dobbiamo soprattutto persuaderci che certi usi nostri, a un osservatore proveniente da una società diversa, apparirebbero della stessa natura dell’antropofagia che a noi sembra tanto estranea al concetto di civiltà.

Penso ai nostri usi giudiziari e penitenziari. A studiarli dal di fuori, si sarebbe tentati di opporre due tipi di società: quelle che praticano l’antropofagia, cioè che vedono nell’assorbimento di certi individui dotati di pericolose forze, il solo modo di neutralizzare queste ultime e anche di metterle a profitto; e quelle che, come la nostra, adottano ciò che potrebbe chiamarsi anthropoémia (dal greco émein, vomitare): poste di fronte allo stesso problema, esse hanno scelto la soluzione inversa, consistente nell’espellere questi esseri pericolosi dal corpo sociale, tenendoli temporaneamente o definitivamente isolati, fuori di ogni contatto con l’umanità, in stabilimenti destinati a questo scopo. Alla maggior parte delle comunità da noi chiamate primitive, quest’uso ispirerebbe un orrore profondo; esse ci giudicherebbero barbari, come noi siamo tentati di fare a loro riguardo, in ragione dei loro costumi simmetrici. Claude Lévi-Strauss, Tristi tropici, Librairie Plon 1955

 

Restorative Justice | Giustizia minorile

 

584 documenti

Restorative Justice

 

Donatella Ferranti
# Giustizia riparativa e stalking: qualche riflessione a margine delle recenti polemiche
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 4 luglio 2017
Le condotte riparatorie saranno previste dal nuovo art. 162 ter c.p. che descrive la possibile estinzione del reato quando l’autore abbia proposto, entro il termine dell’apertura del dibattimento, un risarcimento, anche in forma specifica, riconosciuto congruo dal giudice, pur in presenza di mancata accettazione della persona offesa. Quest’ultima, nella dinamica estintiva viene “sentita”: sarà dunque possibile per la persona offesa rappresentare alle parti (anzi, al P.M.) ed al giudice gli aspetti che potrebbero ostare al riconoscimento della natura riparatoria della condotta dell’autore del fatto successiva alla consumazione del reato, senza possibilità però di un vero e proprio veto

 

Sara Paiusco
# Giustizia riparativa: responsabilità, partecipazione, riparazione. Resoconto del Convegno internazionale svoltosi il 20 e il 21 gennaio 2017 presso la Facoltà di Giurisprudenza di Trento
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 2 febbraio 2017
Il
punto focale è costituito secondo Aertsen dal coinvolgimento della comunità di riferimento, a livello familiare, locale o più ampio, in maniera diretta o indiretta, nel processo di riparazione. In tale ottica è la neutralità del luogo (fisico e figurato) a sancire il successo del processo di riparazione, ove, come l’ha definita Ivo Aertsen, la G.R. si trova in-between, in spazi semi-autonomi di possibile interazione. Solo in questo contesto la G.R. può essere realmente momento educativo, di ristoro della pace sociale secondo il diritto in prospettiva di un sistema più democratico

 

Brian T.M. Mammarella
# An Evidence-Based Objection to Retributive Justice
Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics, vol.16, 2016
Retribution - the idea that we ought to punish criminals simply because they deserve it - plays a critical role in American legal discourse and policy. Indeed, the degree to which a defendant is morally culpable formally justifies, in part, imposition of the U.S. criminal justice system's ultimate sanction: the death penalty.1 99 This Note's findings provide one practical reason why scientific developments should inform the manner in which we apply the concepts of responsibility and blame in given scenarios-namely, that failure to do so will  diminish criminal law's efficacy.

 

Giovanni Maria Flick
# Una nuova cultura della pena?
www.rivistaaic.it/ 21.12.2016
1. L’insegnamento di Sandro Margara sul carcere. – 2. Le conclusioni del Ministro della Giustizia sugli Stati Generali dell’esecuzione penale. – 3. Il carcere e la Costituzione tradita. – 4. I paradossi del carcere. – 5. Verso una giustizia riparativa? – 6. La proporzionalità della pena al reato secondo la Corte Costituzionale: un passo verso la svolta.

 

Andrea Baiguera Altieri
# Le alternative al carcere nella criminologia contemporanea
www.diritto.it/ Diritto penale, 19/12/2016
Ormai, nel Diritto Processuale Penale europeo e nord-americano, si è compreso che oggi necessita un Sistema Penale diverso, attento alle legittime istanze della Parte Lesa e, in buona sostanza, meno autoritario e categorico rispetto a quanto accadeva nella Giuspenalistica onnipresente ed onnipotente del Novecento. Questo non significa legittimare passivamente e recepire senza critiche l’Abolizionismo radicale, ma, senza dubbio, non si può immaginare una pace sociale senza che sia trovato e concretizzato il giusto equilibrio tra rieducazione del carcerato e riparazione dei danni subiti dal soggetto danneggiato...

 

Lorenzo Pulito
# Profili di inammissibilità della richiesta di messa alla prova dell’adulto
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 26 Maggio 2016
# Nota a ordinanza Tribunale Taranto, GIP Rosati, 22 settembre 2015, imp. Battista
1. Premessa. - 2. Messa alla prova degli adulti a domanda di parte. - 3. Il programma di trattamento. - 4. La messa alla prova come procedimento eventuale sottoposto al potere valutativo del giudice. - 5. Il moderno fondamento dell'inammissibilità ed il principio di tipicità. - 6. Rilievi conclusivi.

 

Roberto Bartoli
# Il carcere come extrema ratio: una proposta concreta
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 12 Maggio 2016
1. L'inedito radicalismo dell'attuale "contestazione" del carcere. - 2. Le ragioni di questa contestazione così radicale. - 2.1. Il punto: sovraffollamento carcerario e processo di umanizzazione della pena. - 2.2. La linea: il carcere come pena espressione di un diritto penale escludente ... - 2.2.1. ... in netto contrasto con il diritto penale inclusivo forgiato dal moderno costituzionalismo. - 3. Il carcere come extrema ratio. - 3.1. Il sistema sanzionatorio necessariamente carcerario e l'applicazione della liberazione condizionale come strumento di probation. - 3.2. Il sistema sanzionatorio potenzialmente carcerario. - 3.2.1. L'applicazione in entrata della sospensione condizionale della pena come strumento di probation. - 3.2.2. L'applicazione in uscita della liberazione condizionale come strumento di probation. - 3.3. Il sistema sanzionatorio non carcerario e l'applicazione della sospensione condizionale della pena in funzione di prevenzione speciale mediante intimidazione. - 4. Il quadro complessivo del nuovo sistema sanzionatorio: riepilogo. - 5. Messa alla prova e giustizia riparativa nel nuovo scenario di un sistema sanzionatorio non più carcero-centrico.

 

Tim Hughes | New Zealand
# Restorative Justice. Evidence Brief
www.justice.govt.nz/ First edition completed: February 2014 - This edition completed: April 2016
More specifically, the most common form of RJ service provided in New Zealand is the RJ conference. In RJ conferences, offenders and victims are brought together with their support networks and perhaps community representatives to discuss an offence and attempt to arrive at a shared view of how to right the wrong. One of the main purposes of this form of RJ is inviting an offender to express remorse so that victims can gain a sense of closure.

