiences for dealing with the ongoing challenges for psychiatrists working in the field. It provides an overview of the current state of mental healthcare in the federal correctional system in Canada, the legislative framework and initiatives aimed at addressing the healthcare needs of federal inmates.


Emanuele Preti, Rossella Di Pierro, Erika Fanti, Fabio Madeddu, Raffaella Calati
# Personality Disorders in Time of Pandemic
Current Psychiatry Reports (2020)
Empirical literature on the effect of pandemic on patients with personality pathology, however, lacks. PDs are severe mental disorders that manifest with moderate to severe impairment in both self and interpersonal functioning. That is, such patients show serious difficulties in emotion regulation and interpersonal relationships. Since pandemic showed to be a stressful event with consequences on emotions and social life, we can expect that it might represent a relevant risk factor for the exacerbation of negative psychological consequences specifically connected to personality pathology.

 


 

Emanuele Preti, Rossella Di Pierro, Erika Fanti, Fabio Madeddu, Raffaella Calati
# Personality Disorders in Time of Pandemic
Current Psychiatry Reports (2020)
Empirical literature on the effect of pandemic on patients with personality pathology, however, lacks. PDs are severe mental disorders that manifest with moderate to severe impairment in both self and interpersonal functioning. That is, such patients show serious difficulties in emotion regulation and interpersonal relationships. Since pandemic showed to be a stressful event with consequences on emotions and social life, we can expect that it might represent a relevant risk factor for the exacerbation of negative psychological consequences specifically connected to personality pathology.

 

Storm Ervin, Jahnavi Jagannath, Janine Zweig, Janeen Buck Willison, Kierra B. Jones, Katy Maskolunas, Benjamin McCarty, Chafica Agha

# Addressing Trauma and Victimization in Women’s Prisons. Trauma-Informed Victim Services and Programs for Incarcerated Women

Urban Institute. October 2020

Many women bring past trauma into prison settings, where they often experience similar violence, abuse, and trauma as they experienced on the outside. As the population of women incarcerated in the US grows, so does the dire need for services that address trauma and victimization. Given that incarceration can be inherently retraumatizing and many justice-involved women have experienced trauma, correctional facilities are uniquely positioned to serve as de facto victim service providers.

Many facilities rely on peer support programs and peer mentors. These may also be called survival coaches or peer navigators. Such programs allow incarcerated women to assist other women.

 

Nena Messina, Elizabeth Zwart, Stacy Calhoun
# Efficacy of a Trauma Intervention for Women in a Security Housing Unit
ARCH Women Health Care, Volume 3(3): 1–9, 2020
T
he high rates of trauma exposure, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and related substance use disorders among incarcerated women suggests a significant need for trauma-informed treatment for women in correctional settings. Healing Trauma [1] is a 6-session brief intervention that was designed for women who have experienced trauma associated with adverse childhood experiences. The results demonstrated strong support for the efficacy of this brief intervention for women housed in SHUs. Participants exhibited significant improvement across depression, anxiety, PTSD, aggression, anger and social connectedness from the brief intervention. Effect sizes were moderate to large in size, with the largest impact on physical aggression.


Stephanie Brooks Holliday, Nicholas M. Pace, Neil Gowensmith, Ira Packer, Daniel Murrie, Alicia Virani, Bing Han, Sarah B. Hunter
# Los Angeles County Jails Could Divert More Individuals to Community-Based Mental Health Services
https://www.rand.org/ 2020
On an average day in Los Angeles County jails in 2018, 30 percent of individuals were taking psychotropic medications or were housed in units for individuals with mental illness, according to 2019 data from the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. The county could potentially divert up to two-thirds of those individuals out of jails and into community-based treatment services

 

Stefania Amato
# E' tempo per un finale diverso
Diritto Penale e Uomo, settembre 2020
1. Suicidi in carcere: una follia. – 2. La sentenza Citraro e Molino c. Italia. – 3. Un nome, due persone, tante storie simili. – 4. Prove per un finale diverso. – 5. Una decisione importante. La riflessione pone a confronto le storie di due persone detenute affette da problemi psichiatrici: Antonio Citraro, morto suicida in carcere quasi vent’anni fa, i genitori del quale hanno recentemente ottenuto una condanna dello Stato italiano dalla Corte EDU, e un altro detenuto a rischio, la cui vita non viene oggi adeguatamente tutelata, mentre una tortuosa vicenda davanti alla Magistratura di Sorveglianza non pare trovare sbocco. E non è colpa del COVID.

 

Stefano Cecconi
# Covid e salute mentale. Mai più manicomi
https://ilmanifesto.it/ 15 luglio 2020

 

F. Starace, F. Baccari (eds)
# La Salute Mentale nelle Regioni. Disuguaglianze di Sistema
SIEP - Quaderni di Epidemiologia Psichiatrica, n. 7/2020
Nel presente volume viene riportata l’analisi che SIEP ha condotto sui dati forniti dal Sistema Informativo per la Salute Mentale (SISM), pubblicati annualmente dal Ministero della Salute. L’analisi, estesa al quadriennio 2015- 2018, offre un quadro della situazione attuale e dell’andamento dei principali indicatori di struttura e attività del sistema di cura per la salute mentale nelle diverse Regioni italiane. Ciò consente di apprezzare andamenti temporali che in molti casi appaiono preoccupanti, specie quando si consideri che le situazioni descritte non hanno ricevuto – a nostra conoscenza – adeguata attenzione. 

 

Fabio Gianfilippi
# Citraro e Molino c. Italia. La responsabilità dello Stato per la vita delle persone detenute ed un suicidio di venti anni fa
giustiziainsieme.it, 7 luglio 2020    
 # C. Edu, sez. I, Citraro e Molino c. Italia, Ricorso n. 50988/13, 4 giugno 2020
Il 4 giugno 2020 la I sezione della Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo ha condannato l’Italia per violazione dell’art. 2 della Convenzione (“Il diritto alla vita di ogni persona è protetto dalla legge…”), in particolare perché tale disposizione non si limita a richiedere agli Stati che si astengano dal provocare la morte, ma impone invece l’adozione delle misure necessarie alla protezione della vita delle persone sottoposte alla loro giurisdizione. Una affermazione che diventa particolarmente cogente per le persone private della libertà personale e che la Corte circostanzia alla luce della sua giurisprudenza più recente in materia (vd. Fernandes de Oliveira c. Portogallo, 31 gennaio 2019...

 

Thomas Hewson, Andrew Shepherd, Jake Hard, Jennifer Shaw
# Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of prisoners
www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 7 July 2020
To date, little focus has been given to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of prisoners; an area of concern given their high rates of pre-existing mental disorders, suicide, and self-harm, and the links between poor mental health, suicide, and self-harm, and reoffending behaviour... The effects of the pandemic are considerable but they also create opportunities for new, innovative methods of supporting prisoners.

 

Pietro Pellegrini
# Il superamento degli OPG le REMS. Oltre le buone intenzioni.
http://www.osservatoriostopopg.it/ 7 giugno 2020
Occorre ricordare come si sia realizzata una riforma incompleta che non ha modificato il codice penale in tema di imputabilità, pericolosità sociale e misure di sicurezza. Persiste un “doppio binario” mentre sarebbe auspicabile un sistema unitario che riconosca a tutti il diritto al processo, vedendo poi in fase di esecuzione della pena, previa valutazione e gestione dei rischi, quali siano gli aspetti retributivi, trattamentali e terapeutici più appropriati per la singola persona. Il doppio binario e la doppia organizzazione rischiano di creare percorsi alternativi, spesso frammentari e poco efficienti, in relazione a letture che spesso sono parziali. Solo mediante una visione d’insieme biopsicosociale e culturale si potrà rispondere alle diverse determinanti delle condotte  violative e antisociali.

 

Marco Patarnello
# Le Rems: uscire dall’inferno solo con le buone intenzioni
www.questionegiustizia.it/ 2 giugno 2020
# Questione legittimità costituzionale_REMS

Disciplina ideologica, assenza di risorse e indifferenza hanno abbandonato gli autori di reato psichiatrici e gravemente pericolosi in un groviglio normativo denso di ipocrisie, silenzi e trascuratezze. La Corte Costituzionale sembra l’unica strada

 

Tribunale Ordinario di Tivoli - Sezione G.I.P. - G.U.P., Giudice Aldo Morgigni, Ordinanza - 11 maggio 2020
... Dichiara di ufficio rilevante e non manifestamente infondata la questione di legittimità costituzionale degli artt. artt. 206 e 222 cod. pen. nonché dell’art. 3 ter del D. L. n. 211/2011 in relazione agli artt. 27 e 110 Cost. nella parte in cui, attribuendo l’esecuzione del ricovero provvisorio presso una Residenza per l’esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza (REMS) alle Regioni... escludono la competenza del Ministro della Giustizia in relazione all’esecuzione della detta misura di sicurezza detentiva provvisoria nonché nella parte in cui consentono l’adozione con atti amministrativi di disposizioni generali in materia di misure di sicurezza in violazione della riserva di legge in materia, rispetto a quanto previsto dagli artt. 2, 3, 25, 32 e 110 Cost.

 

Ministère des Solidarités et de la Santé
# Coronavirus (Covid-19). Fiche établissements pénitentiaires. Organisation de la prise en charge sanitaire des patients détenus nécessitant des soins psychiatriques
https://solidarites-sante.gouv.fr/ 2 avril 2020

 

Jenna Bao
# Prisons: The New Asylums
https://harvardpolitics.com/ Mar 9, 2020

 

Marco Bastianello
# La salute mentale in carcere: profili di criticità della riforma dell’ordinamento penitenziario in ambito psichiatrico.
www.giurisprudenzapenale.com/ Marzo 2020
1. Introduzione. – 2. Modifica dell’art. 11 ord. penit.: parità sanitaria tra liberi e detenuti, e profili psichiatrici. – 3. Supporto psichiatrico nelle carceri, differenze tra normativa e fattualità. – 4. La sentenza della Corte Costituzionale n. 99 del 19 aprile 2019.


Nathaniel P. Morris, Sara G. West
# Misconceptions About Working in Correctional Psychiatry
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 48(2), 2020
Incarcerated individuals have high rates of mental disorders and substance use disorders compared with the general population, yet correctional facilities in the United States have difficulty recruiting mental health professionals. This has led to shortages in the availability of clinicians who can provide psychiatric care in these settings. During training and in practice, mental health professionals may develop misconceptions about correctional psychiatry that deter them from the field.

 

Kristen M. Zgoba, Rusty Reeves, Anthony Tamburello, Lisa Debilio
# Criminal Recidivism in Inmates with Mental Illness and Substance Use Disorders
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law, v. 48, n. 2, 2020
The relative contributions of mental illness and substance use disorders to criminal recidivism have important clinical and policy implications. This study reviewed 36 months of postrelease data for nearly 10,000 New Jersey state inmates released in 2013 to ascertain the rearrest rate of those diagnosed with mental illness, substance use disorders, both, or neither. We also examined whether certain characteristics suggestive of higher risk of psychiatric decompensation were associated with higher rates of rearrest...

 

Giacomo Gualtieri, Fabio Ferretti, Alessandra Masti, Andrea Pozza. Anna Coluccia
# Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Prisoners’ Offspring: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, 2020, Volume 16 37
PTSD is a serious mental health condition among prisoners’ offspring, particularly when mothers are incarcerated. Six studies (2512 participants) were included. Fifteen percent of prisoners’ offspring had PTSD. While offspring’s gender was not related to the effect sizes, parents’ gender was significantly and positively associated with the effect sizes suggesting that in studies with higher percentages of incarcerated mothers, the prevalence of offspring’s PTSD was higher...

 

Marta Bertolino
# L'imputabilità secondo il Codice Penale. Dal Codice Rocco alla legge delega del 2017: paradigmi, giurisprudenza, Commissioni a confronto
https://sistemapenale.it/ 25 febbraio 2020
1. L’infermità degli artt. 88 e 89: le scelte originarie. – 2. (segue) la dottrina penalistica moderna. – 3. Paradigmi di infermità mentale nella giurisprudenza e l’infermità mentale nel canone delle Sezioni unite della cassazione. – 4. Dai Progetti di nuovo codice penale alla legge delega del 2017 e alle relative proposte della Commissione a proposito degli artt. 88 e 89. – 5. Le sfide delle neuroscienze. – 5.1. Le nuove frontiere dell’infermità mentale: dalla ludopatia alle dipendenze da sostanze

 

Mario Iannucci, Gemma Brandi
# Carcere, psichiatria, REMS, servizi
Diritto Penale e Uomo, 25 febbraio 2020

 

Dinesh Bhugra
# Imprisoned bodies, imprisoned minds
Forensic Science International: Mind and Law, 1, 2020
Prisoners with imprisoned bodies are the prisoners who often have comorbid mental illness, substance abuse, personality disorder or other disorders. Clinicians, on the other hand, have minds which are often unaware of or closed to mental health needs of prisoners. In countries around the world, rates of physical and mental illnesses are raised in prison populations. The rates of various psychiatric disorders in this population are shown to be higher than in the general population for a number of reasons. In the USA, for example, seriously mentally ill persons were more than three times likely to be in jails and prisons rather than in hospitals thus creating asylums without adequate treatment. These numbers are likely to increase as psychiatric beds are reduced in general.

 

Franco Corleone (a cura di)
# Il muro dell'imputabilità. Dopo la chiusura dell'Opg, una scelta radicale
Fondazione Michelucci Press, Dicembre 2019
L’abolizione della nozione di non imputabilità è stata sostenuta da molti degli psichiatri del gruppo triestino e di psichiatria democratica, proprio come forma di riconoscimento di soggettività al malato di mente, in questo caso autore di reato. Il riconoscimento della responsabilità è anche ritenuto essere un atto che può avere una valenza terapeutica. Ancora dal punto di vista teorico, nella sfumatura delle riflessioni dogmatiche, potrebbe essere evidenziata, in senso critico, la netta discontinuità tra una misura di sicurezza con finalità terapeutiche e la pena con la sua funzione retributiva.

 

Franco Corleone (a cura di)
# Mai più Manicomi. Una ricerca sulla Rems di Volterra. La nuova vita dell’Ambrogiana

Fondazione Michelucci Press, 2018

Nel 1988, dieci anni dopo l’approvazione della riforma, tanti manicomi “civili”, così erano chiamati per distinguerli da quelli criminali o giudiziari, erano ancora funzionanti per gestire quello che con un termine brutalmente liquidatorio era definito il residuo manicomiale. Il “residuo” era costituito da migliaia di donne e di uomini spesso ab-bandonate a se stesse e ridotte in condizioni bestiali, indegne rispetto a uno standard minimo di umanità.

 

Mario Iannucci, Gemma Brandi
# Gli omicidi dei poliziotti a Trieste, #IAmNotDangerous e la Negazione
quotidianosanità.it/ 9 ottobre 2019
# Lancet #IAmNotDangerous and the politics of stigma

Moltissimi dei gravi episodi aggressivi degli ultimi tempi (non importa che si tratti di mass shootings, ma specie si tratta di mass shootings) vengono compiuti da persone con gravissime turbe psichiche. Turbe psichiche talora non adeguatamente riconosciute dai servizi di salute mentale, ovvero non adeguatamente curate. Oppure si tratta di folli completamente “abbondanati per strada”, perché i servizi non possono o non vogliono prendersene cura. Come nel caso degli stranieri affetti da grave malattie mentali.

 

Kimberly A. Houser, E. Rely Vîlcica, Christine A. Saum, Matthew L. Hiller
# Mental Health Risk Factors and Parole Decisions: Does Inmate Mental Health Status Affect Who Gets Released
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2950
The stereotype that mentally ill are prone to violent and criminal behavior is, however, deeply rooted in public opinion. Studies suggest that the media has long cultivated and reinforced this stereotype. Indeed, Parrott and Parrott’s review of U.S. fictional crime- ased television programs found that the mentally ill were disproportionately portrayed as violent and  criminal. This is, they argue, the “initial step in stigmatization, informing attitudes and subsequent prejudicial behavior in the real world”. Unfortunately, the stigmatization and stereotyping of mental illness is not, however, “confined to the uninformed public, but includes trained professional from most mental health disciplines”.

 

Corte d'Appello di Milano
# Protocollo operativo in tema di misure di sicurezza psichiatriche per il Distretto di Milano
Milano, 12 settembre 2019

 

Antonella Calcaterra
# Salute mentale e detenzione: un passo avanti. è possibile la cura fuori dal carcere
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ Settembre 2019
La riforma perfezionatasi nel 2015 con la chiusura degli Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari (OPG) e con la trasformazione della disciplina delle misure di sicurezza aveva lasciato scoperta la tutela giudiziaria delle persone colpite da patologie psichiatriche sopravvenute. Si è assistito ad una regressione trattamentale, per il venir meno di un controllo giurisdizionale, e ad un’assenza di soluzioni di cure. In totale divergenza con la tutela garantita alle persone in stato di grave infermità fisica e con i principi secondo cui il carcere non cura, ma aggrava e riacutizza

 

Chiara Daina
# Dopo la chiusura degli Opg troppi falsi pazienti psichiatrici spediti nelle Rems
Il Fatto Quotidiano, 16 luglio 2019
Sono falsi pazienti psichiatrici con un disturbo antisociale di personalità che però non va confuso con una malattia e non va curato con i farmaci - spiega Enrico Zanalda, direttore del Dipartimento di salute mentale dell'Asl Torino 3 e presidente della Società italiana di psichiatria (Sip), che ha lanciato l'allarme -. Trasgrediscono le regole, non rispettano l'autorità, aggrediscono il personale e sono elemento di disturbo per gli altri pazienti. Di solito hanno un uso problematico di sostanze e per procurarsi droga o alcol appena possono scappano dalla comunità...

 

Miriam Di Cesare, Teresa Di Fiandra, Lidia Di Minco, Liliana La Sala, Natalia Magliocchetti, Morgan Romanelli, Elisabetta Santori
# Rapporto salute mentale. Analisi dei dati del Sistema Informativo per la Salute Mentale (SISM) - Anno 2017. Dicembre 2018     # Sintesi
http://www.salute.gov.it/ luglio 2019

Fabrizio Starace e Flavia Baccari, # Salute Mentale: dai dati alle informazioni, siep.it/ 8 Luglio 2019

 

Le Contrôleur général des lieux de privation de liberté
# La nuit dans les lieux de privation de liberté
https://www.cglpl.fr/ 3 juillet 2019
# Dossier de presse

Le CGLPL constate régulièrement que la notion de « nuit » renvoie, au sein des lieux d’enfermement, à des organisations et des durées très hétérogènes. La nuit représente un enfermement dans l’enfermement : enfermement dans les cellules et chambres de lieux eux-mêmes clos. La nuit, qui peut débuter à 18h30, est le moment où les portes se referment, où les équipes se réduisent. Les activités cessent, l’ennui s’installe, les difficultés à dormir aussi quand l’intimité et le respect de la dignité sont mis à mal. La conscience que les portes ne se rouvriront peut-être pas assez vite en cas d’urgence est parfois source de peur et d’angoisse. Arriver dans un lieu de privation de liberté ou le quitter une fois la nuit tombée est souvent synonyme d’un accueil tronqué, d’une sortie improvisée.

 

# Corte Costituzionale, sentenza 99 del 2019

Valentina Stella # I detenuti con gravi patologie mentali si possono curare fuori dal carcere, Left, 20 aprile 2019

Andrea Pugiotto  # La follia fuori dal carcere, la sentenza della Consulta, Il Manifesto, 24 aprile 2019

Antonella Calcaterra # Salute mentale e detenzione: un passo avanti. È possibile la cura fuori dal carcere https://dirittopenaleuomo.org/ 02.05.2019

 

Aamna Mohdin, Pamela Duncan
# Mentally ill prisoners face months-long waits for hospital transfer
www.theguardian.com/ Sun 21 Apr 2019
Government guidelines in England and Wales stipulate that prisoners who are acutely mentally ill should be transferred to a hospital within 14 days of the first medical recommendation. But according to an analysis of Ministry of Justice data, hundreds of prisoners a year are being left awaiting adequate treatment. The data shows that in some cases prisoners with mental health problems wait for six months from officials receiving an application for transfer of a prisoner to the prisoner’s eventual admission to hospital.

 

Yvonne Jewkes, Melanie Jordan, Serena Wright, Gillian Bendelow
# Designing ‘Healthy’ Prisons for Women: Incorporating Trauma-Informed Care and Practice (TICP) into Prison Planning and Design
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2019
Women in prison report an acutely more painful experience than their male counterparts, with many suffering complex emotional biographies and histories of community-based trauma and abuse pre-imprisonment. In England, 65% of imprisoned women have been diagnosed with depression compared to 37% of incarcerated men, and women account for almost a quarter (23%) of all prison self-harm incidents, even though they make up just 5% of the overall prison population [6]. Bloom et al. conclude  that ‘addressing the realities of women’s lives through gender-responsive policy and programs isfundamental to improved outcomes at all criminal justice phases.

 

Heather Stringer
# Improving mental health for inmates
www.apa.org/ March 2019, Vol 50, No. 3
The unfortunate truth is that despite improvements over the past 30 years, the correctional system continues to struggle to meet the vast needs of the increasing number of inmates with mental health conditions... About 37 percent of people in prison have a history of mental health problems, according to a 2017 report from the U.S. Department of Justice. More than 24 percent have been previously diagnosed with major depressive order, 17 percent with bipolar disorder, 13 percent with a personality disorder and 12 percent with post-traumatic stress disorder. The numbers are even higher for people in jail, where one-third have been previously diagnosed with major depressive disorder and almost onequarter with bipolar disorder.

 

Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica
# Salute mentale e assistenza psichiatrica in carcere
http://bioetica.governo.it/ 22 marzo 2019
Il livello deteriorato di salute mentale dei detenuti dà luogo a difficoltà di interpretazione, influenzato da due possibili variabili interagenti: il ruolo patogeno del carcere da un lato, lo scarso livello di salute mentale (e di salute più in generale) prima dell’ingresso in carcere, dall’altro. La mole di studi circa la relazione fra il cosiddetto “gradiente sociale” e le disuguaglianze nella salute suggerirebbe di appuntare l’attenzione sul rapporto fra il deterioramento della salute e il disagio sociale da cui proviene gran parte della popolazione detenuta. Ciò può sollevare numerosi problemi in ambito criminologico...

 

Pietro Pellegrini
# Salute Mentale. L’eclissi di una riforma?
http://www.sossanita.org/ 6 febbraio 2019
Occorre rilanciare l’azione riformatrice dei codici penale e di procedura penale rendendoli finalmente coerenti con la legge 180/1978 e non con la 36/1904. Bisognerebbe trovare il coraggio di affrontare imputabilità, doppio binario, pericolosità sociale, misure di sicurezza e con molto realismo affrontare il tema del funzionamento del sistema senza OPG. Una specifica Consensus conference potrebbe coinvolgere i diversi soggetti competenti, affrontare le contraddizioni, definire e valorizzare le buone pratiche come auspicato anche dal Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura...

 

Francesco Maisto
# Rems, criminale è la nostalgia del manicomio
Il Manifesto, 30 gennaio 2019

Le prassi del Dap non sono cambiate rispetto a quelle praticate con la vecchia normativa. Non è stata attivata la Conferenza nazionale sulla salute mentale e l'Accordo Stato-Regioni del 26 febbraio 2015 non è stato ancora rivisto. Non stupisce, dunque, se, in un clima politico "repressivo" e regressivo, riprenda vigore l'ipotesi di soluzioni istituzionalizzanti piuttosto che la scelta di un sistema incentrato sulla comunità.

 

European Court of Human Rights
# Detention and mental health
www.echr.coe.int/ January 2019

 

Seena Fazel, Achim Wolf, Maria D. L. A. Vazquez-Montes, Thomas R. Fanshawe
# Prediction of violent reoffending in prisoners and individuals on probation: a Dutch validation study (OxRec)
https://www.nature.com/ Accepted: 7 December 2018
Risk assessment tools in criminal justice, forensic mental health, and clinical psychiatry are increasingly used to stratify individuals into different categories based on their predicted future risk of crime and violence. In criminal justice, such tools are variously used to inform decision-making at sentencing, release, parole, and probation. In clinical settings, such tools are used less frequently, and assist in determining treatment, discharge timing and conditions, particularly in forensic psychiatry, and also the need for further assessments1. The extent to which the use of these tools have improved outcomes is uncertain, with only one randomised controlled trial to date in outpatients that reported that criminal outcomes were no different, and violent crime outcomes worse, in settings that added a structured clinical judgement tool to routine violence risk assessment

 

Shelby Hayne
# An Analysis and Critique of Mental Health Treatment in American State Prisons and Proposal for Improved Care
https://scholarship.claremont.edu/scripps_theses/1256, December 14 2018
The large-scale housing of prisoners is extremely expensive, with the average cost of each inmate in state prisons measured at $33,274 per year in the year 2015. A study that surveyed 45 states found total prison spending to amount to over $42 billion per year (Vera Institute, 2018). Furthermore, prisons havereported costs of housing inmates with mental illness to be tens of thousands of dollars more than the costs of housing those without

 

Shivpriya Sridhar, Robert Cornish, Seena Fazel
# The Costs of Healthcare in Prison and Custody: Systematic Review of Current Estimates and Proposed Guidelines for Future Reporting
Frontiers in Psychiatry, 20 december 2018
Prison healthcare expenditure data was identified for 10 countries, and overall operating costs were reported for 12 countries. The most commonly reported healthcare cost was for primary medical care. Healthcare costs reporting varied widely, and few countries were comparable. We developed a set of guidelines for consistent and transparent reporting of healthcare costs... Few countries report the costs of healthcare services in prison. When reported, there is a lack of clarity and consistency as to what is included. Using the proposed reporting guidelines would enable national trends and international  comparisons to be investigated, and any recommended benchmarks to be monitored.

 

Francesco Ungaretti
# Il bisogno di un luogo per la cura anche per i detenuti condannati o imputati affetti da patologie mentali.
Giurisprudenza Penale Web, 12, 2018
1. La modifica normativa e la luce verso una disciplina omogenea. - 2. Excursus giurisprudenziale degli orientamenti più recenti, che hanno messo in evidenzia le ombre della normativa. - 3. Conclusioni e riflessioni sulla cura dei condannati malati psichiatrici.

 

Sebastian Schildbach, Carola Schildbach
# Criminalization Through Transinstitutionalization: A Critical Review of the Penrose Hypothesis in the Context of Compensation Imprisonment
www.frontiersin.org/ October 2018
In 1939, the English scientist Lionel Penrose found an inverse correlation between the size of psychiatric inpatient clinics and the number of detainees based on cross-sectional data from diverse European countries. His assumption that the number of psychiatric hospital beds was inversely related to the size of prison populations was later termed the “Penrose hypothesis.” A common expression summarizing Penrose's findings is “transinstitutionalization,” which refers to a process where mentally ill individuals, who are discharged from, or no longer admitted to, mental hospitals, are frequently found in prisons. Even 80 years after its formulation, the Penrose hypothesis has neither been rejected nor confirmed. Despite repeated observations of transinstitutionalization, and an increase of the numbers of imprisoners, it is still unclear whether there is an association between capacities in psychiatric clinics and prison sizes.


Seena Fazel, E. Naomi Smith, Zheng Chang, John Richard Geddes
# Risk factors for interpersonal violence: an umbrella review of meta-analyses
The British Journal of Psychiatry, 213, 2018
We identified 22 meta-analyses reporting on risk factors for interpersonal violence. Neuropsychiatric disorders were among the strongest in relative and absolute terms. The neuropsychiatric risk factor that had the largest effect at a population level were substance use disorders, with a PAF of 14.8% (95% CI 9.0–21.6%), and the most important historical factor was witnessing or being a victim of violence in childhood (PAF = 12.2%, 95% CI 6.5–17.4%). There was evidence of small study effects and large heterogeneity.

Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura
# Protocolli operativi in tema di misure di sicurezza psichiatriche
Risoluzione del 24 settembre 2018

 

Lucilla Amerio
# Differimento pena per infermità psichica: il Tribunale di Messina percorre la via “immediata” dell’analogia in bonam partem
Giurisprudenza Penale Web, 2 giugno 2018
Si è posto, dunque, il “problema per l’interprete, di trovare uno strumento nel sistema che consenta di apprestare adeguata tutela nei confronti di soggetti affetti da infermità psichica sopravvenuta nel corso dell’esecuzione della penale, onde evitare che gli stessi, in assenza di rimedio espressamente previsto, siano costretti a rimanere in carcere con un conseguente indubbio pregiudizio per la loro salute”; problematica, quest’ultima di chiara rilevanza, specie in considerazione della tutela costituzionalmente garantita al diritto alla salute, e, più in generale, al bene vita...

# Tribunale di Sorveglianza di Messina, ordinanza, 22 febbraio 2018

 

Giuseppe Ortano
# Il diritto alla cura, la cura del diritto. Il profilo degli utenti a partire dai dati sulle rems. La deistituzionalizzazione continua
Napoli, 30 maggio 2018
Al 20/04/2018 risultano attive 30 REMS per un totale di 604 (+2) p.l., mentre 591 sono le persone internate, mentre al 18/09/2017 erano 596. Di queste 350 persone sono in misura di sicurezza definitiva, 215 in misura di sicurezza provvisoria e 31 sono sottoposte a misure di sicurezza miste hanno più procedimenti in corso). Mentre sono 441 sono le persone con misura di sicurezza in “lista di attesa”, al 18/09/2017 erano 289. Si registra dunque un elevato incremento con una curva crescente anche di 50 persone a settimana...

 

Helen E Jack, Gregory Fricchione, Dixon Chibanda, Graham Thornicroft, Debra Machando, Khameer Kidia
# Mental health of incarcerated people: a global call to action
www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 5 May 2018
Prisons are the wrong place for people with mental illness and are poor settings for mental health treatment... About 90% of people in UK prisons have at least one mental or substance use disorder. Although the prevalence of these disorders in prisons in LMICs (low-income and middle-income countries) is not well known, the problem of mental  illness in prisons is probably greater in LMICs than in high-income countries because LMICs have fewer resources for psychiatric care.

 

CNCDH - CGLPL
# Observations concernant le projet de protocole additionnel à la Convention sur les droits de l’homme et la biomédecine relatif à la protection des droits de l’homme et de la dignité des personnes atteintes de troubles mentaux à l’égard du placement et du traitement involontaires projet de protocolesoumis à consultation par le comité bioéthique (comité DH-BIO) du Conseil de l’Europe
https://www.cglpl.fr/ 2018

 

Laure Anelli
# Malades psychiques en prison: une folie
https://oip.org/ Observatoire International des Prisons, 18 mai 2018
Si l’on sur-pénalise les personnes souffrant de troubles, c’est, au fond, que la maladie psychique fait peur. Dans l’imaginaire collectif, les figures du criminel et du malade mental se confondent, pour n’en former plus qu’une : celle du fou dangereux. Pourtant, « entre 2 % et 5 % des auteurs d’homicide et entre 1 % et 4 % des auteurs d’actes de violence sexuelle seulement [sont] atteints de troubles mentaux ». Quoiqu’il en soit, dans une société obnubilée par le risque – fut-il infime, la question de leur dangerosité fantasmée obsède. Redoutant, en cas de récidive, de voir leur responsabilité engagée sur la place médiatique, les juges préfèrent la prison à l’hôpital. Il faut dire que l’évolution récente des moyens de la psychiatrie donne aux magistrats des raisons de douter de la capacité de prise en charge du secteur.

 

Thomas Fovet, Laurent Plancke, Pierre Thomas
# Dossier soins psychiatriques aux personnes détenues. Prévalence des troubles
Santé Mentale, Avril 2018
Les études soulignent la prévalence importante de tous les troubles psychiatriques en prison, avec une surreprésentation des dépressions, des troubles psychotiques et des comorbidités addictives... la prévalence des troubles psychiatriques est largement supérieure à celle retrouvée en population générale. Tous les troubles sont représentés : schizophrénie, troubles de l’humeur – notamment le trouble bipolaire et l’épisode dépressif caractérisé – trouble stress post-traumatique, troubles anxieux, troubles de la personnalitéet également déficience intellectuelle...

 

Thomas Fovet, Laurent Plancke, Pierre Thomas
# Prévalence des troubles psychiatriques en prison
Santé Mentale, 227, Avril 2018
Toutes soulignent la surreprésentation de l’ensemble des pathologies psychiatriques et des addictions. La fréquence particulièrement importante des troubles psychiatriques associés à un trouble addictif, plus d’un quart des détenus, interroge sur les limites de l’accès aux soins avant et après la détention. La prévalence élevée des troubles psychiatriques en prison a plusieurs conséquences au premier rang desquelles le suicide. Au vu des données épidémiologiques, il apparaît qu’une des priorités est de proposer aux personnes incarcérées des soins de qualité équivalente à ceux proposés à la population générale. Les liens entre personnel soignant exerçant en milieu pénitentiaire et personnel soignant du secteur de psychiatrie général s’avèrent primordiaux pour assurer la continuité des soins.

 

Mathieu Nacher, Gulen Ayhan, Romain Arnal, Célia Basurko, Florence Huber, Agathe Pastre, Louis Jehel, Bruno Falissard, Vincent About
# High prevalence rates for multiple psychiatric conditions among inmates at French Guiana’s correctional facility: diagnostic and demographic factors associated with violent offending and previous incarceration
MC Psychiatry (2018) 18:159
Mentally ill detainees should benefit from effective screening, case identification and psychiatric care on arrival, ongoing care during the period of incarceration and pre-release arrangements for ongoing care in the community following release from custody. The goals of the correctional facilities and the psychiatric system are different but they may not always be antagonistic. Improved recognition and care of persons with mental illness in prison settings may improve outcomes for affected individuals and for public security.

 

Jesse T Young, Ed Heffernan, Rohan Borschmann, James R P Ogloff, Matthew J Spittal, Fiona G Kouyoumdjian, David B Preen, Amanda Butler, Lisa Brophy, Julia Crilly, Stuart A Kinner
# Dual diagnosis of mental illness and substance use disorder and injury in adults recently released from prison: a prospective cohort study

www.thelancet.com/ April 18, 2018
People with mental illness and substance use disorder are over-represented in prisons. Injury-related mortality is elevated in people released from prison, and both mental illness and substance use disorder are risk factors for injury. Effective care coordination during the transition between criminal justice and community service providers improves health outcomes for people released from prison. However, the health outcomes and support needs of people with dual diagnosis (co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorder) released from prison are poorly understood. Here we aim to examine the association between dual diagnosis and non-fatal injury in adults released from prison.

 

Marco Leyton
# Are people with psychiatric disorders violent?
J Psychiatry Neurosci 2018;43(4)
Violent behaviour reflects the confluence of many, often intricately interacting, factors. Despite this complexity, the steady decrease in homicide rates provides optimism that progress can be made. Many of the contributing factors are within the domain of psychiatry. This includes obtaining a better  understanding of biological, psychological, legal and other sociocultural factors that influence problematic behaviours, and using this information when making decisions about patients and  policy. Our communities will be best served, it is proposed, if we focus on these features while avoiding the temptation to use fears of the mentally ill to obtain more funding.

 

Anders Håkansson, Virginia Jesionowska
# Associations between substance use and type of crime in prisoners with substance use problems – a focus on violence and fatal violence
Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2018:9
Crime and substance use are known to be closely associated, and substance use disorders are common in criminal justice settings; in a systematic review of studies in prison populations, alcohol abuse and dependence were reported in 18%–30% of males and 10%–24% of females, whereas drug abuse and dependence were reported in 10%–48% and 30%–60% of male and female clients, respectively. Also, substance use disorders are known to be associated with violent crimes...

 

Alisa Roth
# A 'hellish world': the mental health crisis overwhelming America's prisons
www.theguardian.com/ 31 March 2018
In America, jails and prisons have become the nation’s de facto mental healthcare providers – and the results are chilling... Between 1950 and 2000 the number of people with serious mental illness living in psychiatric institutions dropped from almost half a million people to about 50,000. But none of the rest of it has gone away, not the cruelty, the filth, the bad food or the brutality... The only real difference between Kesey’s time and our own is that the mistreatment of people with mental illness now happens in jails and prisons. Today, the country’s largest providers of psychiatric care are not hospitals at all, but rather the jails in Chicago, Los Angeles and New York City...

 

# Corte di Cassazione, I sez. pen, Ordinanza n. 13382/2018 | Udienza 23.11.2017
Va alla Consulta l'ordinamento penitenziario per la parte in cui non prevede la detenzione domiciliare anche in caso di grave infermità psichica, e non solo fisica, sopravvenuta durante l'esecuzione della pena. La Corte di cassazione solleva d'ufficio i dubbi sul possibile contrasto con la Carta dell'articolo 47-ter comma 31ter della legge 354/1975, che metterebbe in atto una disparità di trattamento perché non prevede la detenzione domiciliare anche nel caso di gravi patologie psichiatriche che hanno colpito il detenuto durante l'espiazione della pena.

 

G. B. I. Polichetti
# Il problema dell'imputabilità nei disturbi di personalità
Psicologia & Giustizia, Anno XIX, numero 1, Gennaio-Giugno 2018
Nessun disturbo di personalità, a prescindere dal tipo e dalla gravità, può configurare di per sé stesso una causa idonea a pregiudicare significativamente la capacità d’intendere e di volere, e quindi l’imputabilità: una personalità gravemente disturbata potrebbe, invece, consentire l’interazione con altro disturbo, ma soltanto la variazione personologica identificata e dimostrata all’origine del comportamento, e sostenuta dall’interazione discussa , potrebbe interessare sensibilmente l’imputabilità. Unicamente il grave disturbo di personalità del tipo borderline potrebbe risultare autonomamente idoneo a scemare grandemente la capacità d’intendere o di volere...

 

Olli Vaurio, Eila Repo Tiihonen, Hannu Kautiainen, Jari Tiihonen
# Psychopathy and Mortality
Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol, 63, Issue 2, March 2018

 

Gergo Baranyi, Megan Cassidy, Seena Fazel, Stefan Priebe, and Adrian P. Mundt
# Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Prisoner
Epidemiol Rev. 2018;40:134–145
This systematic review of the prevalence of PTSD in prison populations is based on 56 samples from 20 countries world wide. Point, 1-year, and lifetime prevalence rates indicate high levels of PTSD in this population. Imprisoned women have prevalence rates of PTSD that are approximately 3-fold than those in men. Prisoners in HICs and, in particular, in the United States, had higher a PTSD prevalence than did imprisoned people in other countries. When data were pooled, the point prevalence of PTSD was 6% in male prison populations and 21% in female prison populations, the 1-year prevalence rates of PTSD were 10% in male and 26% in female, and the lifetime prevalence estimates of PTSD were 18% in male and 40% in female prison populations

 

Mario Iannucci, Gemma Brandi
# Il reo folle e le modifiche dell'Ordinamento Penitenziario
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 19 febbraio 2018
1. Introduzione – 2. La normativa – 2.1. Le norme dello schema di DL – 2.2. L. 103 del 2017 – 2.3. Le leggi sul “superamento degli OPG” e altri recenti documenti che riguardano la materia – 3. Breve storia del “doppio binario” e delle proposte della sua abolizione: verso la cancellazione del concetto di “internamento” – 4. Informazione e disinformazione sui malati di mente in ambito penitenziario. – 5. L’ipocrita e contraddittoria utopia della “responsabilizzazione” dei folli-rei – 6. Le camaleontiche trasformazioni della “malattia trasgressiva” e la granitica resistenza delle istanze punitive della società – 7. La cattiva coscienza degli psichiatri: il conformismo o il silenzio – 7.1. La bisbigliante arrendevolezza della cosiddetta “psichiatria forense” – 8. Considerazioni finali sulle norme dello schema e sulle possibili conseguenze della loro applicazione.

 

Samuele Ciambriello
# Salute mentale, oltre 40mila detenuti soffrono di un disagio psichico
La Repubblica, 5 gennaio 2018
L'importanza del tema salute mentale in carcere è di prima e immediata evidenza anche se ci si sofferma solo sui numeri. Secondo i dati della Società italiana di medicina e salute penitenziaria nel 2016 oltre 40mila detenuti soffrono di un disagio psichico. Un disagio che può assumere anche forme molto gravi (depressioni, psicosi, depressioni) e che può portare anche a gesti estremi o a comportamenti autolesionistici.

 

Miriam Di Cesare, Teresa Di Fiandra, Lidia Di Minco, Liliana La Sala, Natalia Magliocchetti, Morgan Romanelli, Elisabetta Santori | Ministero della Salute
# Rapporto salute mentale. Analisi dei dati del Sistema Informativo per la Salute Mentale (SISM) Anno 2016
http://www.salute.gov.it/ Dicembre 2017

 

House of Commons. Committee of Public Accounts
# Mental health in prisons. Eighth Report of Session 2017–19
https://publications.parliament.uk/ 13 December 2017
People in prison are more likely to suffer from mental health problems than those in the community. NHS England estimates that 37% of its spend on adult healthcare in prisons is on mental health and substance abuse, which it told us is more than twice the proportion that is being spent within the NHS budget as a whole...

 

Anna Ferrari
# Il trattamento terapeutico dell’infermo di mente autore di reato e il ritorno nella comunità
Giurisprudenza Penale Web, Dicembre 2017
La finalità degli interventi legislativi in materia di esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza si basa sul principio secondo cui per il non imputabile il ricorso alla misura di natura lato senso custodiale deve considerarsi la soluzione estrema e residuale. Si ricorre al ricovero in REMS soltanto quando sono acquisiti elementi dai quali risulta che ogni misura diversa non è idonea ad assicurare, da un lato, cure adeguate, dall’altro lato, a fronteggiare la pericolosità sociale dell’infermo...

 

Mary O'Hara
# Locked up, locked out – inadequate stats on mental health are failing prisoners. The last reliable data on prevalence of offender mental health problems is from 1998, when the prison population was about half what it is today
www.theguardian.com/ Wednesday 11 October 2017
Despite evidence of a high prevalence of mental ill health in the prison population, not only does the government not know how many of England and Wales’ 85,000-plus inmates have a mental health condition, ministers are unable to pinpoint how much is being spent on mental healthcare... Extreme overcrowding, greater use of inmates being locked in cells for 23-hour periods and increased violence taking place against a backdrop of severe staff shortages and drastic budget cuts, is having a detrimental effect on the mental health of prisoners...