 

Gema Varona Martínez
# Impacto victimal, resiliencia e interpelación: encuentros entre víctimas del terrorismo y entre víctimas y estudiantes universitarios
Instituto Vasco de Criminología, Bilbao 2016

 

Francesca Delvecchio
# La nuova fisionomia della vittima del reato dopo l'adeguamento dell'Italia alla Direttiva 2012/29/UE
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 11 Aprile 2016
1. Inputs sovranazionali in tema di tutela della vittima da reato. Premesse per una difficile attuazione interna. – 2. Una sommaria ricognizione iniziale: le direttrici dell’intervento. – 3. Buone premesse terminologiche. – 4. La carta dei diritti della vittima: profili rivoluzionari del nuovo meccanismo informativo. – 5. L’assistente linguistico della vittima alloglotta compare sulla scena. – 6. Lo statuto della prova dichiarativa della vittima vulnerabile made in Italy. – 7. Il nuovo processo “antropocentrico”.

 

Domenico Pulitanò
# In dialogo con ''Luciano Eusebi, La Chiesa e il problema della pena, Milano, 2014''
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 7 Aprile 2016
1. Il penale fra Dio e Cesare. - 2. Il problema della pena dentro i problemi del diritto penale - 3. Sul volto costituzionale della pena. - 4. La risposta al reato come percorso. - 5. La giustizia riparativa. - 6. Oltre l'orizzonte della giustizia istituzionale. -7. La metafora della bilancia.

 

Stefano Cinotti, Beatrice Lippi, Salvatore Nasca, Susanna Rollino
# La messa alla prova in Toscana: analisi statistica dalla sua emanazione ad oggi
Uepe Toscana - Aprile 2016

 

Janie Bugnion | Association Nationale del Médiateurs
# La médiation restaurative : une nouvelle forme de médiation ?
www.anm-mediation.com/ 11 Mar 2016

 

Linnéa Osterman, Isla Masson
# Working with women who offend: A guide for restorative justice practitioners
www.restorativejustice.org.uk/ 2016
This study aimed to explore female offenders’ access to, and experiences of, restorative justice. The ultimate objective of the project was to develop an evidence-based set of recommendations for the effective and ethical use of restorative justice with women who have offended, with a view to increasing the number of female offenders accessing restorative justice and ensuring that those women who do take part have a positive experience of it.

 

Roni Elias
# Restorative Justice in Domestic Violence Cases
DePaul Journal for Social Justice, March 2016
In recent decades, numerous reforms of the criminal justice system have made it easier to prosecute and punish those who  ngage in domestic violence. Therefore, restorative justice practices can be an important part of a second step that addresses these outstanding problems more comprehensively. By providing opportunities for constructive dialogue that engages the offender, the victim and members of the community, restorative justice practices have optimistic potential to change attitudes, viewpoints and perhaps even cultural elements that may contribute to domestic violence.

 

David R. Karp, Olivia Frank
# Anxiously Awaiting the Future of Restorative Justice in the United States
Victims & Offenders, 00:1–21, 2016
The problems of mass incarceration and other criminal justice system failures in the United States—such as racial disparities, wrongful convictions, and high recidivism rates—have reached a tipping point. For the first time in decades, coalitions of politicians on the left and right are seeking criminal justice reform.What is the place of restorative justice in these efforts? What is the depth and breadth of restorative justice implementation? How familiar is the American public with restorative justice? How successful is the restorative justice movement? In this article, we seek answers to these questions as we try to assess the future of restorative justice in the United States.

 

Andrea Orlando
# Intervento alla 2ª Commissione permanente del Senato
Resoconto sommario n. 273 del 23/02/2016

Le azioni riparatorie non sono meno dure della sanzione meramente punitiva, ma certamente maggiormente dense di significato e di risvolti utili. Resta fermo peraltro che, per quanto limitato, il ricorso alla pena detentiva rimane inevitabile per alcuni reati, specie allorquando ricorra l’assoluta necessità di interrompere legami criminali in grado di interferire con il buon andamento della vita sociale e lo stesso sviluppo democratico. La privazione della libertà e, quindi, il carcere rimane insomma nel contesto attuale una forma sanzionatoria ineludibile, anche se limitata ai casi di effettiva necessità. Non a caso, del resto, la Costituzione si riferisce alle "pene", declinando questa parola al plurale, e non già alla "pena". Così chiarendo che appartengono al sistema complessivo della pena sanzioni diverse.

 

CQ Researcher
# Restorative Justice. Can it help victims and rehabilitate criminals?
www.cqresearcher.com/ Feb. 5, 2016
Does restorative justice reduce recidivism? Should restorative justice be used in cases of violent crime? Can restorative justice address racial disparities in the criminal justice system?

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Stati Generali
# Tavolo 13 - Giustizia riparativa, mediazione e tutela delle vittime del reato
www.giustizia.it/ febbraio 2016

 

Martina Cagossi

# Nuove prospettive per le vittime di reato nel procedimento penale italiano.

Prime annotazioni al # d.lgs. 15 dicembre 2015, n. 212 (Attuazione della # direttiva 2012/29/UE del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio, del 25 ottobre 2012, che istituisce norme minime in materia di diritti, assistenza e protezione delle vittime di reato e che sostituisce la decisione quadro 2001/220/GAI)
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 19 Gennaio 2016

# Procura di Trento - Indicazioni operative per l'applicazione del d.lgs. 15 dicembre 2015, n. 212

 

Verwey-Jonker Institute (the Netherlands), IARS International Institute (UK), Institute of Conflict Research (IKF) Institute for the Sociology of Law and Criminology (IRKS)(Austria), National Organization of Women’s Shelters (LOKK) (Denmark), European Public Law Organization (EPLO) (Greece), Department of Criminal Policy of the Ministry of Justice (Finland), European Forum for Restorative Justice (EFRJ)

# Restorative Justice and Domestic Violence. A Guide for practitioners
www.ikf.ac.at/ January 2016
Historically, RJ is an alternative to repressive criminal sanctions, allowing the parties involved to participate in the solution of the conflict, and giving the conflict back to them. It is this orientation of giving back the conflict to the parties involved that is contested by those critical of the use of restorative justice in cases of IPV. Even until today, to some extent, this kind of violence has been seen as a private matter, where the state and the criminal justice system should not intervene. Feminists however, took ‘private violence’ out into the public...

 

Thom Brooks
# Punitive Restoration
www.ucl.ac.uk/ Durham University, 20th January 2016
Punitive restoration offers a distinctive view about restorative justice. It is a single practice taking the form of a conference setting where the victim, the offender, their support networks and some local community members are represented. Punitive restoration is restorative insofar as it aims to achieve the restoration of rights infringed or threatened by criminal offences. This is accomplished through recognition of the crime as a public wrong leading to a contractual arrangement agreed by stakeholders. Punitive restoration is punitive because it extends the available options for a restorative contract to achieve restoration and this may include forms of hard treatment, such as drug and alcohol treatment in custody, suspended sentences or brief imprisonment. 

 

Jeff Bouffard, Maisha Cooper, Kathleen Bergseth
# The Effectiveness of Various Restorative Justice Interventions on Recidivism Outcomes Among Juvenile Offenders
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 1-16, 2016
The study, based on 551 youth who were assigned to restorative justice or traditional court proceedings between 2000 and 2005, found that 40 percent of the juveniles committed a new offense within the average 3.5-year study period. Youth processed through juvenile courts reoffended nearly 50 percent of the time, while those in a minimal restorative justice educational program committed new offenses only 31 percent of the time. More intensive restorative justice programs also had fewer new offenses than juvenile court cases, including 24 percent for community panels, 27 percent for indirect mediation, and 33 percent for direct mediation. 

 

Domenico Pulitanò
# Sul libro di un incontro fra vittime e responsabili della lotta armata
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 18 Gennaio 2016
1. Voci da un incontro liberamente accettato. - 2. La via italiana della risposta alla lotta armata. - 3. Quale giustizia dell'incontro? - 4. Uno spazio al di là della giustizia legale. - 5. Dialogare con i precetti.

 

Marco Bouchard
# Prime osservazioni al decreto legislativo sulle vittime di reato
http://questionegiustizia.it/ 14 gennaio 2016
Il d.lgs. 15 dicembre 2015, n. 212 attua la direttiva 2012/29/UE del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio. Non vi è dubbio che l'irruzione della vittima nella normativa processualistica altera il tradizionale schema accusatorio che oppone il cittadino accusato alla potestà punitiva dello stato e propone una relazione triadica nella quale anche il giudice diventa sempre più spesso interlocutore per soddisfare esigenze che non si risolvono nel mero giudizio. La direttiva sulle vittime elegge il giudice a garante della vittima non meno di quanto non lo debba essere già dell'accusato.

 

Diana McKibben, Phil Penko
# Does Restorative Justice Have a Realistic Place in Today’s Criminal Justice System?
The Police Chief, vol. LXXXII, no. 12, December 2015

Restorative justice is not a panacea, but restorative justice champions ideas which are inherent to civil society— honesty, accountability, and community engagement. Also, it provides an important role for victims, and costs next to nothing compared to jail and most rehabilitative programs.

 

Valeria Bove
# Messa alla prova, a poco più di un anno: quali, ancora, le criticità?
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 22 Dicembre 2015
1. A un anno e mezzo dall'introduzione della messa alla prova "per i maggiorenni". - 2. Le finalità dell'istituto. - 3. Analisi delle problematiche giuridiche "nuove" e gli ultimi arresti della Corte. - 3.1. Sul fronte dei limiti oggettivi: circostanze aggravanti e precedente concessione. - 3.2. In fase d'indagine: rilevanza del dissenso del p.m. - 3.3. Dopo l'esercizio dell'azione penale: giudizio immediato e decreto penale di condanna. - 3.4. Irrilevanza della confessione, mediazione ed (in)utilizzabilità delle dichiarazioni sul fatto. - 3.5. Enti (non) convenzionati e copertura assicurativa. - 4. In conclusione.

 

Roberto Bartoli
# La "novità" della sospensione del procedimento con messa alla prova
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 9 Dicembre 2015
1. I modelli di disciplina della messa alla prova: la tensione tra prevenzione speciale e premialità. - 2. La disciplina vigente ispirata alla prevenzione speciale e la forza attrattiva esercitata dalla premialità nel diritto vivente: una conferma della tensione. - 3. Il successo applicativo della messa alla prova, tra convenienza del richiedente ed effettività sanzionatoria in un sistema ineffettivo. - 4. Quale futuro per la messa alla prova? Verso una giustizia riparativa mediante la creazione di spazi di incontro tra reo e vittima.

 

Kathleen Daly
# What is Restorative Justice? Fresh Answers to a Vexed Question
www.griffith.edu.au/ Prepared for Victims & Offenders, special issue, Does Restorative Justice Have a Future? revised 23 November 2015
It has become commonplace to say that restorative justice cannot be defined. I argue that restorative justice can and must be defined concretely as a justice mechanism. I develop this argument with four points: (1) restorative justice is not a type of justice; it is a justice mechanism; (2) retributive justice is not a type of justice or a justice mechanism; (3) restorative justice is one of many justice mechanisms under an innovative justice umbrella; and (4) restorative justice can be defined. The way forward is to assess and compare a variety of justice mechanisms, which reside on a continuum from conventional to innovative. In time, the justice mechanisms studied may come to matter more than the concept of restorative justice

 

Katinka Lünnemann, Annemieke Wolthuis
# Victim Offender Mediation: Needs of victims and offenders of Intimate Partner Violence. 2nd Comparative report, Interviews & Focus Groups
Verwey-Jonker Institute, November 2015
Can Restorative Justice (RJ) be used in cases of Intimate Partner Violence (IPV), and if so, under what circumstances? This question guides the European project on restorative justice in cases of domestic violence.1 This project, funded by the European Commission (EC), aims to investigate the research gaps and gather existing knowledge on the use of RJ in cases of IPV. Another objective is to gain a better understanding of the risks and potential of using restorative justice (in particular Victim Offender Mediation) in cases of IPV. Partners in this project are from Austria, Denmark, Greece, Finland, the Netherlands and England & Wales (here referred to shortly as the UK) and the European Forum for Restorative Justice (EFRJ).

 

M. E. Mele, L. Varrone (a cura di)
# La persona offesa dal reato nella giurisprudenza costituzionale. Raccolta di normativa, giurisprudenza e dottrina
Corte Costituzionale - Servizio Studi, 2015

 

M. G. Mannozzi
# Traduzione e interpretazione giuridica nel multilinguismo europeo: il caso paradigmatico del termine «giustizia riparativa» e delle sue origini storico-giuridiche e linguistiche
Riv. it. dir. proc. pen., 2015

1. La non neutralità delle scelte terminologiche nella traduzione giuridica. — 2. Opzioni terminologiche e dinamiche ermeneutiche. — 3. Dall’italiano all’inglese e ritorno: alla ricerca delle origini remote del termine «giustizia riparativa». — 4. Attività cognitiva e attività linguistica: il ruolo della terminologia nella traduzione giuridica. 

 

Andrei Poama
# Punishment Without Pain Outline for a Non-Afflictive Definition of Legal Punishment
http://fqp.luiss.it/ Philosophy and Public Issues (New Series), Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015): 97-134
Appropriately understood, the problem that lies at the basis of abolitionist attitudes is the suffering that comes out of certain forms of punishment as practiced today, and not the fact of punishing itself. Thus, for example, an abolitionist should not have a problem with penal sanctions that take a compensatory or restitution-based form and that are not deliberately directed at the offenders’ suffering. 

 

Thom Brooks
# A Précis of Punishment
Philosophy and Public Issues (New Series), Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015): 3-23
The claim is not that we should always use punitive options or that greater punitive sentences are desirable, but rather that a restorative justice aiming to restore rights should have such options at its disposable for relevant cases. This can be a way of better embedding restorative justice into the criminal justice system as well: by expanding its options, we might expand its use. This reformulated view of restorative justice I call punitive restoration to draw attention to its being open to more punitive options.

 

Moonkwi Kim
# Essai sur la justice restaurative illustré par les exemples de la France et de la Corée du Sud
tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/ Université Montpellier, 2015
En dépit de ces circonstances défavorables à la prospérité d’une justice restaurative dans les deux pays, nous avons vu récemment semée une graine d’espoir. L’espérance est grande tout particulièrement dans le cas de la France, en raison de la réforme pénale, effectuée l’été 2014, qui a fait entrer la justice restaurative dans le code de procédure pénale (art. 10-1), et de la circulaire annoncée pour 2015 qui devrait préciser les contours de la justice restaurative

 

Thom Brooks
# Defending Punishment. Replies To Critics
Philosophy and Public Issues (New Series), Vol. 5, No. 1 (2015), 73-94

 

Fania E. Davis, Mikhail Lyubansky, Mara Schiff
# Restoring Racial Justice
http://rjcenterberkeley.org/ 2015
Despite important overlapping interests, until recently, few racial justice advocates have embraced restorative justice, and the restorative justice community has largely failed to explicitly address race. Suggesting a convergence of the two movements, this article presents an overview of restorative justice principles, history, and methods. We review the evidence for racial bias in criminal justice and school discipline and then note emerging restorative initiatives to ameliorate historical and contemporary racial inequities. We conclude by touching on gaps and challenges characterizing research and applied work in the field while suggesting strategies to move toward a racially-conscious restorative movement as both an effective alternative to state-imposed punishment and a powerful force for racial justice.