 

London Assembly Healt Committee
# Offender Mental Health
www.london.gov.uk/ September 2017
Seven per cent of male prisoners have experienced a psychotic disorder within the previous year, a substantial increase over the prevalence within the general population (0.7 per cent). • 33 per cent of male and 51 per cent of female prisoners suffer from depression, while the prevalence in the general population is 9 per cent and 13 per cent respectively. • The proportionof male prisoners with a diagnosed personality disorder is 64 per cent... Prison environments in London are disastrous for mental health

 

Jane C. Daquin, Leah E. Daigle
# Mental disorder and victimisation in prison: Examining the role of mental health treatment
Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, August 2017
There is evidence that people with mental disorders are at increased risk of victimisation in prison. It is unclear whether this risk of victimisation varies across types of disorders or symptoms and what role mental health treatment has on victimisation risk in this context. Aims: To examine the relationship between specific mental disorders, psychiatric symptoms, and victimisation in prison and the effect of treatment for the disorders on victimisation risk.

 

Laura Fierro
# La riforma del ricovero in un Ospedale Psichiatrico ai sensi del § 63 StGB
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 9/2017
1. Le misure di sicurezza e miglioramento nello StGB. – 2. I principi alla base delle misure di sicurezza e miglioramento. – 3. Il giudizio di pericolosità sociale. – 4. Il “caso Mollath. – 5. La riforma del § 63 StGB e del § 64 StGB e le ragioni economico-sociali. – 6. La riforma del § 63 StGB. – 7. La riforma del § 64 StGB. – 8. La modifica del § 67 StGB e la durata delle misure di sicurezza. – 9. La modifica del § 463 StPO e la nomina di ‘esperti’. – 10. Brevi considerazioni sulla riforma del ricovero in ospedale psichiatrico nello  StGB.

 

IRES Piemonte
# Salute mentale in Piemonte 2017
www.ires.piemonte.it/ 2017
Nel corso del 2016 il sistema regionale di presa in carico dei pazienti autori di reato è andato a regime. Dal 15 novembre 2016, alla REMS San Michele si è affiancata la REMS di San Maurizio Canavese “Anton Martin” di 20 posti letto di cui due destinati a ospiti donne. Nel corso dell’anno si è dunque giunti al numero di 38 posti letto in REMS come previsto dalla normativa regionale. Come conseguenza della disponibilità dei nuovi posti letto in REMS e grazie al lavoro dei servizi territoriali, nel novembre 2016, gli ultimi pazienti piemontesi sono stati dimessi dalla REMS di Castiglione delle Stiviere.

 

Damiano Aliprandi
# Chiusi gli Opg, resta l'emergenza psichiatrica
Il Dubbio, 27 settembre 2017
Il carcere è un amplificatore dei disturbi mentali e può alimentare una sorta di circolo vizioso della sofferenza psichica: l'isolamento e la mancanza di contatto con l'esterno, insieme allo shock della detenzione, possono facilitare la comparsa o l'aggravarsi di un disagio psichico che può essere già diagnosticato o ancora latente. La patologia psichiatrica riguarda 1 detenuto su 7, l'abuso di sostanze interessa il 10-15% dei detenuti, il suicidio resta una delle prime cause di morte in carcere...

 

Pierpaolo Rivello
# La revisione del modello definitorio dell’infermità mentale prevista dalla riforma Orlando
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 22 settembre 2017
Il punto di partenza della riforma deve dunque essere rappresentato da quello che costituisce invece il punto d’arrivo dell’analisi a suo tempo condotta dalle Sezioni unite, con cui venne fatto riferimento a «una nozione più ampia di infermità rispetto a quella di malattia psichica», ed in base alla quale anche i disturbi della personalità appaiono idonei ad escludere o a scemare grandemente la capacità di intendere e di volere, in quanto detti disturbi, come in genere quelli da nevrosi e psicopatie, sebbene non riconducibili, dal punto di vista nosografico, entro il ristretto ambito delle “malattie” mentali, possono costituire delle “infermità”, magari transeunti, qualora determinino il risultato di pregiudicare, totalmente o grandemente, le capacità intellettive e volitive...

 

Antonella Massaro (ed)
# La tutela della salute nei luoghi di detenzione. Un'indagine di diritto penale intorno a carcere, REMS e CPR
RoamTre-Press, 2017

 

Stephen Allison, Tarun Bastiampillai, Doris A Fuller
# Should the Government change the Mental Health Act or fund more psychiatric beds?
www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 4 August 2017
Successive UK governments have been responsible for the rapid decline in the number of available psychiatric beds, which according to the Organisation for Economic  Co-operation and Development (OECD) has decreased from 93 public hospital-based psychiatric beds per 100 000 population in 1998 to 46 beds per 100000 population in 2014... These problems are even more evident in the USA (22 beds per 100 000 population), where prisons have replaced standalone mental hospitals as the largest institutions that house people with severe mental illness.

 

European Court of Human Rights
# Detention and mental health   # Fr
www.echr.coe.int/ Press Unit July 2017
The [European] Court [of Human Rights] has held on many occasions that the detention of a person who is ill may raise issues under Article 3 of the [European] Convention [on Human Rights, which prohibits inhuman or degrading treatment] ... and that the lack of appropriate medical care may amount to treatment contrary to that provision .. . In particular, the assessment of whether the particular conditions of detention are incompatible with the standards of Article 3 has, in the case of mentally ill persons, to take into consideration their vulnerability and their inability , in some cases, to complain  coherently or at all about how they are being affected by any particular treatment ...

 

Tala Al-Rousan, Linda Rubenstein, Bruce Sieleni, Harbans Deol, Robert B. Wallace
# Inside the nation’s largest mental health institution: a prevalence study in a state prison system
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ 17:342, 2017
The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. Methods: Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains  health records of all inmates in Iowa... The average inmate (N= 8574)

 

MOPAC Mayor of London
# Justice Matters: Mental Health and Vulnerabilities
www.london.gov.uk/ 21 July 2017
Individuals with mental health problems are heavily overrepresented as victims of: violence against the person, sexual offences and robbery... Within London young black males are over represented in admissions to psychiatric units... the number of those admitted of a black ethnicity is higher at 1.2 against the population demographic.

 

# Commissione per la riforma del sistema normativo delle misure di sicurezza personali e dell’assistenza sanitaria in ambito penitenziario, specie per le patologie di tipo psichiatrico, e per la revisione del sistema delle pene accessorie D.M. 19.7.2017 (Pres. Prof. Marco Pelissero)

 

Isabel A. Yoon, Karen Slade, Seena Fazel
# Outcomes of Psychological Therapies for Prisoners With Mental Health Problems: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2017, Vol. 85, No. 8, 783–802
Prisoners worldwide have substantial mental health needs, but the efficacy of psychological therapy in prisons is unknown. We aimed to systematically review psychological therapies with mental health outcomes in prisoners and qualitatively summarize difficulties in conducting randomized clinical trials (RCTs).... Cognitive behavioral therapy CBT and mindfulness-based therapies are modestly effective in prisoners for depression and anxiety outcomes. In prisons with existing psychological therapies, more evidence is required before additional therapies can be recommended.

 

National Audit Office NAO
# Mental health in prisons
www.nao.org.uk/ 29 June 2017
Around one in four adults are diagnosed with a mental illness during their life and many more will experience changes in their mental well-being. Most research suggests that people in prison are more likely to suffer from mental health problems than people in the community... We estimate that the total spend on healthcare in adult prisons in England in 2016-17 was circa £400 million but this includes both mental and physical healthcare.

 

Comitato Nazionale di Costruzione e Sviluppo del PDTA
# Raccomandazioni per il paziente con disturbo mentale negli Istituti Penitenziari italiani
Riv Psichiatr 2017; 52(6 Suppl 1): S1-S33
Il Documento mette a disposizione una definizione condivisa di orientamento operativo, cioè di Percorso Diagnostico Terapeutico Assistenziale (PDTA) per pazienti con problematiche psicopatologiche e disturbi mentali all’interno degli Istituti Penitenziari italiani, nel tentativo di identificare e descrivere le priorità che, almeno tendenzialmente, devono essere individuate e dovranno essere fatte proprie dai più diversi interlocutori...

 

Afis Agboola, Emmanuel Babalola, Owoidoho Udofia
# Psychopathology among Offenders in a Nigeria Prison
International Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 2017, 5(1): 10-15
There was a high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in the prison (49%). The commonest diagnosis was depressive episode 19 (32.8%), the majority of the depressed cases belonged to mild or moderate subtype. Anxiety disorder accounted for 22.4%, Schizophrenic illness was found among three (5.2%) of the studied subjects, and all were of the paranoid subtype...

 

Brian McKenna, Jeremy Skipworth, Krishna Pillai
# Mental health care and treatment in prisons: a new paradigm to support best practice
World Psychiatry 16:1 - February 2017
Yet, what is lacking is a penal paradigm that articulates the integration of therapy and custody. If a punishment paradigm is allowed to prevail, more damage is inevitable – to individual prisoners, to their family and loved ones, and to the communities from which they have come and to which they return on release...

 

Office of the Inspector General U.S. Department of Justice
# Review of the Federal Bureau of Prisons’ Use of Restrictive Housing for Inmates with Mental Illness
https://oig.justice.gov/ July 2017
BOP (Federal Bureau of Prisons) data showed that, as of 2015, only 3 percent of the BOP’s sentenced inmate population was being treated regularly for mental illness. Yet, the BOP’s FY 2016 Performance Budget Congressional Submission cited an internal BOP study, which suggested that approximately 19 percent of federal inmates had a history of mental illness. Moreover, a 2006 Bureau of Justice Statistics report concluded that 45 percent of federal inmates had symptoms or a recent history of mental illness. We found that the BOP cannot accurate ly determine the number of inmates who have mental illness because institution staff do not always document mental disorders.

 

Asiri Cuyay Nathalie Niño, Diana Carolina Díaz M, Luisa Fernanda Ramírez
# Trastorno mental en el contexto carcelario y penitenciario
Carta Comunitaria. Vol. 25. Número 143. Abril – Junio de 2017
Dentro de los trastornos mentales de mayor incidencia, estudios españoles señalan que “el 25 % de la población de presos preventivos, presenta de cuatro o cinco trastornos psiquiátricos comórbidos”, identificando en grupos específicos de reclusos una alta prevalencia de trastornos de personalidad con abuso o dependencia de alcohol y drogas, asimismo, se encuentran altos niveles de depresión mayor, trastornos de ansiedad, episodios maniacos, esquizofrenia y, en establecimientos de reclusión de mujeres, se presenta una alta incidencia de estrés postraumático. Estos trastornos tienen influencia en diversas conductas de riesgo como actos impulsivos, comportamientos disruptivos y aumento de eventos violentos entre reclusos, situaciones que se presentan de manera frecuente en dichos establecimientos.

 

National Audit Office NAO - Comptroller and Auditor General
# Mental health in prisons
www.nao.org.uk/ 29 june 2017
In March 2017, NHS England’s performance monitoring data showed that 7,917 prisoners, or 10% of the adult prison population in England, were receiving treatment for mental health problems although there might be people receiving treatment who are not included in these data. The number of prisoners with mental health or well-being problems is likely to be higher, because some people may not be receiving treatment. During prison inspections conducted by HM Inspectorate of Prisons, 37% of the prison population in England and Wales reported having emotional  well-being or mental health problems...

 

Paul Bebbington, Sharon Jakobowitz, Nigel McKenzie, Helen Killaspy, Rachel Iveson, Gary Duffield, Mark Kerr
# Assessing needs for psychiatric treatment in prisoners: 1. Prevalence of disorder
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol (2017) 52:221–229
Gender differences were less marked than might have been expected: morbidity rates were consistent across the sexes, except for PTSD and phobias, which were more than twice as frequent in women... Rates of depressive and anxiety disorders were similar in NPMS-P and the current study, though we found higher rates of PTSD in women

 

Jennifer Bronson, Marcus Berzofsky
# Indicators of Mental Health Problems Reported by Prisoners and Jail Inmates, 2011-12
Bureau of Justice Statistics, June 2017
About 1 in 7 state and federal prisoners (14%) and 1 in 4 jail inmates (26%) reported experiences that met the threshold for serious psychological distress (SPD) in the 30 days prior to a survey that was conducted between February 2011 and May 2012. Similarly, 37% of prisoners and 44% of jail inmates had been told in the past by a mental health professional that they had a mental disorder. Half of prisoners (50%) and a third of jail inmates (36%) either did not meet the threshold for SPD or had not been told they had a mental health disorder.

 

Marin County Civil Grand Jury
# Care of Mentally Ill Inmates in Marin County Jail
www.marincounty.org/ June 8, 2017
Today in the United States there are nearly 10 times as many mentally ill persons in prisons and jails as there are in mental hospitals. A particularly severe burden has been placed on California’s county jails by the closing of most of the state’s mental hospitals and changes in California laws that have resulted in an increased number of felons being sentenced to jails rather than prisons...

 

Stanford Justice Advocacy Project
# The Prevalence And Severity Of Mental Illness Among California Prisoners On The Rise
https://www-cdn.law.stanford.edu/ May 2017
Over 30 percent of California prisoners currently receive treatment for a “serious mental disorder,” an increase of 150 percent since 2000. California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) estimates that the population of prisoners with mental illness will continue to climb, increasing the need for additional psychiatric services in the years to come. Furthermore, there is evidence that CDCR’s projections underestimate the current number of prisoners with mental illness. In addition, the severity of psychiatric symptoms of state prisoners is on the rise.

 

Hot Topics National Association of Counties
# Breaking the Cycle. Counties move to divert mentally ill from jail
www.naco.org/ May 1, 2017
Mary Ann Barton, Stepping up jamming the revolving door | Maggie Hart Stebbins, Large Urban Counties Should ‘Step Up’ | Mary Ann Barton, Dutchess County, N.Y. opens 24/7 walk-in mental, substance abuse health center | Charlie Ban, Community health survey kick-starts rural mental health treatment options | Ron Manderscheid, Pilot project from NACo affiliate aims to stop incarcerations before they happen | Nastassia Walsh, What about Data? | Sally Heyman, The Federal Outlook | Charlie Ban, The Doctor Is In: The role of psychiatrists in the Stepping Up Initiative

 

Margaret Heslin, Lynne Callaghan, Barbara Barrett, Susan Lea, Susan Eick, John Morgan, Mark Bolt, Graham Thornicroft, Diana Rose, Andrew Healey, Anita Patel
# Costs of the police service and mental healthcare pathways experienced by individuals with enduring mental health needs
http://bjp.rcpsych.org/ The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2017, 210:157-164
In the UK, the importance of investment in the interface between National Health Service (NHS) mental health services and the criminal justice system has been highlighted, and research has identified substantial gaps between the sectors for individuals with enduring moderate to severe mental health needs. Mental health disorders are costly to society, with estimates of healthcare costs in England at around £22.5 billion per year,5 exclusive of indirect costs such as costs to the criminal justice system. In light of recommendations from key policy documents in recent years, this study aimed to map current care pathways between mental health services and the police, to estimate the costs to each sector and to explore, by decision modelling, the potential cost impacts of implementing enhanced care pathways based on key policy recommendations in recent years.

 

Fredrick E. Vars, Shelby B. Calambokidis
# From Hospitals to Prisons: A New Explanation
Cornell Law Review Online, vol 102:101, 2017

Prisons today are as atrocious for people with mental illness as mental hospitals used to be. And the remedies sought by plaintiffs in prison reform litigation could be quite expensive for the state. Alternative treatment in the community may finally be seen as the more attractive option. It will be too late for Jamie, but if our theory is correct and if prison litigation succeeds more broadly, we may incline toward a second deinstitutionalization — this time from prison rather  than mental hospitals.  

 

Francesco Schiaffo
# Psicopatologia della legislazione per il superamento degli OPG: un raccapricciante acting out cella c.d. "riforma Orlando"
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 21 giugno 2017
1. Giustizia penale e stato sociale: oltre le funzioni della pena. – 2. Le sanzioni penali tra funzioni manifeste e funzioni latenti. – 3. Il fondamento giuridico di una distorsione funzionale: la pericolosità sociale. – 4. I criteri normativi della pericolosità sociale tra teoria e prassi. – 5. I rilievi del Comitato Europeo per la Prevenzione della Tortura dopo la visita nell’OPG di Aversa (2008). – 6. La pericolosità sociale tra aspirazioni scientifiche e funzioni politiche. – 7. Una probatio diabolica nel terzo millennio: la “pericolosità latente”. – 8. Pericolosità sociale ed evoluzioni legislative, politiche e sociali. – 9. La via maestra: la sentenza della Corte costituzionale n.253/2003. – 10. L’emersione legislativa delle strategie per il superamento degli OPG: il d.P.C.M. del 2008. – 11. La legge n.9/2012: l’art.3-ter del d.l. n.211/2011. – 12. Il testo definitivo dell’art.3-ter dopo sei riforme in due anni. – 13. La legge n.81/2014: l’abrogazione tacita del fondamento giuridico della distorsione funzionale. – 14. Gli esiti della riforma 14 anni dopo la sentenza della Corte costituzionale n.253/2003. – 15. Il raccapricciante acting out di un legislatore schizofrenico: l’art.1 co.16 lett. d) della c.d. “riforma Orlando”.

 

Marie Barbier
# Marseille. Les malades mentaux hors des prisons
hwww.humanite.fr/ 9 Mai, 2017
L’association Médecins du monde a signé un protocole d’engagement avec cinq ministères pour « offrir une alternative à l’incarcération des personnes souffrant de troubles psychiatriques sévères par le logement et le suivi intensif ». Les chiffres, bien que très mal connus, sont sidérants : selon un rapport de 2014, entre 20 et 30 % des détenus souffrent de troubles psychologiques dans les prisons françaises (schizophrénie, maniaco-dépression, paranoïa, troubles bipolaires, etc.)...

 

Seena Fazel
# Response to “The Use of Meta-Analysis to Compare and Select Offender Risk Instruments”
Int J Forensic Ment Health. 2017 ; 16(1): 16–17
We found potential conflict of interests common in the risk assessment literature and little transparency in whether they were declared despite journal policies. In fact, none of the 25 studies where a tool designer or translator was one of the authors of a validity study disclosed a financial or non-financial conflict interest, despite many of the journals in which these studies appeared explicitly requesting such information. We note that the current piece states, “We have never advocated that assessors predict that an offender will or will not recidivate.”

 

K. M. Babchishin, M. C. Seto, A. Sariaslan, P. Lichtenstein, S. Fazel, N. Långström
# Parental and perinatal risk factors for sexual offending in men: a nationwide case-control study
Psychological Medicine (2017), 47, 305–315
Sexual offending is a serious societal and public health problem. Attempts at preventing sexual offending will be most effective when based on a robust aetiological understanding. Studies suggest that parental and perinatal factors are causally related with later criminal behaviour. For example, younger maternal age, lower maternal education, paternal age, greater number of siblings, and parental illness are associated with greater likelihood of offspring criminality 

 

Sean Kim, Gayoung Lee, Eric Kim, Hyejin Jung, Jongwha Chang
# Quetiapine Misuse and Abuse: Is it an Atypical Paradigm of Drug Seeking Behavior?
J Res Pharm Pract. 2017 Jan-Mar; 6(1): 12–15.
Numerous early reports and case studies focused on illicit use in incarcerated populations, which are at high risk of quetiapine MUA.[11,12,13] In most cases, MUA of AAs are shown to be associated with forensic settings such as incarceration, court-ordered hospitalization, or other oversight by the legal system. Numerous case reports and several systematic studies have shown that quetiapine MUA is not confined to penal populations; it also occurs in other settings such as psychiatric inpatients, outpatients, and patients attending drug treatment clinics... 

 

Ignazio Marino
# Matti da slegare
L'Espresso, 23 aprile 2017
Nelle nuove Rems non andranno solo coloro ai quali è stata accertata l'infermità mentale al momento del reato, ma anche tutti coloro per i quali l'infermità di mente sia sopravvenuta in carcere, e anche i detenuti per i quali occorra accertare le condizioni psichiche, qualora il carcere non sia idoneo a garantire i trattamenti terapeutico-riabilitativi. Esattamente ciò che si voleva evitare. Ma con questo decreto legge si ritorna di fatto alla vecchia logica in cui tutti i rei con problemi di disturbi mentali finiranno nelle Rems, che diventeranno rapidamente sovraffollate e ingestibili. Ovvero si ritornerà ai  vecchi Opg.

 

Cate Graziani, Liat Ben-Moshe, Haile Eshe Cole
# Beyond Alternatives to Incarceration and Confinement
https://grassrootsleadership.org/ April 2017
The deinstitutionalization of mental health facilities in recent decades can be  perceived as the most successful alternative to incarceration ever attempted in  the U.S. on a mass scale... This pervasive narrative of the backlash of deinstitutionalization reduces a much  more complex process and puts the blame on an easy target, deinstitutionalization,  and away from discussions of neoliberal policies that led simultaneously to the  growth of the prison system and to the lack of financial support for people with disabilities to live in the community...

 

Liat Ben-Moshe
# Why Prisons Are Not “The New Asylums”
Punishment and Society 19 (3) 2017
“The new asylums” thesis posits that 'deinstitutionalization → homelessness → imprisonment.' I hope this paper has demonstrated that people did not become homeless because of deinstitutionalization, or because they needed to be in institutions. People are unsheltered because of economic inequalities that left them unhoused, including the shrinkage of the safety net, cuts in public services, erosion in living wages and policies that made affordable and accessible housing out of reach, especially for those already marginalized. Blaming deinstitutionalization diverts attention from these structural violence. In addition it makes it appear as if hospitalization and institutionalization were a panacea but disability based institutions and psychiatric hospitals should not be residential placements or alternatives to housing.

 

# Mark Townsend, Denis Campbell, Prison psychiatrists warn care is ‘at breaking point’. Shortage of officers means basic mental health provision is under threat -- www.theguardian.com/ Saturday 11 March 2017
# Denis Campbell, Prisoners with serious mental health problems face urgent treatment delays. Almost three-quarters of prisoners in England faced delays being transferred to a mental health unit, according to official Department of Health figures -- www.theguardian.com/ Wednesday 1 March 2017

 

Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura
# Disposizioni urgenti in materia di superamento degli Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari (OPG) e di istituzione delle Residenze per l'esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza (Rems) - Seduta del 19 aprile 2017

Pietro Pellegrini : commento (22 aprile 2017)

 

Radicali Italiani
# Riforma della procedura di applicazione del Trattamento Sanitario Obbligatorio (Proposta di modifica della L. 23.12.1978 n° 833 – artt. 33 - 34 - 35) - Relazione illustrativa
www.radicali.it/ aprile 2017
A 39 anni dalla pubblicazione della legge 180/78, cosiddetta “Legge Basaglia”, confluita con gli articoli 33, 34, e 35 nella L. 23.12.1978 (Istitutiva del Servizio Sanitario Nazionale), l’Istituto del Trattamento Sanitario Obbligatorio (da adesso anche solo TSO), appare oggi meritevole di un riesame, non più rinviabile...

 

Gloria Bertotti
# Riflessioni e analisi in tema di tutela della salute mentale in carcere: la sentenza Murray c. Olanda
Giurisprudenza Penale Web, 2017, 3
1. Premessa. – 2. Il caso Murray c. Olanda. – 3. I fatti. – 4. La decisione della Gran Camera. – 5. Riflessioni sulla tutela e sulle condizioni di salute mentale in carcere. – 5.1. Fonti normative in merito al diritto alla salute. – 5.2. La salute mentale nelle carceri italiane – 6. Conclusioni.

# ECHR, Case of Murray v. Netherlands, Strasbourg, 26 April 2016

 

Michael Ollove
# Getting the Mentally Ill Out of Jails
www.pewtrusts.org/ April 07, 2017
The Treatment Advocacy Center (TAC), a nonprofit advocating on behalf of those with severe mental illness, estimates that in 2016, nearly 400,000 inmates in U.S. jails and prisons had a mental illness. Jails, in the minds of many in law enforcement and mental health advocates, have become modern-day asylums.... Crisis intervention teams, the most widespread model to divert mentally ill offenders, began in 1989 in Memphis. Selected police officers receive up to 40 hours of training in mental illness and ways to de-escalate crises involving those exhibiting signs of mental disorder. Instead of arresting people who commit low-level crimes — such as disorderly conduct, public urination or trespassing — and taking them to jail, officers can take them to community mental health facilities.

 

Fabrizio Starace
# Psichiatria ko in mezza Italia. Siep: «Dsm sotto organico e assistenza diseguale»
www.sanita24.ilsole24ore.com/ 28 febbraio 2017
Il quadro che emerge dall’analisi dei dati sulla dotazione di personale dei Dipartimenti di Salute mentale italiani presenta tinte fosche in almeno la metà del Paese, e anche nelle Regioni che in media offrono condizioni più rassicuranti vi è motivo di supporre una elevata variabilità intra-regionale. Ve ne è abbastanza perché di Salute mentale e delle effettive condizioni del sistema di cura si riprenda a discutere e a programmare, sulla base di informazioni precise e attendibili.

 

Franco Corleone
# Seconda Relazione Semestrale sulle attività svolte dal Commissario unico per il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
19 agosto 2016 – 19 febbraio 2017

 

# Gemma Brandi, Pubblica smentita a proposito di chiusura degli Opg e dintorni, Eistretti Orizzonti, 26 febbraio 2017

# Mario Iannucci, Uomini e carceri, OPG e REMS, Ristretti Orizzonti 24 febbraio 2017
# Gianfranco Rivellini, Rems. Il diritto alla cura non può sottostare ai tempi e all’esito del processo penale, Quotidianosanità.it, 17 febbraio 2017

# Superamento Opg. De Biasi: “Le Rems siano vere strutture di riabilitazione e non di contenzione”, Quotidianosanità.it, 16 febbraio 2017

# Pieritalo Pompili, Giuseppe Nicolò, Stefano Ferracuti, Dagli Opg alle Rems. Ma i medici non possono fare i poliziotti, Quotidianosanità.it, 2 novembre 2016

 

Rita Bernardini e Massimo Lensi
# I "folli-rei" che vagano tra le Rems e le carceri
Il Dubbio, 22 febbraio 2017
La recente storia del superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari rischia di diventare il paradigma di quelle cure che lungi dal risolvere il malanno ne favoriscono la metastasi. Pensata per lasciarsi definitivamente alle spalle strutture troppo spesso simili a discariche medioevali per i folli- rei, la legge 81/ 2014 vede svanire, già nella sua applicazione, il lavoro di riforma che l'ha guidata e il profilarsi del quanto mai concreto rischio di partorire tanti mini- Opg all'interno degli istituti penitenziari.

 

Michele Passione
# La chiusura degli Opg è costituzionale
il Manifesto, 8 febbraio 2017
# Corte Costituzionale, sentenza n. 22/2017

La norma impugnata è diretta a evitare i cosiddetti ergastoli bianchi, cui può dar luogo la permanenza a tempo indeterminato in strutture detentive per l’esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza, e pone così fine a situazioni in cui per  l’infermità mentale, anche nel caso di commissione di reati di modesta gravità, persone senza supporti familiari o sociali rimanevano perennemente private della loro libertà in un contesto di natura penale...

 

F. Starace, F. Baccari, F. Mungai (a cura di) - SIEP
# La salute mentale in Italia. Analisi delle strutture e delle attività dei Dipartimenti di Salute Mentale
Quaderni di Epidemoilogia Psichiatrica, n. 1, 2017
L’utenza trattata dai servizi di Salute Mentale nell’anno 2015 è stata di 777.035 soggetti, con un tasso pari a 1.593,8 / 100.000 ab.), mentre l’utenza al primo contatto è stata di 369.569 soggetti, pari al 47,6% dei trattati e a 728,9 / 100.000 ab.). Sono stati trattati 150.287 soggetti (308,3 / 100.000 ab.) con diagnosi di «Schizofrenia altre psicosi funzionali», di cui 30.932 al primo contatto (61,0 / 100.000 ab.). Le prestazioni erogate sono risultate pari a 10.199.531 (13,5 per utente)...

 

Giulio Magliano
# La “ludopatia” può, a determinate condizioni, integrare l’ipotesi del vizio di mente: una breve analisi alla luce di una recente sentenza
www.giurisprudenzapenale.com/ n. 1, 2017

1. Premessa; 2. In principio era l’infirmitas, il dibattito sul vizio di mente; 3. La soluzione delle Sezioni Unite “Raso”; 4. La “ludopatia”: qualificazione tecnica e giurisprudenziale; 5. La pronuncia del 13 ottobre e la causalità negata.

 

Doris A. Fuller, Elizabeth Sinclair, H. Richard Lamb, Judge James D. Cayce, John Snook
# Emptying the ‘New Asylums’. A Beds Capacity Model to Reduce Mental Illness Behind Bars
www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ January 2017
Historically, state hospitals were called “asylums” because they were associated with longterm care and protection. Incarcerating pretrial and convicted criminal offenders with serious mental illness is so common today that jails and prisons are routinely called the “new asylums.” They are anything but protective. Behind bars, inmates with mental illness are at heightened risk for victimization, including assault and sexual abuse. They are also more likely to attempt or complete suicide, which is the leading cause of death in US jails. And the number of inmates with mental illness is  growing, particularly among those awaiting IST (incompetent to stand trial) services...

 

Sergio Mauceri (a cura di) | A buon diritto
# “Contenere” la contenzione meccanica in Italia Primo rapporto sui diritti negati dalla pratica di legare coercitivamente i pazienti psichiatrici nei SPDC  # integrale...
A Buon Diritto, Associazione per le libertà, Gennaio 2017
La presente indagine si concentra specificatamente sugli usi della contenzione meccanica nei Spdc, per quanto sia da precisare che i Spdc non sono gli unici luoghi nei quali si lega: i servizi di neuropsichiatria infantile, le residenze sanitarie assistenziali (Rsa), i reparti di medicina e quelli geriatrici, i pronto soccorso, le Rems, le case di cura private e le comunità terapeutiche, sono tutte strutture all’interno delle quali talvolta (più o meno frequentemente, a seconda della cultura e delle pratiche degli operatori) i pazienti vengono contenuti con vari mezzi...

# Legge Basaglia. Dopo 40 anni un report per "contenere" la contenzione, 180gradi.org, 13 aprile 2017

 

Giacomo Galeazzi, Raphaël Zanotti
# Abusa di psicofarmaci un detenuto su due: "dipendenza nascosta"
La Stampa, 23 gennaio 2017
In un'indagine dell'Agenzia regionale della sanità Toscana che ha coinvolto 57 strutture detentive (il 30% di quelle italiane), cinque regioni (Toscana, Lazio, Umbria, Veneto, Liguria) e Asl di Salerno, per un totale di 15.751 detenuti, spicca un dato: il 46% dei farmaci prescritti sono psicofarmaci. La quasi totalità di questi (95,2%) appartiene al gruppo di molecole che agisce sul sistema nervoso, con gli ansiolitici (37,8% del totale) a fare la parte del leone...

 

Alejandro Calvo Schwarzwälder
# Mental Disorder and Crime
https://crimeandlawblog.com/ 18-19 enero, 2017
Prison inmates have high rates of mental disorders compared with the general population. While this may imply a causal relationship between mental disorder and crime, disparate research results do not allow for such a conclusion to be drawn. However, mental disorders are intertwined with several risk factors for criminal activity, such as poverty, unemployment, lack of social support and substance abuse... Treatment alone cannot be expected to reduce recidivism and criminality. The most effective rehabilitative programmes in terms of improving criminal justice outcomes are those which address the whole social context of the offenders as well as their clinical symptoms.

 

Camille Lancelevée
# Incarcérer pour soigner : quand la prison devient hospitalière
www.cairn.info/ Regards 2017/1 (N° 51), p. 245-255
La question de la prise en charge des infracteurs présentant des troubles mentaux a suscité d’incessants débats depuis la création de la prison et de l’hôpital modernes. Ces débats tiennent à la difficulté de distinguer de manière claire et définitive ce qui relève de la pathologie mentale de ce qui relève de la déviance sociale. L’augmentation du nombre de personnes présentant des troubles mentaux et la mise en place de services psychiatriques en prison témoignent du déplacement du centre de gravité de la prise en charge de ce public à la croisée du soin et de la folie vers la prison. Ce rééquilibrage institutionnel soulève, en milieu carcéral, des enjeux cruciaux pour les professionnels de santé mais également pour les professionnels pénitentiaires.

 

# Camille Lancelevee, Quand la prison prend soin : Enquete sur les pratiques professionnelles de santé mentale en milieu carcéral en France et en Allemagne Thèse pour l’obtention du grade de Docteure de l’EHESS présentée et soutenue publiquement le 25 octobre 2016 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales 

 

Pietro Pellegrini
# Sull’imminente chiusura degli O.P.G. e sull’istituzione delle R.E.M.S. Una lettera al Direttore
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 16 gennaio 2017
L'OPG è sostituito non dalle REMS ma dall'insieme dei servizi sociali e sanitari del territorio dei quali è parte il dipartimento di salute mentale (DSM) e al suo interno la REMS. Se questo non diviene lo scenario di riferimento vi è il rischio di vedere le REMS modo riduttivo e distorto, e il tentativo di applicare ad esse le stesse norme dell'OPG finirà per trasformarle in "miniOPG" annullando il senso profondo della riforma che invece richiede un nuovo approccio e ruoli diversi a tutti i soggetti. In questo percorso concetti quali cura, sicurezza, libertà, responsabilità ecc. vanno rivisiti in modo articolato e innovativo secondo il modello psichiatrico (che è organizzato con una molteplicità di strutture a  diverso livello di protezione e intensità di cura, assai poco noto agli operatori del diritto) e non secondo il superato modello custodiale-carcerario.

 

Ministero della Salute | Miriam Di Cesare, Teresa Di Fiandra, Lidia Di Minco, Liliana La Sala, Natalia Magliocchetti, Giulia Masiero, Davide Orlandi, Morgan Romanelli, Elisabetta Santori
# Rapporto salute mentale. Analisi dei dati del Sistema Informativo per la Salute Mentale (SISM) - Anno 2015
www.salute.gov.it/ Dicembre 2016

Gli utenti psichiatrici assistiti dai servizi specialistici nel corso del 2015 ammontano a 777.035 unità (mancano i dati della Valle d‟Aosta, della P.A. di Bolzano e della Sardegna), con tassi standardizzati che vanno dal 107,73 per 10.000 abitanti adulti in Basilicata fino a 205,82 nella regione Emilia Romagna. Nel 2015 i pazienti che sono entrati in contatto per la prima volta durante l‟anno con i Dipartimenti di Salute Mentale ammontano a 369.569 unità di cui il 90,3% ha avuto un contatto con i servizi per la prima volta nella vita (first ever pari a 333.554 unità)... la più alta concentrazione si ha nelle classi 35-44 anni e 45-54 anni... # Sintesi

 

Gianluigi Gatta
# O.P.G. e R.E.M.S.: a che punto siamo? Le relazioni del Commissario unico per il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari, Franco Corleone | Corleone 1 -- Corleone 2
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 27 dicembre 2016

Il dato più allarmante, segnalato dal Commissario unico, è quello relativo all’incidenza delle misure di sicurezza provvisorie sul numero complessivo dei pazienti assegnati alle R.E.M.S., pari al 40%. La relazione trimestrale segnala in particolare come a fine ottobre 2016 risultavano in attesa di essere eseguite 241 misure di sicurezza, gran parte delle quali (176) provvisorie: misure queste non eseguibili per mancanza di posti disponibili, con incidenza del fenomeno riferibile in particolare ad alcune regioni (ad es., la Sicilia). Proprio il ricorso all’applicazione provvisoria delle misure di sicurezza del ricovero in O.P.G. e in C.C.C. rappresenterebbe, secondo il Commissario Corleone, un fattore capace, numeri alla mano, di portare al collasso il neo istituito sistema delle R.E.M.S...

 

Prodromou M, Koukia E.
# Differences in Psychopathology among Patients with Dual Diagnosis Receiving Treatment in Mental Health Services and Substance use Treatment Programs
Dual Diagn Open Acc. 2016, 1:1.
Participants of this study demonstrated high rates of hospitalizations, outpatient visits for psychological problems and prison time, with mental health service patients presenting higher means in these characteristics. Outpatient visits were  almost more than three times higher and prison time was  about twice as high in the case of mental health patients. There  are numerous studies showing that the use of health services,  frequency of hospitalizations, and conviction rates and  imprisonment rates are generally higher in patients with dual  diagnosis.

 

Cristiano Cupelli
# Dagli OPG alle REMS: un ritorno alla medicina custodiale?
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 23 dicembre 2016
Il superamento degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari e il passaggio alle nuove strutture regionali per l’esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza detentive (le c.d. REMS), pur segnando un significativo passo in avanti nel faticoso processo di abbandono dell’intollerabile logica manicomiale, hanno evidenziato alcuni profili di criticità. Tra i più rilevanti si segnalano quelli riguardanti il peculiare ruolo attribuito, all’interno delle nuove strutture, agli operatori psichiatrici, chiamati principalmente a compiti di organizzazione e gestione della sicurezza interna, anziché di cura e protezione dei pazienti internati. Ciò, inevitabilmente, si ripercuote sui prioritari compiti terapeutici della classe medica e amplia il perimetro applicativo della responsabilità penale dello psichiatra.

 

Luciano Vella
# Tra infermità mentale e pericolosità sociale: tecniche di controllo penale
Università degli Studi di Pisa, 2016

 

Avshalom Caspi, Renate M. Houts, Daniel W. Belsky, Honalee Harrington, Sean Hogan, Sandhya Ramrakha, Richie Poulton, Terrie E. Moffitt
# Childhood forecasting of a small segment of the population with large economic burden
www.nature.com/ nature human behaviour, 12 december 2016
Policymakers are interested in early-years interventions to ameliorate childhood risks. They hope for improved adult outcomes in the long run that bring a return on investment. The size of the return that can be expected partly depends on how strongly childhood risks forecast adult outcomes, but there is disagreement about whether childhood determines adulthood. We integrated multiple nationwide administrative databases and electronic medical records with the four-decade-long Dunedin birth cohort study to test child-to-adult prediction in a different way, using a population-segmentation approach. A segment comprising 22% of the cohort accounted for 36% of the cohort’s injury insurance claims; 40% of excess obese kilograms; 54% of cigarettes smoked; 57% of hospital nights; 66% of welfare benefits; 77% of fatherless child-rearing; 78% of prescription fills; and 81% of criminal convictions. Childhood risks, including poor brain health at three years of age, predicted this segment with large effect sizes. Early-years interventions that are effective for this population segment could yield very large returns on investment.

 

Ministero della Salute | a cura di Miriam Di Cesare, Teresa Di Fiandra, Lidia Di Minco, Liliana La Sala, Natalia Magliocchetti, Giulia Masiero, Davide Orlandi, Morgan Romanelli, Elisabetta Santori
# Rapporto salute mentale. Analisi dei dati del Sistema Informativo per la Salute Mentale (SISM) - Anno 2015
www.salute.gov.it/ Dicembre 2016

Gli utenti psichiatrici in cura presso strutture residenziali, nell'anno di osservazione 2015 sono pari a 29.733 unità, con tassi che vanno da 0,4 per 10.000 abitanti nella regione Calabria a 14,3 della regione Emilia Romagna. I pazienti con  diagnosi di schizofrenia e altre psicosi funzionali (14.836 unità) rappresentano la metà dell‟utenza delle strutture residenziali (49,9%); con riferimento all‟età si tratta di utenti appartenenti soprattutto alle fasce di età 45-64 anni. Il tasso relativo a tale diagnosi è pari a 2,9 per 10.000 abitanti (3,9 per 10.000 abitanti nei maschi, 2,1 per 10.000 abitanti nelle femmine)...

 

State of Washington Office of Financial Management
# Jail Diversion for People with Mental Illness in Washington State
www.ofm.wa.gov/ November 21, 2016
Recent Washington study showed that, among people entering jail who were enrolled in Medicaid or recently had been, 55 percent had a psychotic disorder a nd/or a mental health diagnosis such as depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder; this compares to just 34 percent of the general adult Medicaid population... Clearly, diverting more of these individuals from jail to community-based mental health treatment could aid them in living in the community, rather than returning repeatedly to jail. Diversion has the potential to cut crimina l justice system costs, reduce recidivism, and provide more effective mental health treatment for offenders. It also would represent a more humane response to individuals in jail who have a mental health disorder...

 

Doris A. Fuller, Elizabeth Sinclair, John Snook
# Released, Relapsed, Rehospitalized
www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ November 2016
Rehospitalization is viewed clinically as a “poor outcome.” Psychiatric patients who are rehospitalized experience reduced continuity of care and quality of life compared with those who are not. Their caretakers are often demoralized. Rehospitalization is also costly, and rehospitalization for serious mental illness is especially costly. Schizophrenia and mood disorders, including bipolar, account for more readmissions of Medicaid patients than any other medical conditions. Schizophrenia hospitalization alone cost $11.5 billion in 2013, of which $646 million resulted from readmission within 30 days of discharge.

 

Franco Corleone
# Seconda relazione trimestrale sull’attività svolta dal Commissario unico per il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
19 agosto 2016 – 19 novembre 2016
La chiusura del manicomio criminale, degli Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari, rappresenta davvero una rivoluzione culturale e sociale che si ricollega alla fine del manicomio civile iniziata con la legge 180 attribuita, nell’ispirazione, a Franco Basaglia. Personalmente ho l’orgoglio di partecipare alla realizzazione di un obiettivo che rende l’Italia un modello unico in Europa e nel mondo. Sono ben consapevole che questo passaggio si svolge su un terreno ricco di contraddizioni, dal momento che la legge 81 non ha eliminato alla radice il nefasto doppio binario del Codice Rocco...