 

Lawrence W. Sherman, Heather Strang, Geoffrey Barnes, Daniel J. Woods, Sarah Bennett, Nova Inkpen, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Meredith Rossner, Caroline Angel, Malcolm Mearns and Molly Slothower
# Twelve experiments in restorative justice: the Jerry Lee program of randomized trials of restorative justice conferences
http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/ Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2015
Relative to control groups, RJCs (restorative justice conferences) generally failed to reduce recidivism for property crimes, but consistently did so for violent crime. RJCs had the biggest effects on reducing recidivism with high- requency offenders, but was ineffective or criminogenic for those offenders with medium rates of offending. RJCs were criminogenic for London offenders who used both crack and heroin, but crime-preventive with offenders who did not use that combination of drugs. Initial findings that RJCs were criminogenic for Aboriginal Australians did not persist into the long-term follow-up.

 

Giovanni Rossi
# La Direttiva 2012/29/UE. Vittima e giustizia riparativa nel sistema penale: il diritto a garanzie nel contesto dei servizi di giustizia riparativa, L'Eco dell'ISSP, n. 03 luglio/agosto 2015

# Giovanni Rossi, La direttiva 2012/29/UE: vittima e giustizia riparativa nell’ordinamento penitenziario , Archivio Penale, n. 2, 2015
L’interminabile dibattito sulla teoria e metodologia della c.d. mediazione penale, che certo non ha agevolato lo sviluppo di esperienze di giustizia riparativa, mi richiama alla mente una famosa pagina dei Viaggi di Gulliver, ove Swift narra di una lunga guerra dei minuscoli abitanti dell’isola di Lilliput contro quelli dell’isola di Blefuscu: grande è lo stupore di Gulliver quando apprende che la ragione della guerra è la teoria sul modo di rompere le uova prima di mangiarle, sostenendo gli uni che si debbano rompere dalla parte aguzza, gli altri dalla parte più tonda.

 

Giorgia Stefani
# Alternative alla detenzione: quali prospettive in Europa? Analisi, buone prassi e ricerca in sette Paesi dell’Unione Europea
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza – Vol. IX – N. 2 – Maggio-Agosto 2015
Novità della normativa italiana è l’utilizzo anche in fase cautelare dell’istituto della messa alla prova (probation), istituito nel 2014 ma già utilizzato nel procedimento penale minorile, che, oltre ad agevolare il reinserimento sociale del reo, in un’ottica di giustizia riparativa permette allo stesso di riparare il reato commesso, attraverso il lavoro gratuito alla comunità, fornendo così una prova concreta del riconoscimento del suo errore. 

 

Marcello D'Aiuto
# Messa alla prova da giudizio sul fatto a giudizio sull’imputato
Processo penale e giustizia n. 6 | 2015
L
a probation, è funzionale ad un giudizio sulla personalità del soggetto, in conformità alla finalità rieducativa e risocializzante della sanzione. Nel nuovo rito, però, novità più interessante, la probation si realizza nel corso del processo e non in fase di esecuzione.  Al sistema retributivo classico, come già negli apparati normativi più moderni europei ed extraeuropei, si vuole affiancare un modello di giustizia ripartivo. L’obiettivo è favorire la conciliazione tra la persona offesa e l’autore del reato chiamato a porre in essere condotte riparatorie utili a neutralizzare o compensare i danni cagionati. In un simile sistema l’imputato diviene il soggetto che, consapevole del disvalore della sua azione, è disposto ad eliminare le conseguenze dannose o pericolose del reato. La prova è l’occasione processuale per manifestare tale disponibilità.

 

Dewey Cornell, Susan P. Limber
# Law and Policy on the Concept of Bullying at School
American Psychologist, May–June 2015
Experts contend that any face-to-face meetings between bullied and bullying students should be considered only in carefully prescribed situations, such as when both parties wish to participate, support persons are invited to be present, prior individual meetings have taken place, and those overseeing and facilitating the intervention have specific training in restorative practices...

 

Stefano Finocchiaro
# Secondo il Tribunale di Milano, la richiesta di messa alla prova è ammissibile anche per più reati
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 12 Maggio 2015

 

Luigi Annunziata
# Prime criticità applicative in tema di sospensione del processo per la messa alla prova
Diritto penale e processo 1/2016

Con Legge n. 67/2014 si introduceva l'istituto della sospensione del processo per la messa alla prova dell'imputato (c.d. probation processuale), mutuato dal rito minorile. La natura ibrida dell'istituto e le peculiarità della relativa disciplina hanno generato difficoltà finanche in ordine al suo inquadramento sistematico: procedimento speciale o causa estintiva del reato? Tali difficoltà si sono riverberate sull'applicazione pratica della normativa di nuovo conio; ciò nonostante, si è registrata una proliferazione di richieste di accesso alla probation. La concreta risoluzione delle criticità emerse è stata e sarà rimessa agli interventi della giurisprudenza di merito e di legittimità, cui resta affidata la coerente applicazione dell'istituto: in questo quadro, l'opera esegetica dell'interprete non pare poter prescindere dal costante confronto con gli approdi giurisprudenziali succedutisi in materia.

 

Maria Francesca Cortesi, Emanuele La Rosa, Lucia Parlato, Nicola Selvaggi -Coord. Roberto Flor
# Sistema penale e tutela delle vittime tra diritto e giustizia
II Convegno Nazionale del Laboratorio Permanente di Diritto Penale - Reggio Calabria, 22 maggio 2015

Introduzione: Maria Francesca Cortesi, Emanuele La Rosa, Lucia Parlato, Nicola Selvaggi | La protezione della vittima del reato quale autonomo scopo del diritto penale: Marco Venturoli | Vulnerabilità e predisposizioni vittimologiche: una politica criminale più sensibile alle vittime deboli: Marta Lamanuzzi | Tra riscatto e fuga: le parole della vittima nel contraddittorio processuale: Riccardo Germano | Tutela della vittima e prerogative dell’imputato nel segmento cautelare: un difficile bilanciamento: Marcello Stellin | Alla ricerca della funzione non punitiva della confisca: Chiara Battaglini | L’incidenza della prescrizione sulla piena tutela dei diritti fondamentali della vittima del reato: Carmela Pezzimenti | I confini della Restorative justice nella più recente normativa europea a tutela della vittima: ragionevole attuazione di una victim-centred justice o inevitabile condanna al destino di Sisifo?: Francesco Parisi | Vittima e decreto penale: Emanuela Strina

 

Vincenzo Laruffa
# La “messa alla prova”: novità applicative e criticità di uno strumento giuridico di deflazione carceraria
Rassegna Avvocatura dello Stato, n. 4, 2015
La messa alla prova interviene prima ancora del dibattimento e della sentenza definitiva, quando ancora l’imputato è (o meglio, dovrebbe essere) considerato presunto innocente. Nel programma di trattamento applicato all’imputato che è stato "messo alla prova", si possono riscontrare tutti gli elementi che tipicamente sono presenti nelle misure punitive, tra questi: la tipizzazione all’interno del codice penale delle modalità di applicazione dell’istituto, come ad esempio lo stabilire aprioristicamente la durata della messa alla prova prevista per un determinato reato; il rimando all’art. 133 c.p. quale principio generale indispensabile per la commisurazione della pena ma, soprattutto, l’aver previsto l’estinzione del reato all’esito positivo della messa alla prova, come a configurare uno sconto di pena anticipata.

 

Francesco Parisi
# I confini della Restorative justice nella più recente normativa europea a tutela della vittima: ragionevole attuazione di una victim-centred justice o inevitabile condanna al destino di Sisifo?
in Sistema penale e tutela delle vittime tra diritto e giustizia, a cura di Maria Francesca Cortesi, Emanuele La Rosa, Lucia Parlato, Nicola Selvaggi, coord. Roberto Flor, DipLap ed., 2015

 

Victorian Law Reform Commission
# The Role of Victims of Crime in the Criminal Trial Process. History, Concepts and Theory
www.lawreform.vic.gov.au/ May 2015

Of course, the criminal justice system is not just a theoretical construct. Every year in Victoria, hundreds of criminal trials and thousands of guilty plea hearings impact directly on the lives of victims, accused and witnesses. Listening to the experiences of these people—and of the people who work in the criminal justice system—is crucially important. It allows for a systematic identification of the issues that exist, and an informed consideration of practical initiatives for improvement which have been implemented or championed in Victoria and around the world. Practice and theory are interrelated. They inform each other. The Commission encourages an approach to this reference which considers what we can learn from theory and what we can learn from practice, both individually and together.

 

Katrien Lauwaert and Ivo Aertsen (editors)
# Desistance and restorative justice Mechanisms for desisting from crime within restorative justice practices
European Forum for Restorative Justice (EFRJ), 2015
The project ‘Desistance and restorative justice. Mechanisms for desisting from crime within restorative justice practices’ focuses on the benefit offenders can get in a desistance perspective from participating in a restorative justice (RJ) process... Recidivism research has looked into the link between RJ and reoffending. The results are not conclusive, but show that at least there is a potential for RJ to reduce crime. Recidivism research, with its mainly quantitative approach, does not, however, provide insight in why this influence occurs. Therefore this project has investigated 1) how participation in restorative justice processes influences the desistance journey of people who have offended, and 2) which factors within restorative justice practices support subjective and social changes that help initiate or maintain desistance from crime.

 

Shannon M. Sliva
# The Adoption of Restorative Justice Legislation as a State Policy Response to Criminal Justice Concerns: A Mixed Methods Inquiry
The University of Texas at Arlington, May 2015
Over the past two decades, 32 states have enacted legislation supporting the use of restorative justice as crime response... More supportive restorative justice legislation in a state was predicted by a higher percentage of female legislators, a higher proportion of Black Americans, and a higher state incarceration rate. Higher crime rates slightly decreased the likelihood of more supportive adoptions. Party affiliation, state fiscal capacity, tribal populations, and victims’ rights policy preferences were not predictive of more or less supportive adoptions. 

 

Mark S. Umbreit, Ted Lewis
# Victim Offender Mediation Training Manual. A Composite Collection of Training Resource Materials
Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking, University of Minnesota, May 2015
With an ever increasing emphasis upon retribution, there still exist contradictory impulses between punishment and rehabilitation among many correctional policy makers and practitioners. A lack of clarity exists about the basic purpose of sentencing. Is it meant to rehabilitate and change offender behavior? Are criminal sentences meant to deter others from committing crimes? Or, should the purpose of sentencing be to simply incapacitate, or remove, the criminal from circulation in society for a set period of time? These and other goals contribute to on-going confusion about what courts  are trying to achieve...

 

Massimo Donini
# Il delitto riparato. Una disequazione che può trasformare il sistema sanzionatorio
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 18 Maggio 2015
1. La vecchia ideologia della pena subìta, retrospettiva e reocentrica. - 2. L'incapacità limitatrice della retribuzione passatista, e il pieno di prevenzione generale. - 3. La realtà delle ipotesi di "perdono", di riparazione e di "non punibilità" disciplinate. - 4. Vetustà e residualità del modello codicistico del rapporto pena-riparazione-risarcimento rispetto a quello delle leggi penali complementari. - 5. L'obbligo del risarcimento, il dovere della pena subìta, la riparazione come onere. - 6. Dalla riparazione come "terzo binario" alla pena agìta post-riparatoria. - 7. La riparazione dell'offesa e del danno come base epistemologica della pena criminale, alternativa alla proporzione, duplicante il male. - 8. Delitto riparato ≤ delitto tentato. - 9. Riparazione e determinatezza. La riduzione complessiva del male per autore e vittima insieme. - 10. Riparazione e laicità. - 11. La riparazione possibile tra processo di cognizione e di esecuzione.

 

Raffaele Muzzica
# La sospensione del processo con messa alla prova per gli adulti: un primo passo verso un modello di giustizia riparativa?
Processo penale e giustizia n. 3 | 2015
Oltre ad essere più funzionali al concetto di integrazione sociale, i processi di giustizia riparativa tendono ad essere più efficaci rispetto alla giustizia tradizionale, come dimostrato dall’analisi criminologica condotta nei Paesi di più risalente tradizione riparativa: il tasso di recidiva di chi si sottopone ai processi riparativi è generalmente inferiore, o quanto meno non superiore, rispetto a quello prodotto dalla giustizia tradizionale; le vittime hanno un grado di soddisfazione maggiore, durante e dopo i processi riparativi, rispetto a quello connesso alla giustizia tradizionale. 

 

Anna Lorenzetti
# Il tessuto costituzionale della mediazione
www.costituzionalismo.it/ Fasc. n. 3, 2015
Nel contesto italiano, il tema della mediazione trova uno proprio riconoscimento giuridico con l’approvazione di una normativa – D. Lgs. 28/2010 – adottata con il dichiarato intento di decongestionare la giustizia civile, afflitta da un cronico arretrato. La nuova normativa ha previsto come obbligatorio il ricorso alla mediazione, o meglio al tentativo di mediazione, che rappresenta una condizione di procedibilità, in un ampio spettro di materie...

 

Robert Cario
# L’impact des theories victimologiques sur le(s) droit(s) des personnes victimes d’infraction en France
Thyma 25/03/2015
Issue de pratiques ancestrales, assez universelles, de régulation des conflits de nature criminelle, la Justice restaurative a été (ré)inventée à la fin des années 70 dans les pays anglo-saxons sous l’impulsion de travailleurs sociaux investis dans les champs de la probation et de l’aide aux victimes. Plus timidement, elle a fait son apparition en France au début des années 80 au travers de la médiation pénale et de la réparation à l’égard des mineurs.

 

Chris Cunneen, Barry Goldson
# Restorative Justice? A Critical Analysis
in Goldson, B. and Muncie, J. (eds) Youth, Crime and Justice (2nd ed), Sage, London.2015
There is no single definition of restorative justice, nor any exhaustive narrative of its foundational principles or constituent elements. Restorative justice covers a range of practices that might occur at various points within criminal justice processes generally, and youth justice processes more particularly. In the youth justice sphere restorative justice is typically expressed via pre-court diversion and restorative cautioning, family group conferencing, various victim-offender mediation initiatives and/or sentencing circles. Beyond youth/criminal justice processes, the technologies of restorative justice can increasingly also be found in workplaces, schools and child welfare/child protection systems and, beyond this, in post-conflict and transitional justice contexts including, as an especially notable example, the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission...

 

Francesco Trapella
# Lo scomputo del servizio prestato in caso di revoca dell’affidamento in prova
Processo penale e giustizia n. 2 | 2015
In caso di revoca dell’affidamento ai servizi sociali, il giudice deve determinare la residua pena detentiva, considerando la parte di prova svolta dal condannato quando questa non riveli l’inadeguatezza del processo rieducativo: il principio trova conferme nelle normative di diritto straniero sul sursis probatoire francese o sul probation angloamericano, e riflette principi applicati, mutatis mutandis, nel nostro ordinamento in punto di lavori di pubblica utilità ex art. 54, d.lgs. 28 agosto 2000, n. 74.  