 

Michele Passione
# Rems, misure di sicurezza e libertà
Rubrica di Fuoriluogo su il Manifesto del 9 novembre 2016

Formalmente, sono passati 19 mesi dalla prevista chiusura degli Opg, ma tanti problemi restano ancora sul tavolo. Dopo l’entrata in vigore di una Legge di assoluta civiltà giuridica, che ha già superato con successo un ricorso davanti alla Corte Costituzionale, continua incessante la limitazione della libertà personale di autori di reato (anche per fatti bagatellari) affetti da disturbi psichici, malgrado la legge 81 del 2014 preveda la presa in carico territoriale quale risposta primaria, ed il ricorso alle misure di sicurezza in REMS quale extrema ratio.

 

Pietro Pellegrini
# La chiusura degli OPG è vicina, quella delle REMS?
www.stopOPG.it/ 3 novembre 2016

Va assolutamente evitato che le REMS diventino sede di “scarico” delle povertà, dei migranti e senza fissa dimora ma anche una soluzione per i casi psichiatrici difficili da trattare (pazienti con disturbi resistenti, disturbi antisociali) nei servizi territoriali.

 

M López, FJ Saavedra, A López, M Laviana
# Prevalence of Mental Health problems in sentenced men in prisons from Andalucía (Spain)
82.6% of the sample had a history of having suffered some type of mental health problem throughout their life (prevalence-life) and 25.8 have suffered from them in the past month (month prevalence). The most common disorders of the Axis I (DSM-IV) are related to abuse of and dependence on psychoactive substances (prevalence life of 65.9% and month prevalence of 6.6%), with an important but less frequent presence of affective (31.4%-9.3%), anxiety (30.9%-10, 4%) and psychotic disorders (9.5%-3, 4%). As regards personality disorders, the estimated probable prevalence lies between the 56.6% (“5” cut-off point) and the 79.9 (“4” cut-off point).

 

Zheng Chang, Paul Lichtenstein, Niklas Långström, Henrik Larsson, Seena Fazel
# Association Between Prescription of Major Psychotropic Medications and Violent Reoffending After Prison Release
JAMA November 1, 2016 Volume 316, Number 17
Among released prisoners in Sweden, rates of violent reoffending were lower during periods when individiduals were dispensed antipsychotics, psychostimulants, and drugs for addictive disorders, compared with periods in which they were not dispensed these medications. Further research is needed to understand the causal nature of this association.

 

Caroline Guibet Lafaye, Camille Lancelevée, Caroline Protais
# L’irresponsabilité pénale au prisme des représentations sociales de la folie et de la responsabilité des personnes souffrant de troubles mentaux
www.gip-recherche-justice.fr/ Mission de recherche Droit et Justice – Octobre 2016

La présente recherche met en évidence une ligne de fracture récurrente entre, d’une part, ceux qui voudraient revenir à une interprétation maximaliste du principe d’irresponsabilité, c’est-à-dire un élargissement de son champ d’application, et d’autre part, ceux qui promeuvent au contraire une interprétation limitative voire la suppression de ce principe. La seconde option semble s’affirmer avec force, dans une logique de défense sociale, c’est-à-dire avec l’ambition de mieux protéger la société tout en proposant un accompagnement ajusté aux personnes vues comme « dangereuses »...

 

Federación de Servicios a la Ciudadanía de CCOO
# Informe sobre la situacion actual de Institutiones Penitenciarias: Analisis desde la perspectiva sindical de CCOO
www.fsc.ccoo.es/ Octubre 2016
Las prisiones se han ido convirtiendo en los manicomios de la sociedad actual, lo que subvierte, por un lado, la naturaleza y la finalidad de las mismas, y por otro, impide una respuesta de salud para estas personas enfermas... La carencia de recursos psiquiátricos, tanto en el ámbito penitenciario como con el cierre de los hospitales  psiquiátricos, sin dar alternativas a las personas con enfermedad mental necesitados de ese tipo de recursos,  han convertido a las prisiones en auténticos manicomios sin que se hayan producido las modificaciones  organizativas, funcionales y de recursos que esta nueva realidad demanda. 

 

Marta Bertolino
# Il “crimine” della pericolosità sociale: riflessioni da una riforma in corso
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 24 ottobre 2016
Il saggio svolge alcune riflessioni che portano a dubitare della affidabilità scientifica della nozione di pericolosità sociale e che rilevano come essa sia in realtà strumentale alla costruzione di tipologie legali d’autore alle quali riservare un trattamento sanzionatorio differenziato, quanto a severità e a modalità... Emergono indicazioni per l’abbandono della pericolosità sociale, quale criterio guida per la scelta del trattamento, a favore del bisogno di cura e di trattamento; per il superamento del sistema del doppio binario a favore di un sistema monistico, caratterizzato da un ampio spettro di possibili risposte sanzionatorie dai contenuti terapeutico-riabilitativi...

 

AdnKronos
# 3 detenuti su 4 con disturbi mentali, al via progetto ad hoc. Per un nuovo Percorso diagnostico terapeutico assistenziale (Pdta)
www.adnKronos.it/ 5 ottobre 2016
Un amplificatore dei disturbi mentali. Il carcere può alimentare una sorta di circolo vizioso della sofferenza psichica: l'isolamento e la mancanza di contatto con l’esterno, insieme allo shock della detenzione, possono facilitare la comparsa o l’aggravarsi di un disagio psichico che può essere già diagnosticato o ancora latente. I numeri sono allarmanti: più di 42 mila detenuti italiani - il 77% degli oltre 54 mila totali - convivono con un disturbo mentale: dai disturbi della personalità alla depressione, fino alla psicosi.

 

Treatment Advocacy Center
# Psychiatric Bed Supply Need Per Capita
www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ September 2016
By early 2016, the state hospital bed population had dropped more than 96%, to 37,679 beds, or 11.7 beds per 100,000 people. Of these, nearly half were occupied by criminal offenders with serious mental illness; barely six beds per 100,000 people remained for individuals with acute or chronic psychiatric disease who had not committed crimes.

 

Rachel Edworthy, Stephanie Sampson, Birgit Völlm
# Inpatient forensic-psychiatric care: Legal frameworks and service provision in three European countries
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 47, 2016
Laws governing the detention and treatment of mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) vary widely across Europe, yet little information is available about the features of these laws and their comparative advantages and disadvantages. The purpose of this article is to compare the legal framework governing detention in forensic psychiatric care in three European countries with long-established services for MDOs, England, Germany and the Netherlands...

 

Arthur Robinson Williams
# Opportunities in Reform: Bioethics and Mental Health Ethics
Bioethics, 2016 May, 30(4): 221–226
The burden of mental illness is even greater at the margins of society. The US Department of Justice estimates that over half of prisoners have a serious mental illness and researchers find that the great majority of the chronically homeless have untreated mental illness including substance dependence. Yet we are witnessing the widespread closure of mental health clinics, psychiatric wards, and state hospital beds at academic centers and their affiliate institutions nationwide following decades of shrinking budget allocations for mental health. In response, Bioethics has largely been silent...

 

Patricia Constantino, Simone Gonçalves de Assis, Liana Wernersbach Pinto
# The impact of prisons on the mental health of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
www.scielo.br/ Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 21(7):2089-2099, 2016
Brazil has the second highest prison population in in the Americas after the United States. According to the Superintendency of Human Resources of the Department of Prison Administration of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the state’s prison population was 38,762 inmates (95.4% male) in September 2014. Estimates of prevalence of severe mental illness among prisoners range between 10 and 15%, compared to 2% in the general population. Over half of inmates in the United States have mental health problems: 56% of state prisoners, 45% of federal prisoners, and 64% of inmates in local jails

 

Mansfield Mela, Gu Depiang
# Clozapine’s Effect on Recidivism Among Offenders with Mental Disorders
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 44:82–90, 2016
Among those with mental illness, the severity of mental disorder and its manifestations, substance use, and the threat– control override symptoms of psychosis increase the likelihood of criminal reoffending. Nonadherence to medications and substance use signaled a higher risk for violent behavior in a study involving 331 subjects with major mental illness. Attempts to disrupt the link between mental disorder and criminal activity have produced various models of treatment of those with mental illness, especially among resistant patients or those who are difficult to treat..

 

Jillian Peterson, Kevin Heinz
# Understanding Offenders with Serious Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System
Mitchell Hamline Law Review, vol 42, issue 2, 2016
Individuals with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression are overrepresented in the criminal justice system. This overrepresentation has become a growing concern nationally among mental health workers, corrections departments, lawyers, public policy makers, and human rights advocates. Although estimates vary widely, approximately 14 to 16% of people in the criminal justice system have a serious or persistent mental illness. This translates to over one million people.

 

Lenore E.A. Walker, James M. Pann, David L. Shapiro, Vincent B. Van Hasselt
# Best Practices for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System
ia800202.us.archive.org/ Springer 2016
It is clear that the challenges presented by the mentally ill involved with the judicial system suggest policies are in need of revision as indicated by a recent Department of Justice report illustrating that over 50 % of people in jails and prisons across the nation have been treated for a mental illness and/or substance abuse problem at some point prior to their being detained. It is estimated that at any time, approximately 20 % of all inmates will have a diagnosable mental illness that needs treatment during the time they are held in jail or prison. If the numbers of substance abusers are added to this group, the need for services would be greater than the ability to effectively provide them... 

 

StopOPG
# Rafforzare i programmi di tutela della salute in carcere. Completare la chiusura degli OPG, non stravolgere la funzione delle Rems
www.stopopg.it/ 20 settembre 2016

 

Franco Vatrini
# Opg e "nuove" Rems
quotidianosanita.it, 10 settembre 2016

 

Daniele Piccione
# REMS. Per superare l’infelice emendamento: antidoti per il legislatore
www.news-forumsalutementale.it/ 30 agosto 2016

 

Franco Corleone
# Relazione semestrale sull’attività svolta dal Commissario unico per il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
www.stopopg.it/ 19 febbraio - 19 agosto
Le basi concettuali e pratiche di un modello come le REMS, perché evitino il rischio di diventare “mini – OPG”, sono la territorialità e il numero chiuso, il rifiuto della coercizione, in particolare la contenzione, e la consapevolezza che la permanenza nella struttura ha un tempo definito. Occorre saper vivere la dimensione del rischio. La libertà comporta il rischio e la REMS vive sul rischio di convivere quotidianamente con esperienze difficili. E’ una scommessa che si può vincere con una sinergia piena con i servizi dellapsichiatria sul territorio, non isolando queste strutture in luoghi sconosciuti e dimenticati.

 

Patricia H. Hasbach, Nalini Nadkarni, Tierney Thys, Emily Gaines, Lance Schnacker
# Nature Imagery in Prisons Project: The Impact on Staff and Inmates in Solitary Confinement
www.apa.org/ 2016 APA Annual Convention, August 5, 2016

... Inmates indicated that exposure to videos had a positive impact on mood. The majority of E-B inmate survey respondents (91%) agreed or strongly agreed that they felt calmer  when they watched the nature videos. 80% indicated that this calm was sustained for several hours afterward, 78% agreed or strongly agreed that they remembered the nature videos when they got angry or agitated and felt more calm, and 67% indicated that the nature imagery project contributed to more positive relationship with staff. Over 80% of survey respondents stated that exposure to nature videos made their time easier, 7% stated that it made it more difficult, and the remainder indicated no effect
.

 

Sophie Wickham, Richard Bentall
# Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? A Patient Study Considering Just World Beliefs as a Mediator
The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease • Volume 204, Number 8, August 2016
Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals... Of particular relevance to the present study is the finding that beliefs about injustice...

 

Saínza García, Mónica Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Saioa López-Zurbano, Iñaki Zorrilla, Purificación López, Eduard Vieta, Ana González-Pinto
# Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenic Patients: A Systematic Review
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology • Volume 36, Number 4, August 2016
Analyzing 38 studies conducted in a total of 51,796 patients, including patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder, we found that younger age, substance abuse, poor insight, cognitive impairments, low level of education, minority ethnicity, poor therapeutic alliance, experience of barriers to care, high intensity of delusional symptoms and suspiciousness, and low socioeconomic status are the main risk factors for medication nonadherence in both types of disorder. In the future, prospective studies should be conducted on the use of personalized patient-tailored treatments, taking into account risk factors that may affect each individual, to assess the ability of such approaches to improve adherence and hence prognosis in these patients.

 

Azza AbuDagga, Sidney Wolfe, Michael Carome, Amanda Phatdouang, E. Fuller Torrey | Public Citizen’s Health Research Group - The Treatment Advocacy Center
# Individuals With Serious Mental Illnesses in County Jails: A Survey of Jail Staff’s Perspectives
www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ July 14, 2016
About half (54.4%) of the jails had implemented housing or staffing changes to accommodate the seriously mentally ill inmates. Specifically, > 33.9% reported sending mentally ill offenders to facilities other than jail; > 27.8% had implemented inmate housing-facility changes (such as increasing the number of beds reserved for people with mental illness); > 27.4% reported hiring full- or part-time non-law-enforcement staff members (including nurses, social workers, and psychiatrists); and > Only 3.5% reported hiring deputies with experience in dealing with seriously mentally ill people

 

Allison V. Downer, Robert L. Trestman
# The Prison Rape Elimination Act and Correctional Psychiatrists
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 44:9–13, 2016
Research has consistently found that at any given time in the United States, there are more mentally ill individuals in jails and prisons than in psychiatric facilities. In the NPREC standards, inmates with mental illness were specifically identified as an at-risk group for sexual assault; consistent estimates suggest that 12 to 13 percent of prison rape allegations involve an inmate with mental illness or intellectual limitations, eight times the proportion of the general inmate population...

 

Bonnie L. Green, Priscilla Dass-Brailsford, Alejandra Hurtado de Mendoza, Mihriye Mete, Dana D. DeHart, Joanne Belkamp
# Trauma Experiences and Mental Health Among Incarcerated Women
American Psychological Association, 2016

Three factors described theobserved patterns of trauma exposure: family dysfunction (FD), interpersonal violence (IPV), andexternal events (EE). Life events were analyzed as a separate group of items. FD and IPV eachcontributed independently to the odds of having each of the 4 mental disorders studied; significant oddsratios were in the range of 1.38–2.05. All 3 factors contributed to the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Theonly diagnosis to which stressful life events made a unique contribution was to the likelihood of havingPTSD.

 

Glorimar Ortiz, Vera Hollen, Lucille Schacht
# Antipsychotic Medication Prescribing Practices Among Adult Patients Discharged From State Psychiatric Inpatient Hospitals
Journal of Psychiatric Practice Vol. 22, No. 4 July 2016
Antipsychotic polypharmacy continues at a high enough rate to impact nearly 10,000 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia each year in state psychiatric inpatient hospitals. Given such a large sample, further analysis of the clinical presentations of these patients may highlight particular aspects of the illness and its previous treatment that are contributing to practices outside the best practice guidelines.

 

Seena Fazel, Adrian J Hayes, Katrina Bartellas, Massimo Clerici, Robert Trestman
# Mental health of prisoners: prevalence, adverse outcomes, and interventions
www.thelancet.com/ July 14, 2016
More than 10 million people are imprisoned worldwide, and the prevalence of all investigated mental disorders is higher in prisoners than in the general population. Although the extent to which prison increases the incidence of mental disorders is uncertain, considerable evidence suggests low rates of identifi cation and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Prisoners are also at increased risk of all-cause mortality, suicide, self-harm, violence, and victimisation, and research has outlined some modifi able risk factors... 

 

Kathryn A. Burns
# Expert Report (on mental health care in the Alabama Department of Corrections - ADOC - prison system)
www.splcenter.org/ Submitted July 5, 2016
Mental health treatment is inadequate to meet the needs of the prisoner population with serious mental illness. Residential and stabilization unit treatment beds are underutilized but also provide little treatment beyond psychotropic  medication due to staffing level shortages of both treatment and custody staff. Individual contacts with mental health staff are brief, infrequent and often not conducted in confidential settings. There is little group treatment in mental health treatment units and even less in outpatient settings. As a consequence, prisoners with untreated and undertreated serious mental illness are over-represented in the segregation population – essentially punished for manifestations of serious mental illness.

 

Matt DeLisi
# Zeroing in on violent recidivism among released prisoners
www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 3 June 2016
Substantial heterogeneity exists among the criminal offender population, and with 30 million individuals released from prisons worldwide each year, the identification of those who are most likely to perpetrate future violence is essential. Fazel and colleagues’ study in The Lancet Psychiatry is an important advance for enabling such identifications...

 

Seena Fazel, Zheng Chang, Thomas Fanshawe, Niklas Långström, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Susan Mallett
# Prediction of violent reoffending on release from prison: derivation and external validation of a scalable tool
Lancet Psychiatry, 2016 June ; 3(6): 535–543
More than 30 million people are released from prison worldwide every year, who include a group at high risk of perpetrating interpersonal violence. Because there is considerable inconsistency and inefficiency in identifying those who would benefit from interventions to reduce this risk, we developed and validated a clinical prediction rule to determine the risk of violent offending in released prisoners

 

Seena Fazel, Stal Biorkly
# Methodological Considerations in Risk Assessment Research

in International Perspectives on Violence Risk Assessment, 2016, pp.16-25
In this chapter we emphasized some different approaches for further progress in violence risk assessment research. We did not present a comprehensive and detailed overview ofthe many issues involved, but chose to focus on some key issues and those that may be feasible to address. Our main point, however, is to underscore that research on violence risk assessment is in need of innovation.

 

Ministero della Salute | Ministero della Giustizia
# Relazione al Parlamento sul Programma di superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
Giugno 2016

 

Giulia Melani
# Tutela della libertà personale degli internati: «attraverso la cruna dell’ago». Riflessioni a margine dell'ordinanza del Magistrato di Sorveglianza di Firenze del 21.10.2015
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 5 Giugno 2016
# Ordinanza del Magistrato di Sorveglianza di Firenze in data 21 ottobre 2015
# Ordinanza del Tribunale di Sorveglianza di Firenze in data 9 febbraio 2016, che ha rigettato il reclamo presentato dalla Regione Toscana contro l'ordinanza in commento
# Ordinanza del Tribunale di Sorveglianza di Firenze in data 9 febbraio 2016, che ha accolto il secondo reclamo presentato dalla Regione Toscana in tema di carenza di legittimazione passiva dell'Ente locale

 

Doris A. Fuller, Elizabeth Sinclair, Jeffrey Geller, Cameron Quanbeck, John Snook
# Going, Going, Gone: Trends and Consequences of Eliminating State Psychiatric Beds, 2016
Treatment Advocacy Center, June 2016
37,679 staffed beds remain in state hospitals. Adjusted for population growth, this represents a 17% reduction in the bed population since 2010, when 43,318 beds remained, and a 96.5% drop from peak hospital numbers in the 1950s. 11.7 beds remain per 100,000 people. The functions the hospitals once performed for people severely disabled by mental illness—treatment, structure, shelter—were lost, and the people who needed those functions were “transinstitutionalized” to other large settings, such as jails and prisons...

 

Margreet ten Have, Roel Verheul, Ad Kaasenbrood, Saskia van Dorsselaer, Marlous Tuithof, Marloes Kleinjan, Ron de Graaf
# Prevalence rates of borderline personality disorder symptoms: a study based on the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2
BMC Psychiatry (2016) 16:249
The epidemiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been studied in various large adult populationbased surveys, mainly in the United States. These studies have shown that the prevalence rates for BPD vary between 0.5 % and 1.4 % of the total population. Two studies, based on data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, have found higher rates, of 2.7 % and 5.9 % respectively, depending on how strictly the diagnostic rules are applied.  A prudent assumption seems to be that, generally speaking,the population prevalence rate of BPD is circa 1 %

 

Derek Gilna
# U.S. Prisons Filled with America’s Mentally Ill
Prison Legal News, June, 2016, page 14

Recent data indicates that over a million mentally ill people are incarcerated annually, cycling in and out of jails. The U.S. Department of Justice reports that almost a quarter of all prisoners suffer from serious mental illnesses, and many complain of inadequate treatment by prison and jail medical staff who often change or discontinue the psychotropic drugs they were receiving to treat their conditions. In most correctional facilities, suicidal prisoners are placed in solitary confinement and monitored by guards rather than by qualified mental health professionals in a treatment setting.

 

Greta Agnifili
# La responsabilità penale dello psichiatra
LUISS, 2016
Gli elementi costitutivi del delitto colposo presentano dunque una duplice natura: psicologica - come assenza di volontà dell’evento -, e normativa - come violazione di regole cautelari -. Il primo requisito ha carattere negativo e traccia una netta linea di demarcazione tra la fattispecie colposa e quella dolosa... Quanto al requisito positivo, ai fini dell’integrazione della fattispecie criminosa si richiede la presenza di “negligenza o imprudenza o imperizia”, ovvero “l’inosservanza di leggi, regolamenti, ordini o discipline”. Da ciò emerge la dimensione normativa della colpa, come contrarietà del comportamento concretamente posto in essere dall’agente a quello considerato doveroso sulla base dei canoni di diligenza, prudenza o perizia o dei dettami imposti nelle norme e regole cautelari...

 

E. Fuller Torrey, Robert D. (Joe) Bruce, H. Richard Lamb, Carla Jacobs, D.J. Jaffe, John Snook
# Raising Cain. The Role of Serious Mental Illness in Family Homicides
Treatment Advocacy Center, 2016
The goal of this study was to quantify the role of serious mental illness as a con-tributing factor in family homicides. According to the CDC’s National Vital StatisticsSystem, 16,121 individuals died by homicide in 2013. In 6,681 of these cases, law enforcement identified the relationships between the victims and the offenders to the FBI in Supplementary Homicide Reports (SHRs). Of the homicides for which this in-formation was reported, 25% involved one family member’s killing another. Applyingthis factor to the CDC data on all homicides in the United States yields an estimate of 4,000 individuals killed by members of their own families in 2013

 

H. Richard Lamb, Linda E. Weinberger
# Rediscovering the Concept of Asylum for Persons with Serious Mental Illness
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 44:106–10, 2016
The early architects of deinstitutionalization often made the serious error of destroying the “function” of asylum, for many persons with serious mental illness, when they dismantled state hospitals. When planners and caregivers  disapproved of the abuses they saw inside places called asylums, they often rejected the entire concept of a need for asylum. Consequently, very little was written about the importance of asylum and sanctuary. Currently, there is gathering support in the professional literature for providing asylum as an essential aspect of care for those with serious mental illness.

 

Seena Fazel, Zuzanna Fiminska, Christopher Cocks, Jeremy Coid
# Patient outcomes following discharge from secure psychiatric hospitals: systematic review and meta-analysis
The British Journal of Psychiatry, 208, 2016
Over the past two decades, there have been large increases in the numbers of secure psychiatric hospital beds, which some have argued amounts to a reinstitutionalisation of psychiatric patients. Costs per patient are substantially more in such hospitals, with some estimates of £152 000 per year per patient in the UK at low secure institutions and £273 000 in high secure hospitals and an estimated overall budget of over £1 billion. In England, this is equivalent to 19% of the overall mental health budget and represents its largest single component. However, the evidence for patient benefit in such hospitals is limited ...

 

Sonya G. Wanklyn
# Associations between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use: A Longitudinal Investigation of Individuals Recently Exposed to Trauma
Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2016
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) commonly cooccur following trauma, and their co-occurrence is associated with substantial costs; however, our understanding of the timing and sequencing of these posttrauma mental health conditions is limited. This study examined the trajectories of PTSD symptom severity and substance use among individuals recently exposed to a traumatic event, with a focus on the potential moderating roles of PTSD and SUD diagnoses at the final assessment. Additionally, in attempt to better understand the functional relationship between PTSD symptoms and substance use posttrauma, this study compared models reflecting the theories of self-medication, susceptibility, and mutual maintenance...

 

Rachel Claire Judges
# An Exploration into the Value of Protective Factors in Violence Risk Assessment of Psychiatric Inpatients
University of Nottingham, May 2016
This thesis explores the value of including protective factors in the violence risk assessment and risk management processes of forensic mental health services. More specifically it investigates whether assessment of protective factors improves predictive accuracy of violence risk assessment tools, and discusses the implications for clinical practice. The impact on patient motivation to change is also considered. A critique is presented of the Historical Clinical Risk-20 Version 3, one of the most popular and widely used violence risk assessment tools.

 

Joe Simpson
# Psychopharmacology in Jails: An Introduction
The Carlat Psychiatry Report - May 2016
When it comes to antipsychotic medications, in addition to all of the typical antipsychotics such as fluphenazine (Prolixin) and haloperidol (Haldol) most jails will have on formulary several of the standard atypicals, including aripiprazole (Abilify), olanzapine (Zyprexa), quetiapine (Seroquel), risperidone (Risperdal), and ziprasidone (Geodon). You will quickly discover that quetiapine rivals bupropion as an abused medication. Inmates prize its effects on sleep, and it also seems to provide a relaxing effect. Many inmates will claim to have psychotic symptoms in an effort to obtain quetiapine. For some reason, they don’t seem as interested in olanzapine.

 

Gary Cordner | Community Oriented Policing Services
# People with Mental Illness
www.cops.usdoj.gov/ May 2006

Neither jail nor prison is a good setting for mental health treatment, if such treatment is even available. People with mental illness often get worsewhile incarcerated, and tragedies involving victimization and suicide are too common.66 In the long run, criminal justice incarceration of the mentally ill harms the lives of those people, interferes with the proper operation of jails and prisons, and accomplishes little or no long-term solution to the original crime-and-disorder problems that led to arrest and incarceration in the first place. Referral, treatment, and civil commitment for people with mental illness should be preferred over arrest and criminal justice incarceration as reasonses to minor crime-and-disorder problems.

 

Dominic Sisti
# Psychiatric Institutions Are a Necessity
www.nytimes.com/ May 9, 2016
Behind the bars of prisons and jails in the United States exists a shadow mental health care system where nearly half a million inmates have a serious mental illness like schizophrenia. In hospitals, severely mentally ill patients languish for months in acute care units, which are designed to stabilize patients, not to help their long-term recovery... High quality, ethically administered psychiatric asylums would provide the seriously mentally ill with a place to stabilize and recover.

 

Sarah Jillani, Prina Patel, Robert Trestman, Jayesh Kamath
# Atomoxetine for the Treatment of ADHD in Incarcerated Adolescents
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 44:158 – 63, 2016
Effective interventions for adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the correctional setting may improve care during incarceration, decrease risk of substance relapse, and reduce recidivism after release from the correctional setting of these individuals. The present report delineates the epidemiology of adolescent ADHD in the correctional setting and its association with substance use disorders and comorbid psychiatric illnesses.

 

Assemblea parlamentare del Consiglio d'Europa
# Raccomandazione n. 2091 (2016) - Gli argomenti che sconsigliano uno strumento giuridico del Consiglio d'Europa riguardante le misure involontarie in psichiatria
Trasmessa l'11 maggio 2016

 

Franco Corleone (Intervista di Alessia Guerrieri)
# Lavoro finito per agosto. Ora decreto sulle Rems
www.avvenire.it/ 22 maggio 2016
Tre mesi per chiudere tutti gli opg, «ma allora si apre la partita più delicata: rendere le Rems luogo dei diritti e non di contenzione ».  Sta emergendo un dato preoccupante. Nelle Rems, escludendo Castiglione, ci sono 331 persone di cui 179 con condanne definite e 162 provvisorie, cioè quasi il 50%. Questo dà l’idea di come ci sia una contraddizione su questo luogo: si rischia diventi un posto in cui le persone vengano mandate anche in condizioni patologiche ancora incerte...

 

Doris A. Fuller
# Prevalence of Treated and Untreated Severe Mental Illness by State
www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ May 17, 2016
With an estimated 356,000 inmates with serious mental illness in America’s jails and prisons and 3.8 million adults untreated for one of the two most serious mental illnesses, the risk of being incarcerated is nearly 10% for those whose schizophrenia or severe bipolar is not treated.

 

Kiran Sukeri, Orlando A. Betancourt, Robin Emsley, Mohammed Nagdee, Helmut Erlacher
# Forensic mental health services: Current service provision and planning for a prison mental health service in the Eastern Cape
South African Journal of Psychiatry, 06 May 2016
Currently, the majority of correctional centres in the Eastern Cape do not have permanent psychological services and psychiatric services are non-existent. There are twenty two psychologists in all correctional centres in South Africa. None of the correctional centres have an onsite psychiatric unit. A serious implication of this is that an increasing number of mentally ill persons are incarcerated due to the lack of initial assessments...

 

European Court of Human Rights
# Case of Murray v. The Netherlans (Application no. 10511/10)
Strasbourg, 26/04/2016

 

Human Rights Watch
# France: Inadequate Mental Health Care in Prisons. Detention Conditions, Lack of Treatment Increase Suffering
www.hrw.org/ April 5, 2016
Human Rights Watch interviewed 50 prisoners, prison staff, and medical professionals in eight prisons, as well as government officials and others. When their condition deteriorates, prisoners with psychosocial disabilities are in some cases transferred to psychiatric hospitals against their will and isolated in conditions that can constitute cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment under international law, Human Rights Watch found. “I prefer 1,000 times to be in a cell than in an isolated room in the hospital, my arms and feet tied down as if I were an animal,” said Sarah (pseudonym), a prisoner who has previously been sent to psychiatric hospitals...

 

Human Rights Watch
# Double Punishment. Inadequate conditions for Prisoners with Psychosocial Disabilities in France

# Double peine. Conditions de détention inappropriées pour les personnes
www.hrw.org/ April 2016
The last comprehensive study on mental health in French prisons, published in 2004, found that almost a quarter of inmates had psychosis: 8 percent of men and 15 percent of women had schizophrenia – much higher than the 0.9 percent among of France’s general population. Estimates by people interviewed for this report by Human Rights Watch in 2015 – prison directors, psychiatrists, the inspector of prisons, government officials and prisoners themselves – suggest the proportion of prisoners with psychosocial disabilities in prison remains high. 

 

Damiano Aliprandi
# In cella centinaia di malati psichiatrici, aspettando le Rems
Il Dubbio, 22 aprile 2016

 

StopOpg
# Vademecum sulle misure di sicurezza per chi è internato/ricoverato in OPG o in una REMS per favorire misure non detentive e prevenire internamenti
www.stopopg.it/ Aprile 2016

 

Gemma Brandi
# La concentrazione della follia in carcere: anomalia o normalità cui adattarsi?
www.ristretti.org/ Aprile 2016

Venivano e vengono avviati, infatti, alla Osservazione Psichiatrica quei detenuti mai o mal valutati nelle fasi del giudizio  di merito e condannati come presunti sani di mente, che però tali non erano e non sono; le persone che in udienza di convalida di arresto presentano franchi scompensi e i quadri di confine che oggi si preferisce definire “cattivi”, quanti cioè mostrano disagi complessi, trattati sul territorio nei Servizi Psichiatrici di Diagnosi e Cura attraverso prese in carico limitate alla emergenza, risultando pressoché impossibile, con gli attuali strumenti della Salute Mentale, rispondere in maniera salda e costante ai problemi di persone da inseguire, più che da seguire. 

 

Christine Tartaro
# Keeping Mentally Ill Offenders Out of Jail
American Jail Association, Apr 19, 2016
During the second half of the 20th century, the United States embarked on a movement to deinstitutionalize individuals with mental illness, and this initiative resulted in the rapid decline of available psychiatric beds. In 1955, there was one psychiatric bed in public hospitals for every 300 people. By 2004, there was to one bed per 3,000 people and correctional facilities were housing three times more people with serious mental illness than hospitals (Torrey et al, 2010). Ironically, New York actually closed a State psychiatric hospital only to re-open the same set of buildings as a correctional facility to serve inmates with several mental illnesses

 

Marvin S. Swartz, Allison G. Robertson
# Mental Health Courts: Does Treatment Make a Difference?
Psychiatric Services 67:4, April 2016

 

Assemblée Nationale - Group de travail sur la détention
# Repenser la prison pour mieux réinsérer. Rapport n. 808
www.assemblee-nationale.fr/ 21 mars 2018
Au-delà du caractère daté et partiel des éléments épidémiologiques disponibles, il manque une analyse qualitative fine de la souffrance psychique, de l’évolution des troubles au cours de la détention et de l’effet pathogène potentiel de l’incarcération. Comme le relevait le professeur Frédéric Rouillon dans son enquête épidémiologique de 2006, « dans un contexte d’emprisonnement (privation de liberté, de l’environnement familial, de sexualité, etc.), [la]souffrance psychique ne relève (...) pas nécessairement d’un état pathologique ». Le constat, évident pour les troubles anxio-dépressifs, se vérifie aussi pour les troubles psychotiques car « la perte de contact avec la réalité est un élément central de tout trouble psychotique » et « la vie carcérale est un facteur de risque majeur de déréalisation ».

 

E. Fuller Torrey
# A Dearth of Psychiatric Beds
www.psychiatrictimes.com/ February 25, 2016

 

Francesco Molinari
# Interrogazione a risposta scritta 4-05333 al ministro della Giustizia sul superamento degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari con trasferimento degli internati verso le nuove REMS
http://parlamento17.openpolis.it/ 23 febbraio 2016

 

Patrick R. Krill, Ryan Johnson, Linda Albert
# The Prevalence of Substance Use and Other Mental Health Concerns Among American Attorneys
Journal of Addiction Medicine, February 2016
Rates of substance use and other mental health concerns among attorneys are relatively unknown... This study measured the prevalence of these concerns among licensed attorneys... A sample of 12,825 licensed, employed attorneys completed surveys, assessing alcohol use, drug use, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress... Attorneys experience problematic drinking that is hazardous, harmful, or otherwise consistent with alcohol use disorders at a higher rate than other professional populations. Mental health distress is also significant. These data underscore the need for greater resources for lawyer assistance programs, and also the expansion of available attorney-specific prevention and treatment interventions.

 

Robert Eme
# Life-Course-Persistent Antisocial Behavior
Journal of Forensic Psychology, 2016
The article reviewed the status of the Life Course Persistent category of antisocial behavior some two decades plus from its original formulation as well as the finding from the landmark Dunedin longitudinal study of antisocial behavior that this category is comprised almost entirely of males. The importance of this category for forensic psychology is the robust and remarkable finding that the small group of individuals (5-10%) who tend to cluster in this category are responsible for over half of all crimes in the United States and other developed countries, and an even greater proportion of violent crimes.

 

Gautam Gulati, Robert Cornish, Hasanen Al-Taiar, Christopher Miller, Vivek Khosla, Christopher Hinds, Jonathan Price, John Geddes, Seena Fazel
# Web-Based Violence Risk Monitoring Tool in Psychoses: Pilot Study in Community Forensic Patients
Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, vol. 16, n. 1, 49-59, 2016
We describe the development and pilot testing of a novel, web-based, violence risk monitoring instrument for use in community patients with psychoses. We describe the development of the tool, including drawing on systematic reviews of the field, how item content was operationalized, the development of a user interface, and its subsequent piloting. Sixtyeight patients were included from three English counties, who had been discharged from forensic psychiatric services. Over 12 months, 310 questionnaires were completed on the sample by professionals from several disciplines and qualitative feedback collected relating to the use of the tool using an electronic survey. Strengths of this approach for risk assessment, and potential limitations and areas for future research, are discussed. 

 

John Dale Dunn
# Senator Cornyn and the Inmates
www.americanthinker.com/ February 26, 2016

 

Paula Ditton Henzel, Jim Mayfield, Andrés Soriano, Barbara E.M. Felver
# Behavioral Health Needs of Jail Inmates in Washington State
www.ofm.wa.gov/ Washington State - Department of Sociale & Health Services, January 2016
We found a substantial degree of overlap between the Department of Social and Health Services DSHS client population and those entering jail. The majority (86 percent) of individuals booked into jail in 2013 were recent or former DSHS/HCA (Health Care Authority)clients. A similar overlap has been documented for those released from Department of Corrections (DOC) facilities: 80 percent of persons released from DOC facilities had received DSHS services. Recognizing criminal justice system-involved individuals as a shared population has led DSHS and DOC to improve data share agreements and initiate re-entry partnerships.

 

Ben Quinn, Sandra Laville, Pamela Duncan
# Mental health crisis takes huge and increasing share of police time
www.theguardian.com/ Wed 27 Jan 2016
The research found that the overall number of incidents with a mental health aspect rose by 33% between 2011 and 2014, the last full year for which data is available. This was despite the overall number of incidents recorded by the police forces falling by 10% in the same period. The College of Policing estimates 20-40% of police time and vast amounts of money are taken up dealing with incidents involving people with mental health problems...

 

Leah G. Pope, Kim Hopper, Chelsea Davis, David Cloud
# First-Episode Incarceration. Creating a Recovery-Informed Framework for Integrated Mental Health and Criminal Justice Responses
www.vera.org/ January 2016
While there have been significant shifts in the understanding of mental health over the past 50 years, many of the responses to people with mental illness have changed very little. In the mid-1950s more than half a million people were held in U.S. psychiatric institutions for long periods and often in deplorable conditions. Sixty years later, an equivalent number of people with mental illness are held in the nation’s prisons and jails on any given day. 

 

Jay P. Singh
# International Perspectives on Forensic Risk Assessment: Measuring Use, Perceived Utility, and Research Quality
Universitat Konstanz, 18 januar 2016
Forensic risk assessment refers to the attempt to predict the likelihood of future violence in order to identify individuals in need of intervention. Risk assessment protocols have been implemented in mental health and criminal justice settings around the globe to prioritize risk reduction strategies for those most at need. Helping to allocate scarce resources more effectively and efficiently while protecting our communities, risk assessment has come to be a cornerstone of forensic practice in many jurisdictions. The present thesis investigates the use, perceived utility, and research quality on forensic risk assessment tools.

 

Valentina Calderone
# "E tu slegalo subito", una campagna di civiltà
Il Manifesto, 22 gennaio 2016
"E tu slegalo subito", un imperativo categorico scelto come titolo dalla neonata campagna per l'abolizione della contenzione, presentata ieri nella sala del Senato di Santa Maria in Aquiro. Un imperativo ma anche una risposta, quella che Franco Basaglia soleva dare agli operatori che gli chiedevano cosa fare di fronte a un paziente legato al letto. E tu slegalo subito, appunto.

 

Dahlia Lithwick
# Prisons Have Become America’s New Asylums. Mentally ill people are locked up for trivial reasons and then get much worse
www.slate.com/ Jan. 5 2016
A 2014 report by the Treatment Advocacy Center notes bluntly that “prisons and jails have become America’s ‘new asylums.’ ” Ten times more mentally ill people are now in jails and prisons than in state psychiatric hospitals: In 2012, approximately 356,268 inmates with severe mental illness were in prisons and jails, while about 35,000 severely ill patients were in state psychiatric hospitals. Many of these inmates would have been in hospitals prior to the deinstitutionalization movement of the 1960s, but now there are not enough beds, and many mental health hospitals have been closed down...

 

Ministero della Salute - Ministero della Giustizia
# Relazione al Parlamento sul processo di superamento degli OPG

# Allegati
Dicembre 2015

 

Daniele Piccione
# L’orizzonte di tutela del reo infermo di mente secondo la Costituzione. (Umanizzazione del sistema delle misure di sicurezza: rileggendo la lezione di Franco Bricola)
www.costituzionalismo.it/ fascicolo 3 | 2015
Ripercorrendo le fertili intuizioni di Franco Bricola, l’A. riflette sulla lunga transizione che caratterizza il sistema delle misure di sicurezza per il non imputabile. Le novità legislative succedutesi dal 2012 al 2014 hanno determinato il progredire di un’opera di deistituzionalizzazione che, pur non ancora completata, lascia intravedere il definitivo tramonto del paradigma di neutralizzazione del folle reo e la crisi inarrestabile della categoria giuridica della pericolosità sociale.

 

Sylva D'Amato
# Osservazioni sulla contenzione in psichiatria e i suoi riflessi in tema di stato di necessità. Recensione a Piero Cipriano, Il manicomio chimico. Cronache di uno psichiatra riluttante. Elèuthera, Milano, 2015
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 15 Dicembre 2015
1
. La pratica psichiatrica dal punto di vista di uno psichiatra «riluttante». - 2. L'indagine di Withaker sulla rivoluzione psicofarmacologica. - 3. Verso la psicopatologizzazione della normalità. - 4. Il manicomio chimico e la contenzione farmacologica. - 5. Il ricorso alla contenzione in psichiatria, quale pratica «scorciatoia gestionale», «antiterapeutica, oltre che illegale», è non necessitato ed 'altrimenti evitabile'.

 

Andrea Affaticati, Maria Lidia Gerra, Andrea Amerio, Maria Inglese, Carlo Marchesi
# The Controversial Case of Biperiden. From Prescription Drug to Drug of Abuse
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology • Volume 35, Number 6, December 2015
Anticholinergic drugs such as biperiden are commonly used in psychiatry for the prophylaxis and treatment of extrapyramidal symptoms caused by antipsychotics, as well as for tremors in Parkinson disease. Anticholinergic abuse has been reported in nonpsychotic patients probably because of inducing mild euphoria with increased sociability and energy through an increase of dopaminergic activity... Further studies are needed to estimate the impact of biperiden as a substance of abuse, especially among marginalized people. Concerning Italy, the preliminary data presented in Table 1 support that biperiden is particularly abused by prisoners coming from North-African countries. 

 

Anna Cilento, Dorella Costi, Paolo Ugolini (eds)
# Oltre l’ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario: quali percorsi?
Sestante, 01 novembre / 2015
Contributi di: Paolo Ugolini, Anna Cilento, Dorella Costi, Francesco Maisto, Mila Ferri, Alessio Saponaro, Valeria Calevro, Anna Cilento, Teresa Di Fiandra, Mila Ferri, Natalia Magliocchetti, Anna Cilento, Dorella Costi, Paolo Ugolini, Pietro Pellegrini, Giuseppina Paulillo, Giovanni Francesco Frivoli, Pietro Domiano, Valerio Giannattasio, Sandra Grignaffini, Roberto Zanfini, Michele Sanza, Anna Mori, Claudio Bartoletti, Velia Zulli, Federico Boaron, Maria Grazia Fontanesi, Gemma Verbena, Franca Bianconcini, Ivonne Donegani, Angelo Fioritti, Pietro Pellegrini, Giuseppina  Paulillo, Clara Pellegrini, Diego Gibertini.