 

Marco Bouchard
# Breve storia (e filosofia) della giustizia riparativa
Questione Giustizia 2/2015
Dall’esperimento di Kitchener agli esempi della “giustizia di transizione”, dalle prime prassi riparative dell’area nordamericana alle normative italiane ed europee: un percorso denso di suggestioni – letterarie, ideali, giuridiche – e, allo stesso tempo, realistico ci conduce sui sentieri della giustizia riparativa. Per rispondere a domande capitali: è possibile una risposta al reato che non sia legalizzazione della vendetta e che sostituisca allo sguardo sul fatto passato la visione delle persone future?

 

Giulio Ubertis
# Sospensione del procedimento con messa alla prova e Costituzione
Archivio Penale, n.2, 2015

 

Adam Crawford
# Temporality in Restorative Justice: On Time, Timing and Time-Consciousness
Theoretical Crimninology:an International Journal, 19(4), 2015
Restorative justice has been the subject of much theoretical criminological debate and policy innovation. However, little consideration has been given explicitly to issues of temporality and the challenges they raise. Yet, at its heart, restorative justice provides a rearticulated understanding of the relationship between the past and future; one that seeks to marry otherwise tense and ambiguous dynamics of instrumental and moral reasoning, along with risk-based and punitive logics. This article explores a number of dimensions in which questions of time, timing and time- onsciousness are implicated in conceptions and practices of restorative justice.

 

Giovanni Rossi
# La direttiva 2012/29/UE: vittima e giustizia riparativa nell’ordinamento penitenziario
Archivio Penale, n. 2, 2015
1. Considerazioni introduttive. – 2. La vittima nella giustizia penale: un ospite inquietante. – 3. Il diritto a garanzie nel contesto dei servizi di giustizia riparativa: il principio del superiore interesse della vittima. – 4. La partecipazione ai procedimenti di giustizia riparativa nella Raccomandazione n° R(99)19 e nella Direttiva. – 5. Gli spazi applicativi della giustizia riparativa nell’ordinamento penitenziario. – 6. Giustizia riparativa e liberazione condizionale. – 7. (Segue) La successiva giurisprudenza di legittimità. – 8. (Segue) Polarità giurisprudenziali. – 9. (Segue) Pentimento/perdono e mediazione. – 10. Giustizia riparativa e affidamento in prova al sevizio sociale. – 11. (Segue) La prescrizione di «adoperarsi in favore della vittima» e la possibile attività di mediazione. – 12. (Segue) Il riconoscimento dei fatti essenziali. – 13. Per concludere.

 

Davide Galliani
# Riflessioni costituzionalistiche sull'ergastolo entro le maglie dello statuto della Corte penale internazionale
Rivista AIC n. 2, 2015
Più vittime e loro parenti si ascoltano durante il processo, più aumenta la possibilità di dare loro un primo “assaggio” di giustizia, ma, inevitabilmente, i processi tenderanno a durare molto, scemando quell’iniziale assaggio di giustizia, visto che la sentenza finale di condanna arriverà molto dopo i fatti commessi. È questo ciò di cui hanno bisogno le vittime e i loro parenti? Non sarebbe più efficace un immediato intervento diretto dello Stato per farsi carico dei loro problemi, sicuramente drammatici e impellenti? Non si rischia altrimenti di deresponsabilizzare lo Stato stesso, che scarica sul penale ciò che dovrebbe essere affrontato utilizzando altri strumenti? 

 

Camillo Regalia, Sara Pelucchi, Francesca Giorgia Paleari, Claudia Manzi, Maria Brambilla
# Forgiving the terrorists of the Years of Lead in Italy: The role of restorative justice beliefs and sociocognitive determinants

Group Precesses & Intergroup Relations, 2015

The study presented is amongst the first to examine the role of restorative justice in intergroup forgiveness. The pattern of results is consistent with the idea that adopting a restorative justice perspective and building empathy and trust might be fruitful ways to enhance a positive motivational change towards the terrorists of Italy’s Years of Lead

 

Marie-Odile Delcourt, André Dupleix, Guy Escalettes, Alberto Giasanti, Etienne Le Roy, Leonardo Lenzi, Jacqueline Morineau, Christine Tavares, Filippo Vanoncini, Bertrand De Villeneuve
# La médiation humaniste, pour ‘faire société’ dans la prise en charge des différends
https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/ 2015
Réhabiliter les espaces où il est possible de crier sa colère, sa haine et sa souffrance constitue un enjeu à la fois pour les relations interpersonnelles et pour la société. Il est nécessaire de se réapproprier le cri, de s'octroyer le droit de crier, non pas dans un but de destruction, mais bien comme une énergie primitive, primordiale, qui nous constitue. Le cri fait peur, déstabilise, nous ne savons pas comment le prendre en compte. Trop souvent, ce cri est bâillonné, empêché de s'exprimer par un contrôle mental de soi. Sans cri, point de colère, de révolte et de liberté. Sans cet espace, l'être humain ne peut être reconnu dans toutes ses dimensions animales et humaines. Car le cri est une part de notre humanité. Il est à la fois l'expression d'une souffrance incommensurable mais aussi une énergie de vie qui peut être source de créativité et d'espérance

 

Martina Cagossi
# Esperimenti di giustizia riparativa nell'ordinamento italiano
in Luca Lupària (a cura di), Lo statuto europeo delle vittime di reato. Modelli di tutela tra diritto dell’Unione e buone pratiche nazionali, CEDAM 2015
1. Brevi premesse in tema di restorative justice. – 2. Il difficile inserimento di pratiche mediative all’interno del procedimento penale italiano. - 2.1. Dubbi di legittimità costituzionale. – 3. Le ipotesi di giustizia riparativa nell’ordinamento italiano. – 3.1. La mediazione nell’ambito della giustizia penale minorile. – 3.2. Tentativi di conciliazione innanzi al giudice di pace. – 4. Il nuovo istituto della messa alla prova per adulti e l’ingresso del termine “mediazione” nel Codice di procedura penale italiano.

 

Marc Toullier
# La giustizia riparativa in Francia: quadro attuale e ipotesi di sviluppi
in Luca Lupària (a cura di), Lo statuto europeo delle vittime di reato. Modelli di tutela tra diritto dell’Unione e buone pratiche nazionali, CEDAM 20
1. Un approccio diverso alla giustizia. – 2. Altri mezzi per garantire la giustizia. – 3. L’assenza di un riconoscimento ufficiale della giustizia riparativa nel diritto francese. – 4. Le aspettative legate allo sviluppo della giustizia riparativa nel diritto internazionale ed europeo. – 5. La disciplina della giustizia riparativa nella direttiva. – 6. Approccio del problema. – 7. Il recepimento della giustizia riparativa nel diritto francese. – 7.1. Un’apertura reale. La consacrazione della mediazione penale. – 7.2. Lo scarso ricorso alla mediazione penale. – 7.3. Le manifestazioni indirette di apertura alla giustizia riparativa. – 8. Un’apertura insufficiente. Le mancanze intrinseche del diritto francese. – 8.1. Necessità di ridimensionare tali mancanze alla luce del contenuto della direttiva. – 8.2. Uno stato dei luoghi insoddisfacente. – 9. Il rinnovamento della giustizia riparativa nel diritto francese. – 10. Una questione di fini. La ricerca di un equilibrio tra le finalità della giustizia riparativa. – 10.1. Allontanamento dall’ossessione di una giustizia diretta al solo autore del reato. – 10.2. Nuovi percorsi. – 10.3. Evitare la compassione eccessiva per le vittime di reati. – 11. Una questione di mezzi. La creazione di misure di giustizia riparativa. – 11.1. Riformare le sanzioni penali e l’esecuzione delle pene alla luce della filosofia della giustizia riparativa.   11.2. Sviluppare la formazione professionale. – 12. Prospettive incoraggianti.

 

Lezahne van Wyk
# Restorative justice in South Africa: An attitude survey among legal professionals
http://scholar.ufs.ac.za:8080/ University of the Free State, February 2015
In order to obtain an in-depth understanding of the opinions held by South African legal professionals, a qualitative research methodology was employed. Twenty-five participants (5 individuals from each of the 5 subgroups, namely; judges, magistrates, prosecutors, advocates and lawyers) were approached to respond to 10 questions which simply required a yes or no answer with a short motivation. Thematic analysis was used to identify emerging themes from the data, which revealed a generally positive disposition by South African legal professionals towards restorative justice. 

 

Carmen Cuadrado Salinas
# La mediacion: ¿Una alternativa real al proceso penal?
Revista Electrónica de Ciencia Penal y Criminología. 2015, núm. 17-01, pp. 1-25
La principal finalidad que persigue este método alternativo de justicia es la de alcanzar la solución más justa posible a un conflicto originado por la comisión de un delito, que, según los defensores de este proceso, es la reparación del  daño causado a la víctima, elevar los niveles de satisfacción de la misma, estimular al ofensor a pensar acerca de los efectos del delito que ha cometido, y reducir los niveles de reincidencia, en lugar del castigo del autor del hecho, como sucede en el vigente sistema de justicia penal.

 

Nancy Hurley, Sarah Guckenburg, Hannah Persson, Trevor Fronius, Anthony Petrosino
# What Further Research is Needed on Restorative Justice in Schools?
http://jprc.wested.org/ June 2015
We also heard that RJ in schools is about much more than lowering suspension/expulsion rates. Several experts encouraged an investigation of whether RJ in schools is more  5 effective in reducing the disproportionate use of exclusionary punishments along racial, ethnic, or disability lines than programs such as Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS), Social Emotional Learning (SEL), and Multi-tiered Systems of Supports (MTSS). In addition, there is a question of how well RJ can be integrated with these programs to promote greater success.

 

Ricarda Lummer, Otmar Hagemann, Sónia Reis (eds) | Schleswig-Holstein Association for Social Responsibility in Criminal Justice; Victim and Offender Treatment
# Restorative Justice at Post-Sentencing Level in Europe
www.fh-kiel.de/ 2015

 

Lorenzo Pulito
# Messa alla prova per adulti: anatomia di un nuovo modello processuale
Processo penale e giustizia n. 1 | 2015
La natura incerta dell’istituto, alcuni limiti irragionevoli alla sua fruibilità e la penuria di risorse destinate al suo funzionamento ne minano le potenzialità applicative anche in relazione a questi ultimi obiettivi. Solo un’interpretazione flessibile delle norme istitutive ed il sapiente lavoro degli operatori potranno rimediare agli ostacoli emergenti nella prassi, affinché si raggiungano non solo gli obiettivi auspicati dal legislatore, ma anche un effettivo recupero sociale dell’autore del reato ed il soddisfacimento degli interessi della vittima, nella prospettiva di un progressivo abbandono del sistema carcero-centrico e di una più ampia valorizzazione della mediazione penale e della giustizia riparativa. 

 

Giuseppe Tabasco
# La sospensione del procedimento con messa alla prova degli imputati adulti
Archivio Penale, n. 1, 2015
1. La genesi e l’inquadramento dell’istituto – 2. Le condizioni oggettive e soggettive per l’applicazione della misura – 3. I tempi e le forme della richiesta – 4. I presupposti della messa alla prova – 5. I contenuti del programma di trattamento – 6. Ulteriori contenuti dell’ordinanza che dispone la messa alla prova – 7. L’esecuzione dell’ordinanza che dispone la messa alla prova – 8. La revoca della messa alla prova – 9. Le forme di controllo dei provvedimenti – 10. L’esito della prova – 11. Questioni di diritto intertemporale.

 

Anne Gregory, Kathleen Clawson, Alycia Davis, Jennifer Gerewitz
# The Promise of Restorative Practices to Transform Teacher-Student Relationships and Achieve Equity in School Discipline
Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 25:1–29, 2015
Restorative approaches to school discipline are increasingly being implemented throughout the United States in an attempt to reduce reliance on suspension and eradicate the racial discipline gap. Yet, little is known about the experience of students in classrooms utilizing restorative practices (RP). This study draws on student surveys in 29 high school classrooms. Hierarchical linear modeling and regression analyses show that high RPimplementing teachers had more positive relationships with their diverse students. Students perceived them as more respectful and they issued fewer exclusionary discipline referrals compared with low RP implementers.

 

Pauline Raynaud
# Etude comparee de la mediation judiciaire en droit du travail et en droit penal
Université Toulouse 1 Capitole, 2014-2015
En matière pénale, seul un magistrat peut décider de recourir à la médiation. Sa mise en œuvre ne peut en aucun cas résulter de la seule volonté de personnes privées, en dehors de tout cadre procédural. Or, la médiation conventionnelle se définit précisément comme « tout processus structuré, par lequel deux ou plusieurs parties tentent de parvenir à un accord en dehors de toute procédure judiciaire en vue de la résolution amiable de leurs différends, avec l’aide d’un tiers choisi par elles qui accomplit sa mission avec impartialité, compétence et diligence ». Il est donc clair qu’il s’agit d’une particularité de la procédure civile et du droit du travail qui n’a pas son équivalent en matière pénale. 

 

Lisanne Drost,Birgitt Haller, Veronika Hofinger, Tinka van der Kooij, Katinka Lünnemann, Annemieke Wolthuis
# Restorative Justice in Cases of Domestic Violence. Best practice examples between increasing mutual understanding and awareness of specific protection needs
www.verwey-jonker.nl/ January, 2015
In this project domestic violence is understood as violence used by (former) adult intimate partners, i.e. intimate partner violence. Restorative justice is focused on reparation of harm in the aftermath of a crime or conflict. The most frequently used restorative justice practice in the context of IPV is victimoffender mediation (VOM). Sometimes conferencing is used. Therefore our main focus is on IPV cases that have been reported to the police and/or have led to criminal procedures and have been re ferred...

 

Darren John McStravick
# The Irish Restorative Reparation Panel and the Search for Community. Idealised Rhetoric or Practical Reality?
School of Law and Government Dublin City University, January 2015

 

Gustavo Zagrebelsky
# Che cosa si può fare per abolire il carcere
La Repubblica, 23 gennaio 2015

Studi sono in corso, promossi anche da raccomandazioni internazionali. Si tratta di una prospettiva nuova e antichissima al tempo stesso che potrebbe modificare profondamente le coordinate con le quali concepiamo il crimine e il criminale: da fatto solitario a fatto sociale; da individuo rigettato dalla società a individuo che ne fa pur sempre parte, pur rappresentandone il lato d'un rapporto patologico. Qualcosa si muove, nella giustizia minorile, nei reati punibili a querela. Ma molto resterebbe da fare.

 

Vesna Stefanovska
# Some Restorative Justice Benefits to Offenders and Victims of Crime
Balkan Social Science Review, Vol. 4, December 2014, 7-25
Benefits to the criminal justice system, means that restorative justice release the court from judicial cases, accelerate  he procedure and upon successfully completed mediation, judicial cases will be closed successfully, i.e. court proceedings will be terminated. At last, restorative justice gives voice to the parties themselves to resolve the conflict which is afterwards confirmed by the judiciary. 