 

Matteo Luca Andriola
# Gli ex manicomi e quella chiusura mai arrivata.
www.lettera43.it/ 25 Ottobre 2015
Ritardi. Maltrattamenti. Polemiche. Una legge chiude gli Ospedali psichiatrici, ma nel 2015 in Italia ci sono ancora internati. Colpe e numeri di una impasse.Gli effetti di questa legge avranno ripercussioni pure sulle carceri, dato che i detenuti un tempo inviati negli Opg per il periodo canonico di osservazione di 30 giorni, adesso andranno nelle sezioni psichiatriche nei penitenziari, non migliorando senz’altro neppure la situazione di tali strutture, dove secondo dati del 2013, i disturbi mentali riguarderebbero circa il 40% dei detenuti, cosa del resto condannata dalla Corte europea dei diritti umani.

 

Joseph A. Schwartz, Kevin M. Beaver, J. C. Barnes
# The Association between Mental Health and Violence among a Nationally Representative Sample of College Students from the United States
PLOS ONE | October 7, 2015
The results revealed that college students were less likely to have engaged in violent behavior relative to the non- student sample, but a substantial portion of college students had engaged in violent behavior. Age- and sex- standardized prevalence rates indicated that more than 21% of college students reported at least one violent act. In addition, more than 36% of college students had at least one diagnosable psychiatric disorder. Finally, the prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders significantly increased the odds of violent behavior within the college student sample.

 

Carl Salzman, Richard I. Shader
# Not Again: Benzodiazepines Once More Under Attack
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology: October 2015 - Volume 35 - Issue 5 - p 493–495
It seems that we are again in the midst of a new storm of concern about an epidemic of benzodiazepine (BZ) overuse, misuse, and abuse. The first concern, in the 1980s, posited BZs as an epidemic of excessive prescribing and was frequently mentioned in books, movies, and numerous lay magazine articles. There was also concern that BZs were abused or misused, caused addiction with difficult withdrawal symptoms, or taken without medical supervision by large numbers of people.

 

Casey Tolan
# A psychologist is leading the largest jail in America and helping rethink incarceration and mental health
http://fusion.net/ October 20, 2015

CHICAGO—Home to about 10,000 inmates, Cook County Jail takes up a huge swath of land on Chicago’s southwest side. It’s the largest single jail in America, and because about a third of its inmates are mentally ill, it also doubles as the largest mental health institution in the country. So it makes sense that the jail’s new warden, Nneka Jones Tapia, is a clinical psychologist. Since she was promoted to her job five months ago, Jones Tapia has helped to reimagine how the jail operates. She’s trying to create a jail that doesn’t just keep people locked up but gives them treatment and supports them even after they go free.

# Timothy Williams, A Psychologist as Warden? Jail and Mental Illness Intersect in Chicago, www.nytimes.com/ July 30, 2015

 

Thomas J. Cole
# Getting high in prison
Albuquerque Journal, September 5, 2015
There is good reason that jails and prisons have been described as America’s new asylums for the mentally ill. New Mexico’s only state-owned and -operated psychiatric hospital, in Las Vegas, has 157 behavioral health beds for adults. By comparison, 2,036 inmates in state prisons have received clinical services for chronic mental illness this year, according to the Corrections Department. The state also has a 104-bed unit in Los Lunas for the most seriously mentally ill inmates, including the homicidal. The number of inmates receiving clinical services for chronic mental illness has grown 29 percent in three years, and there has been a parallel growth in the number of inmates receiving psychotropic medications. A total of 2,166 inmates have received the drugs this year, up 29 percent from 2012. There were a total of 6,597 female and male state inmates as of April 30, and nearly 71 percent of the women and 28 percent of the men were receiving psychotropic drugs, according to the Corrections Department. 

 

Andrea Pugiotto
# Morire di Tso nell’Italia del terzo millennio
http://ilmanifesto.info/ 19 agosto 2015
La morte di Andrea Soldi durante l’esecuzione di un Tso è una metonìmia. Narra qualcosa di più generale che trascende il fatto in sé, pur gravissimo, lasciando intravedere nodi irrisolti nel rapporto tra autorità e libertà individuale.

 

Jeffrey Guina, Sarah R. Rossetter, Bethany J. DeRhodes, Ramzi W Nahhas, Randon S. Welton,
# Benzodiazepines for PTSD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of Psychiatric Practice Vol. 21, No. 4, July 2015
The results of this systematic review suggest that BZDs should be considered relatively contraindicated for patients with PTSD or recent trauma. Evidence-based treatments for PTSD should be favored over BZDs. 

 

Kanya D'Almeida
# In US Prisons, Psychiatric Disability Is Often Met by Brute Force
www.truth-out.org/ Saturday, July 18, 2015
The so-called Mandela Rules contain a clause that deals explicitly with mental illness, stating: "Persons who are ... diagnosed with severe mental disabilities ... for whom staying in prison would mean an exacerbation of their condition,  shall not be detained in prisons, and arrangements shall be made to transfer them to mental health facilities as soon as  possible."The resolution reiterates commitments made decades ago to uphold the human rights of all prisoners, but at the time of writing, the United States could not be further from the realization of these obligations.

 

Federal Public Defender’s Office | Speakers: Thomas Price, Michelle Guyton
# CLE Seminar. The Brain on Prison
http://or.fd.org/ Portland, Oregon, June 17, 2015

It is time we recognize that the system is broken and that, current prison conditions traumatize the brains of those incarcerated. These conditions are not a substitution for flogging, but are a flogging of the most important organ in the human body. And if that is not cruelty, and injustice, what constitutes it? 

 

Matt Ford
# America's Largest Mental Hospital Is a Jail
www.theatlantic.com/ jun 8, 2015
At Cook County Jail, an estimated one in three inmates has some form of mental illness. At least 400,000 inmates currently behind bars in the United States suffer from some type of mental illness—a population larger than the cities of Cleveland, New Orleans, or St. Louis—according to the National Alliance on Mental Illness. NAMI estimates that between 25 and 40 percent of all mentally ill Americans will be jailed or incarcerated at some point in their lives.

 

Mary Jane England, Adrienne Stith Butler, Monica L. Gonzalez (eds)
# Psychosocial Interventions for Mental and Substance Use Disorders: A Framework for Establishing Evidence-Based Standards
www.nap.edu/ Board on Health Sciences Policy; Institute of Medicine; 2015
Mental health and substance use disorders affect approximately 20 percent of Americans and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the current evidence base for the effects of psychosocial interventions is sizable, subsequent steps in the process of bringing a psychosocial intervention into routine clinical care are less well defined. The data from research supporting these interventions have not been well synthesized, and it can be difficult for consumers, providers, and payers to know what treatments are effective. This report details the reasons for the gap between what is known to be effective and current practice and offers recommendations for how best to address this gap by applying a framework that can be used to establish standards for psychosocial interventions.

 

Michael Ollove
# New Efforts to Keep the Mentally Ill Out of Jail
The Pew Charitable Trusts  Research & Analysis  Stateline, May 19, 2015 
According to a 2009 study cited by the Council of State Governments Justice Center, an estimated 2 million adults with serious mental illnesses are jailed in the course of a year. Studies, including one from the Urban Institute, say they tend to stay in jail longer than those without mental illnesses, return to jail more often and cost local jurisdictions more money while incarcerated. More frequently than not, they are jailed for minor offenses, such as trespassing, disorderly conduct, disturbing the peace or illicit drug use.

 

Alan R. Felthous, Matthew S. Stanford
# A Proposed Algorithm for the Pharmacotherapy of Impulsive Aggression
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 43:456 – 67, 2015
A rational algorithm for effective pharmacotherapy for impulsive aggression takes into account five factors: sufficiently defined and characterized aggressive behavior; availability of agents studied by trials of sufficient quality; risks, side effects, and contraindications; severity of aggressive outbursts; and co-occurring mental and medical conditions. Clinicians in forensic and correctional treatment centers, indeed in any treatment setting, should be able to optimize their effectiveness in treating impulsive aggression by using methods that consider these five factors. 

 

S. Young, O. Sedgwick, M. Fridman, G. Gudjonsson, P. Hodgkins, M. Lantigua, R. A. González
# Co-morbid psychiatric disorders among incarcerated ADHD populations: a meta-analysis
Psychological Medicine (2015), 45, 2499–2510
Compared with population rates, there is robust evidence to support an over-representation of youths and adults with ADHD in the criminal justice system, most likely reflecting high rates of co-morbidity with conduct disorder. A meta- nalysis of 42 international studies reported that 30% and 26% of the youth and adult prison populations, respectively, had clinically diagnosed ADHD...

 

S. Young, D. Moss, O. Sedgwick, M. Fridman, P. Hodgkins
# A meta-analysis of the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in incarcerated populations
Psychological Medicine (2015), 45, 247–258
Forty-two studies were included in the analysis. ADHD prevalence was higher with screening diagnoses versus diagnostic interview (and with retrospective youth diagnoses versus current diagnoses). Using diagnostic interview data, the estimated prevalence was 25.5% and there were no significant differences for gender and age. Significant country differences were noted. Compared with published general population prevalence, there is a fivefold increase in prevalence of ADHD in youth prison populations (30.1%) and a 10-fold increase in adult prison populations (26.2%). 

 

Robyn L. Gobin, Madhavi K. Reddy, Caron Zlotnick, Jennifer E. Johnson
# Lifetime trauma victimization and PTSD in relation to psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in a sample of incarcerated women and men
International Journal of Prisoners Health, Vol. 11 NO. 2 2015, pp. 64-74,
We found a significant association between ASPD symptom severity and exposure to crime-related trauma. Associations were not explained by PTSD symptoms. These findings offer implications for treatment with incarcerated populations. The current findings suggest that interventions with incarcerated men and women with ASPD and psychopathic traits may benefit from sensitivity to histories of physical and crime-related trauma. Finally, the findings contribute to our understanding of the nature of the relationship between ASPD/psychopathy and trauma exposure, namely, that the association between personality disturbance and trauma is not explained by PTSD symptom severity.

 

Jeffrey Guina, Sarah R. Rossetter, Bethany J. DeRhodes, Ramzi W. Nahhas, Randon S. Welton
# Benzodiazepines for PTSD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of Psychiatric Practice Vol. 21, No. 4 July 2015
BZDs are ineffective for PTSD treatment and prevention, and risks associated with their use tend to outweigh potential short-term benefits. In addition to adverse effects in general populations, BZDs are associated with specific problems in patients with PTSD: worse overall severity, significantly increased risk of developing PTSD with use after recent trauma, worse psychotherapy outcomes, aggression, depression, and substance use.

 

Rivista di Psicodinamica Criminale
# Interventi con gli uomini maltrattanti
Anno VIII – n. 2 luglio 2015
I programmi per uomini autori di violenza devono assicurarsi che le compagne dei soggetti coinvolti siano informate sugli obiettivi e sui contenuti del programma, sui suoi limiti non sottovalutando la possibilità dell' insorgere di ulteriori episodi di violenza. Le donne devono essere messe a conoscenza che la partecipazione al programma da parte del compagno potrebbe essere un modo per manipolarle e controllarle ulteriormente. Le donne devono essere messe a conoscenza della possibilità di ricevere esse stesse supporto e di rientrare in progetti di sicurezza. Le informazioni fornite dalle compagne dovrebbero essere incluse nell’accertamento dei rischi e nella valutazione dell’autore...

 

# Corte Costituzionale, Sentenza n. 186/2015 (Decisione del 24/06/2015 - Deposito del 23/07/2015)

La Corte Costituzionale ha respinto il ricorso promosso dal Tribunale di sorveglianza di Messina contro la legge 81/2014 sul superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari, giudicando non fondata la questione di legittimità costituzionale. Il ricorso contestava la legge 81/2014 nelle parti in cui stabilisce che l’accertamento della pericolosità sociale “è effettuato sulla base delle qualità soggettive della persona e senza tenere conto delle condizioni (cosiddette ambientali)  di cui all’articolo 133, secondo comma, numero 4, del codice penale” e che “non costituisce elemento idoneo a supportare il giudizio di pericolosità sociale la sola mancanza di programmi terapeutici individuali”. La Consulta conferma la piena legittimità costituzionale della legge 81, laddove in sostanza ci dice che un malato povero, emarginato, senza casa o abbandonato dai servizi non può diventare, per questa ragione, socialmente  pericoloso e finire in OPG. Come troppo spesso sinora è accaduto...

 

Corte d'Appello di Bologna
# Circolare in merito alla chiusura degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari. Rapporti dell'Autorità giudiziaria con i responsabili delle Residenze pr l'Esecuzione delle Misure di Sicureazza (REMS). Rapporti con la Polizia Penitenziaria nel corso della esecuzione della misura
Circolare n. 5406/PROT. - 22 luglio 2015

 

Andrea Pugiotto
# Dalla chiusura degli Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari alla (possibile) eclissi della pena manicomiale
Costituzionalismo.it, Fasc. 2 | 2015
Dopo ripetuti rinvii, la legge n. 81 del 2014 conferma finalmente la data (31marzo 2015) per la chiusura dei sei Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari operanti in Italia. A tale dispositivo abolizionista si accompagna l’introduzione di un corpo normativo inedito in grado, se integralmente applicato, di trasformare la misura di sicurezza detentiva da regola – fin qui seriale, meccanica, inumana e degradante – a legale eccezione. Il saggio ricostruisce la coerenza sistematica del testo legislativo, evidenziandone i profili di indubbio spessore costituzionale, in ideale dialettica con il Tribunale di Sorveglianza di Messina che, all’indomani dell’entrata in vigore, ha già impugnato davanti alla Corte costituzionale la novella in uno dei suoi snodi fondamentali (la ridefinizione della diagnosi di pericolosità sociale del reo non imputabile).

 

Agnieszka Piróg-Balcerzak, Bogusław Habrat, Paweł Mierzejewski
# Misuse and abuse of quetiapine
www.psychiatriapolska.pl/ Psychiatr. Pol. 2015; 49(1): 81–93
Most reports concern males, and especially those with a history of other psychoactive substance abuse, and personality disorders, often in conflict with the law. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing quetiapine to such patients. Descriptions of cases of improper admission or abuse of quetiapine are mainly related to men. Another high-risk population are prisoners and persons with criminal records, and in some prisons it is a widespread phenomenon.

 

Giuliano Balbi
# Infermità di mente e pericolosità sociale tra OPG e REMS
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 20 luglio 2015
1. Infermo di mente autore di reato e controllo sociale. Considerazioni introduttive. – 2. Infermità di mente e pericolosità sociale come strumenti di elusione dei principi di derivazione illuministico-liberale. – 3. Un gioco a carte truccate: pericolosità sociale e doppio binario. – 4. La l. 81/2014. Le misure di sicurezza detentive tra sussidiarietà e limite di durata. – 5. Sulla vaghezza del concetto di infermità mentale. – 6. Il tempo sospeso. Tra REMS che non aprono e OPG che non chiudono. 

 

Neelu Sharma, Om Prakash, K. S. Sengar, A. R. Singh
# A Study of Mental Health Problems in Criminals in Terms of Depression, Anxiety and Stress
Global Journal of Human Social Science - Volume XV, 2015
In present study mental health problems were found to be prevalent in both the groups of offender though rapist’s group had more prevalence of mental health problems. The findings of the present study emphasize the need of assessment of psychiatric disorders in prison setting on a broad level. The high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress in riminals points toward the dire needs of psychiatric assessment, management and rehabilitation programs in prison.

 

Stefano Cecconi
# Chiudere gli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari, per aprire spazi ai diritti e alla cittadinanza
www.stopopg.it/ Roma, 14 luglio 2015
Siamo consapevoli che la chiusura degli Opg sarà graduale ma niente può e deve fermarla. Chiudere gli Opg sarà una vittoria per tutti. Per le persone che hanno subito e subiscono l’internamento, in primo luogo. Ma anche per gli operatori degli Opg e dei servizi di salute mentale è una grande vittoria, e un’opportunità per restituire più qualità al lavoro. Perché sappiamo che costruire l’alternativa alla logica manicomiale dipende dalla qualità del lavoro nei servizi. La strada è in salita...

 

Giovanna Bellini, Marco Strano (a cura di)
# Anatomia di un reato: Stalking. Manuale didattico - Operativo
www.stalkingtalk.it/ Luglio 2015

... Dietro ad un comportamento caratterizzato da atti persecutori, per utilizzare il termine giuridico, si celano cause e fini molto diversi tra loro che vanno dal seguire un impulso irrefrenabile, all'adottare un comportamento strumentale, come avviene ad esempio nelle false accuse. In questi ultimi casi come  vedremo, la auto dichiarata “vittima” risulterà in realtà colei che di fatto ha avuto il vero comportamento persecutore nei confronti della persona che risulterà successivamente accusata senza un fondamento. Tali false accuse possono essere effettuate per rivalsa, per ottenere un qualche beneficio o talora per vera mana persecutoria...

 

Psichiatria Democratica
# Chiudere gli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari, superare le REMS: le proposte di Psichiatria Democratica per governare il cambiamento
www.psichiatriademocratica.com/ 26 maggio 2015

... Si è commesso - da parte delle Istituzioni - l’errore di partire dal posto letto, di puntare sul luogo e non sulle persone, di oggettivare e non soggettivare il bisogno: in questa ottica, come ben sappiamo, i posti letto non saranno mai sufficienti né nelle REMS provvisorie né in quelle definitive; non si è partiti, cioè, dal programma individualizzato, per ciascuna persona, come si dovrebbe fare, sempre, nell’approntare progetti che riguardano la vita di ciascuno. Ecco perché i “gruppi tecnici” hanno, in genere, di  nuovo fallito e, comunque, non sono riusciti a scrollarsi di dosso la neo- manicomializzazione che la paura del folle porta con sè
...

 

Human Rights Watch
# Callous and Cruel. Use of Force against Inmates with Mental Disabilities in US Jails and Prisons
http://www.hrw.org/ May 2015
It is well known that US prisons and jails have taken on the role of mental health facilities. This new role for them reflects, to a great extent, the limited availability of communitybased outpatient and residential mental health programs and resources, and the lack of alternatives to incarceration for men and women with mental disabilities who have engaged in minor offenses... What is less well known is that persons with mental disabilities who are behind bars are at heightened risk of physical mistreatment by staff. 

 

Alan R. Felthous
# Enforced Medication in Jails and Prisons: The New Asylums
www.albanygovernmentlawreview.org/ 5/1/2015

That the dramatic reduction in the hospitalization of seriously mentally ill individuals has been a factor in the progressive and substantial increase in the numbers of incarcerated individuals in the United States is well known. Less well publicized is the failure of state governments to keep up with the increasing need for hospitalization within correctional systems and in some cases the withdrawal of hospital services for mentally disordered inmates in need of this level of care. Textbooks on correctional psychiatry do not address the nature and purposes of security hospitals. Neither have courts addressed whether the community practice of administering enforced medication in a mental hospital or ward should apply as well for incarcerated persons in need of this level of treatment ...

 

Alfred J.Lewy
# Circadian Rhythms and Mood Disorders: A Guide for the Perplexed
J Clin Psychiatry 76:5, May 2015

 

Zheng Chang, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Larsson, Seena Fazel
# Substance use disorders, psychiatric disorders, and mortality after release from prison: a nationwide longitudinal cohort study
www.thelancet.com/ May 2015
Every year more than 30 million people circulate through prisons, and most will eventually return to their communities. The period after release is associated with high risk for various health outcomes, and many studies have provided an  epidemiological description of high mortality in people released from prison compared with the general population...

 

Mona Sobhani
# Extending the Logic of the Juvenile Justice System to a Separate Justice System for Mentally Ill Offenders
www.albanygovernmentlawreview.org/ 2015
Overall, this analysis suggests that the method the current criminal justice system implements in handling mentally ill offenders are outrageously inadequate, inhumane and unsustainable. Mental health courts, in which mentally ill offenders are linked with treatment, are a good option, and there should be a push for other counties to consider the benefits of these specialty courts.

 

Mirella Ruggeri, Chiara Bonetto, Antonio Lasalvia, Angelo Fioritti, Giovanni de Girolamo, Paolo Santonastaso, Francesca Pileggi, Giovanni Neri, Daniela Ghigi, Franco Giubilini, Maurizio Miceli, Silvio Scarone, Angelo Cocchi, Stefano Torresani, Carlo Faravelli, Carla Cremonese, Paolo Scocco, Emanuela Leuci, Fausto Mazzi, Michela Pratelli, Francesca Bellini, Sarah Tosato, Katia De Santi, Sarah Bissoli, Sara Poli, Elisa Ira, Silvia Zoppei, Paola Rucci, Laura Bislenghi, Giovanni Patelli, Doriana Cristofalo, Anna Meneghelli, and The GET UP Group

# Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Multi-Element Psychosocial Intervention for First- Episode Psychosis: Results From the Cluster-Randomized Controlled GET UP PIANO Trial in a Catchment Area of 10 Million Inhabitants
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2015

Interest in psychosocial interventions to facilitate recovery and reduce long-term disability in patients with firstepisode psychosis (FEP) has been growing. Clinical  guidelines for this population recommend an early and integrated approach, based on psychosocial interventions. The results of multi-element interventions, including early detection strategies; individual, group, and family therapy; case management; and pharmacological treatment, are promising, with symptom reduction, improved quality of life, increased social and cognitive functioning, lower inpatient admission rates, less in-hospital time, improved insight, greater treatment satisfaction, decreased substance abuse, and fewer self-harm episodes...

 

New South Wales Government | Family & Community Services
# Violence Risk Assessment Practice Guide. Practice Guide for Practitioners who Support People with Disability
www.adhc.nsw.gov.au/
In violence risk assessment the primary information that is gathered relates to known risk factors. Risk factors refer to a condition or characteristic of the person or their environment that research has demonstrated is predictive of future violence i.e. it is evidence based.

 

Carol Fisler
# Toward a New Understanding of Mental Health Courts
www.courtinnovation.org/ The Judges' Journal, Volume 54, Number 2, Spring 2015
Mental health courts, like other innovations in justice, began as an experiment, testing the proposition that linking defendants with mental illnesses to court-supervised, community-based treatment as an alternative to incarceration would lead to improved mental health outcomes and reduced criminal justice involvement. A handful of mental health courts were launched in the late 1990s, a few dozen by 2003, and by 2010 approximately 300 were operating in more than 40 states, involving tens of thousands of defendants.

 

Hon. John H. Guthmann
# Ramsey County Mental Health Court: Working with Community Partners to Improve the Lives of Mentaly Ill Defendants, Reduce Recidivism, and Enhance Public Safety
Wiliam Mitchell Law Review, vol. 41:3, 2015

While mental health courts are not the only answer, they are an important part of the answer. RCMHC (Ramsey County Mental Health Court) has a proven record of success.260 With continued public support, RCMHC and other mental health courts in Minnesota and around the country will continue to enhance public safety, reduce recidivism, and help individuals with mental illness who commit crimes improve their lives. 

 

Megan A. Lee
# Mental Health Services and the American Inmate: A Systematic Review of Literature
Master of Social Work Clinical Research Papers, Paper 482, 2015
As the number of patients treated for mental illness by state hospitals has decreased over the last few decades, county, state, and federal prisons have become inundated with mentally ill offenders who often lack the proper treatment and support to manage their illnesses. It has been estimated that over 50% of criminal offenders in jails and prisons in the United States have issues with mental health, compared to 11% of the general population, with higher rates for females (73%)...

 

Ana Swanson
# A Shocking Number of Mentally Ill Americans End Up in Prison Instead of Treatment
Washington Post, April 30, 2015
According to a report by the Treatment Advocacy Center, which includes the anecdotes above, American prisons and jails housed an estimated 356,268 inmates with several mental illness in 2012—on par with the population of Anchorage, Alaska, or Trenton, New Jersey. That figure is more than 10 times the number of mentally ill patients in state psychiatric hospitals in the same year—about 35,000 people.

 

Laura Wallis
# Neglecting Mental Health Treatment in Prisoners. High rates of recidivism are only one of the costs
AJN, Vol. 115, No. 4, April 2015
In the United States today, we have more mentally ill people behind bars than anywhere else, which in effect, makes our correctional system the largest provider of mental health services in the nation...

 

Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica
# La contenzione: problemi etici
www.governo.it/ 23 aprile 2015
Il parere “La contenzione: problemi bioetici” affronta il tema della contenzione nei confronti dei pazienti psichiatrici e degli anziani, con particolare riguardo alle forme di contenzione meccanica, che più sollevano riserve dal punto di vista etico e giuridico. Numerose prese di posizione di organismi internazionali e dello stesso CNB in precedenti pareri hanno già indicato con chiarezza l’obiettivo della riduzione fino al superamento della contenzione, che è da considerarsi un residuo della cultura manicomiale.

 

Michele Passione, # Opg, le tante resistenze alla chiusura, il Manifesto, 21.4.2015

# Dopo la chiusura degli Opg. Psichiatri e magistrati: “Tutto risolto? Neanche per sogno”, www.ilFarmacistaonline.it/ 18 Aprile 2015

Mario Iannucci Il “superamento degli OPG” fra incompetenza, scelleratezza, ipocrisia e ignavia, www.ristretti.org/ 16 aprile 2015

Andrea Fiorello # Halden, un'altra idea del carcere, www.ilpost.it, 10 aprile 2015

Jessica Benko # The Radical Humaneness of Norway’s Halden Prison. The goal of the Norwegian penal system is to get inmates out of it, www.nytimes.com/ March 26, 2015

 

Emilio Sacchetti (Presidente Società Italiana di Psichiatria)
# Opg: dopo il superamento, il nodo del cambiamento: psichiatri e giuristi a confronto
www.sanita24.ilsole24ore.com/ 17 aprile 2015

 

Luigi Ferrannini
OPG: per le Regioni quali problemi (in)attesi?
Va' Pensiero n° 658 | 15 aprile 2015
Pericolosità sociale = malattia psichiatrica è un’equazione che – anche per gli aspetti diagnostici, clinici e terapeutici – andrebbe assunta con molta cautela per non rischiare di rimanere fermi ad una concezione oggi non comprensibile... Sia i comportamenti-reato sia le motivazioni dello stesso sono profondamente modificati rispetto al passato, così come lo sono gli intrecci complessi tra reato, abuso di sostanze stupefacenti ed effetti personali degli abusi di sostanze stupefacenti delle quali in molti casi non si conoscono nemmeno le azioni.

 

Francesco Maisto
OPG: dalla Legge ai fatti
www.pensiero.it/ 8 aprile 2015
 

Francesco Maisto
Quale superamento dell'OPG?
www.questionegiustizia.it/ 7 aprile 2015

 

Teresa Di Fiandra, Fabio Voller (coordinamento) | Giorgio Bazzerla, Eleonora Fanti, Fabio Ferrari, Marco Grignani, Sandro Libianchi, Gianrocco Martino, Antonio Maria Pagano, Franco Scarpa, Caterina Silvestri Settore sociale, Cristina Stasi | ARS Toscana
# La salute dei detenuti in Italia: i risultati di uno studio multicentrico
www.ars.toscana.it/ Aprile 2015

Nella nostra coorte il 41,3% (N=6.504) del totale dei detenuti arruolati è risultato affetto da almeno una patologia psichiatrica. Le diagnosi di disturbi psichici sono state 9.886, vale a dire circa il 43% del totale di quelle rilevate. Ciò significa che ogni soggetto con un disturbo di salute mentale era portatore mediamente di 1,5 diagnosi di malattie appartenenti a questo grande gruppo... Quasi la metà delle diagnosi di questo grande gruppo di malattie è attribuibile al disturbo mentale da dipendenza da sostanze, un problema che affligge circa il 24% di tutta la popolazione detenuta arruolata nello studio...

 

Giulia Alberti
# Chiudono gli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari (?): la situazione e le prospettive in Lombardia
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 31 Marzo 2015
Dal 31 marzo 2015 gli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari sono chiusi e le misure di sicurezza del ricovero in ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario e dell'assegnazione a casa di cura e custodia sono eseguite esclusivamente all'interno di strutture sanitarie realizzate dalle regioni secondo i seguenti criteri: a) esclusiva gestione sanitaria all'interno delle strutture; b) attivita' perimetrale di sicurezza e di vigilanza esterna, ove necessario in relazione alle condizioni dei soggetti interessati, da svolgere nel limite delle risorse umane, strumentali e finanziarie disponibili a legislazione vigente; c) destinazione delle strutture ai soggetti provenienti, di norma, dal territorio regionale di ubicazione delle medesime...

 

Saverio Migliori
# 31 marzo 2015: chiudono gli Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari. La sfida di Montelupo Fiorentino e
l’esigenza di scelte condivise e coraggiose

Montelupo Fiorentino, 01 aprile 2015

 

Didier Fassin
# L’asile et la prison
Esprit, Mars-avril 2015

Plus tolérantes à l’égard de la maladie mentale, mais aussi mieux équipées pour la prendre en charge en dehors de l’espace asilaire, les sociétés contemporaines sont devenues plus sévères, à l’inverse, contre la petite délinquance et plus généralement la criminalité, en enfermant plus et plus longtemps et en tenant de moins en moins compte de la santé mentale des personnes qu’on punit et des conséquences psychologiques d’une telle sanction...

 

Adrian P Mundt, Sinja Kastner, Jan Mir, Stefan Priebe
# Did female prisoners with mental disorders receive psychiatric treatment before imprisonment?
Psychiatry (2015) 15:5
Throughout the world, high prevalence rates of mental disorders have been found in prison populations, especially in females. It has been suggested that these populations do not access psychiatric treatment. The aim of this study was to establish rates of psychiatric in- and outpatient treatments prior to imprisonment in female prisoners and to explore reasons for discontinuation of such treatments

 

Jessica Benko
# The Radical Humaneness of Norway’s Halden Prison. The goal of the Norwegian penal system is to get inmates out of it.
New York Times, March 26, 2015

 

Toshi A Furukawa
# The relationship between depression and violent crime
www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 2 March 2015
The incidence of violent crime in the cases with depression was 3·7% (men) and 0·5% (women) during the mean follow-up of 3 years compared with 10·7% (men) and 2·7% (women) for schizophrenia within 5 years of first diagnosis. In patients with bipolar disorder the incidence was 9·5%, in patients with traumatic brain injury was 8·8%, and in patients with epilepsy was 4·2%.

 

Mark Toynbee
# The Penrose hypothesis in the 21st century: revisiting the asylum
http://ebmh.bmj.com/ Evid Based Mental Health August 2015 Vol 18 No 3

 

Adrian P. Mundt, Winnie S. Chow, Margarita Arduino, Hugo Barrionuevo, Rosemarie Fritsch, Nestor Girala, Alberto Minoletti, Flávia Mitkiewicz, Guillermo Rivera, María Tavares, Stefan Priebe
# Psychiatric Hospital Beds and Prison Populations in South America Since 1990 Does the Penrose Hypothesis Apply?
JAMA Psychiatry, 72(2):112-118, 2015
Since 1990, the numbers of psychiatric beds have substantially decreased in South America, while the sizes of the prison populations have increased against a background of strong economic growth. The changes appear to be associated because the numbers of beds decreased more extensively when and where the sizes of prison populations increased. These findings are consistent with and specify the assumption of an association between the numbers of  psychiatric beds and the sizes of prison populations. More research is needed to understand the drivers of the capacities of psychiatric hospitals and prisons and to explore reasons for their association.

 

Massimo Casacchia, Maurizio Malavolta, Valeria Bianchini, Laura Giusti, Vittorio Di Michele, Patricia Giosuè, Mirella Ruggeri, Massimo Biondi, Rita Roncone, Direttivo sezione italiana World Association for Psychological Rehabilitation (WAPR)
# Il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari: a new deal per la salute mentale?
Riv Psichiatr 2015; 50(5): 199-209

... una nuova era, che idealmente segue alla Legge 180, durante la quale si dovrà con determinazione perseguire l’obiettivo di curare e aiutare le persone affette da disturbi mentali e autrici di reato al di fuori di istituzioni concentrazionali, sul territorio, con il coinvolgimento delle reti familiari e sociali e delle migliori risorse tecnico- cientifiche, e di monitorarne con accuratezza i processi e gli esiti.
 

 

Terry A. Kupers
# A Community Mental Health Model in Corrections
Stanford Law & Policy Review, vol 26:119, 2015
When it comes to the treatment of individuals with mental illness in correctional facilities, the central question is: “Who is the prisoner?” Is he or she a human being with feelings and rights? Or is the prisoner an animal who should be kept in a cage with no social interactions nor productive activities,  and then sprayed with immobilizing gas as punishment for behaviors the prisoner with serious mental illness cannot control?

 

Dustin DeMoss
# The Nightmare of Prison for Individuals With Mental Illness
www.huffingtonpost.com/ 03/25/2015
The result is that many people with mental illness who are incarcerated find themselves back in prison again. The fact of the matter is that our mental health system has failed as the federal government continues to deny and ignore the promises made to improve the system by taking responsibility from the states. The result is that recidivism rates among the mentally ill is soaring

 

Seena Fazel, Achim Wolf, Zheng Chang, Henrik Larsson, Guy M Goodwin, Paul Lichtenstein
# Depression and violence: a Swedish population study
www.thelancet.com/ Lancet Psychiatry 2015; 2: 224–32
Depression is associated with increased risk of a wide range of adverse outcomes, including reduced life expectancy, suicide, self-harm, acute myocardial infarction, and a worse prognosis for comorbidities, such as heart disease and diabetes. Clinical experience and expert opinion also suggest an association with the risk of perpetrating violence, including homicide in male perpetrators.

 

Stefano Rossi
# La salute mentale attraverso lo spettro dei diritti umani
www.forumcostituzionale.it/ 22 marzo 2015
Benché, nella maggior parte degli Stati occidentali, si siano adottate misure significative per includere nella legislazione tutele per i diritti e le libertà delle persone con sofferenza mentale, permangono comunque “faglie” nelle quali si realizzano, ancor oggi, aperte violazioni dei diritti umani, spesso giustificate da visioni politiche o sociali che intendono la malattia mentale come espressione di pericolosità sociale, stigmatizzando la patologia e la persona che ne è portatrice.

 

KiDeuk Kim, Miriam Becker-Cohen, Maria Serakos
# The Processing and Treatment of Mentally Ill Persons in the Criminal Justice System. Scan of Practice and Background Analysis
www.urban.org/ Urban Institute, March 2015
Although a number of important gaps in the current literature and, particularly, in rigorous quantitative evaluations of the success of programs and their costs have limited our ability to arrive at more concrete conclusions, the data remain clear about one thing: individuals with mental illness are still largely overrepresented in the criminal justice system. With such high numbers, their care and treatment is not just a humanitarian concern; it is a critical economic, societal, and public safety issue. 

 

CQ Researcher. In-depth reports on today's issues
# Prisoners and Mental Illness. Are too many with psychiatric problems behind bars?
www.cor.pa.gov/ March 13, 2015, vol. 25, n. 11, pp. 241-264

Thousands of people with schizophrenia, severe depression, delusional disorders or other mental problems are locked up, often in solitary confinement. While some committed violent crimes and remain a threat to themselves or other inmates and prison staff, many are incarcerated for minor offenses, simply because there is no place to send them for treatment. The number of mentally ill inmates has mushroomed in recent years as states have closed their psychiatric hospitals in favor of outpatient community mental health centers that typically are underfunded and overcrowded. In an attempt to reduce the influx of mentally ill inmates, some 300 specialized mental health courts have diverted them into court-monitored treatment instead of jail.

 

Sarah Glowa-Kollisch, Jasmine Graves, Nathaniel Dickey, Ross MacDonald, Zachary Rosner, Anthony Waters, Homer Venters
# Data-Driven Human Rights: Using Dual Loyalty Trainings to Promote the Care of Vulnerable Patients in Jail
www.hhrjournal.org/ Health and Human Rights 17/1 on March 12, 2015
Dual loyalty is an omnipresent feature of correctional health. As part of a human rights quality improvement committee, and utilizing the unique advantage of a fully integrated electronic health record system, we undertook an assessment of dual loyalty in the New York City jail system. The evaluation revealed significant concerns about the extent to which the mental health service is involved in assessments that are part of the punishment process of the security apparatus. As a result, dual loyalty training was developed and delivered to all types of health staff in the jail system via anonymous survey.

Thomas R. Blair, Keramet A. Reiter
# Solitary Confinement and Mental Illness: Ethical Challenges for Clinicians; In Response to Glowa-Kollisch et al.
www.hhrjournal.org/ July 2, 2015

 

Julia Stasch
# US jails are warehouses of sick, poor and low-risk people
www.theguardian.com/ 6 March 2015
Many jails today must do the jobs of mental health institutions, even though they lack the resources or expertise to treat the mentally ill... Research shows that serious mental illness affects an estimated 14.5% of men in jails and 31% of women - rates that are three to six times higher than in the general population.

 

Health Capital Topics
# Mental Health Status of Inmates & the Homeless Population
www.healthcapital.com/ vol. 8, issue 2, February 2015
Jails and prisons have now become the housing ground for most of these patients, and are places where the most severe forms of psychosis are treated, with the inmates’ symptoms becoming more severe over time. Inmates are sometimes left untreated and or punished for acts that are exacerbated by their illness. In 2012, there were roughly 356,268 inmates with severe mental illnesses who were incarcerated in the U.S. In comparison, only 35,000 people with the same severity in illnesses were sent to a psychiatric hospital...

 

Nancy Wolff, M. Gregory Chugo, Jing Shi, Jessica Huening, B. Christopher Frueh
# Screening for PTSD among Incarcerated Men: A Comparative Analysis of Computer-Administered and Orally Administered Modalities
Crim Justice Behav. 2015 February ; 42(2): 219–236
Trauma exposure is overrepresented in incarcerated male populations. Surveys of trauma exposure among incarcerated men have found rates of trauma exposure ranging from 62.4% to 100% compared with rates of 43% to 92% for community-based male populations. Moreover, incarcerated men, compared with men residing in the community, are more likely to report experiencing physical and sexual assaultive violence.

 

Timothy Williams
# Jails Have Become Warehouses for the Poor, Ill and Addicted, a Report Says
www.nytimes.com/ Feb. 11, 2015

Jails across the country have become vast warehouses made up primarily of people too poor to post bail or too ill with mental health or drug problems to adequately care for themselves, according to a report issued Wednesday.

 

Ram Subramanian, Ruth Delaney, Stephen Roberts, Nancy Fishman, Peggy McGarry | Vera Institute of Justice
# Incarceration's Front Door: The Misuse of Jails in America
http://www.vera.org/ February 2015

 

Veerle Buffel, Vera van de Straat, Piet Bracke
# Employment status and mental health care use in times of economic contraction: a repeated cross-sectional study in Europe, using a three-level model
International Journal for Equity in Health (2015) 14:29
Our findings stress the importance of taking the macro-economic context and changes therein into account when studying the mental health care use of unemployed people compared with the employed, in particular among men. Moreover, it is important to make the distinction between primary and specialized medical care use, as the impact of macro-economic conditions is dependent on the type of care, which also applies when controlling for mental health.

 

Corte Costituzionale,
# Sentenza n. 45/2015 - Deposito del 25/03/2015
Sull'incapace eternamente giudicabile

2013: Il tema degli “eternamente giudicabili” torna davanti alla Corte Costituzionale

 

Regione Lombardia
# Schema di accordo tra Regione Lombardia e Regione Liguria per l'accoglimento di pazienti con residenza in Liguria presso residenze per l'esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza sanitaria (REMS) realizzate in Regione Lombardia
Deliberazione n° X / 3274 Seduta del 16/03/2015

 

Paola Di Nicola
# La chiusura degli OPG: un'occasione mancata
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 13 marzo 2015
Da dove partiamo. – 2. Dal manicomio giudiziario all’ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario (OPG). – 3. Chi viene internato o recluso nell’ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario. – 4. Il lento percorso legislativo della chiusura degli OPG: sintesi delle fonti principali. – 5. La valutazione di pericolosità sociale prima della “riforma”. – 6. L’Autorità giudiziaria preposta alla valutazione della pericolosità sociale. – 7. La valutazione della pericolosità sociale dopo “la riforma” e la realtà giudiziaria. – 8. La cosiddetta “non pericolosità condizionata”. – 9. Il silenzio della “riforma” sull’obbligo di tutela delle vittime dei reati. – 10. Gli effetti della mancanza di programmi terapeutici individuali per gli internati. – 11. I termini di durata delle misure di sicurezza detentive: una “riforma” a legislazione processuale invariata. – 12. Il calcolo della durata delle misure di sicurezza detentive e orientamenti giurisprudenziali sull’applicabilità di altre misure. – 13. Conclusioni.

 

Paolo Giordano

# Gli ultimi internati della nostra storia. Così finisce un’idea di detenzione
www.corriere.it/ 9 marzo 2015

 Il 31 marzo è prevista la chiusura degli Opg. Le incognite sul futuro. Per i soggetti considerati gravi nuove «residenze» affidate alla Sanità... Ma sarebbe troppo comodo accodarsi alla scia dello sdegno comune, condannare gli Opg come luoghi isolati di sadismo sfrenato, senza rilevare la parte di responsabilità che ognuno di noi ha avuto in tutto questo: la convenienza di una nazione intera che, dopo avere applaudito a lungo se stessa per la chiusura dei manicomi, ha tollerato per decenni delle realtà perfino peggiori, in ragione della presunta pericolosità sociale di alcuni infermi... e forse è il concetto stesso di «pericolosità sociale» a essere errato...

 

Roger H. Peters, Harry K. Wexler, Arthur J. Lurigio
# Co-Occurring Substance Use and Mental Disorders in the Criminal Justice System: A New Frontier of Clinical Practice and Research
Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 2015, Vol. 38, No. 1, 1– 6
Health care problems are prevalent within offender populations. For example, more than two thirds of jail detainees and half of prison inmates have a substance use disorder, compared with 9% of people in the general population. Similarly, rates of serious mental illnesses (i.e., bipolar disorder, major depression, and schizophrenia) are 4 – 6 times higher in jails and 3– 4 times higher in prisons than in the general population...

 

Christy K. Scott, Michael L. Dennis, Arthur J. Lurigio
# Comorbidity Among Female Detainees in Drug Treatment: An Exploration of Internalizing and Externalizing Disorders
Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 2015, Vol. 38, No. 1, 35–44
This study investigated the comorbidity of substance use disorders (SUDs) and other psychiatric disorders (OPDs) in a sample of female detainees enrolled in a jail-based drug treatment program. Comorbidity refers to disorders or classes of disorders that cooccur and often share risk factors, causes, and consequences. Co-occurring disorders are related to medical problems, suicide, unemployment, homelessness, arrests, and incarcerations (Mueser, Noordsy, Drake, & Fox, 2003). People with comorbidity are significantly more likely than people with only an SUD or an OPD to ignore medication orders; commit violent acts; endure recurring episodes of either type of disorder; and suffer from numerous adverse medical, legal, and social sequelae.

 

Beverly Frazier, Hung-En Sung, Lior Gideon
# The Impact of Prison Deinstitutionalization on Mental Health and Substance
Abuse Treatment Services in Local Communities
Health and Justice (2015) 3:9
By using a path analysis of the hydraulic model, we argue that social systems, similar to water moving in closed tubes, aspire to equilibrate. In other words, a decrease in prison population will not go without a corresponding increase in community mental health and substance abuse services. Social voids like those created by deinstitutionalization must be filled; and with states deinstitutionalizing offenders the toll is on their corresponding communities to address the needs of those offenders who are reentering after being incarcerated. In devising a policy and practice strategy to address the projected increase in the reentry population, leadership within communities for social and supportive services to ex-prisoners, specifically treatment services should be of primary concern. 

 

Holly M. Harner, Mia Budescu, Seth J. Gillihan, Suzanne Riley, Edna B. Foa
# Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Incarcerated Women: A Call for Evidence-Based Treatment
Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy © 2013 APA, 2015, Vol. 7, No. 1, 58–66
The majority of women who enter the criminal justice system, most of whom are poor and women of color, have suffered from significant lifetime trauma exposure that can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)... we estimated the prevalence of PTSD and comorbid physical and mental health conditions in 387 incarcerated women sentenced to a maximum-security prison in the United States. Almost half (44%) of our sample met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD

 

Donatela Coccoli
# Oltre gli OPG la nebbia. Il 31 marzo la chiusura degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari. Allorizzonte, l'incognita sulla destinazione dei "folli rei"
Left, 28 febbraio 2015

 

Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri. Conferenza Unificata
# Accordo concernente disposizioni per il definitivo superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari
24 febbraio 2015

 

Thierry Brigaud, Jean-François Corty, Claude-Olivier Doron, Vincent Girard
# Troubles psychiatriques et prison: casser la spirale
http://blogs.mediapart.fr/ 06 Janvier 2015

 

Equality and Human Rights commission
# Preventing Deaths in Detention of Adults with Mental Health Conditions
www.equalityhumanrights.com/ February 2015
Between 2010 and 2013 367 adults with mental health conditions died of ‘nonnatural’ causes while in state detention in police cells and psychiatric wards. Another 295 adults died in prison of ‘non-natural’ causes, many of these had mental health conditions. Since 2013 that number has risen considerably. Each of them left behind loved ones who have suffered as a result of these deaths.

 

Randeep Ramesh
# Hospital psychiatric detainees more at risk of preventable death. Deaths of more than 600 mentally ill detainees in England and Wales could have been avoided, says Equality and Human Rights Commission report
www.theguardian.com/ Monday 23 February 2015

 

S. Hoke
# Mental Illness and Prisoners: Concerns for Communities and Healthcare Providers

OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing Vol. 20, No. 1, Manuscript 3, January 31, 2015
Rates of mental illness in the U.S. alone are burdensome. The U.S. Department of Justice (USDOJ) found that more than half of all inmates, or over than 1 million individuals, have a mental illness compared to 11% of the general population; and yet only 1 of 3 prison inmates and 1 of 6 jail inmates receive any form of mental health treatment...

 

Sam P. K. Collins
# Pennsylvania Overhauls Health Care For Mentally Ill Inmates
http://thinkprogress.org/ January 7, 2015

 

Agnieszka Piróg-Balcerzak, Bogusław Habrat, Paweł Mierzejewski
# Misuse and abuse of quetiapine
Psychiatr. Pol. 2015; 49(1): 81–93
The paper presents and discusses the reports of quetiapine misuse, abuse, and even mentaladdiction, as well as symptoms similar to the so-called discontinuation syndrome, often mixedwith withdrawal syndrome occurring in the course of addiction. Most reports concern males, and especially those with a history of other psychoactive substance abuse, and personality disorders, often in conflict with the law. Therefore, clinicians should be cautious when prescribing quetiapine to such patients.

 

Rich Lord
# Pennsylvania prison system develops separate housing for mentally ill inmates
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 6, 2015
Inmates with serious mental illnesses will no longer be locked in cells all day, under new policies outlined Monday by state prison officials. The change, which follows scathing criticism of the Department of Corrections’ handling of mentally ill inmates, is meant to address one of the toughest tasks in prison management: tailoring discipline to an inmate’s diagnosis. In 2013, the state’s confinement of 800 to 1,000 mentally ill inmates in Restricted Housing Units — 23 hours per day in small, one-bed cells — was blasted by the U.S. Department of Justice and by advocates for the disabled.

 

Deirdre M. Smith
# Dangerous Diagnoses, Risky Assumptions, and the Failed Experiment of “Sexually Violent Predator” Commitment
Okla. L. Rev. 619 (2015)
In 1990, the state of Washington was consumed by news of a highly publicized, violent sexual crime committed against a young child by an offender with prior convictions for violence against children. In response to public outcry, the Washington legislature enacted a statute allowing the state to continue to detain certain sex offenders after they had completed their criminal sentences. The targets of these new laws were dubbed “Sexually Violent Predators” (SVPs), a label intended to connote a subclass of sex offenders who run a high risk of recidivism after their release due to the presence of a mental abnormality or personality disorder...

 

Francesco Schiaffo
# La pericolosità sociale tra 'sottigliezze empiriche' e 'spessori normativi': la riforma di cui alla legge n. 81/2014
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 11 Dicembre 2014
Nell'ambito delle strategie per il superamento degli OPG, la legge n.81/2014 è intervenuta incidendo sugli assetti fondamentali della disciplina delle misure di sicurezza e, in particolare, sui criteri del giudizio di pericolosità sociale degli infermi e seminfermi di mente. Sotto quest'ultimo profilo, la riforma, per quanto criticata e oggettivamente discutibile per taluni aspetti, è parsa necessaria ad adeguare la disciplina di riferimento a fondamentali parametri di legittimità costituzionale ed impedire, quindi, «una certa dilatazione del concetto di pericolosità sociale» che, nella prassi giudiziaria, era già stata rilevata nel 2011 dalla Commissione parlamentare sul sistema sanitario nazionale.

 

Eduardo De Cunto
# Norma e normalità. Malattia mentale, diritti, responsabilità
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 2014
La normalità in ambito psichiatrico è aciò che l’individuo malato deve conquistare o ritrovare al termine del percorso terapeutico. Nella definizione del confine tra comportamento normale e patologico ci troviamo dunque alle prese con una serie di modelli che si vengono ad affiancare alle norme etiche, religiose, giuridiche, nel più ampio genus delle norme comportamentali. Nella definizione della norma si stabilisce un rapporto tra malattia mentale e regolamentazione giuridica, tra psichiatria e diritto, nell'interscambio di saperi, finalità, linguaggi.

 

Mark Olfson, Marissa King, Michael Schoenbaum
# Benzodiazepine Use in the United States
JAMA Psychiatry, December 17, 2014
In 2008, approximately 5.2% of US adults aged 18 to 80 years used benzodiazepines. The percentage who used benzodiazepines increased with age from 2.6% (18-35 years) to 5.4% (36-50 years) to 7.4% (51-64 years) to 8.7% (65- 80 years). Benzodiazepine use was nearly twice as prevalent in women as men. The proportion of benzodiazepine use that was long term increased with age from 14.7% (18-35 years) to 31.4% (65-80 years), while the proportion that received a benzodiazepine prescription from a psychiatrist decreased with age from 15.0% (18-35 years) to 5.7% (65-80 years). In all age groups, roughly one-quarter of individuals receiving benzodiazepine involved long-acting benzodiazepine use.

 

Senato - 12ª Commissione permanente (Igiene e sanità) - Palazzo Giustiniani, 11 novembre 2014

«Salute mentale, OPG e diritti umani»
# Maria Grazia De Biasi # Cesare Bondioli # Fabio Dito  # Gisella Trincas  # Stefano Cecconi  # Giovanna Del Giudice  www.senato.it |  www.stopopg.it/

 

Liat Ben-Moshe
# Prisons as the "New Asylums"
asylum winter 2014
In 2000 The American Psychiatric Association reported that as many as 20% of all prisoners were “seriously mentally ill”, while up to 5% were “actively psychotic” (APA, 2000). Other estimates appear to use a substantially more expansive definition of mental illness. Bureau of Justice  Statistics show that in 2005 more than half of all prison and jail inmates were reported as “having a mental health problem”. The reported prevalence of mental health problems amongst the imprisoned also seems to vary by race and gender...

 

T. Fovet, M. Bertrand, A. Amad
# Prescrire les psychotropes en milieu pénitentiaire. Prescription of psychotropic drugs in prison
La Lettre du Psychiatre • Vol. X - n° 6 - novembre-décembre 2014
... au moins 1 détenu sur 7 souffre d’une pathologie psychiatrique, ce qui correspond à une fréquence 4 à 10 fois supérieure à celle retrouvée dans la population générale. En prison, toutes les pathologies psychiatriques sont surreprésentées : troubles psychotiques, troubles de l’humeur, troubles de la personnalité, troubles anxieux et pathologies addictives. Les patients souffrant de troubles psychiatriques regroupent à la fois des sujets dont les troubles préexistaient à l’incarcération et des sujets sans antécédent psychiatrique, mais avec un terrain de vulnérabilité propice à la révélationde pathologies sous l’effet des nombreux facteurs de stress de la détention.

 

Gerard Drennan, James Wooldridge, Anne Aiyegbusi, Debbie Alred, Joe Ayres, Richard Barker, Sally Carr, Helen Eunson, Hilary Lomas, Estelle Moore, Debbie Stanton, Geoff Shepherd
Making Recovery a Reality in Forensic Settings
Centre for Mental Health and Mental Health Network, NHS Confederation 2014
The management of risk is, of course, fundamental to the success or failure of a forensic service aiming to support recovery. Despite acts of violence, many of the individuals in forensic mental health settings are also among the most vulnerable individuals in society. For many, the road to recovery starts with feeling safe. This often begins with feeling in control of oneself, having relationships that are characterised by hope, trust and compassion and by having safe living conditions.

 

Liberiana Maria Dattoli
# L’incidenza dei disturbi della personalità sulla capacità di intendere e volere. Psichiatria e giurisprudenza a confronto sul tema
Crimen et Delictum, VIII (November 2014)
Affinché possa rilevare ai sensi degli artt. 88 e 89 cod. pen., il disturbo della personalità deve avere in concreto determinato una tale compromissione delle funzioni dell’Io che, incolpevolmente, renda l’agente incapace di fruire di una percezione veritiera e fisiologica della realtà esterna e del disvalore sociale del fatto commesso, impedendo al soggetto una consapevole e libera autodeterminazione.

 

Raffaele Bianchetti

# Sollevata questione di legittimità costituzionale in merito ai nuovi criteri di accertamento della pericolosità sociale del seminfermo di mente
www.penalecontemporaneo/ 14 Novembre 2014
# Trib. Sorveglianza di Messina, 16 luglio 2014 (ord.)
Al vaglio della Consulta è stata sottoposta quella parte della novella legislativa (art. 1, co. 1, lett. b, l. 81/2014) che dispone che l'accertamento della pericolosità sociale nei confronti dell'infermo e del seminfermo di mente deve essere effettuato dal magistrato - sia esso giudice di cognizione o magistrato di sorveglianza - «sulla base delle qualità soggettive della persona e senza tenere conto delle condizioni di cui all'articolo 133, secondo comma, numero 4, del codice penale», precisando che «non costituisce elemento idoneo a supportare il giudizio di pericolosità sociale la sola mancanza di programmi terapeutici individuali».

 

Irene Forcellini
# Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari e Costituzione
Università degli Studi Roma Tre

 

Antonella Calcaterra

# Sulla chiusura degli Opg

Il Garantista, 14 novembre 2014

 

Psichiatria Democratica
# Chi vuole chiudere veramente gli OPG?
Napoli 29 ottobre 2014
I progetti personalizzati costituiscono il cuore di ogni progettualità anche con l’individuazione delle risorse destinate e tempi di attuazione definiti. Insomma non posti letto (quindi NO REMS) ma progetti di vita che contemplino luoghi di risocializzazione e programmi operativi, a medio e lungo termine, di politiche di inclusione attraverso l’abitare e il lavoro...

 

Giulia Melani
# La funzione dell'OPG. Aspetti normativi e sociologici
www.altrodiritto.unifi.it/ 2014

 

Sara Magrin
# Il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari: presa in carico delle persone con problemi di salute mentale autrici di reato e ascolto dei professionisti del territorio. L’applicazione della norma e la ricerca effettuata presso l’Ufficio di Esecuzione Penale Esterna di Verona
Università degli Stdi di Verona - Anno Accademico 2013-14

 

Tommaso Sannini

# Vizio di mente e pericolosità sociale. Aspetti storici, giuridici e sociologici

www.altrodiritto.unifi.it/ (2014)

 

Evan Mayo-Wilson, Sofi a Dias, Ifi geneia Mavranezouli, Kayleigh Kew, David M Clark, A E Ades, Stephen Pilling
# Psychological and pharmacological interventions for social anxiety disorder in adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 1 October 2014

John R Keefe
# Heightened risk of false positives in a network meta-analysis of social anxiety
www.thelancet.com/psychiatry Vol 2 April 2015

 

Klara Latalova, Dana Kamaradova, Jan Prasko
# Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 10, 2014
Relationship between victimization and violent behavior by patients with severe mental illness has been clearly confirmed. It is not clear whether past victimization predicts future violence, or past violence predicts future victimization, or both.

 

Encarnación Lozano Galván
# Alexithymia: indicator of communicative deficit in emotional health
Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 132 ( 2014 ) 603 – 607
An area of recent interest in psychology is devoted to study the factors which affect mental health; an indicator of communicative deficit in emotional health is called alexithymia index. The aim of this project is to identify the presence of high levels of alexithymia in young students; which is a risk factor for psychopathology. The TAS-20 (Toronto Alexithymia Scale) was administered to a random sample of ESO and High School students between the ages of 14 and 20, (men and women) from the regions Zafra-Río Bodión and Tendudía, located in the province of Badajoz. The results obtained have allowed us to know that a considerable percentage of our young people show a high index of alexithymia, making us aware of the need for emotional intelligence work in education

 

Claudia C. Hurducas, Jay P. Singh, Corine de Ruiter, John Petrila
# Violence Risk Assessment. Tools: A Systematic Review of Surveys
International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 13:3, 181-192, 2014
According to a recent systematic review, over 150 risk assessment tools have specifically been developed to assess the risk of violence. These instruments include schemes  such as the Historical, Clinical, Risk Management-20 , the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide, and the Sexual Violence Risk-20. Such instruments are now used on multiple continents including North America, South America, Europe and Australia...

 

Rohan Derek Borschmann
# The development and testing of joint crisis plans for people with borderline personality disorder: a feasibility study
Institute of Psychiatry King’s College London , May 2014
This dissertation expands the knowledge about effective crisis management for people with borderline personality disorder, a group who have traditionally been alienated from mainstream mental health services and are still perceived to be difficult to help. The study showed that it is possible to recruit and retain adult service users with borderline personality disorder to a trial of joint crisis plans. Although the intervention was not clinically effective, the findings suggest that the brief intervention was perceived as helpful to participants with borderline personality disorder. 

 

Dan J. Stein, Katie A. McLaughlin, Karestan C. Koenen, Lukoye Atwoli, Matthew J. Friedman, Eric D. Hill, Andreas Maercker, Maria Petukhova, Victoria Shahly, Mark van Ommeren, Jordi Alonso, Guilherme Borges, Giovanni de Girolamo, Peter de Jonge, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Elie G. Karam, Norito Kawakami, Herbert Matschinger, Michail Okoliyski, Jose Posada-Villa, Kate M. Scott, Maria Carmen Viana, Ronald C. Kessler
# DSM-5 and ICD-11 Definitions of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Investigating "Narrow" and "Broad" Approach Depression And Anxiety, 31:494–505 (2014)
Diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have changed with each edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), including the recent release of DSM-5, reflecting in part debates about the distinctions between normal responses to traumatic stressors versus maladaptive reactions and the potential for inappropriate medicalization of suffering...

 

Ilaria Lega, Debora Del Re, Angelo Picardi, Isabella Cascavilla, Antonella Gigantesco, Andrea Di Cesare, Guido Ditta, Teresa Di Fiandra
# Valutazione diagnostica dei pazienti psichiatrici autori di reato: messa a punto di una metodologia standardizzata e riproducibile
Rapporti Istisan 14/10, 2014
Questo rapporto descrive la metodologia e gli strumenti utilizzati per la valutazione diagnostica e dei bisogni socio-sanitari dei circa 1000 pazienti psichiatrici autori di reato ricoverati negli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari (OPG) italiani nell’ambito di un progetto coordinato dall’Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS). Le informazioni raccolte dal progetto, indispensabili per predisporre interventi terapeutico-riabilitativi appropriati e individualizzati, consentiranno di caratterizzare le condizioni cliniche di questi pazienti, per i quali un ampio processo di riforma attualmente in corso prevede una presa in carico alternativa all’OPG.

 

Camera dei Deputati | Lorenzin, Ministro della salute - Orlando, Ministro della giustizia
# Relazione sullo stato di attuazione delle iniziative per il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari (Aggiornata al 30 settembre 2014)
www.camera.it/ Trasmessa alla Presidenza il 30 settembre 2014
L'esame ha evidenziato come nei mesi successivi all'entrata in vigore della legge, nel periodo compreso tra maggio e settembre 2014, si è rilevata una leggera ma costante diminuzione delle presenze, che alla data del 9 settembre 2014 vede 793 Internati presenti a fronte degli 880 alla data del 31 gennaio 2014.

 

Corte di Cassazione, Sezione I

# Sentenza 12 settembre 2014, n. 37573

Ai fini del riconoscimento del vizio totale o parziale di mente, anche i “disturbi della personalità”, che non sempre sono inquadrabili nel ristretto novero delle malattie mentali, possono rientrare nel concetto di “infermità”, purché siano di consistenza, intensità e gravità tali da incidere concretamente sulla capacità di intendere o di volere, escludendola o scemandola grandemente, e a condizione che sussista un nesso eziologico con la specifica condotta criminosa, per effetto del quale il fatto di reato sia ritenuto causalmente determinato dal disturbo mentale

 

Lamiece Hassan, Martin Frisher, Jane Senior, Mary Tully, Roger Webb, David While, Jenny Shawl.
# A cross-sectional prevalence survey of psychotropic medication prescribing patterns in prisons in England
Health Serv Deliv Res 2014;2(33)
Large, representative and random samples of prisoners from prisons in England and Wales participated in clinical interviews with psychiatrists (see Table 1 for details). Overall, psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 40% of adult and 33% of young sentenced men. The most common disorders were substance misuse, personality disorders and neurosis. The highest rates of psychiatric disorder were seen among women (56–77%) and remand prisoners (53–77%).  Among sentenced prisoners, it was estimated that 44% of women and 23% of men required some form of treatment, most commonly on an outpatient basis, within prison or as part of a therapeutic community.

 

Michiel de Vries Robbé
# Protective Factors. Validation of the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for Violence Risk in Forensic Psychiatry
www.saprof.com, 2014
As the reliability and predictive validity of unstructured clinical judgments made by clinicians was disputed, empirically based lists of risk factors were developed aiming to provide for a more accurate prediction of violent behavior. The predictive validity of these actuarial tools (the enumeration of risk factors according to  a set algorithm in order to come to a final conclusion regarding the level of risk) for specific types of violence in specific populations is generally good...

 

Icro Maremmani, Angelo G. I. Maremmani, Sonia Lubrano, Roberto Nardini, Liliana Dell’Osso, Matteo Pacini
# Who are Resistant Patients? Quality of Treatment and Disease Control
Addictive Disorders & Thein Treatment, vol. 13, n. 3, september 2014
Almost in the Italian health care system, but we are supposing in all European countries, 33–38 younger addicts may count on earlier diagnosis and treatment occasions, although effective interventions are far from being proposed as first- ine choices, or, when featured, tend to be performers at ineffective dosages or for limited periods of time. Such a mismatch is the source of apparent resistance to treatment, which is not confirmed after the enrollment in a second- evel service conceived for resistant patients. In fact, this population shows a high rate of response to agonist  maintenance, when performed at average effective dosages, and with no dose limitation, and in a maintenance perspective with no preplanned or arbitrary taper-off phase

 

Lauri Tuominen
# Neurobiological Correlates of Personality Traits: A Study on Harm Avoidance and Neuroticism
University of Turku, Finland, 2014

Harm Avoidance and Neuroticism are traits that predispose to mental illnesses. Studying them provides a unique way to study predisposition of mental illnesses. Understanding the biological mechanisms that mediate vulnerability could lead to improvement in treatment and ultimately to pre-emptive psychiatry. These personality traits describe a tendency to feel negative emotions such as fear, shyness and worry. Previous studies suggest these traits are regulated by serotonin and opiate pathways.

 

Marco Pelissero
# Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari in proroga e prove maldestre di riforma della disciplina delle misure di sicurezza
Diritto penale e processo 8/2014
Il d.l. 31 marzo 2014, n. 52, conv. in l. 30 maggio 2014, n. 81 proroga nuovamente il termine di chiusura degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari, avviato sin dal 2008, ma più chiaramente perseguito dalla l. n. 9/2012. Un esito scontato, viste le lentezze burocratiche ministeriali nel fissare i caratteri delle nuove strutture ed i lunghi tempi di effettiva attuazione a livello regionale. La disciplina si segnala, tuttavia, anche per la modifica di alcuni elementi della disciplina generale delle misure di sicurezza, i cui effetti sul sistema non sembrano essere stati adeguatamente soppesati e che segnalano ancora una volta, da un lato, la necessità di riforme di più ampio respiro del sistema e, dall’altro lato, l’urgenza di potenziare i percorsi terapeutico-riabilitativi non custodiali, dentro e fuori dal circuito penale.

 

Adriano Schimmenti, Alessia Passanisi, Ugo Pace, Sergio Manzella, Giovanbattista Di Carlo, Vincenzo Caretti
# The Relationship between Attachment and Psychopathy: A Study with a Sample of Violent Offenders
(pre-print) 2014
...It is possible that treatments addressing disorganised states of mind and childhood trauma during detention might reduce the risk of violent behaviors and recidivism; also, a close investigation of attachment styles and representations could be particularly relevant in the forensic assessment of offenders who committed violent crimes, especially for criminal offences where the dimension of romantic attachment is likely to be involved, as with stalking behaviors...

 

Carl E. Fisher, David L. Faigman, Paul S. Appelbaum
# Toward a Jurisprudence of Psychiatric Evidence: Examining the Challenges of Reasoning from Group Data in Psychiatry to Individual Decisions in the Law
UC Hastings Research Paper No. 110, August 17, 2014
Psychiatry is an applied science. It thus shares the characteristic of all applied science in that it is ultimately applied at two levels – general and specific. Scientific research inevitably focuses on aggregate data and seeks to generalize findings across persons, places or things. However, in the courtroom, as is true in other applied settings, the focus is usually on an individual case. Thus, psychiatry presents the challenge inherent in all scientific evidence of reasoning from group data to an individual case, which is termed the “G2i problem.”

 

Rebecca L. Collins, Eunice C. Wong, Jennifer L. Cerully, Elizabeth Roth
# Racial and Ethnic Differences in Mental Illness Stigma in California
www.rand.org/ 2014
The goal of this report is to identify racial and ethnic groups in California that are more likely to stigmatize those with mental illness. Identifying these groups can help in understanding who is at greatest risk of experiencing stigma within their own communities and with the targeting of stigma reduction efforts...

 

Alexandre Dumais, Gilles Côté, Caroline Larue, Marie-Hélène Goulet, Jean-François Pelletier
# Clinical Characteristics and Service Use of Incarcerated Males with Severe Mental Disorders: A Comparative Case-Control Study with Patients Found Not Criminally Responsible
Issues Ment Health Nurs 2014 Aug;35(8):597-603
Following psychiatric deinstitutionalization and changes in involuntary civil commitment laws, many individuals with severe mental disorders have been receiving mental health services through the back door, that is, the criminal justice system. Significant changes to the section of Criminal Code of Canada dealing with individuals with mental disorders have led to significant annual increases in the number of individuals declared Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD), many of whom are directed to civil psychiatric settings. The goal of the present study was to describe the psychosociocriminological and risk characteristics of individuals found NCRMD remanded to civil psychiatric hospitals (CPH) compared to a forensic psychiatric hospital (FPH).

 

David M Gardner
# Competent Psychopharmacology
The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol 59, No 8, August 2014
Although its use in the treatment of schizophrenia has declined, quetiapine now represents one-half of all antipsychotic prescriptions in Canada, with rapidly increasing use in mood and anxiety disorders as well as insomnia, especially in moderate doses. The abuse potential of this agent and its overprescription for prison inmates further exemplify prescribing and patient care inadequacies. 

 

Dignity and Power Now | Patrisse Cullors, Mark-Anthony Johnson
# Impact of Disproportionate Incarceration of and Violence Against Black People with Mental Health Conditions In the World’s Largest Jail System
http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/ A Supplementary Submission for the August 2014 CERD Committee Review of
the United States
People from racial minorities who have mental health conditions are routinely routed to the criminal justice system instead of to alternative, community-based programs shown to better address their needs. Based on extensive community outreach, Dignity and Power Now seeks to highlight race-based disparities in treatment of persons with mental health conditions in Los Angeles (LA) County jails. The largest jail system in the United States and the world, LA County Jails are often referred to as the nation’s  largest de-facto mental health hospital6 warehousing approximately 19,000 pre-sentenced and sentenced individuals.

 

Luca Cimino
# Il superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari: un’analisi critica
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza – Vol. VIII – N. 2 – Maggio-Agosto 2014
Attualmente i sei OOPPGG ospitano circa 900 reclusi, con un turnover di 600 persone all’anno; il 31% di essi è sottoposto ad una misura di sicurezza provvisoria e circa il 70% è autore di reati di scarsa rilevanza24. Si osserva pertanto che la popolazione degli internati in OPG non è omogenea né per bisogni sanitari o sociali, né per reati e possibilità di recupero, per cui si rende necessario definire in maniera precisa percorsi differenziati che partano dal presupposto di accertare in maniera puntuale ed approfondita la presenza di quei casi caratterizzati da una persistente pericolosità sociale da destinare alle strutture a gestione mista (REMS).

 

Kevin S. Douglas, Stephen D. Hart, Christopher D. Webster, Henrik Belfrage, Laura S. Guy, Catherine M. Wilson
# Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20 V3 ): Development and Overview
International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 13:2, 93-108, 2014
The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20(V3)) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries. This article explains (1) why a revision was necessary, (2) the steps we took in the revision process, (3) key changes between Version 2 and Version 3, and (4) an overview of HCR-20(V3)' s risk factors and administration steps. Recommendations for evaluating Version 3 are provided.

 

Chris Ford, Fergus Law
# Guidance for the use and reduction of misuse of benzodiazepines and other hypnotics and anxiolytics in general practice
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ July 2014
Use of clonazepam, licensed for use in epilepsy, has changed over the past 10 years and the drug is now much misused in the prison environment. Many prisoners report use in the community and claim to be epileptic to procure a continuous supply. The reasons for this are complex because clonazepam has a relatively slow onset of action therefore on its own causes little buzz but it can be used to help pass the time in prisons, and can enhance the effects of other rapid onset drugs used at the same time. Clonazepam 0.25mg is approximately equivalent to 5mg diazepam. 

 

Svenja Eichhorn, Elmar Brähler, Matthias Franz, Michael Friedrich, Heide Glaesmer
# Traumatic experiences, alexithymia, and posttraumatic symptomatology: a cross-sectional population-based study in Germany
European Journal of Psychotraumatology 2014
Our study constitutes the first international populationbased evidence for the mediating effect of posttraumatic symptomatology on the association between number of traumatic experiences and alexithymia. The strong association between alexithymia and posttraumatic symptomatology highlights the lack of conceptual and diagnostic consideration of alexithymia as it relates to PTSD and complex PTSD formulations.

 

Sarah Liebowitz, Peter J. Eliasberg, Ira A. Burnim, Emily A. Burnim
# A Way Forward: Diverting People with Mental Illness from Inhumane and Expensive Jails into Community-Based Treatment that Works
www.aclusocal.org/ July 2014
Jails have become warehouses for people with mental illness. Nationwide, nearly half a million inmates with mental illness are in local jails, and an estimated 10-25% have a serious mental illness, such as schizophrenia. In Los Angeles County alone, at least 3,200 inmates with a diagnosed severe mental illness crowd the jails on a typical day, which constitutes about 17% of the jail population. These numbers capture only the number of inmates with a diagnosed severe mental illness: the actual number may well be higher. Former Los Angeles County Sheriff Lee Baca has called L.A.’s jail system “the nation’s largest mental hospital.”

 

Darrell Steinberg, David Mills, Michael Romano
# When did prisons become acceptable mental healthcare facilities?
www.law.stanford.edu/ Stanford Law School Three Strikes Project 2014
We can no longer ignore the massive oppression we are inflicting upon the mentally ill throughout the United States... We have created conditions that make criminal behavior all but inevitable for many of our brothers and sisters who are mentally ill. Instead of treating them, we are imprisoning them. And then, when they have completed their sentences, we release them with minimal or no support system in place, just counting the days until they are behind bars once again...

 

Sinead Frances Devine
# An investigation of implicit measurement techniques amongst low risk and forensic samples
https://cora.ucc.ie/ Doctoral thesis, 2014
Studies suggest that the link between personality disorder and offending has important implications for treatment and risk management.The literature is also suggesting that not only it is important to understand personality disorders in forensic populations in the context of treatment and risk but also in understanding what specific personality disorders are linked to offending behaviours. There is now much evidence that personality disorder is related to offending. Studies as outlined above too indicate how some personality disorders other than antisocial are related to particular types of offending behaviour...

 

Doris A. Fuller
# Mental Health Briefing on the Institutions of Mental Diseas (IMD) Exclusion to Medicaid
http://treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ July 30, 2014
Numerous studies have found that short-length hospitalization of individuals in psychiatric crisis is associated with higher rehospitalization rates, and revolving-door hospitalization is extremely expensive. Also costly are the forensic beds, jail and prison cells and homelessness services that become the default “institutions of mental disease” for psychiatrically fragile people who do not receive the medically necessary treatment they need to function safely and successfully in the community.

 

Robert Rigg
# “Are there non Prisons?” Mental health and the criminal justice system in the United States
University of Denver Criminal Law Review, vol. 4, 2014
The result of the application of Penrose’s Law is increased crime rates and incarceration of the mentally ill. We have come full circle. Brown v. Plata appears to have been predictable and inevitable based on studies that have been completed by the psychiatric community. Until policy makers are willing to establish and maintain  sustained funding for a mental health treatment system run by medical personnel, changes  in existing delivery systems are the equivalent of rearranging deck chairs on the Titanic. We end where we began, with Scrooge asking: “Are there no prisons?” Unfortunately, the answer today is the same as it was then: Yes, “Plenty of prisons.”

 

Stefano Ferracuti, Giuseppe Nicolò, Rinaldo Perini
# Opg. Il futuro sono le Rems?
www.quotidianosanità.it Giovedì 10 Luglio 2014 
Il processo di chiusura degli Opg è complesso e pieno di criticità. Anche le nuove residenze per l'applicazione delle misure di sicurezza presentano molte incognite i cui esiti futuri non sono immediatamente prevedibili. I facili entusiasmi sono quindi da evitare. Ecco alcune delle problematiche...

 

Seth J. Prins,
# Prevalence of Mental Illnesses in U.S. State Prisons: A Systematic Review
Psychiatric Services vol. 65, n. 7, July 1, 2014

People with mental illnesses are understood to be overrepresented in the U.S. criminal justice system, and accurate prevalence estimates in corrections settings are crucial for planning and implementing preventive and diversionary policies and programs. Despite consistent scholarly attention to mental illness in corrections facilities, only two federal self-report surveys are typically cited, and they may not represent the extent of relevant data. This systematic review was conducted to develop a broader picture of mental illness prevalence in U.S. state prisons and to identify methodological challenges to obtaining accurate and consistent estimates.

 

StopOPG nazionale | Stefano Cecconi, Giovanna Del Giudice, Patrizio Gonnella
# Superamento OPG : per applicare bene la nuova legge
www.stopopg.it/ 1 luglio 2014
Secondo la nuova Legge la regola deve essere una misura di sicurezza diversa dal ricovero in Opg (e in Rems), salvo situazioni determinate che devono diventare l’eccezione. E ciò tanto più perché la pericolosità sociale non può essere dichiarata, o confermata, solo perché la persona è emarginata, priva di sostegni economici o per sola mancanza di programmi terapeutici individuali. La Legge in sostanza ci dice che un malato povero, emarginato, senza casa o abbandonato dai servizi non può diventare, per questa ragione, socialmente pericoloso e finire in OPG.

 

Sharam Kohan
# Re- or trans-institutionalization of Mentally Ill, A failure of Deinstitutionalization
http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/29 june 2014
Although the number of conventional psychiatric hospital beds has continued to decrease in most states, recent data suggest that we may already be witnessing a new phenomenon of ‘reinstitutionalization’. The provision of supported housing, the number of forensic beds and the prison population increased significantly in the United States.

 

Warren Reich, Sarah Picard-Fritsche, Lenore Cerniglia, Josephine Wonsun Hahn
# Predictors of Program Compliance and Re-Arrest in the Brooklyn Mental Health Court
Center for Court Innovation, June 2014
Partnerships between the criminal justice and mental health systems have become common over the past 30 years, and mental health courts are one product of this partnership. Since the first mental health court was established in Broward County Florida in 1997, their number has grown to more than 300 across the United States. As a special case of “problem-solving courts” mental health courts seek to divert mentally ill offenders from conventional prosecution through a combination of community-based mental health treatment and intensive judicial oversight of the treatment process. The primary goal is to reduce recidivism and stop the “revolving door” for justice-involved people with mental illness.

 

Gunnar Wiklund, Vladislav V. Ruchkin, Roman A. Koposov, Britt af Klinteberg
# Pro-bullying attitudes among incarcerated juvenile delinquents: antisocial behavior, psychopathic tendencies and violent crime
Int J Law Psychiatry. 2014 May-Jun
The objective was to evaluate a new scale aimed at assessing antisocial attitudes, the Pro-bullying Attitude Scale (PAS), on a group of 259 voluntarily-recruited male juvenile delinquents from a juvenile correctional institution in Arkhangelsk, North-western Russia

 

Emily Thuma
# Against the “Prison/Psychiatric State”: Anti-violence Feminisms and the Politics of Confinement in the 1970s
Feminist Formations, Vol. 26 No. 2 (Summer) pp. 26–51 - 2014
The article examines the grassroots organizing efforts of the Coalition to Stop Institutional Violence, a broad-based alliance of prisoners’ rights, mental patients’ rights, and feminist groups in Greater Boston that opposed the expansion and medicalization of maximum-security units for women in Massachusetts’s prisons and state mental hospitals in the 1970s. The case of the coalition, it argues, illustrates how grassroots feminist opposition to incarceration produced an epistemology of “violence against women” that complicated and contested liberal feminist demands for more aggressive criminalization and law enforcement of sexual and domestic violence during this period.

 

Joe Gorton, Keith Crew
# Evaluation of the Black Hawk County Mental Health Jail Diversion Program
http://firstdcs.com/ Iowa Department of Correctional Services - First Judicial District June 2014

The total estimate for annual cost savings produced by the mental health jail diversion program is $237,509. According to the officials from the First Judicial District Department of Correctional Services, annual program costs are $100,000. Therefore, the annual fiscal benefit of the program (without cost estimates for prosecutions, prison confinement, and taxpayer funded victimization programs) is estimated at $137,509.

 

Marin County Civil Grand Jury
# Jail Checkup: What’s the Price of a Clean Bill of Health? Report Date – June 10, 2014
www.marincounty.org/ Public Release Date – June 13, 2014
Some very specific needs of the mentally ill incarcerated in our Jail must be addressed, whether or not a contractual arrangement is struck for outside medical services. Among the most challenging issues facing Jail administrators is the need to make some accommodation for mentally ill inmates who are candidates for involuntary psychiatric medication. The mentally ill, whether in custody or not, have the right to refuse medication. Without their informed consent, involuntary medication is available only in circumstances in which the patient is a danger to himself or others or in which the patient is severely disabled as a result of the mental illness.

 

Roberto Catanesi
# Misure di sicurezza e pericolosità: Superare l’equivoco
www.news-forumsalutementale.it/ 13 marzo 2014
La pericolosità sociale è un concetto vecchio (e inadeguato) almeno quanto gli OPG. Nessuna categoria di esperti che ad essa si sia avvicinata, negli ultimi decenni, si è esentata dal chiederne l’abolizione, “tout court”, per manifesta inadeguatezza. Si tratti di giuristi esperti, criminologi o psichiatri, tutti ne hanno denunciato l’assoluta obsolescenza...

 

Glenn Roberts, Jed Boardman
# Becoming a recovery-oriented practitioner
Advances in psychiatric treatment (2014), vol. 20, 37–47
Coercion is a particular concern. Compulsion and coercion are often taken to be synonymous but the word coercion does not appear in either the Mental Health Act or the Code of Practice. At times of incapacity, unacceptable risk and excessive suffering there may be a legally mandated need for involuntary or compulsory measures, but this does not need to be conducted through coercive measures with overtones of force, intimidation, threat, punitive restrictions or punishments.

 

Graham Durcan, Anna Saunders, Ben Gadsby, Aidan Hazard
# The Bradley Report five years on. An independent review of progress to date and priorities for further development
www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/ June 2014
We are also now seeing the emergence of new and creative ways of supporting people with mental health problems and those with learning difficulties across the criminal justice system. Initiatives like street triage, which offers a more humane crisis response, and youth justice liaison and diversion, which provides support to children and young people when they come into contact with the police. [The Bradley Report]

 

Eric B Elbogen, Sally C Johnson
# Violence, suicide, and all-cause mortality
The Lancet Psychiatry, Volume 1, Issue 1, Pages 6 - 8, June 2014
One of the unique aspects of this study—that violence and suicide were analysed simultaneously—has an important implication for how we as a society perceive people with mental illness. News coverage of schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders often focuses on violence and crime. Much less attention is paid to suicide and self-harm in people with severe mental illnesses. Notably, multivariate analyses in this article showed a substantially stronger link between schizophrenia and suicide than between schizophrenia and violence.

 

Darrell Steinberg, David Mills, Michael Romano | Stanford Law School’s Three Strikes Project
# When did prisons become acceptable mental healthcare facilities?
www.law.stanford.edu/ May 2014
We can no longer ignore the massive oppression we are inflicting upon the mentally ill throughout the United States. Although deinstitutionalization was originally understood as a humane way to offer more suitable services to the mentally ill in community-based settings, some politicians seized upon it as a way to save money by shutting down institutions without providing any meaningful treatment alternatives. This callousness has created a one-way road to prison for massive numbers of impaired individuals and the inhumane warehousing of thousands of mentally ill people.

 

C Chérrez-Bermejo, R Alás-Brun
# Consumo de sustancias y trastornos de salud mental en agresores de violencia de género ingresados en prisión. Un estudio descriptivo
Rev Esp Sanid Penit 2014; 16: 29-37
Estudio descriptivo sobre una muestra de 106 varones ingresados en prisión por violencia de género. Estimación de porcentajes de consumo perjudicial de sustancias y de diagnósticos psiquiátricos al ingreso en prisión con uso de la historia clínica informatizada del Servicio Navarro de Salud. Resultados: el 61’3% realizan un consumo perjudicial de sustancias. El porcentaje es mayor que en otros estudios realizados sobre poblaciones de agresores denunciados y detenidos. Las sustancias mayormente implicadas son alcohol y cocaína...

 

Shirley S. Wang
# Medications Cut Violence Among Mentally Ill in Study. Report Comes Amid Concerns Sparked by High-Profile Mass Shootings
http://mentalillnesspolicy.org/ 5.8.2014
Researchers from Oxford and the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm used Swedish national registries to examine more than 80,000 people who were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilizers from 2006 to 2009, as well as their psychiatric diagnoses and criminal convictions during the same period. They found a significant 45% drop in convictions for violent crime, such as homicide, assault, robbery or any sexual offense, during periods when the individuals were thought to be taking their medications, based on prescription and dispensing records, regardless of their diagnosis, compared with when they were off meds. Patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder exhibited a 24% decrease in convictions when taking mood stabilizers.

 

Jeanine Chamond, Virginia Moreira, Frédérique Decocq, Brigitte Leroy-Viémon
# La dénaturation carcérale. Pour une psychologie et une phénoménologie du corps en prison
L'information psychiatrique 2014/8 (Volume 90)
Les auteurs montrent comment l’incarcération provoque une dégradation profonde de la corporéité vécue qui en altère la naturalité première. La dialectique du corps propre qui se décline entre être un corps et avoir un corps est bouleversée par le conflit d’appropriation du corps entre détenu et pouvoir pénitentiaire. Réaffirmer la propriété de son corps et son autodétermination peut passer par la pratique sportive parfois à risque mais aussi par de multiples atteintes volontaires à son intégrité corporelle. Nombre de manifestations psychopathologiques peuvent être comprises comme des  odalités de réaction, de révolte et de résistance à la réification du corps contraint. À l’extrême, pour les condamnés à de longues peines, c’est le corps lui-même, réduit à une pure négativité, qui dans une réduction vertigineuse devient la prison et accomplit la dissociation du corps et de l’esprit, prison du corps qui laisse comme seul recours l’évasion par le suicide.

 

Suann Kessler
# Mental Health Parity: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Parity Definition Implications
Hastings Science and Technology Law Journal, vol. 6:2, Summer 2014
At least twenty-eight percent of American adults suffer from a mental or addictive disorder. Thus, it may seem surprising that attempts to establish federal guidelines for mental health services under health insurance plans did not take place until the 1970s. Yet the fact that health insurance coverage for mental health services differs drastically from that of other medical services is not as startling when taking into account mental health’s history, and its complete isolation from the medical field.

 

Seena Fazel, Achim Wolf, Camilla Palm, Paul Lichtenstein
# Violent crime, suicide, and premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia and related disorders: a 38-year total population study in Sweden
Lancet Psychiatry 2014; 1: 44–54
In some studies, investigators have reported increased relative risks over time for suicide, death, and convictions of a violent offence,but secular trends have made these data difficult to interpret.The emerging reinstitutionalisation of patients in some regions of the world might have been partly driven by concerns about deinstitutionalisation, although broader socio political factors are probably important.

 

Douglas Hurd
# Standards for mental health care in prisons
Commonwealth Health Partnerships 2014
United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners have stood for over 50 years. Mental health care plays a crucial role within prisons and, by extension, is fundamental to the revision process. The United Nations has made a solid foundation for building consensus on standards that apply across diverse jurisdictions, are accepted by practitioners as authoritative and set challenging expectations. In too many countries, prisons remain our least visible, most neglected institutions and this is to the detriment of us all.

 

Jane Langille
# Quand la maladie mentale et le système judiciaire se rencontrent
www.mentalhealthcommission.ca/ Juin 2014
Brett Batten, 45 ans, a presque toujours vécu avec un trouble bipolaire avec caractéristiques psychotiques. Il y a environ 14 ans, il a eu des démêlés avec la justice et passé trois ans dans diverses prisons avant d’être traité pour sa maladie mentale. « Je perturbais la vie de la prison à cause de mes délires, alors ils m’ont mis “au trou” [isolement cellulaire]. Quand le psychiatre est enfi n venu me voir, il a donné l’ordre de me placer dans une cellule médicalisée. J’ai alors commencé à prendre le bon médicament et à prendre conscience du temps et de l’espace. »

 

Gian Luigi Gatta
Aprite le porte agli internati!
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 6 Giugno 2014

Un ulteriore passo verso il superamento degli OPG e una svolta epocale nella disciplina delle misure di sicurezza detentive: stabilito un termine di durata massima (applicabile anche alle misure in corso, a noi pare) | L. 30 maggio 2014, n. 81 (Conversione in legge, con modif., del d.l. 31 marzo 2014, n. 52).

Gian Luigi Gatta
Revoca del ricovero in OPG per decorso della durata massima: un primo provvedimento
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 16 Giugno 2014

Tribunale di Roma - VIII Sezione Penale - Ordinanza 3 giugno 2014

 

Federica Fogli
# Il concetto di rischio e la pericolosità sociale: aspetti sociologici e giuridici
www.istituto-meme.it/ 2014

... Dobbiamo parlare solo di pericolosità sociale per ciò che concerne gli internati sottoposti alle misure di sicurezza, oppure si rende necessaria una visione più completa della situazione di queste persone senza dimenticare la loro condizione di povertà? Con il termine povertà non s’intende solo quella economica (queste persone non hanno un lavoro, sono spesso senza abitazione...), ma ci riferiamo anche ad una povertà che potremmo definire “socio-relazionale”...

 

George Szmukler, Rowena Daw, Felicity Callard
Mental health law and the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities
Int J Law Psychiatry. May 2014; 37(3): 245–252
People with a mental illness may be subject to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), depending on definitions of terms such as ‘impairment’, ‘long-term’ and the capaciousness of the word ‘includes’ in the Convention's characterisation of persons with disabilities. Particularly challenging under the CRPD is the scope, if any, for involuntary treatment. Conventional mental health legislation, such as the Mental Health Act (England and Wales) appears to violate, for example, Article 4 (‘no discrimination of any kind on the basis of disability’), Article 12 (persons shall ‘enjoy legal capacity on an equal basis with others in all aspects of life’) and Article 14 (‘the existence of a disability shall in no case justify a deprivation of liberty’).

 

Colin A. Espie, Simon D. Kyle, Peter Hames, Maria Gardani, Leanne Fleming, John Cape
# The Sleep Condition Indicator: a clinical screening tool to evaluate insomnia disorder
BMJ Open 2014
Although insomnia is the most common of all mental health problems,it is seldom adequately assessed and treatment services are often poor. This perhaps reflects the perspective that insomnia is usually a symptom, coupled with minimal medical education on sleep and its disorders. However, there are three reasons why this perspective must now change. First, insomnia is not merely a symptom. It has for some time been proposed as a genuine diagnosis (see Harvey review), and recently the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) Work Group recognised that the previous dichotomy of primary versus secondary insomnia is not evidence based. Accordingly, DSM-5 now recommends that ‘insomnia disorder’ should be coded “whenever diagnostic criteria are met whether or not there is a co-existing physical, mental or sleep disorder”

 

Patrick W. Corrigan, Benjamin G. Druss, Deborah A. Perlick
The Impact of Mental Illness Stigma on Seeking and Participating in Mental Health Care
Psychological Science in the Public Interest 2014, Vol. 15(2) 37–70
We addressed the question by examining ways in which stigma interferes with care-seeking decisions and behaviors at individual and system levels. Stigma was found to be a complex variable impacting decisions at public, self, and structural levels. These various types are influenced by knowledge, culture, and social network

 

Sacha Raoult, Bernard E. Harcourt
# The Mirror Image of Asylums and Prisons: An International Study
www.researchgate.net/ May 2014

... One could describe the relationship as mirror image: when prisons rise, asylums fall; when prisons fall, asylums rise… This is not the first time an inverse relationship between asylums and prisons was found. In fact, the French situation is entirely consistent with recent research on the United States and also tracks the trends in other European countries. In the United States, over  the entire period of available population statistics, asylum and prison rates have trended  in opposite directions, producing a virtual mirror image of each other...
 

 

Seena Fazel, Johan Zetterqvist, Henrik Larsson, Niklas Långström, Paul Lichtenstein
Antipsychotics, mood stabilisers, and risk of violent crime
www.thelancet.com/ 8 May 2014
In 2006–09, 40 937 men in Sweden were prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilisers, of whom 2657 (6·5%) were convicted of a violent crime during the study period. In the same period, 41 710 women were prescribed these drugs, of whom 604 (1·4 %) had convictions for violent crime. Compared with periods when participants were not on medication, violent crime fell by 45% in patients receiving antipsychotics and by 24% in patients prescribed mood stabilisers.

 

Jillian K. Peterson, Jennifer Skeem, Patrick Kennealy, Beth Bray, Andrea Zvonkovic
# How Often and How Consistently do Symptoms Directly Precede Criminal Behavior Among Offenders With Mental Illness?
Law and Human Behavior, 2014, Vol. 38, No. 5, 439 – 449
Although offenders with mental illness are overrepresented in the criminal justice system, psychiatric symptoms relate weakly to criminal behavior at the group level. In this study of 143 offenders with mental illness, we use data from intensive interviews and record reviews to examine how often and how consistently symptoms lead directly to criminal behavior. First, crimes rarely were directly motivated by symptoms, particularly when the definition of symptoms excluded externalizing features that are not unique to Axis I illness. Specifically, of the 429 crimes coded, 4% related directly to psychosis, 3% related directly to depression, and 10% related directly to bipolar disorder (including impulsivity). Second, within offenders, crimes varied in the degree to which they were directly motivated by symptoms. These findings suggest that programs will be most effective in reducing recidivism if they expand beyond psychiatric symptoms to address strong variable risk factors for crime like antisocial traits.

 

American Psychological Association

Mental Illness Not Usually Linked to Crime, Research Finds. Most offenders didn’t display pattern of crime related to mental illness symptoms over their lifetime, according to study

www.apa.org/ April 21, 2014

 

ANM - CONAMS
Comunicato congiunto ANM e CONAMS su ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari
www.associazionemagistrati.it/ 29 aprile 2014

 

Claudia Sale
# Analisi penalistica della contenzione del paziente psichiatrico
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 27 Aprile 2014
1. La contenzione: evoluzione storica del fenomeno - 2. Tipologia contenitiva - 3. Coercizione e trattamento sanitario in psichiatria. Parallelismo o intersezione? - 4. Legittimità della contenzione in psichiatria: «dovere» o mero «potere» di intervenire? - 5. Fonti dell'obbligo di contenere - 6. Assenza di presupposti di legittimità e reati ipotizzabili - 7. Contenzione non attuata - 8. Contenzione impropriamente attuata - 9. Un'ipotesi particolare: la contenzione farmacologica - 10. Chi può disporre la contenzione?

 

Terri Langford, Cathaleen Qiao Chen
# Lawmakers to Examine Rehab of Mentally Ill, Addicted Inmates
The Texas Tribune, April 22, 2014
Of the more than 150,000 inmates currently incarcerated in the 109 Texas facilities, about 25,000 are diagnosed with a mental illness, and 62 percent have chemical dependency issues. In 2012 and 2013, TDCJ (Texas Department of Criminal Justice) expenditures on offender mental health services totaled $60 million, while substance abuse treatment spending was about $172 million.

 

Frank J. Porporino
# Correctional Services for the Mentally Disordered Offender: A Challenge that Merits an Integrated Response
www.icpa.ca/ April 2014
In New York, the estimated population of 10,000 mentally ill inmates in the state's prisons was noted as surpassing that of the state's psychiatric hospitals. In Seattle it was remarked that ‘quite unintentionally, the jail has become King County's largest institution for the mentally ill.’  And the Los Angeles County Jail, where approximately 3,300 of the 21,000 inmates ‘require  mental health services on a daily basis’, was referred to as the ‘the largest mental institution in the country’.

 

Melissa Kong
# Cook County Jail: A De Facto Hospital for the Mentally Ill
Public Interest Law Reporter, Spring 2014
Overall, the mentally ill inmate population has a high recidivism rate at about 80 percent higher than the general inmate population. Many inmates leave jail without a plan and no support system. These factors are compounded when a released inmate doesn’t know how to access “social services, food  stamps, social security disability, or computers to try and obtain health insurance,” said Monahan. Monahan further explained that the culmination of these factors leads to a downward spiral...

 

Nikki Barrowclough
# Homelessness Mental Health and Incarceration
Parramatta Region Homelessness Interagency - April 2014
“We’re talking about people caught up in a number of vicious cycles. They’re mentally ill, they’ve fallen homeless, and they bounce between prison and hospitals. A very large number of them use drugs and a lot of them commit crimes. And one of the harshest vicious cycles these people find themselves caught up in, is that committing a crime, going to prison, reduces your prospects of being eligible for housing. It reduces your ability to get employment in the future

 

Adam Miller
# Powerful psychotropic drug used in Canada’s federal prisons
http://globalnews.ca/ April 14, 2014
Canada’s prison watchdog has launched an investigation into the prescribing practices in federal prisons, after it was revealed that more than 60 per cent of female inmates across the country are receiving psychiatric medication. A joint investigation by The Canadian Press and CBC has learned that in August 2013, of 591 female federal inmates in five correctional institutions, 370 were being prescribed at least one psychotropic medication, drugs that impact mood and behaviour.

# Government of Canada | Correctional Service of Canada, New Approval Criteria for Quetiapine, Feb 07 2011

 

Provincial System Support Program (PSSP) | Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH)
# Evidence Summary. Mental Health Diversion Frameworks in Canada
http://eenet.ca/ April 2014
Diversion is “the redirection of persons with mental disorders, who have committed an offence, away from the criminal justice system and towards MH and social support services”). The idea behind diversion is that by providing access to community mental health services, these individuals will be connected to the help they need on an ongoing basis and will be less likely to re-offend.

 

Sandy Jung and Lisa Jamieson
# Examining the Use of Sex to Cope in a Forensic Sample
Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling • April 2014
The authors examined differences between sexual and mentally disordered offenders on the Coping Using Sex Inventory. Sexual offenders were more likely to use sex to cope with negative life events but did not use all forms of deviant sexual activity.

 

Thomas R. Insel
# The NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) Project: Precision Medicine for Psychiatry
Am J Psychiatry 171:4, April 2014
RDoC might be considered a 21st-century version of RDC, building on clinical description and subjective experience to create a matrix of information for individual patients, leading ultimately to precision medicine for psychiatry. This is not a short-term project. The problems are complex; our tools are still primitive. We recognize that no framework will yield a “cause or cure” for “all that human hearts endure,” but we must not accept the current state of the art. Patients and their families are understandably demanding better outcomes. It is precisely because of this urgent unmet medical need that we must embark on a new approach to diagnosis. RDoC is a first step toward that approach, inviting a diverse research community to bring precision medicine to psychiatry.

 

Treatment Advocacy Center | E. Fuller Torrey, Mary T. Zdanowicz, Aaron D. Kennard, H. Richard Lamb, Donald F. Eslinger, Doris A. Fuller
# The Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in Prisons and Jails: A State Survey
www.tacreports.org/ April 8, 2014
Prisons and jails have become America’s “new asylums”: The number of individuals with serious mental illness in prisons and jails now exceeds the number in state psychiatric hospitals tenfold. Most of the mentally ill individuals in prisons and jails would have been treated in the state psychiatric hospitals in the years before the deinstitutionalization movement led to the closing of the hospitals, a trend that continues even today. The treatment of mentally ill individuals in prisons and jails is critical, especially since such individuals are vulnerable and often abused while incarcerated.

 

Graham Durcan | Centre for Mental Health
Keys to diversion. Best practice for offenders with multiple needs
http://www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/ April 2014
A large proportion of people in the criminal justice system have multiple or complex needs including a range of mental health problems. Many have repeated contact with the police and courts yet rarely get the support they need from public services.Liaison and diversion services aim to identify and support people with mental health problems, learning difficulties and other vulnerabilities in police stations and courts. Some do this more successfully than others.

 

Andrea Pugiotto
# Opg della vergogna, non sarà l’ultimo rinvio
il manifesto • 5 apr 14

Superare gli Opg è costituzionalmente necessario. Si doveva fare prima. Si poteva fare meglio, perché la vera follia giuridica è nella misura di sicurezza dell’internamento in mani­comi criminali e in quegli altri buchi neri chiamati case di lavoro e colonie agricole

 

Massimo Niro
# Ancora un rinvio per il superamento degli O.P.G.: problemi e prospettive. Note a margine del decreto-legge 31 marzo 2014, n. 52
www.altrodiritto.unifi.it/ 2014

 

Senato della Repubblica
# Conversione in legge, con modificazioni, del decreto-legge 31 marzo 2014, n. 52, recante disposizioni urgenti in materia di superamento degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari
www.senato.it/ 24 aprile 2014

 

# Decreto-Legge 31 marzo 2014, n. 52 | Disposizioni urgenti in materia di superamento degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari

www.governo.it/

 

Desi Bruno (Garante dei diritti dei detenuti della Regione Emilia-Romagna)
# Dossier O.P.G.
Newsletter “Notizie dal Garante” del 15 aprile 2014

... La riforma interviene in assenza di una contestuale modifica della disciplina sostanziale delle misure di sicurezza personali detentive. L’“Ospedale Psichiatrico Giudiziario” rimane, di conseguenza, la misura di sicurezza destinata agli autori di reato non imputabili e socialmente pericolosi, ma deve essere eseguita esclusivamente nelle nuove strutture ad hoc.

 

Decreto-Legge 31 marzo 2014, n. 52
# Disposizioni urgenti in materia di superamento degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari. (GU n.76 del 1-4-2014)

Dario Stefano Dell'Aquila


# Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari, ovvero la proroga della vergogna
Il Manifesto, 2 aprile 2014
Con decreto legge approvato due giorni fa dal Consiglio dei ministri, infatti, il governo Renzi ha annunciato di avere prorogato, su proposta dei titolari dei dicasteri della Salute e della Giustizia, Beatrice Lorenzin e Andrea Orlando, i termini per il superamento degli Opg, spostandolo in avanti di un anno, al 1° aprile 2015. Per il governo la proroga si è resa necessaria poiché il termine iniziale "non risulta congruo per completare definitivamente il superamento degli Ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari, soprattutto in ragione della complessità della procedura per la realizzazione delle strutture destinate ad accogliere le persone cui sono applicate le misure di sicurezza".

 

Ashimesh Roychowdhury, Gwen Adshead
# Violence risk assessment as a medical intervention: ethical tensions
Psychiatric Bulletin (2014), 38, 75-82,
The assessment of risk of violence is a core function of  all psychiatric services, particularly in forensic psychiatry. As such, it can, and should, be considered in a similar light to other types of medical assessment and intervention. This includes not only the statistical properties of the process itself, such as sensitivity and specificity (further defined below) but also using accepted models of biomedical ethics for its analysis.

 

H. Richard Lamb, Linda E. Weinberger
# Decarceration of U.S. Jails and Prisons: Where Will Persons With Serious Mental Illness Go?
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 42:489 –94, 2014
It is estimated that more than 350,000 persons with serious mental illness (SMI) are among those incarcerated in the United States and that many thousands of them will probably be among those released... Most deinstitutionalized patients were able to adapt successfully to living in the community; however, this was not the case for a considerable  minority who were arrested and placed in jails and prisons or who became homeless (between one-fourth and one-third of homeless persons have a serious mental illness such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression)...

 

Robert Keers, Simone Ullrich, Bianca L. DeStavola, Jeremy W. Coid
# Association of Violence With Emergence of Persecutory Delusions in Untreated Schizophrenia
Am J Psychiatry, 171, 2014
The results indicate that the emergence of persecutory delusions in untreated schizophrenia explains violent behavior. Maintaining psychiatric treatment after release can substantially reduce violent recidivism among prisoners with schizophrenia. Better screening and treatment of prisoners is therefore essential to prevent violence.

 

Luigi Benevelli
# Culture psichiatriche ed esperienze nel lavoro per la salute mentale in Lombardia
Milano, 2 aprile 2014
Il sistema lombardo dei servizi di salute mentale, al di là del nome che portano, non è nelle condizioni di fare salute mentale a causa delle culture politiche, scientifiche e professionali che hanno sinora prevalso. Al massimo si può fare una (buona) assistenza psichiatrica come  confermano le culture e le scelte che caratterizzano il recente Piano Regionale per la Salute Mentale lombardo e le sue linee di attuazione (2004-2012)

 

Matthew R. J. Vandermeer
# Secondary Traumatic Stress and Alexithymia in High-Risk Professionals
University of Western Ontario, April 2014

 

Camera dei Deputati
# Proposta di legge n. 2233. Norme per valorizzare, in continuità con la legge 13 maggio 1978, n. 180, la partecipazione attiva di utenti, familiari, operatori e cittadini nei servizi di salute mentale e per promuovere equità di cure nel territorio nazionale - Presentata il 27 marzo 2014

www.leparoleritrovate
Dal 1978 ad oggi i primi princìpi rivoluzionari della legge 180 sono entrati nelle pratiche quotidiane della salute mentale italiana.... La Dichiarazione d’indipendenza degli Stati Uniti d’America sancisce per tutti i cittadini il « diritto alla ricerca della felicità ». La « 181 » vuole sancire il diritto alla fiducia e alla speranza per tutti gli utenti e i familiari che frequentano i servizi di salute mentale e le due cose sono strettamente legate.

Le parole ritrovate - Il fare assieme nella salute mentale, # Proposta di legge "181" - Con lo sguardo rivolto al futuro. Norme per valorizzare, in continuità con la Legge 180/1978, la partecipazione attiva di utenti, familiari, operatori e cittadini nei Servizi di salute mentale e per promuovere buone cure in tutta Italia. Testi curati da Renzo De Stefani e discussi e condivisi in alcune riunioni di coordinamento de Le Parole ritrovate del 2010/2011/2012

# Commenti

 

Jay P. Singh, Seena Fazel, Ralitza Gueorguieva, Alec Buchanan
Rates of violence in patients classified as high risk by structured risk assessment instruments
The British Journal of Psychiatry 204, 180–187, 2014
Violence risk assessment is an increasing part of psychiatric practice. Psychiatrists, psychologists and other health professionals seeking to manage the risk of their patients acting violently have a  range of structured risk assessment instruments (SRAIs) to assist them. These instruments score a patient on variables associated with  violence. Such scores are then either combined mathematically (the ‘actuarial’ approach) or assist clinicians in making risk classifications (the ‘structured professional judgement’ approach).  The most widely used instruments have satisfactory psychometric qualities in a range of settings and populations, and are reported to provide more accurate predictions of violence than unstructured clinical assessments.

 

Adiel Doron, Rena Kurs, Tali Stolovy, Aya Secker-Einbinder, Alla Raba
Voting Rights for Psychiatric Patients: Compromise of the Integrity of Elections, or Empowerment and Integration into the Community?
Isr J Psychiatry Relat Sci - Vol. 51 - No 3 (2014)
The right to vote is an important basic right for individuals coping with mental disorders.However, it is important to evaluate the capacity to understand the voting process among individuals with mental disorders who have legal guardians. Thus, the integrity of the elections would be preserved by eliminating the risk of undue influence or manipulation of individuals who lack the capacity to understand the nature and meaning of voting, while preserving the right to vote for those with the capacity to do so, whether or not they have guardians.

 

Mario Iannucci
# Road-maps per superare gli Opg. Labirinti, disorientamenti e contraddizioni
Ristretti Orizzonti, 26 marzo 2014
La decostruzione dell’OPG invece, finora, è stata fatta dall’esterno, senza grande determinazione e con pochissima competenza. Noi stiamo investendo le carceri ordinarie, queste disastrate e inadempienti carceri italiane, di un problema rilevantissimo di assistenza di salute mentale e, occorre considerarlo, andremo a investirle sempre di più con le azioni proposte dalla road-map. Ma queste carceri attuali, il cui trattamento, come ci dice la CEDU, è al limite della tortura, possono davvero sopportare il peso di questa assistenza?

 

Società Italiana Psichiatria
# Chiusura degli OPG, scacco in sette mosse. Ecco la "road map" degli psichiatri italiani
www.psichiatria.it/ 12 marzo 2014

Tempi brevi e maggiori certezze, ma senza rischi sociali, per gli oltre 1000 detenuti con malattie psichiche che si trovano sottoposti a regime carcerario negli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari italiani. Strutture definite “esempi di inciviltà umana e sociale” dal Presidente della Repubblica, Giorgio Napolitano. Per questo La Società Italiana di Psichiatria, da sempre favorevole ad  una profonda revisione del sistema, ritiene che non si possa più continuare a rinviare la chiusura degli  OPG per mancanza di strutture alternative, e che si debba individuare una “road map” per ‘svuotarli’ e renderli quindi inutili. Un progetto condiviso per porre fine a strutture ormai fuori dal tempo.

 

Comitato Nazionale stopOPG
# No a proroghe senza vincoli: proposte per l’ effettivo superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari e il rafforzamento dei servizi di salute mentale
www.stopopg.it/ Marzo 2014
Riteniamo sia realistico e urgente introdurre una disposizione che stabilisca che la durata massima della misura non può essere superiore alla durata della pena detentiva per il reato per il quale la persona è stata condannata. Questo anche allo scopo di evitare che il reiterarsi inerziale delle proroghe possa realizzare detenzioni abnormi per reati di scarso o nullo allarme sociale, o addirittura il già tristemente noto fenomeno degli “ergastoli bianchi”... Senza modifiche sostanziali del Codice Rocco non è possibile evitare gli effetti perversi della logica del doppio binario, che separa il destino del “reo folle” dal "reo sano” o dal “reo affetto da altre malattie". Questo tema va inserito nell’agenda parlamentare.

 

Jo-Ann Brown | Alzheimer’s Australia NSW
# Dementia in Prison
https://fightdementia.org.au/ Discussion Paper #9 March 2014
A person with dementia in prison will, as they would in the community, struggle with gradual loss of: memory; functioning; coordination; health; and retaining their sense of identity. Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia such as agitation, aggression, paranoia, delusions, self-neglect and incontinence can commonly occur at some point in the course of dementia and provide challenges for their carers.

 

Geoff Shepherd, Jed Boardman, Miles Rinaldi, Glenn Roberts
# Supporting recovery in mental health services: Quality and Outcomes
Centre for Mental Health and Mental Health Network, NHS Confederation march 2014
Relationships are at the heart of recovery. The creation of supportive relationships depends upon establishing shared values and demonstrating empathy, warmth, respect and a willingness to go the ‘extra mile’. These form the bedrock for all forms of care and, some would argue, have been undermined by the increasing ‘marketisation’ of healthcare with its emphasis on impersonal service transactions, rather than the relationships within which these transactions take place. Positiverelationships are at the heart of basic, good care highlighted in...

 

Astrid M. Kamperman, Jens Henrichs, Stefan Bogaerts, Emmanuel M.E.H. Lesaffre, Andre´ I. Wierdsma, Razia R. R. Ghauharali, Wilma Swildens, Yolanda Nijssen, Mark van der Gaag, Jan R. Theunissen, Philippe A. Delespaul, Jaap van Weeghel, Jooske T. van Busschbach, Hans Kroon, Linda A. Teplin, Dike van de Mheen, Cornelis L. Mulder
#
Criminal Victimisation in People with Severe Mental Illness: A Multi-Site Prevalence and Incidence Survey in the Netherlands
www.plosone.org/ March 2014 | Volume 9

In the past year, almost half of the severely mentally ill outpatients (47%) had been victim of a crime. After control for demographic differences, prevalence rates of overall and specific victimisation measures were significantly higher in severely mentally ill outpatients than in the general population. The relative rates were especially high for personal crimes such as violent threats, physical assaults and sexual harassment and assaults. In concordance, severely mentally ill outpatients reported almost 14 times more personal crime incidents than persons from the general population

 

Achim Wolf, Ron Gray, and Seena Fazel
# Violence as a public health problem: An ecological study of 169 countries
Soc Sci Med. Mar 2014; 104(100): 220–227
In summary, we have found that income inequality as measured by the Gini is associated with certain violent outcomes in both high, and low and middle-income countries, and alcohol consumption with self-reported assault rates in all countries. We also found that urbanicity was associated with official assault and robbery rates in highincome countries. The role of public policy in reducing the health burden of violence needs further examination.

 

Matthew M. Large, F.R.A.N.Z.C.P.
# Treatment of Psychosis and Risk Assessment for Violence
http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/ Am J Psychiatry 2014;171:256-258
The complex nature of violence risk factors should not be underestimated. As currently formulated, violence risk assessment instruments generally do not consider interactions between risk factors. They operate by simply adding risk factor items to obtain an overall risk score. It remains to be seen whether future risk assessment instruments can be improved by methods that acknowledge the complexity of violence risk factors.

 

Virginia Aldigé Hiday, Bradley Ray, Heathcote W. Wales
# Predictors of Mental Health Court Graduation
Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, n. 2, 2014
Mental health courts (MHCs), nontraditional problem-solving courts designed to address underlying causes of offending rather than apportion guilt and punishment, have been reported to reduce offending among persons with mental illness and consequently have been spreading. Graduation from a MHC has been found to be a major predictor of reduced recidivism; yet few studies have examined factors affecting MHC graduation. This study examines what participants brought to MHC, their processing in MHC, and their behaviors during MHC. It found that noncompliant participant behaviors during MHC had the strongest impact on graduation, increasing the odds of failure to graduate and reducing, if not eliminating, the direct effects on completion of the risk factors participants brought into court.

 

Hans Joachim Salize, Juha Lavikainen, Allan Seppänen, Milazim Gjocaj
# Developing forensic mental healthcare in Kosovo
Front. Public Health, 2:26, 2014

The prevalence of mental ill health in Kosovo has constantly been reported as very high. In 2005, the Kosovo Rehabilitation Centre for Torture Victims (KRCT) found 27.7% of the population having substantial psychiatric morbidity, indicated by a General Health Questionnaire-28 score of 12 and higher. As a long-term consequence of the Kosovo war, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and emotional distress remained high among the population, with 22% prevalence of PTSD symptoms, 41.8% prevalence for depression (HSCL-20 score), and 43.1% prevalence for emotional distress.

 

Philip Mulvey, Michael White
# The potential for violence in arrests of persons with mental illness
An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management Vol. 37 No. 2, 2014
The current study offers insights on the dynamics of formal arrest encounters of suspects who are mentally ill. These encounters differ from arrests of non-mentally ill suspects in distinctive ways, including a greater likelihood of suspect resistance and, although rare, greater use of weapon force by police. This last finding may suggest that police respond to the affronts by PMIs differently than affronts from other suspects. Given the consequences surrounding poor police responses in encounters with PMIs, as well as the concerns over use of force, future research should continue to explore these questions.

 

Erin Bagalman, Angela Napili
# Prevalence of Mental Illness in the United States: Data Sources and Estimates
Congressional Research Service - February 28, 2014
The National Survey on Drug Use and Health NSDUH identifies adults (aged 18 or older) as having a serious mental illness if (1) they have a mental illness (excluding substance use disorders and developmental disorders) and (2) the illness substantially interferes with or limits at least one major life activity. The same approach used to impute any mental illness is applied to impute serious mental illness. According to the 2012 NSDUH, the estimated 12-month prevalence of serious mental illness excluding substance use disorders is 4.1% among adults (aged 18 or older).

 

Social Care, Local Government and Care Partnership Directorate
# Closing the gap: priorities for essential change in mental health
www.gov.uk/ February 2014
We are also looking at how other frontline services respond to incidents of self-harm – including across the criminal justice system, whether in prison or where the police attend an incident involving self-harm. For example, self-harm is closely monitored within prisons. There is a well-established process for supporting prisoners at risk of, or who have, self-harmed, called Assessment, Care in Custody and Teamwork (ACCT). The process includes a requirement to consider mental health, and where appropriate refer prisoners on to mental health services...

 

Federal Bureau of Prisons - Clinical Practice Guidelines
# Detoxification of Chemically Dependent Inmates
www.bop.gov/ February 2014
Substance use disorders are highly prevalent among inmate populations, affecting an estimated 30–60% of inmates. Drug intoxication and withdrawal may be particularly evident at the time of incarceration. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that an estimated 70% of all inmates in local jail facilities in the U.S. had committed a drug offense or used drugs regularly, and an estimated 35% were under the influence of drugs at the time of the offense.  

 

Treatment Advocacy Center
# Mental Health Commitment Laws. A Survey of the States
http://www.tacreports.org/ February 2014
The tragic consequences of ignoring the needs of individuals with the most severe mental illness who are unable or unwilling to seek treatment are on vivid display nationwide: on our city streets, where an estimated quarter million people with untreated psychiatric illness roam homeless; in our jails and prisons, which now house 10 times as many people with severe mental illness than do our psychiatric hospitals; in our suicide and victimization statistics, where individuals with psychotic disorders are grossly overrepresented; and in our local news, which reports daily on violent acts committed by individuals whose families struggled vainly to get them into treatment.

 

Giandomenico Dodaro
# Il nodo della contenzione in psichiatria tra gestione della sicurezza, diritti del paziente e “inconscio istituzionale”
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 25 Febbraio 2014
Legare il paziente al letto è una scelta niente affatto ineluttabile come dimostra l'esistenza in Italia (e all'estero) di Spdc che, oltre a lavorare con le porte del reparto aperte, rifiutano altresì la contenzione; e ciò non per ragioni ideologiche, ma per precise necessità terapeutiche, oltre che ovviamente per rispetto della dignità umana e dei diritti fondamentali del sofferente psichico[10]. I servizi no restraint non costituiscono esperienze pionieristiche e isolate nel panorama nazionale e internazionale, ma rappresentano modelli di buon operatività basati sull'esperienza e che vanno radicandosi anche in realtà metropolitane di grandi dimensioni, presumibilmente uguali per tipologia di utenza ai servizi in cui la contenzione si pratica[11]. Questi Spdc hanno fondato lo scorso novembre 2013 l'associazione "Club degli SPDC no restraint"

 

# Faut-il épargner la prison aux détenus atteints de maladies mentales ?
www.lefigaro.fr/ 17.02.2014
Les chiffres sont inquiétants: selon le groupe de travail santé-justice, dont le rapport a été révélé par La Croix, commandé il y a plus d'un an par les ministres de la Santé et de la Justice, de 20 à 30 % des détenus souffriraient de troubles psychotiques. La Cour des comptes va même plus loin, puisque, dans son rapport annuel, elle dénonce «une prévalence très forte des maladies psychiatriques et infectieuses. Au moins un trouble psychiatrique est identifié chez huit détenus sur dix, le taux de détenus atteints de schizophrénie étant quatre fois plus élevé que dans la population générale».

 

Terry Goldsworthy, Matthew Raj
# Stopping the Stalker: Victim Responses to Stalking
Griffith Journal of Law & Human Dignity, Volume 2(1) 2014
In an attempt to delineate and differentiate the nebulous behaviours of stalking, a range of terms has been used to describe stalking and stalking-related phenomena, including: obsessive relation intrusion; obsessional following;  obsessional harassment; unwanted pursuit behaviours; pre-stalking; and criminal stalking... Obsessive relational intrusion is defined as the ‘repeated and unwanted pursuit and invasion of one’s sense of physical or symbolic privacy by another person, either stranger or acquaintance, who desires and/or presumes an intimate relationship’ ...

 

Department of Health | Social Care, Local Government and Care Partnership Directorate
# Closing the Gap: Priorities for essential change in mental health
www.gov.uk/ February 2014
We are also looking at how other frontline services respond to incidents of self-harm – including across the criminal justice system, whether in prison or where the police attend an incident involving self-harm. For example, self-harm is closely monitored within prisons. There is a well-established process for supporting prisoners at risk of, or who have, self-harmed, called Assessment, Care in Custody and Teamwork (ACCT). The process includes a requirement to consider mental health, and where appropriate refer prisoners on to mental health services. We will examine what other services can learn from this.

 

Clifton Adcock, Shaun Hittle
# Prison Meds Reveal Disorders Severe for Mentally Ill Inmates
http://oklahomawatch.org/ Oklahoma Watch February 1, 2014
The number of mentally ill inmates in Oklahoma's prisons is rising, and data about the psychiatric drugs they receive reveals that many have serious issues beyond depression... In corrections facilities statewide, of the 1 0 psy chiatric m edications the Departm ent of Corrections spent the most on in 2013, seven were antipsychotics and three were anti-depressants, according to data obtained by Oklahom a Watch. The total cost of all such drugs was at least $1 .3 m illion, or 52 percent m ore than in 2010.

#

 

Arielle Baskin-Sommers, Elizabeth Krusemark, Elsa Ronningstam
# Empathy in Narcissistic Personality Disorder: From Clinical and Empirical Perspectives. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment. Advance online publication
http://dx.doi.org/ february 10, 2014
Narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is associated with an assortment of characteristics that undermine interpersonal functioning. A lack of empathy is often cited as the primary distinguishing feature of NPD. However, clinical presentations of NPD suggest that empathy is not simply deficient in these individuals, but dysfunctional and subject to a diverse set of motivational and situational factors. Consistent with this presentation, research illustrates that empathy is multidimensional, involving 2 distinct emotional and cognitive processes associated with a capacity to respectively understand and respond to others’ mental and affective states....

 

Nicholas Kristof
# Inside a Mental Hospital Called Jail
www.nytimes.com/ Feb. 8, 2014
THE largest mental health center in America is a huge compound here in Chicago, with thousands of people suffering from manias, psychoses and other disorders, all surrounded by high fences and barbed wire. Just one thing: It’s a jail. The only way to get treatment is to be arrested.

 

Massachusetts - Department of Mental Health Forensic Services
# Pre-Arrest Law Enforcement-Based Jail Diversion Program
www.mass.gov/ Report July 1, 2011 to January 1, 2014
There is a longstanding recognition that persons with mental illness are over-represented in the criminal justice system. While some arrests are necessary and appropriate, there are others in which individuals with mental illness might more appropriately be “diverted” into mental health and other treatment services in lieu of arrest and/or incarceration. The concept of “jail diversion” as it relates to the criminal justice system has many meanings. Different diversion programs target different points along the criminal justice continuum

 

Ben Hartman
# Psych Bed Shortage Threatens Public Safety
http://www.medpagetoday.com/ Jan 28, 2014
By the 1980s thousands of newly deinstitutionalized patients had returned to the streets often to be returned to institutionalized care -- but now it would be in prison. According to Fuller, in the 1950s, only 3% of American prisoners were mentally ill; today it's 40%.

 

Anthony O. Ahmed, Kristin M. Hunter, Eva G. Van Houten, Joel M. Monroe, Ishrat A. Bhat
# Cognition and Other Targets for the Treatment of Aggression in People with Schizophrenia
Ann Psychiatry Ment Health 2(1): 1004 (2014)
Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are associated with an increased risk of violent offending in comparison to non-clinical samples, which in turn puts both victims and perpetrators of schizophrenia-related violence at risk of harm. There are currently few interventions for aggression in schizophrenia with existing treatments demonstrating limited efficacy. The impact of several factors—neurocognition, social cognition, alexithymia, emotion regulation capacity, and the treatment milieu—on aggression  in people with schizophrenia creates an opportunity for the development and/or evaluation of new treatments for aggression. The authors recommend studies into the possible anti-aggressive benefits of treatments that target these factors. The etiological heterogeneity of aggression in schizophrenia calls for the development of a comprehensive treatment program that targets several contributors to aggression.

 

Peppe Dell’Acqua
# Il cavallo blu contro i muri degli Opg. Il viaggio di Marco Cavallo nel mondo di fuori per incontrare gli internati
Animazione Sociale, gennaio 2014

Non potevamo accettare che al posto dei sei ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari (Opg) se ne costruissero più di venti, più piccoli, più puliti e più medicalizzati, dove finalmente si può curare! Non più istituti per l’esecuzione della misura di sicurezza, Opg appunto, ma Residenze per l’esecuzione della misura di sicurezza (Rems), mini Opg come li abbiamo  chiamati. Non più istituti ma residenze! Ci aspettavamo che cambiasse la finalità, non il nome della struttura dedicata.

 

Michael F. A. Morehart | Office of the State Inspector General (OSIG)
# Review of Mental Health Services in Local and Regional Jails

http://sfc.virginia.gov/ January 17, 2014

In July 2012 local and regional jail systems reported 6,322 incarcerated persons with mental illness. 48% 3,043 individuals) qualified for a diagnosis of serious mental illness. The number of individuals identified with mental illness in jails increased by 30% from 4,879 to 6,322 from 2008 to 2012. One in four inmates in local and regional jails was known, or suspected, to be mentally ill— making Virginia’s jails one of the Commonwealth’s largest provider of mental health services for persons with mental illness.

 

European Court of Human Rights | Cour Européenne des Droits de l’Homme
# Détention et santé mentale
www.echr.coe.int/ janvier 2014

 

Gianfranco Nuvoli [Francesco Bollorino - Franco Scarpa]
# Sulla pericolosità sociale... in margine al caso Gagliano
www.psychiatryonline.it/ 7 gennaio, 2014
Credo che sia assolutamente necessario che i due percorsi, psichiatrico e penitenziario, rimangano paralleli e rigorosamente separati. Il tentativo, spesso strisciante, di alcune amministrazioni penitenziarie di attribuire “di fatto“ agli operatori della sanità pubblica anche compiti di valutazione del percorso penitenziario dei detenuti, scevri da finalità di cura, va assolutamente avversato e respinto, mantenendo per gli operatori sanitari esclusivi compiti di cura e per quelli del Ministero di Grazia e Giustizia la competenza valutativa in sede criminologico/ penitenziaria... Lo stesso sistema italiano di erogazione delle pene, centrato sulla carcerazione, ha spesso l’effetto di favorire la cronicizzazione del comportamento criminale...

 

Alessia Guerrieri
# Opg, la chiusura resta un miraggio
Avvenire, 02 gen 2014 p. 10

Ancora un rinvio. Il primo aprile 2014 non sarà la data in cui si metterà la parola fine agli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari. Non è bastata la prima deroga che fece slittare la chiusura dal 31 marzo 2013 al 1° aprile 2014, per avviare i piani di dismissione e realizzare i 990 posti letto nelle 43 Rems (Residenze per l'esecuzione della misura di sicurezza sanitaria...la Liguria e l'Emilia Romagna, ad esempio, da quanto emerge nelle 20 pagine del report interministeriale, si distinguono per aver utilizzato i finanziamenti in modo virtuoso, riducendo la spesa in conto capitale, cioè per il mantenimento delle strutture, e investendo invece in risorse per la parte corrente, ovvero per i servizi sul territorio necessari a impostare i percorsi individuali di cura e inserimento sociale dell'ex internato. Ma molte altre hanno impiegato i fondi per costruire nuovi istituti...

 

Tony Ward
# The dual relationship problem in forensic and correctional practice: Community protection or offender welfare?
The British Psychological Society 10 december 2013 / Legal and Criminological Psychology (2014), 19, 35–39
Sometimes the conflict can occur between cultures or clusters of professional norms. In forensic and correctional work practice, the broader dual relationship problem is evident in conflict between (at least) two sets of professional norms: those concerned with community protection versus norms related to offender/defendant well-being. The two sets of norms are relatively coherent and structure the practice of clinicians working with offenders in assessment and interventions contexts.

 

Caitlin Gormley
# Mapping of Active Criminal Justice Diversion Schemes for Those with Mental Health Problems in Scotland
Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research, University of Glasgow - December 2013
People with mental ill-health are disproportionately found within the criminal justice system and imprisonment can lead to an acute worsening of mental health problems. In Scotland little is known about diversionary schemes or practices which focus specifically on people with mental health issues. This report was commissioned by the Scottish Association for Mental Health (SAMH) in association with the Centre for Mental Health (CfMH) in order to identify the stages at which people with mental health problems can be diverted during their route through the criminal justice system in Scotland.

 

Silvia D’Autilia, Peppe Dell’Acqua
# La pericolosità delle psichiatrie di ritorno: risposta ad Andreoli
www.news-forumsalutementale.it/ 29 dicembre 2013

 

Vittorino Andreoli

# Intervista a cura di Michele Brambilla

La Stampa 21 dicembre 213

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EMCDDA

# Co-morbid substance use and mental disorders in Europe: a review of the data

www.emcdda.europa.eu/ December 2013

Psychiatric co-morbidity particularly affects vulnerable groups, such as young people, people from ethnic minorities, prisoners and sex workers. Psychiatric co-morbidity in prison settings is a problem affecting a large part of the prison population. A large number of studies have estimated the prevalence of mental disorders as well as substance use in prisons, with prevalence estimates varying widely. In general, studies on the prevalence of mental illnesses in prison show large differences between the prison population and the general population in severe pathologies such as psychosis and personality disorders, as well as problems such as anxiety and depression...

 

D.AP. Ufficio Studi Ricerche e Rapporti Internazionali – Cassa delle Ammende . F.S.E. (Fondi sociali Europei)
# ME.D.I.C.S. – Monitoraggio detenuti con disagio psichico
http://www.giustizia.it/ 18 Dicembre 2013
Il progetto, cofinanziato per l’80% dalla Commissione Europea, parte dalla necessità di ottenere un quadro di informazioni chiaro e dettagliato sulla situazione dei detenuti con disagio mentale presenti negli istituti penitenziari italiani, allo scopo di offrire a questi soggetti accoglienza, presa in carico e trattamento specifici. Ciò anche in vista della prossima chiusura degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari nel nostro Paese e della conseguente istituzione di sezioni dedicate a persone con problemi di salute mentale in molti istituti penitenziari italiani. parteciperanno all’iniziativa: SIMSPE ONLUS – Società Italiana di Medicina e Sanità Penitenziaria, ITALIA | NOMS – Inghilterra e Galles | Servizio Penitenziario + Ospedale Sant Joan de Deu, Barcellona – Catalogna | Zdravo Grad / Healthy City, ONG – Croazia | Rete Europea delle Scuole Penitenziarie di Formazione.

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Bromley Briefings Prison Factfile
www.prisonreformtrust.org.uk/ Autumn 2013

A significant number of prisoners suffer from a psychotic disorder. 14% of women and 7% of men serving prison sentences have a psychotic disorder; 23 and 14 times the level in the general population. A more recent study found that 25% of women and 15% of men in prison reported symptoms indicative of psychosis.692 The rate among the general public is about 4%. 10% of men and 30% of women have had a previous psychiatric admission before they entered prison. 26% of women and 16% of men said they had received treatment for a mental health problem  in the year before custody. Personality disorders are particularly prevalent among people in prison. 62% of male and 57% of female sentenced prisoners have a personality disorder...

 

Tania Dupuis, Robin MacKay, Julia Nicol
# Current issues in mental health in Canada : mental health and the criminal justice system
http://www.lop.parl.gc.ca/ 16 december 2013

 

World Health Organization
# Mental health action plan 2013-2020
www.who.int/ 2013
Four major objectives are set forth: more effective leadership and governance for mental health; the provision of comprehensive, integrated mental health and social care services in community-based settings; implementation of strategies for promotion and prevention; and strengthened information systems, evidence and research

 

Brian Stettin, Frederick J. Frese, H. Richard Lamb | Treatment Advocacy Center
# Mental Health Diversion Practices. A Survey of the States
www.treatmentadvocacycenter.org/ August 2013
A 2010 study by the Treatment Advocacy Center found that more than three times as many severely mentally ill persons in the U.S. are doing time in jails and prisons than receiving treatment in hospitals. Other studies indicate a near tripling over the last 30 years of the percentage of U.S. inmates who suffer from severe mental illness, to a current level of at least 16%...

 

Taylor Salisbury
# The Relationship Between Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Psychopathy: A Proposed Trajectory
Western Undergraduate Psychology Journal: Vol. 1 2013
This review paper critically examines the literature on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Through examining diagnostic criteria laid out in the DSM-IV along with statistics related to diagnosis and prognosis, the idea that ODD, CD, and APD may fall on a developmental trajectory as opposed to being distinct, categorical entities is proposed. Additionally, the notion that these three disorders may represent narrow, behavioural indicators of a general psychopathic personality is suggested using comparisons to Hare’s Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R). Several implications related to child development, family instability and violence, as well as labeling and stigma are discussed and the importance of family intervention and involvement is highlighted. Finally, a number of implications related to the criminal justice system, including the prediction of conviction and recidivism rates, are explored.

 

Australian Government | National Mental Health Commission
# We must stop treating people with mental illness like criminals
www.mentalhealthcommission.gov.au/ 13 December 2013
We know that sixty-five per cent of the estimated 3.2 million Australians w ho have experienced a mental health problem in the past 12 months have not sought help for that problem... “The Commission is also very concerned by the w ay people w ith mental illness are being referred to in some media coverage, despite long-established Mindframe media guidelines on responsible reporting of mental illness. Generally describing the people in these facilities as ‘killers and rapists’, as one article has, is appalling.

 

Australian Government | National Mental Health Commission
# The justice system and mental health
www.mentalhealthcommission.gov.au/ 2013
The Commission is highly concerned about how we as a society criminalise people who live with a mental health difficulty. We know that people living with mental illness are over-represented in our prisons, in the number of police incidents and in the number of police shootings. We w ere dismayed to learn that in 2012, 38% of all people entering our prison system reported having been told they have a mental illness. If these findings w ere applied to the 29,000 prisoners in Australia, 207 then this w ould equate to around 11,000 people each year.

 

Arthur J. Lurigio
# Criminalization of the Mentally Ill. Exploring Causes and Current Evidence in the United States
The Criminologist. The Official Newsletter of the American Society of Criminology, Vol. 38, November/December 2013

In the early 1970s, Dr. Marc Abramson, a jail psychiatrist in California, was the first to report in the scholarly literature that people with serious mental illnesses (PSMI) (e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression) were being criminalized: being processed through the criminal justice system instead of the mental health system. Since that time, studies have suggested that the mentally ill are arrested and incarcerated at levels that exceed both their representation in the general popu-lation and their tendency to commit serious crimes. Estimates suggest that 14% of offenders (more than one million people) in the criminal justice system in the United States suffer from serious mental illnesses. This phenomenon has come to be known as the “criminalization” of the mentally ill.

 

Alessandro Grispini, Giuseppe Ducci
# Il superamento degli ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari. Considerazioni e riflessioni
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, 1/2013 (9-24)

1. introduzione – 2. Cosa dice la legge – 3. Punti di forza e punti di debolezza – 4. Lo stato dell’arte – 5. Alcune considerazioni critiche - 5.1 Bisogni specifici e tipologia delle strutture - 5.2 L’imputabilità - 5.3 La pericolosità sociale - 5.4 La valutazione obiettiva dei fatti - 5.5 Salute mentale e carcere – 6. Conclusioni – 7. bibliografia.

 

Enrico Zanalda, Claudio Mencacci
# Percorso di superamento degli OPG in italia. L’impatto sui Dipartimenti di salute mentale. L’opinione della società italiana di Psichiatria
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, 1/2013 (25-47)

Introduzione sullo stato del percorso in riferimento alla normativa nazionale – alcune precisazioni sulle misure di sicurezza - I programmi di superamento degli oPG e delle CCC: 1. Recupero delle persone internate negli OPG - 2. Potenziare la tutela della salute mentale negli Istituti di Pena. - 3. Realizzare le Residenze per l’Esecuzione delle Misure di Sicurezza (REMS ai sensi del DM 1° ottobre 2012, Legge 296/1993, e s.m.i.). - 4. Definizione e monitoraggio di percorsi di cura territoriali per i pazienti autori di reato e sottoposti a misure di sicurezza per pazienti con pericosità sociale «attenuata». - 5. Formazione degli operatori coinvolti nei percorsi di esecuzione delle misure di sicurezza. - Considerazioni conclusive.

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Ministero della Salute
# Relazione al Parlamento sul Programma di superamento degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari, ai sensi dell'articolo 3- ter del decreto-legge 22 dicembre 2011, n. 211 convertito dalla legge 17 febbraio 2012, n. 9, come modificato dal decreto-legge 25 marzo 2013, n. 24 convertito con modificazione, dalla legge 23 maggio 2013, n. 57, alla data del
30 novembre 2013
www.quotidianosanita.it/ 18 dicembre 2013
Dalle valutazioni dei programmi presentati e dagli incontri con le Regioni è emerso che il termine previsto dalla normativa vigente, IO aprile 2014, per il superamento degli OPG, non è risultato congruo, soprattutto per i tempi di realizzazione delle strutture, fase che si deve confrontare con una serie di procedure amministrative complesse. Sulla base delle valutazioni rese, si prospetta la necessità che il Governo, anche sulla scorta delle indicazioni regionali, proponga al Parlamento una proroga del termine che rispecchi la tempistica oggettivamente necessaria per completare definitivamente il superamento degli OPG.

 

Giandomenico Dodaro
# L’impatto di saperi, culture e sentimenti d’insicurezza dei servizi psichiatrici sulle politiche per il superamento dell’ospedale psichiatrico giudiziario
Milano 25 novembre 2013

Franco Basaglia invitava a fare « attenzione alle facili euforie con l’inserimento dei malati di mente negli ospedali » e con la tendenza ad omologare la psichiatria alla medicina, ossia il comportamento al corpo (Basaglia, 1978). Strutture extra-ospedaliere residenziali, spogliate dalla mission socio-riabilitativa, irrigidite sul modello ospedaliero rischiano di riprodurre luoghi di internamento, la cui funzione primaria è l’incapacitazione-neutralizzazione del “reo folle”.

 

Adam Joseph Evans Blanchard
# Dynamic Risk Factors in Violence Risk Assessment: A Multiple Time-Point Evaluation of the HCR-20 and START
Simon Fraser University, Fall 2013
The consideration of dynamic risk factors when conducting risk assessments is generally considered best practice. However, little empirical research can speak to intraindividual change over time in putatively dynamic risk factors included in violence risk assessments instruments, and even fewer studies can speak to whether this change is associated with violence. The present study investigated change on putatively dynamic scales included on the Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) and the Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START), using a prospective repeated measures design with a civil psychiatric and a correctional sample. Intraindividual change on these scales was seen in a notable proportion of the assessments. More change was seen on the HCR-20 when the reassessment interval was over two months compared to less than two months, whereas the proportion of change on the START scales was consistent across different reassessment intervals. As well, fluctuations on these scales were predictive of subsequent violence.

 

Martina Nasso
# Custodire o curare? Una scelta di diritto: la chiusura degli Ospedali Psichiatrici Giudiziari e la presa in carico del paziente giudiziario
Università di Bologna, 2013-14
Non è possibile continuare ad escludere dal processo penale chi viene dichiarato “incapace d‟intendere e di volere”: deve essere considerato e riconosciuto imputabile. A chi muove l‟accusa del possibile regime peggiorativo che la persona andrebbe a vivere se sottoposto a pena, va costantemente ricordato che essa non può e non deve consistere nel carcere, luogo principe per lo sviluppo del disturbo mentale. Il carcere è, per sua natura, un luogo di esclusione e sofferenza, dunque, non può essergli riconosciuta alcuna funzione responsabilizzante...

 

Le plus France Info
# La prison, "asile républicain" ?
www.franceinfo.fr/ france info 6 novembre 2013

... sept des dix médicaments les plus distribués sont des psychotropes... 15% des détenus consultent un psychiatre...

 

Anne Elizabeth Bain
# The Impact of Therapeutic Jurisprudence: A Critical Study of Toronto’s Mental Health Court
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/ University of Michigan 2013
Seriously mentally ill offenders make up a disproportionate number of  inmates and tend to be in and out of jail frequently often for minor offenses. Within the criminal justice systems in North America, judges, lawyers, prosecutors, physicians, and social service providers have collaborated to address this problem with the establishment of mental health courts, like 102 Court in Toronto, Canada. In recognition that this particular population is in trouble with the law not because of criminality but due to illness, poverty, homelessness, and isolation, professionalsendeavor to “divert” accused away from jail and towards the services they need. This is a deliberate attempt to reduce rates of recidivism by replacing traditional punitive interventions with therapeutic interventions, based on the legal concept of therapeutic jurisprudence.

 

Patrick Callaghan, Nico Oud, Johan Håkon Bjørngaard, Henk Nijman, Tom Palmstierna, Roger Almvik, Bart Thomas
# Violence in Clinical Psychiatry. Proceedings of the 8th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry
www.oudconsultancy.nl/ 23 – 26 October 2013 Ghent, Belgium
Preventing violence, reducing its incidence and impact, managing its consequences and understanding how and why it manifests itself requires working across different disciplinary  perspectives using the most up-to-date techniques and interventions and the best available  evidence. Much is already known about violence in clinical psychiatry; much remains to be  discovered. It is the latter of these issues upon which the 8th European Congress on Violence in Clinical Psychiatry will focus. Risk assessment is a widely used method of seeking to predict future violence with a view to preventing and minimising the occurrence of violence and managing people whose behaviour is deemed harmful. evidence shows that restraint has led to the death of patients on too many occasions. Joy Duxbury, chair elect of EVIPRG – the European Violence in Psychiatry Research Group – is one of the UK’s leading mental health nursing researchers and led a review of restraintrelated deaths for the English Department of Health. Joy shares her insights gleaned from this review that will hopefully lead to practice changes that will eradicate these avoidable deaths

 

Allen Frances, Melissa Raven
# Two Views on the New DSM-5. The Need for Caution in Diagnosing and Treating Mental Disorders
www.aafp.org/afp American Family Physician, Oct. 2013
DSM-5, published in May 2013, has stimulated the opposition of more than 50 mental health associations, which have petitioned for an independent scientific review based on the belief that the manual’s proposals for change are not safe or scientifically sound. DSM-5 seems likely to convert diagnostic inflation into diagnostic hyperinflation by adding new, questionable, and untested diagnoses, and by reducing the thresholds
for existing diagnoses.

 

Sophie Crampagne
# Évaluation de la dangerosité dans le cadre de l'expertise psychiatrique pénale
http://dumas.ccsd.cnrs.fr/ 2013
J. L. Senon et C. Manzanera décrivent une situation française se caractérisant par : l’incidence de la désinstitutionnalisation psychiatrique, le faible nombre d’irresponsabilités pénales prononcées, l’évolution des attentes de la Justice vers trois niveaux d’analyse de l’expertise, l’accumulation de personnes souffrant de troubles psychotiques dans les établissements pénitentiaires, l’incidence de la politique sécuritaire de «tolérance zéro», la confusion entre soins et punitions et l’exigence de soins pour toutes les déviances...

 

National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI)
# State Legislation Report, 2013: Trends, Themes and Best Practices in State Mental Health Legislation
www.nami.org/ Oct. 28, 2013
Jails and prisons are neither designed nor funded to provide mental health treatment, yet with the erosion of public mental health services they have increasingly become de facto mental health facilities. Without appropriate treatment inmates with mental illness decompensate, are vulnerable to abuse and are disproportionately segregated in solitary confinement.

 

Elsa Ronningstam, Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers
# Fear and decision-making in narcissistic personality disorder—a link between psychoanalysis and neuroscience
www.dialogues-cns.org/ 2013
Linking psychoanalytic studies with neuroscience has proven increasingly productive for identifying and understanding personality functioning. This article focuses on pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (NPD), with the aim of exploring two clinically relevant aspects of narcissistic functioning also recognized in psychoanalysis: fear and decision-making. Evidence from neuroscientific studies of related conditions, such as psychopathy, suggests links between affective and cognitive functioning that can influence the sense of self-agency and narcissistic self-regulation. 

 

Ivano Abbadessa | west Welfare Society Territory

# Are prisons becoming the new asylums?

www.west-info.eu/ 10.22.2013

The current emergency situation in US prisons has its roots in the closure of hundreds of nursing homes during the seventies, under the presidency of Jimmy Carter, which was justified by a lack of funding. Many patients were abandoned to wander through the city’s streets: without homes, jobs or psychiatric treatment. This created the ideal conditions for them to end up in jail because their marginality, poverty and drug use made them an easy prey for crime.

 

Ashish Srivastava, Veeranna Patil, Yvonne Da Silva Pereira
# A Case Series of Quetiapine Addiction/Dependence
German Journal of Psychiatry, 2013
After few days, he was found to consume an increased number of quetiapine tablets, which he used to borrow from other inmates in the prison. He demanded higher doses of quetiapine from treating doctors, which was not complied with. In jail, he apparently continued to take quetiapine in doses up-to 800mg/day, which he borrowed from other  inmates. During his next visit, he presented with similar complaints of irritability, sleep disturbances, and dysphoric mood and was hospitalised..

 

Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Constabulary | Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Prisons | Care Quality Commission | Healthcare Inspectorate Wales
# A Criminal Use of Police Cells? The use of police custody as a place of safety for people with mental health needs
www.hmic.gov.uk/ 2013
The use of a police station as a place of safety has been subject of several specific reports. In 2008, the IPCC reported that police stations were commonly used as a first resort rather than the last.

 

Jonathan Martin
# Mental health in prisons: It’s a crime
http://seattletimes.com/ The Seattle Times, October 19, 2013
The state prison in Monroe is the largest psychiatric facility in Snohomish County... The jailing of the mentally ill cannot honestly be called an accidental byproduct of the nation’s fractured mental-health system. The disinvestment in mental health care has gone on too long — generations now — to be considered anything but deliberate neglect. In 1955, before deinstitutionalization, there was one psychiatric bed for every 300 U.S. residents. A half-century later, that ratio is now 1 in 3,000...

 

Gordon Chit-Nga Shen
# Global Mental Health Policy Diffusion, Institutionalization, and Innovation
University of California, Berkeley, Fall 2013
The gap between theneed and supply of treatment ranges from 76% to 85% in low-and middle-income countries, and from 35% to 50% in high-income countries. Mounting evidence underlines the inequitable distribution, poor quality, and inefficient use of scarce resources to address mental health needs... Flagrant abuse of human rights and discrimination against people with mental disorders and psychosocial disabilities have been found in such psychiatric institutions. The redirecting of mental health budgets toward community-based services, including the integration of mental health into general health care settings, is needed.

 

Eva-Maria Seidel, Daniela Melitta Pfabigan, Katinka Keckeis, Anna Maria Wucherer, Thomas Jahn, Claus Lamma, Birgit Derntl
# Empathic competencies in violent offenders
Psychiatry Research 2013

 

ACLU American Civil Liberties Union of New Mexico
# Inside the Box: The Real Costs of Solitary Confinement in New Mexico's Prisons and Jails
http://nmpovertylaw.org/
October 2013
The American Bar Association deines long-term solitary coninement as longer than 30 days.14 According to the NMCD, in 2013 the combined average length of stay for prisoners conined to Levels V and VI in New Mexico’s “supermax” is 1,072 days – that is, almost three years... in the Santa Fe County Jail, on December 21, 2012, almost 20 percent of the prisoners – ive out of 28 – had been held in solitary coninement for more than 6 months... he NMCD has reported that “1 in every 4 prisoners (25 percent) in NMCD prisons is in treatment for serious mental illness on any given day.”21 On average, researchers estimate that across the country at least 30 percent of the prisoners held in solitary coninement are mentally ill.22 hus, we can assume that at least 25 percent of solitary coninement prisoners in the New Mexico prison system are seriously mentally ill. his means that serious mental illness alicts hundreds of prisoners now languishing in isolation in New Mexico’s prisons and jails.

 

Allen J. Frances
# Sexual Abuse Of Psychiatric Patients In Prisons. A national scandal
www.psychologytoday.com/ Psychology Today, October 15, 2013

Sexual abuse is shockingly common in the US prison system. A recent survey conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics concluded that about 200,000 prisoners are sexually abused each year. Most of the abused prisoners are misplaced psychiatric patients who make especially vulnerable targets because they are less able to defend themselves and to be believed if they report infractions. Although prison is clearly not the right place for psychiatric patients, almost a million are behind bars for crimes that could have been avoided if there were proper community treatment. Because there isn't, prison has become the default disposition for those patients who can't make it on their own. They usually get incarcerated for non- iolent nuisance crimes that result from neglect, not evil intent.

 

Daniel Yohanna
# Deinstitutionalization of People with Mental Illness: Causes and Consequences
American Medical Association Journal of Ethics - October 2013, Volume 15, Number 10: 886-891.
Is there a group of American citizens more deserving of safety and refuge than people with severe mental illness (SMI) who have traded one level of confinement in state mental hospitals for another in our nursing homes, intermediate care facilities, jails, and prisons—or, worse, become homeless? This paper reviews trends in the transinstitutionalization of people with SMI and proposes that it is time we offer asylum, in the best sense of the word, to the most vulnerable of the people with severe mental illness.

 

Mathew George, Maya Haasz, Alvaro Coronado, Steven Salhanick, Lindsey Korbel, Joseph P Kitzmiller
# Acute dyskinesia, myoclonus, and akathisa in an adolescent male abusing quetiapine via nasal insufflation: a case study
www.biomedcentral.com/ 13:187, 2013
Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic, and its indications include psychosis, mood disorders, and bipolar disorder. It is intended for oral administration with total daily doses up to 800 mg in adults. Quetiapine has good efficacy, but also has some potential for abuse. Routes of abuse include insufflation and intravenous entries.

 

Mental Health Foundation
# Starting today. The future of mental health services
www.mentalhealth.org.uk/
We cannot countenance a situation in 20-30 years’ time when a failure to exchange relevant data leads to the death, or even serious harm, of a patient or any other individual as a result of a mental illness. Information Technology (IT) systems that allow comprehensive information sharing must be developed both within health and social care, and across relevant organisations such as schools, housing organisations, prisons and the police, while still ensuring that people’s legally-enshrined rights to privacy remain protected.

 

Brandi Grissom
# Violence Behind Bars: A Tie to Mental Illness
The Texas Tribune, Sept. 22, 2013
The most violent prisons in the Texas state system share a common factor: They house a high proportion of mentally ill inmates... The volume of violent incident reports raises questions about the staff’s ability to manage inmates and keep prisoners and officers safe.

 

Gemma Brandi, Mario Iannucci
# La coazione benigna al servizio della salute e della sicurezza
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, 3, 2013
Gli Autori declinano il concetto di coazione benigna all’interno delle istituzioni sanitaria e penitenziaria, fondando il loro ragionamento sulle pratiche di salute mentale territoriale e sulla indicativa prevalenza di disturbi psichiatrici tra i detenuti nelle carceri italiane – desunta dall’unica ricerca psicopatologica standardizzata svoltavi su autorizzazione  del DAP, che ebbe per oggetto, tra il 2001 e il 2002, i nuovi giunti nella Casa Circondariale di Firenze Sollicciano nell’arco di sei mesi – passando attraverso due temi attuali e scottanti: la evoluzione dell’internamento giudiziario in corso e la contenzione fisica del portatore di sofferenza psichica.

 

Stefano Rossi
# Salute mentale e dignità della persona: profili di un dialogo costituzionale
www.gruppodipisa.it/ Università di Roma Tre, 20 settembre 2013
1. Perché dialogare su diritti e salute mentale? Introduzione e obbiettivi di un percorso di ricerca. - 2. Il diritto nella storia: influssi e riflessi. - 3. Il diritto alla salute come concetto dinamico. - 3.1. Dalla salute pubblica al vissuto della persona. - 3.2. Salute mentale: viaggio nei luoghi dell’incertezza. - 3.3. Malattia mentale e legislazione: dal paradigma custodiale a quello di cura (1904-1978) - 3.4. Oltre il diritto alla salute (anche mentale) verso un diritto delle capacità. - 4. La libertà personale: dall’habeas corpus all’autodeterminazione. - 4.1. I trattamenti sanitari obbligatori: fin dove la libertà può cedere il passo alla salute? - 5. La dignità nella Costituzione: per un’interpretazione mite. - 5.1. Dignità e salute mentale: dallo stigma all’integrazione. - 6. La salute mentale come diritto dell’uomo: profili di diritto internazionale e sovranazionale.

 

Giuseppe Craparo, Adriano Schimmenti, Vincenzo Caretti
# Traumatic experiences in childhood and psychopathy: a study on a sample of violent offenders from Italy
European Journal of Psychotraumatology 2013
There was a high prevalence of childhood experiences of neglect and abuse among the offenders. Higher levels of childhood relational trauma were found among participants who obtained high scores on the PCL-R. There was also a significant negative association between age of first relational trauma and psychopathy scores. Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest that an early exposure to relational trauma in childhood can play a relevant role in the development of more severe psychopathic traits.

 

John Monahan
# Gangs, Violence, and Psychiatry
Am J Psychiatry 170:9, September 2013
Frequent violent ruminations and the propensity to react violently to perceived disrespect differentiated violent and nonviolent men but—as with victimization—were highest among violent gang members. This result, too, reinforces established findings that angry ruminations and sensitivity to provocation often anticipate violent behavior...

 

Polly McConnell, Jenny Talbot
# Mental health and learning disabilities in the criminal courts. Information for magistrates, district judges and court staff
Prison Reform Trust, September 2013
More recently, renewed attention has been given to extending the role of liaison and diversion services to include people with learning disabilities and in ensuring access to provision at the police station. The Government has made a commitment that all police stations and criminal courts in England will have access to liaison and diversion services by 2014; similar services exist in Wales.

 

Aidan G. C. Wright, Aaron L. Pincus, Katherine M. Thomas, Christopher J. Hopwood, Kristian E. Markon, Robert F. Krueger
# Conceptions of Narcissism and the DSM-5 Pathological Personality Traits
Assessment, 2013
Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) has been shown to be associated with an array of traits and behaviors that can be understood as manifestations of, or closely related to, narcissistic grandiosity, such as psychopathy, impulsivity, violence, aggression, homicidal ideation, and sexual aggression. However, NPD is also associated with more vulnerable forms of dysregulation such as anxiety and depressive disorders, as well as functional impairments, interpersonal distress, and even suicidal behavior.

 

Vijayalakshmi Poreddi, Ramachandra, Konduru Reddemma, Suresh Bada Math
# People with mental illness and human rights: A developing countries perspective
Indian J Psychiatry. 2013 Apr-Jun; 55(2): 117–124.
Human rights violations among the people with mental illness were not an uncommon occurrence. The present study was aimed to compare persons with psychiatric illness and their caregivers’ perceptions regarding the human rights status of people with mental illness in the community.

 

Judge Tom Rickhoff, Ellen Patterson
# Dangerous Minds. Addressing violence and serious mental illness from one judge’s perspective
www.texasbar.com/ Texas Bar Journal • September 2013
We can certainly agree that in every group, there exist individuals who monopolize our care, resources, and attention because of an identified propensity for violence. This is no less true for the mentally ill, and thus we should consider identifying and distinguishing them from those 80 percent or greater who are nonviolent.

 

Gary Fields, Erica E. Phillips
# The New Asylums: Jails Swell With Mentally Ill. America's Jails Face Growing Need to Provide Mental-Health
Treatment

The Wall Street Journal, September 25, 2013
The country's three biggest jail systems—Cook County, in Illinois; Los Angeles County; and New York City—are on the front lines. With more than 11,000 prisoners under treatment on any given day, they represent by far the largest mental-health treatment facilities in the country. By comparison, the three largest state-run mental hospitals have a combined 4,000 beds. Put another way, the number of mentally ill prisoners the three facilities handle daily is equal to 28% of all beds in the nation's 213 state psychiatric hospitals, according to the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Research Institute Inc. "In every city and state I have visited, the jails have become the de facto mental institutions"...

 

Scientific American’s Board of Editors
# Solitary Is Cruel and Unusual. Isolating inmates inflicts permanent mental harm. The practice must be curbed
Scientific American, August 2013 Volume 309, Number 2

Some 80,000 people are held in solitary confinement in U.S. prisons, according to the latest available census. The practice has grown with seemingly little thought to how isolation affects a person’s psyche. But new research suggests that solitary confinement creates more violence both inside and outside prison walls.

 

Carlo Petrini
# Ethical considerations for evaluating the issue of physical restraint in psychiatry
Ann Ist Super Sanità 2013 | Vol. 49, No. 3 : 281-285
This article examines some of the ethical issues associated with the use of physical restraint in psychiatry and neurology. It offers no specific answers to individual operational problems, but a methodological matrix is proposed as an aid to experts in the various settings in which decisions are taken. The subject is addressed mainly by considering two  sources: reference documents published by eminent organisations, and the theoretical  framework of ethical values (or principles). A number of analytical criteria arising from  these sources are then identified and proposed. The proposed criteria can be applied in  cases for which the legitimate use of restraint may be an option, bearing in mind that restraint is an extremely serious affront to human dignity and is widely held to be of no therapeutic value. Its abuse is illegitimate in both ethical and legal terms

 

David H. Cloud
# The Affordable Care Act: Opportunity for Addressing Mental Health Disparities in the Criminal Justice System
www.nyapsa.org/ Vera Institute of Justice 2013

•Better coverage in the community. Currently about 85-90 percent of people passing through jails are uninsured. This will be reduced in states opting to expand Medicaid. Only means they will have Medicaid in the community. • Increased Access to comprehensive health: Essential benefits mean they will have access to substance use and mental health treatment: many for the first time. • Health homes = better solution to promote care coordination and continuity. • More opportunities for early diversion!

 

Julie Repper, Becky Aldridge, Sharon Gilfoyle, Steve Gillard, Rachel Perkins, Jane Rennison
# Peer Support Workers: Theory and Practice
www.centreformentalhealth.org.uk/ June 2013
We have concentrated on the contribution of peers working inside mental health services because of the multiple benefits that they can bring. Working together, ‘co-producing’ services alongside traditional mental health professionals, they can offer a truly comprehensive and integrated model of care.

 

Dona Sapp, Brad Ray
# Traumatic Brain Injury Prevalence: Indiana Department of Correction Prisoner Population
https://policyinstitute.iu.edu/ June 2013
The Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons recommends increased health screenings and treatment programs for offenders who had experienced a Traumatic Brain Injury TBI. Further, reentry programs should include specialized transition services and treatment to better assist individuals with TBI-related problems as they return to their communities.

 

Jesse Meijers, Frédérique V Scherder, Joke M Harte, Erik J A Scherder
# Rest-activity rhythm and aggression in prisoners with psychotic illnesses
IAFMHS 2013
Mental disorders such as psychotic illnesses are more common in the prison population than in the general population. An important clinical hallmark of these disorders is aggression/agitation. Agitation correlates positively to a disturbed rest-activity rhythm, often caused by physical inactivity and nocturnal restlessness. Physical inactivity is widespread among people in detention. Aims. The study objective was to ascertain  whether there is a relationship between the restactivity rhythm (i.e. the levels of physical activity during the day and night), and aggressive/agitated behaviour...

 

Virginia Aldigé Hiday, Heathcote W. Wales
# Mental Illness and the Law
in C.S. Aneshensel et al. (eds.), Handbook of the Sociology of Mental Health, Second Edition, 563
Handbooks of Sociology and Social Research, 2013
...Recognize that (1) not all offenders with severe mental illness are the same; (2) severe mental illness is not a sufficient condition to explain offending behavior by most persons with severe mental illness (even in the small group whose psychoses drive the crime, there is still the likelihood that micro- and/or macro-social factors explain why only some with psychotic delusions and hallucinations act on them) ; and (3) mental illness is only indirectly causative of crime in the overwhelming majority of offenses by persons with severe mental illness...

 

Virginia Aldigé Hiday, Heathcote W. Wales, Bradley Ray
# Effectiveness of a Short-Term Mental Health Court: Criminal Recidivism One Year Postexit
Law and Human Behavior 2013
This article investigated criminal recidivism 1 year postexit from a mental health court (MHC), which has, unlike prior MHCs studied, relatively short periods of court supervision. It benefits from a federal pretrial services agency that screens all arrestees for mental illness and dedicates a specialized supervision unit (SSU) to provide supervision and services while on pretrial release to all screened positive, including MHC participants. We compared criminal activity prior to key arrest with criminal activity post court disposition in MHC participants (N 408)... This study adds to the accumulating evidence of the effectiveness of MHCs in reducing recidivism among offenders with severe mental illness.

 

Ajith Gurusinghe, Steffan Davis, Huw Stone
# Survey of Prison Mental Health Provision (CDAPP survey). General Adult Psychiatry Conference 2013 Manchester
www.rcpsych.ac.uk/

Relevant demographics:  Approx. 90000 prisoners in E & W  Pop. Growth 0.7%  Globally 10 million (14/10000 population)  Total of 102 In-reach teams (2007)   58 suicides in 2011 (1:1500) MOJ   Functional psychosis 7-14% (ONS 1998)  Personality disorder 50-78%  Depression/OCD, Anxiety – 40-76%...

 

Marta Pelazza

# La coazione terapeutica. Uno studio comparato

Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca | Dottorato Scienze Giuridiche | 2012/2013

In questa sede si è inteso esplorare un diverso tipo di problematica correlata alla pratica terapeutica, concernente in particolare quelle situazioni in cui è comunemente riconosciuta liceità all’agire del medico anche in assenza di un valido consenso del paziente, o addirittura contro l’espressa volontà di quest’ultimo...

 

Mauro Percudani, Giorgio Cerati, Lorenzo Petrovich, Antonio Vita (a cura di)
# La psichiatria di comunità in Lombardia. Il Piano Regionale per la Salute Mentale lombardo e le sue linee di attuazione (2004-2012)
www.eupolis.regione.lombardia.it/ Regione Lombardia, 2013

 

Miriam Light, Eli Grant, Kathryn Hopkins
# Gender differences in substance misuse and mental health amongst prisoners. Results from the Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR) longitudinal cohort study of prisoners
www.gov.uk/ Ministry of Justice Analytical Series 2013
This research explored substance misuse and mental health of male and female prisoners, using the Surveying Prisoner Crime Reduction (SPCR) longitudinal survey of 1,435 newly sentenced prisoners in England and Wales in 2005 and 2006. The sample consisted of 1,303 male and 132 female prisoners. Other surveys and management information were used as secondary sources. The research examined: drug and alcohol use; rates of self-harm and suicide; the presence of specific mental health disorders; and links to reconviction.

 

Michel Lejoyeux, Fabrizia Nivoli, Anne Basquin, Aymeric Petit, Florence Chalvin, Houcine Embouazza

# An investigation of factors increasing the risk of aggressive behavior among schizophrenic inpatients
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Frontiers in Psychiatry September 2013
We did not identify a unique factor associated to aggression among schizophrenic patients. We found a constellation of socio-demographic and addictive characteristics. Aggressive behavior is more frequent in males, patients with a history of sexual abuse, and nicotine dependents. Among all addictive disorders, nicotine dependence was the sole addiction associated with an increased risk of aggression. The effect was not significant for alcohol, cannabis, and opiates dependence disorders. A systematic assessment of these factors could permit to anticipate clinical situations with a risk of aggressive behavior. The only “treatable” condition exposing to aggression could be the nicotine withdrawal syndrome in nicotine dependents. Nicotine replacement and psychological intervention on dependence may reduce the risk of aggressive behavior.

 

Gary Fields, Erica E. Phillips
# The New Asylums: Jails Swell With Mentally Ill. America's Jails Face Growing Need to Provide Mental-Health Treatment
http://online.wsj.com/ The Wall Street Journal Sept. 25, 2013
America's lockups are its new asylums. After scores of state mental institutions were closed beginning in the 1970s, few alternatives materialized. Many of the afflicted wound up on the streets, where, untreated, they became more vulnerable to joblessness, drug abuse and crime. The country's three biggest jail systems—Cook County, in Illinois; Los Angeles County; and New York City —are on the front lines. With more than 11,000 prisoners under treatment on any given day, they represent by far the largest mental-health treatment facilities in the country. By comparison, the three largest staterun mental hospitals have a combined 4,000 beds. Put another way, the number of mentally ill prisoners the three facilities handle daily is equal to 28% of all beds in the nation's 213 state psychiatric hospitals, according to the National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Research Institute Inc.

 

Diana Fries, Astrid Rossegger, Jérôme Endrass, Jay P. Singh
# Utility of a violence screening tool to predict recidivism in offenders with schizophrenia: A total forensic cohort study
www.forensicpsychologyunbound.ws/ Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology, 5, 40-52 (2013)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the utility of the screening tool developed by Wootton and colleagues (2008) to predict recidivism in a total cohort of offenders diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders in the Canton of Zürich, Switzerland. The sample consisted of violent (including sexual) offenders between the ages of 18 to 65 years with ICD-10 diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, affective psychosis, and delusional disorder, sentenced either to court-ordered therapy or at least 10 month’s prison and discharged into the community (N = 34). The instrument was found to be useful in prospectively identifying low-risk individuals and retrospectively discriminating recidivists. Albeit the adaptation of the screening tool may have some usefulness when identifying low-risk individuals, caution is warranted when used in forensic samples.

 

Ruth McCausland, Eileen Baldry, Sarah Johnson, Anna Cohen
# People with mental health disorders and cognitive impairment in the criminal justice system. Cost-benefit analysis of early support and diversion
www.humanrights.gov.au/ August 2013
People with mental health disorders and cognitive impairment are significantly over-represented in the criminal justice system. This is the case for defendants through to the population in custody. For example, in NSW people with mental health disorders and cognitive impairment currently make up a significant proportion of people entering the criminal justice system, being 3 to 9 times more likely to be in prison than the general NSW population. People with mental health disorder and/or cognitive impairment are 3 to 9 times more likely to be in prison than their non-diisabled counterparts in the general NSW population...

 

Brian Stettin, Frederick J. Frese, H. Richard Lamb | Treatment Advocacy Center
# Mental Health Diversion Practices. A Survey of the States
http://tacreports.org/ August 2013
A 2010 study by the Treatment Advocacy Center found that more than three times as many severely mentally ill persons in the U.S. are doing time in jails and prisons than receiving treatment in hospitals. Other studies indicate a near-tripling over the last 30 years of the percentage of U.S. inmates who suffer from severe mental illness, to a current level of at least 16%...

 

Alan de Freitas Passos, Bárbara Perdigão Stumpf, Fábio Lopes Rocha
# Victimization of the mentally ill
Rev Psiq Clín. 40(5); 2013
Patients with severe mental disorders present higher risk of victimization when compared to the general population. The main factors associated with victimization in this group were substance use, young age, severe symptomatology, recent history of perpetration of violence, engagement in criminal activity, male gender and homelessness; data which corroborates previous reviews. Prevention and intervention programs must be implemented, and high-risk groups should be prioritized.

 

Mika’il DeVeaux
# The Trauma of the Incarceration Experience
Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, vol 48, 2013
The self that I had constructed prior to prison was assaulted at the beginning of my incarceration. My reactions to the physical and psychological attacks were defensive in nature. I did not know how to be a prisoner, and I was not willing to learn; even so, the socialization process was unavoidable when immersed in that environment. The degradation and humiliation I and others experienced during my reception was intentional and part of the process of institutionalization.

 

Giancarlo Nivoli, Liliana Lorettu
# La responsabilità professionale dello psichiatra nella prescrizione di farmaci off-label e dei farmaci originali e generici
Riv Psichiatr 2013; 48(3): 215-223
Gli autori mettono in luce criteri psichiatrico-forensi alla base di una corretta prescrizione del farmaco, in generale, e in particolare nella prescrizione di farmaci off-label e dei farmaci originali e generici. Nell’ambito della prescrizione dei farmaci off-label, viene sottolineata la necessità di procedere secondo la normativa che prevede, tra l’altro, l’acquisizione del consenso del paziente. Per quanto concerne la prescrizione dei farmaci generici vengono illustrate le criticità legate agli eccipienti presenti nei farmaci, l’equivalenza con i farmaci originali, la corrispondenza delle indicazioni terapeutiche. Vengono, inoltre, illustrati i profili di responsabilità del medico prescrittore e del farmacista dispensatore. La conoscenza di tali aspetti può risultare un utile strumento per il medico prescrittore nell’ambito di una corretta pratica clinica rispettosa dell’autonomia del medico e delle normative vigenti. L’illustrazione degli errori e dei pregiudizi che più frequentemente sono presenti  nelle aule giudiziarie in tema di prescrizione farmacologica possono costituire la base per un confronto critico interdisciplinare con gli altri protagonisti del processo che, in sede di giustizia, avranno il compito di valutare la responsabilità dello psichiatra in ambito prescrittivo.

 

Salvatore Aleo
# Imputabilità e pericolosità sociale dell'individuo infermo di mente
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 2 - 2013

La pericolosità sociale è nozione poco scientifica. E la seminfermità mentale è nozione poco credibile. Tutte queste nozioni sono altresì estremamente discrezionali, lasciate al giudizio scarsamente controvertibile. Premesso che la materia è molto difficile, certo essa richiede una profonda revisione, concettuale e pratica. Si propone qui di limitare la detenzione agli autori di reati gravi. Si mette pure in discussione a tal proposito la distinzione fra imputabili e non imputabili.

 

Maria Laura Fadda
# Misure di sicurezza e detenuto psichiatrico nella fase dell'esecuzione
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 2 - 2013

La legislazione vigente, penale e civile, disciplina diversamente la salute del corpo da quella della mente e ancora diversamente la cura dei malati psichici a seconda che siano o no autori di reato. Il principio, accolto dalla riforma Basaglia e cardine della legislazione civile e amministrativa vigente, della “volontarietà” della cura non vige per i malati psichici autori di reato. Per queste persone, qualora ritenute socialmente pericolose, la cura può essere imposta. A chi spetta tale valutazione di pericolosità sociale? Al medico o al giudice? Qual è l’ambito delle risposte della scienza e quello del diritto? In che modo possono dialogare il giudice e il perito?

 

Cour européenne des droits de l’homme CEDH - ECHR
# Affaire Claes c. Belgique, 10 janvier 2013 - Définitif 10/04/2013
http://hudoc.echr.coe.int/
8
4. Le requérant allègue que sa détention pendant plus de quinze ans dans une annexe psychiatrique de prison où il ne bénéficie pas des soins et de l’encadrement appropriés à son état et sans perspective réaliste de reclassement constitue un traitement inhumain et dégradant contraire à l’article 3 de la Convention»... 102. La Cour conclut, en l’espèce, à un traitement dégradant en raison du maintien en détention du requérant pendant une période significative dans les conditions examinées ci-dessus. Partant, il y a eu violation de l’article 3 de la Convention.

 

Tom Burns, Jorun Rugkåsa, Andrew Molodynski, John Dawson, Ksenija Yeeles, Maria Vazquez-Montes, Merryn Voysey, Julia Sinclair, Stefan Priebe
# Community treatment orders for patients with psychosis (OCTET): a randomised controlled trial
Lancet 2013; 381: 1627–33
Our results do not support our hypothesis. Despite a more than three-fold increase in time under initial supervised community care, the rate of readmis sion to hospital was not decreased by CTOs. Neither was the time to readmission decreased nor was there any significant difference in  the number or duration of hospital admissions. We also recorded no differences in clinical or social outcomes.

 

Liat Ben-Moshe
# “The institution yet to come:” Analysing incarceration through a disability lens
www.academia.edu/ 2013
Although several attempts have been made to estimate the number of prisoners who have psychiatric diagnosis, it is impossible to quantify their number with any degree of precision, even if taking the label of “mental illness” as a viable construct. The American Psychiatric Association reports in 2000 that up to 5 percent of prisoners are actively psychotic and that as many as one in five prisoners were “seriously mentally ill” (APA, 2000). Other attempts to estimate the prevalence appear to have used a substantially more expansive definition of mental illness. Bureau of Justice Statistics reports that in 2005 more than half of all prison and jail inmates were reported as having a mental health problem...

 

Tracy D. Gunter, John T. Chibnall, Sandra K. Antoniak, Robert A. Philibert, Donald W. Black
# Childhood Trauma, Traumatic Brain Injury, and Mental Health Disorders Associated With Suicidal Ideation and Suicide-Related Behavior in a Community Corrections Sample
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 41:245–55, 2013
Suicidal ideation and suicide-related behavior among community-supervised offenders are significant public health problems. In a sample of 418 subjects served by the community corrections office of Iowa’s Sixth Judicial District, 56 percent of subjects denied suicidal ideation and suicide- elated behavior (control group), 17 percent reported suicidal ideation without suicide-related behavior (ideator group), and 27 percent reported engaging in suiciderelated behavior (actor group). A model comprising five independent variables differentiated the ideator and actor groups from the control group: Caucasian race, depressive symptom sum, brain injury, childhood trauma, and avoidant personality. These five factors, combined with the additional variables of PCL:SV Factor 2 (Psychopathy Checklist-Screening Version) score and lifetime anxiety disorder, differentiated the actor group from the control group.

 

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality AHRQ | Joann Fontanarosa, Stacey Uhl, Olu Oyesanmi, Karen M. Schoelles
# Interventions for Adult Offenders With Serious Mental Illness
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ AHRQ Publication August 2013
We identified some promising treatments for individuals with serious mental illness during incarceration or during transition from incarceration to community settings. Treatment with antipsychotics other than clozapine appears to improve psychiatric symptoms  more than clozapine in an incarceration setting. Two interventions, discharge planning with  Medicaid-application assistance and integrated dual disorder treatment programs, appear to be  effective interventions for seriously mentally ill offenders transitioning back to the community.  The applicability of our findings may be limited to the populations and settings in the included  studies.

 

Jean Trounstine
# Are Massachusetts Prisons Becoming the New Asylums? A recent study by The Wall Street Journal revealed that U.S. prisons are warehousing the mentally ill. How does Massachusetts stack up?
Boston Daily | October 21, 2013

Prisons are designed to keep those convicted of a crime locked within secure walls—not to take the place of mental-health facilities. But over the past decade, that’s exactly what has happened.

 

Clare McInerney, Mary Davoren, Grainne Flynn, Diane Mullins, Mary Fitzpatrick, Martin Caddow, Fintan Caddow, Sean Quigley, Fergal Black, Harry G Kennedy, Conor O’Neill
# Implementing a court diversion and liaison scheme in a remand prison by systematic screening of new receptions: a 6 year participatory action research study of 20,084 consecutive male remands
International Journal of Mental Health Systems 2013, 7:18
A landmark paper on Mental Health in prisons internationally by Fazel and Baillargeon recommended that greater health-care resources should be targeted at prisons since they provide “a rare public health opportunity” for screening and treatment. While ideally, diversion services should be delivered at the earliest stage of contact with the criminal justice system, such as police stations and courts, the centralized model described here provides for a standardized and equitable approach for large population aggregates, as well as economies of scale through integration with prison inreach services for remand prisoners.

 

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence
# Antisocial personality disorder. Treatment, management and prevention
www.nice.org.uk/ Issued: January 2009 last modified: September 2013
Criminal behaviour is central to the definition of antisocial personality disorder, although it is often the culmination of previous and long-standing difficulties, such as socioeconomic, educational and family problems... The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder among prisoners is slightly less than 50%. It is estimated in epidemiological studies in the community that only 47% of people who meet the criteria for antisocial personality disorder have significant arrest records. A history of aggression, unemployment and promiscuity were more common than serious crimes among people with antisocial personality disorder. The prevalence of antisocial personality disorder in the general population is 3% in men and 1% in women...

 

James Gilligan, Bandy Lee
# Report to the New York City Board of Correction
http://solitarywatch.com/ September 5, 2013
The nation’s jails and prisons have become de facto mental hospitals over the past halfcentury, in large part as the after-math and unintended consequence of the de-institutionalization of people with mental illness. The movement of the severely mentally ill from mental hospitals to prisons and jails has created a situation in which major jail systems, such as those in Los Angeles and NYC, house more mentally ill people than all the mental hospitals combined...

 

Sagar V. Parikh, Benjamin Goldstein
# CANMAT 2013 Update of Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Bipolar Disorder
Mood and Anxiety Disorders Rounds 2013 Vol. 2, Issue 1
The 2013 update to the CANMAT guidelines both re-emphasizes the essential diagnostic and management approaches to the significant global health issue of BD and provides important new therapeutic options for its various components and presentations. Therapies must be tailored to the individual patient, optimally with pharmacological and psychotherapeutic components and with ongoing regular comprehensive patient assessment to maximize outcomes and safety...

 

Adrian Mundt | Rubén Alvarado, Rosemarie Fritsch, Danilo Jimenez, Sinja Kastner, Alberto Minoletti, Diego Piñol, Stefan Priebe, Catalina Poblete, Carolina Villagra

# Prevalencias de trastornos mentales en cárceles Chilenas
Departamiento de Psiquiatría y salud mental, Hospital Clínico Universidad de Chile | Unit for Social & Community Psychiatry, Barts & The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London |
Agosto 2013

 

Jan Looman, Jeffrey Abracen
# The Risk Need Responsivity Model of Offender Rehabilitation: Is There Really a Need for a Paradigm Shift?
International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 2013, Vol. 8, NO. 3-4
The Risk, Need and Responsivity (RNR) model has been the prominent approach to the treatment of offenders in Canada, as well as other parts of the world (e.g., the U.K, New Zealand, and Australia) for three decades. The RNR approach and the theoretical model on which it is based have resulted in measurable gains in terms of the reliable assessment of offenders, as well as significant reductions in rates of recidivism among offenders treated in programs that have adopted this perspective...

 

Fred C. Osher
# Integrating Mental Health and Substance abuse Services for Justice-Involved Persons with co-occurring disorders
http://gainscenter.samhsa.gov/ August 2013
Jails and prisons are constitutionally obligated to provide general and mental health care. In fact, incarcerated individuals are the only U.S. citizens with legally protected access to health care. Jails may be the firstopportunity to identify CODs (co-occurring mental and addictive disorders), initiate treatment, and develop reentry plans that address individual risks and needs.

 

Dana D. DeHart, Shannon M. Lynch, Joanne Belknap, Priscilla Dass-Brailsford
# Life History Models of Female Offending: The Roles of Serious Mental Illness and Trauma in Women's Pathways to Jail
Psychology of Women Quarterly, August 2013
Prior studies demonstrate high rates of trauma exposure among women and girls in jails, prisons, and juvenile facilities as well as those on probation... Studies suggest the increased vulnerability and overlapping pathways for women with substantial trauma histories for mental disorders such as PTSD,serious mental illness, and substance abuse or dependence. The vastmajority of women in our sample (n=98, 85%) met diagnostic criteria for a lifetime SUD (abuse or dependence). Approximately half (n= 59, 51%) also suffered from PTSD at some point in their lifetimes. Finally, half the women (n=57, 50%) in the sample met diagnostic criteria for at least one form of serious mental illness (e.g., major depression, bipolardisorders, or psychotic spectrum disorders) during their lifetime.

 

Stacie Anne Deslich, Timothy Thistlethwaite, Alberto Coustasse
# Telepsychiatry in Correctional Facilities: Using Technology to Improve Access and Decrease Costs of Mental Health Care in Underserved Populations
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ The Permanente Journal/ Summer 2013/ Volume 17 No. 3
Telepsychiatry has been demonstrated to have substantial ability to transform the way psychiatric services are delivered in mental health care. This literature review has revealed that utilization of telepsychiatry in correctional facilities has increased access to effective mental health care for inmates and has decreased the costs of providing such care...

 

Lisa Watson, Kelly Marschall | Nevada Department of Health and Human Services
# Comprehensive Gaps Analysis of Behavioral Health Services
http://health.nv.gov/ 2013
Nevada currently has one of the most restrictive civil commitment laws in the country. The state forces individuals to deteriorate to the point of dangerousness before help can be provided. In Nevada, there are almost ten seriously mentally ill persons in jails and prisons for every one person in a hospital.

 

Denis Robiliard
# Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Sociales sur la proposition de loi relative aux soins sans consentement en psychiatrie
www.assemblee-nationale.fr/ Enregistré à la Présidence de l'Assemblée nationale le 17 juillet 2013

L’encadrement qui nous est proposé prévoit des conditions spécifiques pour les malades ayant commis des actes pour lesquels les peines encourues sont d’au moins cinq ans d’emprisonnement s’agissant des atteintes à la personne et de dix ans d’emprisonnement s’agissant des atteintes aux biens. Il s’agit donc de malades très dangereux. Quant aux malades qui seront condamnés à deux ou trois ans d’emprisonnement, ils pourront sortir beaucoup plus facilement, ce qui pose un problème de sécurité.

 

Denis Robiliard
# Rapport d'information en conclusion des travaux de la mission sur la santé mentale et l’avenir de la psychiatrie: rapport d’étape
www.assemblee-nationale.fr/
Enregistré à la Présidence de l’Assemblée nationale le 29 mai 2013

S’agissant d’ailleurs des prisons, nous visitions hier, lundi, à Bron, près de Lyon, l’unité hospitalière spécialement aménagée (UHSA) dans le centre hospitalier Le Vinatier. L’enveloppe extérieure de l’unité est administrée par les services pénitentiaires tandis qu’à l’intérieur, c’est un hôpital. L’odeur que l’on y sent ne trompe pas : c’est une odeur d’hôpital et non de prison...

 

Christina Lund
# Mentally disordered offenders - a longitudinal study of forensic psychiatric assessments and criminal recidivism
University of Gothenburg 2013
Overall, a plausible conclusion from the findings in the present thesis studies seems to be the need for legal support to prevent exposition of  alcohol and drugs to young people. It would also be beneficial with a promotion of research within the area (including gene-interaction and brain functioning, alone and in relation to context depending factors) in order to understand underlying mechanisms of dependency and  substance- ediated emotional states facilitating violent criminality. One should be aware of that the proportion of convicted crimes is a smaller part of criminal acts, reported to the police. A postponement of crimes will in the longer perspective reduce criminality and even a minor “postponement” in occurrence of criminal activity is advantageous both from human and economic perspectives.

 

Anne Comeaux, Deidre Ashley | Teton County Court Supervised Treatment Program
# Justice and Mental Health Collaboration Program: Planning
www.tetonwyo.org/ 7.30.2013

 

Kenneth A. Ray, Mark Goldman
# Jail Mental Health Design and Programming “Options & Opportunities”
National Institute of Corrections , July 23-26, 2013
Current research indicates that, on any given day, approximately 64 percent of people booked into our Nation’s 3200 local jails are diagnosed or have a diagnosable mental illness or problem. The high prevalence of mentally ill inmates can be traced to the deinstitutionalization of mental health programs throughout the country, draconian reductions in community mental health funding, and the closing of public mental health facilities resulting in an unprecedented incarceration of the mentally ill. 

 

Christine M. Sarteschi
# Mentally Ill Offenders Involved With the U.S. Criminal Justice System
http://sgo.sagepub.com/ SAGEopen, 16 July 2013

This paper sought to synthesize what is currently known about mentally ill offenders in American jails and prisons based upon the most recent government and congressional reports and relevant literature review. The primary goal is to provide a detailed picture of the status of mentally ill offenders—including prevalence, basic demographic information, bio-psycho-social status, mental health, and family histories—and also to identify the problems, conditions, and obstacles faced while under the jurisdiction of the criminal justice system. Mentally ill offenders are constitutionally guaranteed basic mental health treatment. A review of the literature indicates that this constitutional guarantee is not being adequately fulfilled. Implications and suggestions for change are discussed.

 

Alan R. Felthous
# The Ninth Circuit’s Loughner Decision Neglected Medically Appropriate Treatment
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 41:105–13, 2013
Effective voices in support of the treatment needs of the mentally ill continue to fade in the face of mounting deficits, diminishing state budgets, and political-action committees with more popular priorities. It now becomes ever more critical for amicus briefs for future cases involving involuntary medication of pretrial defendants and for lobby efforts for legislation on mental health services to mentally ill offenders to emphasize not only the timeliness and sufficiency of medically appropriate treatment, but also the medically proper setting for such treatment to be provided.

 

Kelly Paull
# Alexithymia, attachment and psychological wellbeing in young adults leaving care
University and the South Wales Doctoral Programme in Clinical Psychology, May 2013

 

Stephanie C. Kennedy, Stephen J. Tripodi, Carrie Pettus-Davis
# The Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Psychosis for Women Prisoners: Assessing the Importance of Frequency and Type of Victimization
http://diginole.lib.fsu.edu/ Psychiatric Quarterly, 2013, 84

Results indicate that women who experienced multi-victimization were 2.4 times more likely to report current symptoms of psychosis than other women prisoners who experienced only physical or sexual victimization in childhood. Likewise, a one-unit increase in frequency of childhood victimization was associated with a 3.2% increased likelihood of having reported symptoms of current psychosis. These results provide support for the dose-response model hypothesis that multi-victimization is an important predictor of psychosis for the women prisoner population.

 

Giandomenico Dodaro
# Morire di contenzione nel reparto psichiatrico di un ospedale pubblico: la sentenza di primo grado sul caso Mastrogiovanni | Nota a # Tribunale della Lucania, 30 ottobre 2012 (dep. 27 aprile 2013), Giud. Garzo
www.penalecontemporaneo.it 12 Giugno 2013

 

Andrea Pugiotto
# L'ergastolo nascosto (e altri orrori) dietro i muri degli ospedali psichiatrici giudiziari
Quaderni Costituzionali, a. XXXIII, n. 2, giugno 2013
Secondo l'impostazione del codice Rocco, pena e misura di sicurezza non sono assimilabili, anche se entrambe limitative della libertà personale. Sono diverse per natura: punitiva l'una, non punitiva l'altra. Sono diverse per funzione: retributiva e rieducativa la prima, curativa e precauzionale la seconda. Questa diversità ontologica le fa partire da stazioni differenti. La pena, infatti, presuppone la capacità di intendere e di volere del soggetto agente. Diversamente, il reo non imputabile verrà prosciolto ma, se pericoloso, andrà sottoposto ad una misura di sicurezza, perché «se posso rimproverarti, ti punisco», ma «se non posso punirti (...) posso comunque difendermi da te»...

 

Claudia Sale
# La responsabilità penale in psichiatria -
Tesi di Dottorato di Ricerca in Diritto ed Economia dei Sistemi Produttivi - Università degli Studi di Sassari 2013

... L’espressione posizione di garanzia è correttamente riferita alle sole ipotesi di responsabilità omissiva. Non può parlarsi, pertanto, di posizione di garanzia quando oggetto di accertamento sia una condotta commissiva. L’art. 40 comma II c.p., con l’espressione “non impedire un evento”, fa appunto riferimento ad una condotta omissiva, cioè al mancato inserimento di un fattore ostacolante il processo causale che autonomamente può sfociare nell’evento lesivo.

 

Gary Fields
# Families of Violent Patients: 'We're Locked Out' of Care
http://online.wsj.com/ The Wall Street Journal June 7, 2013
For imprisoned convicts, there are stiff restrictions on forcible treatment as well. In the early 19th century many mentally ill people were confined to jails. Activist Dorothea Dix in 1841 discovered the abusive system and worked to change it, giving birth to state mental hospitals. Over the next century, the hospital population soared, topping 550,000 by the 1950s. But abuses there, including forced hospitalizations, as well as the introduction of new medications, led to dismantlement and a movement toward the modern approach of outpatient care. States passed laws to protect the civil rights of people released from hospitals and to make it tougher to force treatment.

 

Karen M. Abram, Linda A. Teplin, Devon C. King, Sandra L. Longworth, Kristin M. Emanuel, Erin G. Romero, Gary M. McClelland, Mina K. Dulcan, Jason J. Washburn, Leah J. Welty, Nichole D. Olson
# PTSD, Trauma, and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Youth
www.ojjdp.gov/ Juvenile Justice Bulletin, June 2013
Each year there are approximately 2.11 million arrests of youth, accounting for 16 percent of all violent crime and 26 percent of all property crime arrests (Puzzanchera, 2009). On a typical day, approximately 81,000 youth are detained (Sickmund, 2010). The number of youth with psychiatric disorders in the juvenile justice system is a considerable public health problem. Two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females in juvenile detention have one or more psychiatric disorders...

 

Gilien Silsby
# Saks Institute evaluates the criminalization of mental illness
http://news.usc.edu/ June 7, 2013
Rikers Island Correctional Facility. Los Angeles County Jail. Texas State Penitentiary. Today they are considered the largest psychiatric facilities in the country. “This is a national scandal and national tragedy,” said USC Gould School of Law Professor Elyn Saks at the Criminalization of Mental Illness symposium. “We need to find alternatives to this transinstitutionalization. People with mental disorders should get treatment not punishment.”

 

H. Richard Lamb, Linda E. Weinberger
# Some Perspectives on Criminalization
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 41:287–93, 2013
In recently published articles, there has been an underemphasis on the role serious mental illness (SMI) plays in causing persons to be in the criminal justice system. Increasing attention has been paid to other factors, including criminogenic needs. While these needs may be present and contribute to criminal behavior, persons with SMI who are at greatest risk of criminalization are those who are not receiving adequate treatment, structure, social control, and, when necessary, 24-hour care in the mental health system. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been used to reduce recidivism for prisoners, including those with SMI, but persons impaired by their untreated psychotic symptoms may not be able to profit from it. The importance of psychiatric treatment must not be underestimated. Moreover, given their current constraints, correctional systems may not be able to continue accepting large numbers of persons with SMI. Many offenders with serious mental illness pose difficult and expensive problems in treatment and management, such as nonadherence to medication, potential for violence, and substance abuse. The mental health system needs to be given more funding and to take more responsibility for these challenging individuals.

 

Hanne Stevens
# Crime and Mental Disorders
School of Business and Social Sciences, Aarhus University, May 2013
Prison studies offer an insight in the host of various mental problems that do occur, and occur at a higher rate than in the background population, in incarcerated offenders, but the merits of these studies consist primarily of identifying the problems and treatment needs of offenders. Any causal link there may be between offending and mental disorders is difficult to address in these studies since it is not clear whether the presence of mental disorders has contributed to the person offending in the first place or whether it is rather the case that mental disorders have arisen as a reaction to life in prison, just as the contribution from common causes cannot be addressed. Also, the various selection mechanisms, varying from country to country, diverting mentally ill persons out of normal correctional settings and into more appropriate institutions at different stages in the criminal justice process can affect the reported levels.

 

Sergio Apfelbaum, Pilar Regalado, Laura Herman, Julia Teitelbaum, Pablo Gagliesi
# Comorbidity between bipolar disorder and cluster B personality disorders as indicator of affective dysregulation and clinical severity
Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2013;41(5):269-78
The relation between bipolar disorder (BD) and cluster B personality disorders (PD-B) has been extensively debated, mainly due to the symptomatic overlapping between BD and borderline personality disorder (PD).1,2 At present, the classification of personality disorders has not yet been shown to be satisfactory to either researchers or clinicians. Some authors even question the usefulness of the existence of Axis II as they consider that Axes I and II are state and trait characteristics, respectively, of the same psychopathologic phenomenon. This argument weighs so heavily that it was a decisive factor for classification in the fifth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)...

 

Department of Justice - Office of Justice Programs
# Inmates with Mental Health Problems Reported High Rates of Sexual Victimization in 2011-12
www.ojp.gov/ May 16, 2013

 

Allen J. Beck, Marcus Berzofsky, Rachel Caspar, Christopher Krebs

# Sexual Victimization in Prisons and Jails Reported by Inmates, 2011–12. National Inmate Survey, 2011–12
www.bjs.gov/ BJS May 2013,
An estimated 36.6% of prison inmates and 43.7% of jail inmates reported being told by a mental health professional that they had a mental health disorder... Inmates who had been told by a mental health professional that they had a mental disorder were more likely than other inmates to report being sexually victimized while in prison or jail. Among inmates who had been told they had a specific DSM-IV disorder— ? During 2011-12, an estimated 3.8% of prison inmates and 2.9% of jail inmates reported that they were sexually victimized by another inmate. ? Approximately 3.4% of prison inmates and 2.5% of jail inmates reported that they were sexually victimized by staff during 2011-12.

 

New South Wales Law Reform Commission
# People with cognitive and mental health impairments in the criminal justice system. Criminal responsibility and consequences
www.lawreform.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/ May 2013

The focus of this report, broadly speaking, is on the law relating to people with mental health and/or cognitive impairments who have committed serious offences. We consider fitness to plead, the defence of mental illness, substantial impairment,  and infanticide. We also examine the procedures that follow a finding of unfitness or not guilty by reason of mental illness (NGMI), and the management of people who  become forensic patients. Further, we consider issues relating to apprehended  violence orders against people who have cognitive and/or mental health  impairments...

 

Jeremy Kenney-Herbert, Mark Taylor, Ramneesh Puri, Jaspreet Phull | College Centre for Quality and Improvement (CCQI) of the Royal College of Psychiatrists

# Standards for Community Forensic Mental Health Services
www.rcpsych.ac.uk/ April 2013
Integrated and Parallel Models The terms „integrated‟ and „parallel‟ that essentially are now used to define models of forensic aftercare in the community were coined by John Gunn in 1977 and later developed by Snowden et al in 1999 . The integrated approach refers to patient care passing from forensic services to generic community teams at the point of discharge, or soon after, with appropriate planning and support. In contrast the parallel model involves forensic services retaining responsibility for outpatient follow up and community care. The so called “hybrid” model  includes a combination of the two with some patients being returned to the care of more general services and others remaining with forensic services...

 

Franck Johannès
# 80 % des détenus présentent au moins un trouble psychiatrique
Le Monde | 13.04.2013
Il existe peu de données récentes sur la santé mentale en prison, la dernière enquête d'ampleur remonte à 2006 et ses résultats étaient plus qu'inquiétants : de 35 % à 42 % des détenus sont considérés comme "manifestement ou gravement malades". Huit hommes détenus sur 10 et plus de 7 femmes sur 10 "présentent au moins un trouble psychiatrique, la grande majorité cumulant plusieurs troubles"

 

Vittorio Lingiardi
# Di cosa parliamo quando parliamo di cura
www.repubblica.it/ 12 aprile 2013

 

Rob Reardon, Marie Collins
# The New Asylum. Behavioral Health and the Criminal Justice System
www.lafayettesheriff.com/ 2013

 

Michael S Martin, Ian Colman, Alexander IF Simpson, Kwame McKenzie
# Mental health screening tools in correctional institutions: a systematic review
BMC Psychiatry 2013, 13:275
Screening is a critical component to a correctional mental health strategy, and there appear to be some improvements in screening tools in recent years. Five tools with replicated results warrant consideration for implementation. A small number of tools that have been less extensively studied may also warrant further research. We have suggested four potential standards that could be used to determine what adequate performance of a screening tool means within each specific  context.

 

Hans Joachim Salize

# Routinedaten – Wer hat die Deutungshoheit? | Routine Data in Psychiatry – Who has the Interpretative Power?
Psychiat Prax 2013; 40: 241–243

Daten sind der Roh- und Treibstoff der Informationsgesellschaft, ähnlich wie es Erdöl im 20. Jahrhundert und Kohle während der Industrialisierung war. Spätestens seit der flächendeckenden Einführung von mobilen elektronischen Endgeräten ist die Verfügbarkeit und Interpretationshoheit über telematische Informationen und Daten die Bedingung für politische und ökonomische Dominanz. Die exponentielle Wachstumsdynamik, mit der elektronische Daten anfallen und verarbeitet werden können, ist dabei nicht nur der entscheidende gesellschaftspolitische Machtfaktor unserer Zeit, sondern viel weitreichender noch prägt diese Dynamik immer stärker die Art und Weise, wie die Welt wahrgenommen und interpretiert wird.

 

Robert B. Zipursky, Thomas J. Reilly, Robin M. Murray
# The Myth of Schizophrenia as a Progressive Brain Disease
Schizophrenia Bulletin vol. 39 no. 6 pp. 1363–1372, 2013
This idea of schizophrenia as a progressive disease of the brain has also been an important part of the rationale for developing early intervention services. Indeed, the notion that psychosis itself may be toxic to the brain provided a major impetus for programs designed to minimize the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in order to prevent further brain tissue loss.

 

Marianne Bourke
# Therapist’s emotional, cognitive and linguistic responses to patients with borderline personality disorder in psychotherapy
Doctor of Philosophy thesis, School of Psychology, University of Wollongong, 2013
Clinical and theoretical literature frequently report that mental health professionals experience interpersonal challenges and emotional distress in providing treatment for patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). This thesis involved a series of four studies which compared therapists’ (N = 20), responses to patients with BPD (N = 40) to patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; N = 40)...

 

Defensor del Pueblo Andaluz
# La situacion de los enfermos mentales en Andalucia
www.defensordelpuebloandaluz.es/ Abril 2013
También el informe especial elaborado por esta Defensoría en diciembre de 1997, sobre la “Situación de los enfermos mentales internados en centros  penitenciarios andaluces”, detectó que muchos internos afectados por trastornos  mentales, acaban siendo tratados en las enfermerías de los centros penitenciarios,  en lugar de en el Hospital Psiquiátrico. Existe unanimidad entre los especialistas sobre la inadecuación de mantener en prisión a los enfermos mentales, por dos razones: la carencia en el centro de recursos especializados y de una atención integral para dichos enfermos y la incidencia negativa sobre el enfermo derivada de la propia permanencia en la cárcel. En nuestro país existen únicamente dos centros de estas características, cuales son el Hospital psiquiátrico penitenciario de Sevilla y el de la provincia de Alicante, dependientes de la Dirección General de Instituciones Penitenciarias del Ministerio del Interior, el primero de los cuales, además, solo es para hombres.

 

Arielle R. Baskin-Sommers, Joseph P. Newman
# Differentiating the Cognition-Emotion Interactions that Characterize Psychopathy versus Externalizing
http://psych.wisc.edu/ University of Wisconsin-Madison 2013
Psychopathic individuals are characterized by difficulty establishing genuine relationships, minimal and superficial affective experience, an impulsive behavioral style, and a chronic antisocial lifestyle that entails great costs to society as well as for the affected individual (e.g., incarceration). Alternatively, externalizing individuals often display excessive reward seeking, intense hostility and reactive aggression, and poor impulse control...

 

Allen Frances
# Prison Or Treatment For the Mentally ill
www.psychologytoday.com/ March 10, 2013

The public revulsion over repeated mass shootings has placed mental health in the spotlight. This is both good and bad. Bad because focusing on the mentality of the shooter diverts attention away from the lethality of the weapon – and from the fact that many mass shooters had no history of mental health involvement. We will never be able to predict who will commit random acts of violence, but we can reduce our ridiculously high rates of gun death by having a sane gun control policy.
Good because our current (non)system of mental health care is badly broken and cries out for fixing and better funding.

 

Robert E. Brutcher
# Effects of sleep disruption and quetiapine on cocaine abuse: the path to development of a monkey model of PTSD
Wake Forest University, May 2013

 

Federico Fortugno, Christina Katsakou, Stephen Bremner, Andrzej Kiejna, Lars Kjellin, Petr Nawka,
Jiri Raboch, Thomas Kallert, Stefan Priebe

# Symptoms Associated with Victimization in Patients with Schizophrenia and Related Disorders
www.plosone.org 1 March 2013 | Volume 8 |
The findings suggest that manic symptoms indicate a higher risk of becoming a victim of physical violence. Such symptoms should be considered in risk assessments and addressed in treatment plans for reducing the risk of victimization. Future research should explore the mediating factors that put patients with more severe manic symptoms at a higher risk of victimization, and develop and test specific treatment strategies to reduce the risk for such patients.

 

Michael G. Vaughn, Christopher P. Salas-Wright, Matt DeLisi and Brandy R. Maynard
# Violence and Externalizing Behavior Among Youth in the United States: Is There a Severe 5%?
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 15 March 2013
Despite research demonstrating that approximately 5% of study populations are composed of severely antisocial persons who account for a disproportionate share of problem behaviors, there have been no nationally representative studies assessing this phenomenon among adolescents. Using a large nationally representative sample (N ¼ 18,614), we identified a severe group (4.7% of respondents) characterized by involvement in varied and intensive externalizing behaviors, greater internalizing, lower academic achievement, and less parental involvement. The current study is the first nationally representative study of criminal careers/externalizing behaviors among adolescents in the United States, which is convergent with prior research and theory.

 

Jeremy W. Coid, Simone Ullrich, Constantinos Kallis, Robert Keers, Dave Barker,Fiona Cowden, Rebekah Stamps
# The Relationship Between Delusions and Violence Findings From the East London First Episode Psychosis Study
JAMA Psychiatry, March 6, 2013
Anger due to delusions is a key factor that explains the relationship between violence and acute psychosis. A subset of delusional beliefs may be causally linked to violence, and certain uncommon beliefs demonstrated a direct association with minor violence. Highly prevalent delusional beliefs implying threat were associated with serious violence, but they were mediated by anger.

 

Katrina Witt, Richard van Dorn, Seena Fazel
# Risk Factors for Violence in Psychosis: Systematic Review and Meta-Regression Analysis of 110 Studies
PLoS ONE 8(2) 2013
There were 110 eligible studies reporting on 45,533 individuals, 8,439 (18.5%) of whom were violent. A total of 39,995 (87.8%) were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 209 (0.4%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder, and 5,329 (11.8%) were diagnosed with other psychoses. Dynamic (or modifiable) risk factors included hostile behaviour, recent drug misuse, non-adherence with psychological therapies (p values,0.001), higher poor impulse control scores, recent substance misuse, recent alcohol misuse (p values,0.01), and non-adherence with medication (p value ,0.05). We also examined a number of static factors, the strongest of which were criminal history factors. When restricting outcomes to severe violence, these associations did not change materially. In studies investigating inpatient violence, associations differed in strength but not direction.

 

Alexander I. F. Simpson, Jeffry J. McMaster, Steven N. Cohen,
# Challenges for Canada in Meeting the Needs of Persons with Serious Mental Illness in Prison
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 41:501–9, 2013
The number of prison inmates is predicted to rise in Canada, as is concern about those among them with mental illness. This article is a selective literature review of the epidemiology of serious mental illness (SMI) in prisons and how people with SMI respond to imprisonment. We review the required service components with a particular focus on care models for people with SMI in the Canadian correctional system. An estimated 15 to 20 percent of prison inmates have SMI, and this proportion may be increasing. The rate of incarceration of aboriginal people is rising.

 

M. Lejoyeux , H. Embouazza
# Troubles psychiatriques et addictions
Addictologie 2013
Les conduites addictives sont souvent associées à des troubles psychiatriques. Les comorbidités psychiatriques les plus fréquentes sont la dépression , l'anxiété  et les troubles de la personnalité . Le repérage de ces troubles psychiatriques  revêt une grande importance pour la prise en charge des patients. L'association  d'un trouble psychiatrique peut, dans certains cas, modifier les modalités du  traitement et aussi l'évolution de la conduite de dépendance. Elle impose une  prise en charge intégrée et simultanée des pathologies psychiatriques et de la  conduite addictive.

 

Anthony C. Tamburello, MD, Zoe¨ Selhi
# Commentary: Bridging the Gaps for Former Inmates with Serious Mental Illness
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 41:510 –3, 2013
Serious mental illness is a prominent and vexing problem within the correctional systems of North America. Simpson and colleagues draw attention to the epidemiology, special characteristics, and management problems relevant to Canadian inmates with serious mental illness. Of great interest to those in the forensic psychiatric field is the matter of continuation of care for mentally ill prisoners, in that untreated or undertreated psychiatric problems are strongly associated with poor social functioning and criminal recidivism. In this commentary, we expand on the discussion in Simpson et al. of the effectiveness of assertive community treatment teams for those former inmates at greatest risk for future involvement with the criminal justice system. We also propose outpatient civil commitment as one strategy to facilitate the successful return of select inmate patients to the community.

 

Jacqueline P. Camp, Jennifer L. Skeem, Kimberly Barchard, Scott O. Lilienfeld
# Psychopathic Predators? Getting Specific About the Relation Between Psychopathy and Violence
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2013, Vol. 81, No. 3, 467–480
Because criminal behavior in general, and instrumental violence in particular, are most likely the product of multiple interacting factors (e.g., disinhibition, social disadvantage, and social learning), clinicians and researchers should avoid conveying the impression that psychopathy-specific traits cause “predatory” violence. Moving beyond studying the predictive utility of measures of psychopathy to test competing hypotheses from alternative perspectives (e.g., psychological, sociological) will help researchers to more precisely explain violence and inform useful intervention and prevention strategies.

 

Glen I. Spielmans, Margit I. Berman, Eftihia Linardatos, Nicholas Z. Rosenlicht, Angela Perry,
Alexander C. Tsai
# Adjunctive Atypical Antipsychotic Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Depression, Quality of Life, and Safety Outcomes
PLOS Medicine | www.plosmedicine.org 3 March 2013 | Volume 10 | Issue 3

Atypical antipsychotic medications for the adjunctive treatment of depression are efficacious in reducing  observer-rated depressive symptoms, but clinicians should interpret these findings cautiously in light of (1) the small-to moderate-sized benefits, (2) the lack of benefit with regards to quality of life or functional impairment, and (3) the abundant evidence of potential treatment-related harm.

 

David Cloud, Chelsea Davis
# Treatment Alternatives to Incarceration for People with Mental Health Needs in the Criminal Justice System: The Cost-Savings Implications
www.vera.org/ VERA Institute of Justice, February 2013
The rate of serious mental illness is two to six times higher among incarcerated populations than it is in the general population. Serious mental illness has been documented in 14.5 percent of men and 31 percent of women in jail settings.1 The vast majority of this population is charged with minor, non-violent crimes.2 Over 70 percent of people in jails with serious mental illness also have a co-occurring substance-use disorder.3 Veterans returning from combat are also at higher risk for mental health and substance-use problems and are therefore more apt to be involved in the justice system

 

Nathan Stall
# Imprisoning the mentally ill

# Agony behind bars
CMAJ February 19, 2013 vol. 185 no. 3
It was, to be sure, a sobering and disturbing observation. “Federal penitentiaries are fast becoming our nation’s largest psychiatric facilities and repositories for the mentally ill,” Correctional Investigator of Canada Howard Sapers wrote in a report on the state of affairs in the nation’s federal prisons. “As a society, we are criminalizing, incarcerating and warehousing the mentally disordered in large and alarming numbers,” he added...

 

Pompidou Group of the Council of Europe |Co-operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs.
# Mental Health and Addiction in Prisons. Written controbutions to the International Conference on Mental Health and Addiction in Prisons.
27-28 Febrary 2013, Bucharest - http://www.coe.int/ 2013
Introduction, by Robert Teltzrow, Pompidou Group | Drug use, mental health and drugs in prisons by Prof Heino Stöver | Professional independence of health care workers in the penitentiary system by Dr Jörg Pont | Opiate Substitution Treatment and Harm Reduction in prisons: the Geneva model by Dr Hans Wolff | Mental Health Services in the Belgian prison system by Dr Sven Todts | Romania and illegal drugs at a glance – Trends and services by Dr Mihai Corciova | Drug treatment and risk assessment of drug-using inmates in Serbia: Treating drug users in prison | Prison reforms in the Republic of Macedonia – Drug treatment in Macedonian prisons by Ms Elisaveta Sekulovska | Psychological and medical care for drug users in prison establishments in the Republic of Moldova by Svetlana Doltu and Iuliana Adam | Art Therapy in Prisons by Prof Peter Sinapius | Drugs and mental health in prisons: constant concerns of the Health in prisons Programme (HIPP) of WHO/Europe by Mr Stefan Enggist

 

Charlotte White, Richard Byrt
# Understanding and caring for people with personality disorders. Positive attitudes from professionals are crucial for interventions with people with personality disorders to be successful
mentalhealth today January/February 2013
About 4% of the population, roughly half of mental health inpatients, and “between 60 and 70% of people in prison” have been found to have a personality disorder. Individuals can have a mental illness and a personality disorder, but features
of the latter do not include symptoms of mental illness. Thorough psychiatric assessment is crucial to establish diagnosis, including any comorbid conditions, such as bipolar disorder and problematic substance use...

 

Adam Moll | Mental health foundation
# Losing track of time. Dementia and the ageing prison population: treatment challenges and examples of good practice
www.mentalhealth.org.uk/ February 2013
Across much of the developed world, the number of older men serving prison sentences has risen to unprecedented levels. This swelling population is accompanied by an abundance of healthcare needs unfamiliar to prisons primarily designed to manage younger people. In recent years there has been an increase in research focusing on both the physical and mental health needs of older prisoners, but as yet very little attention has been given to the management and treatment of inmates with dementia.

 

Community and Mental Health team, Health and Social Care Information Centre | Claire Thompson
# Mental Health Bulletin: Sixth report from Mental Health Minimum Dataset returns – England 2011/12, initial national figures
www.ic.nhs.uk / Health and Social Care Information Centre 19 February 2013
Over 1.5 million people were in contact with specialist mental health services in 2011/12 and the rate of access to services is 3,032 per 100,000 population (approximately one person in 32 in England)... The data for 2011/12 show that 42.4% per cent of people (43,051 out of 101,424) who spent time in hospital during the year were also subject to the Mental Health Act at some point during the year. .. The number of men detained in hospital under the most restrictive sections of the Mental Health Act (court and prison disposals) was nearly five times higher than the number of women (3,665 compared with 759).

 

E. Fuller Torrey
# Fifty Years of Failing America's Mentally Ill. JFK's dream of replacing state mental hospitals with community mental-health centers is now a hugely expensive nightmare
http://online.wsj.com/ The Wall Street Journal, Feb. 4, 2013
According to multiple studies summarized by the Treatment Advocacy Center, these untreated mentally ill are responsible for 10% of all homicides (and a higher percentage of the mass killings), constitute 20% of jail and prison inmates and at least 30% of the homeless. Severely mentally ill individuals now inundate hospital emergency rooms and have colonized libraries, parks, train stations and other public spaces.

 

Ana Natasha Cervantes, Annette Hanson
# Dual Agency and Ethics Conflicts in Correctional Practice: Sources and Solutions
The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, Volume 41, Number 1, 2013

Psychiatrists working in corrections, particularly in smaller systems, where there may be a limited number of providers, may find themselves simultaneously assuming a treatment role and the role of a forensic evaluator. Psychiatrists who assume care of an inmate, for purposes of treatment, are expected to act in the inmate’s best interests, whereas forensic evaluators serve the interests of the judicial system. It is now a well-established and widely accepted principle that acting in dual roles (as a forensic evaluator and a treatment provider) for the same individual is not advisable and can lead to ethics-based conflicts...

 

Michael Ostermann, Jason Matejkowski
# Estimating the Impact of Mental Illness on Costs of Crimes: A Matched Samples Comparison
Criminal Justice and Behavior 2013
This study uses a propensity scoring and matching approach to compare the costs of crimes committed by former inmates with mental illness (MI) and without MI. Our findings indicate that the recidivism costs of those with MI over the course of 3 years of follow-up are nearly 3 times as large as similar reintegrating former inmates without MI. However, prior to matching on mental health indicators, the costs of the reoffense patterns of the average reintegrating individual with MI are less than half those of the average former prisoner without MI. Our discussion centers on the identification of relevant groups that corrections officials should focus their rehabilitative resources on and whether those with MI should be a group they focus on during this process.

 

Akihiro Shiina
# Research Questions Regarding Mental Disorders and Violence
International Journal of Forensic Science & Pathology (IJFP) 2013, Volume I Issue No.1
Some reports deny the relationship between mental disorders and violence. An analysis of homicide offenders found that psychotic symptoms were not associated with the use of excessive violence. In the study by MacArthur, it was shown that individuals discharged from mental hospitals with no history of substance abuse had the same risk of violence as those without the history of either mental disorders or substance abuse. This survey also suggests that delusions did not increase the overall risk of violence. Although these findings have been broadly discussed, the results of the study by MacArthur have been used as a standard for risk assessment in patients with mental disorders...