 

Saoussane Tadrous
# La place de la victime dans le procès pénal
https://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/ 1er décembre 2014 - Submitted on 14 Sep 2015
Au fil du temps, la victime a acquis une place bien solide et dispose aujourd’hui d’un rôle considérable au sein du procès pénal. En effet, à l’exception de la phase de l’exécution des peines, la victime intervient effectivement dans le procès répressif en qualité de partie. De plus, la victime qui n’exerce normalement que l’action civile pour la réparation du préjudice subi par une infraction pénale s’immisce dans l’action publique au point de brouiller les frontières qui existaient auparavant entre l’action privée et l’action publique. Il s’est produit un renouveau du sens du procès pénal, ses finalités ont été ébranlées, la réponse pénale s’est diversifiée et le rôle des acteurs par là-même modifié. L’étude des droits qui lui sont octroyés et du rôle qu’elle exerce au sein du procès répressif a révélé l’ambiguïté de son action. Il est donc apparu nécessaire de clarifier la place de la victime au sein du procès pénal.

 

Giuseppe Luigi Fanuli
# L'istituto della messa alla prova ex lege 28 aprile 2014, n. 67. Inquadramento e problematiche applicative
www.latribuna.it/ 2014
1. Considerazioni preliminari; 1-1) Natura e ratio dell’istituto. 2. L’ambito oggettivo di applicazione della misura; 2-1) La problematica dei reati connessi. 3. Le preclusioni soggettive. 4. I contenuti della misura; 4-1) Il lavoro di pubblica utilità. 4-2) Il programma di trattamento. 5. Il ruolo dei soggetti coinvolti nel procedimento; 5-1) L’imputato. 5-2) Il pubblico ministero. 5-3) La persona offesa. 6. I tempi della procedura e il decorso della prescrizione. 7. Le pronunzie del giudice sulla richiesta di messa alla prova; 7-1) Gli effetti processuali della ordinanza di rigetto e di quella di accoglimento. 7-2) Il regime delle impugnazioni; 7-2-1) Il problema dell’appellabilità dell’ordinanza di rigetto e della riproposizione della richiesta in appello. 8. I possibili esiti della messa alla prova e le relative implicazioni di natura sostanziale e processuale. 9. La disciplina intertemporale; 9-1) Critica alle argomentazioni di chi sostiene l’applicazione retroattiva delle norme sulla messa alla prova. 9-2) La prima pronunzia della Cassazione. 9-3) Razionalità della disciplina intertemporale.

 

Francesco Parisi
# La Restorative Justice alla ricerca di identità e legittimazione. Considerazioni a partire dai risultati intermedi di un progetto di ricerca europeo sulla protezione della vittima
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 24 Dicembre 2014
1. Premesse. - 2. La definizione di RJ e la distinzione tra attività riparative e RJ programmes. - 2.1. Process or outcome? La RJ tra approccio olistico e dimensione reparative. - 2.2. Attività riparative escluse dal campo di applicazione della RJ. - 2.3. La definizione di Marshall. - 2.4. Le definizioni "normative" - 3. Il progetto europeo di ricerca Yo.Vi: Integrated Restorative Justice Models for Victims and Youth. - 3.1. Legal framework della RJ nei paesi oggetto di studio. - 3.2. I modelli applicati. - 3.3. Tipologia dei servizi di RJ e loro diffusione sul territorio. - 3.4. Condizioni richieste per lo svolgimento dei programmi. - 3.4.1. La volontarietà della partecipazione. - 3.4.2. La valutazione di idoneità. - 3.5. Gli esiti e la questione della proporzionalità degli accordi riparativi. - 3.6. Rapporti tra associazioni delle vittime e uffici di RJ. - 4. Restorative Justice e protezione della vittima: rischi e opportunità. - 4.1. Quali possibili tutele formalizzate in una giustizia de-formalizzata? - 4.2. Le ricerche empiriche sulla soddisfazione della vittima: la RJ come giustizia terapeutica? - 4.3. Un particolare caso problematico: le violenze di genere. - 5. Conclusioni "intermedie".

 

David Karp, Duke Fisher
# Restorative Justice: A New Perspective
http://www.nyasp.biz/ November 2014

 

Gian Piero Turchi Mario Tocci Michele Romanelli (a cura di)
# Libro Bianco per la promozione dell'efficienza nell'amministrazione della giustizia. Proposte in materia di risoluzione stragiudiziale dei conflitti e delle controversie
www.cleup.it/ Novembre 2014

 

Matteo Murgia
# La mediazione del conflitto interno al carcere. Cenni sull’esperienza messicana
Università degli Studi di Genova , 2013-2014

La giustizia riparativa è una teoria e allo stesso tempo un movimento sociale di carattere internazionale che riforma il modello tradizionale di giustizia penale. In questa nuova proposta si pone che il crimine – o delitto – è fondamentalmente un danno contro una persona concreta e le sue relazioni interpersonali; ciò differenzia questo modello dalla giustizia penale convenzionale di carattere retributivo dove il delitto è una lesione a una norma giuridica e la vittima principale è lo Stato...

 

Mark Halsey, Andrew Goldsmith, David Bamford
# Achieving restorative justice: Assessing contrition and forgiveness in the adult conference process
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 2014
Our clearest finding from this study has been that restorative justice conferences are greatly valued by victims. In general terms, this is due to the structured opportunities provided for victims to deepen their sense of participation within the criminal justice system. Specifically, it gives them the opportunity to be heard as an express element of the criminal justice process, a feature often absent from the ‘mainstream’ criminal justice system. It also gave them the opportunity to communicate with the offender and to try and understand the reason for the offender’s behaviour. For offenders, the conference was often exacting and moving. Having to confront the victim provided an occasion in which an apology could be offered personally or a gesture of remorse could be made.

 

Benedetta Bertolini
# Esistono autentiche forme di 'diversione' nell'ordinamento processuale italiano? Primi spunti per una riflessione
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 18 Novembre 2014
Con la diversione si intendono sottrarre al procedimento penale quei reati per i quali il processo, nella sua forma classica, viene ritenuto superfluo, se non dannoso. Ciò non significa che lo Stato rinuncia a reagire al reato in assoluto, ma che esso viene affrontato in maniera diversa, tramite modalità informali che si rifanno al paradigma della giustizia riparativa. L'ordinamento austriaco ne ha predisposto una disciplina particolarmente dettagliata. Alla luce di questa si compie una prima analisi del tessuto normativo italiano, allo scopo di verificare se istituti che vengono spesso presentati come vicini alla diversione abbiano davvero le caratteristiche che la contraddistinguono, arrivando a conclusioni perlopiù critiche. Il mancato pieno accoglimento delle alternative al processo nel nostro ordinamento sarebbe dovuto soprattutto alla "barriera all'ingresso" costituita dall'obbligatorietà dell'azione penale, barriera che tuttavia potrebbe non doversi considerare realmente ostativa.

 

Grazia Mannozzi, Giovanni Angelo Lodigiani
# Formare al diritto e alla giustizia: per una autonomia scientifico-didattica della giustizia riparativa in ambito universitario
www.uninsubria.it/ Rivista Italiana di Diritto e Procedura Penale, fasc. 1, 2014
È maturo il tempo per dar spazio, nella formazione del giurista, alla “Giustizia riparativa”, più nota, secondo l’anglicismo corrente, come Restorative Justice. Il presente articolo ha lo scopo di rendere ragione dell’opportunità di conferire autonomia scientifico-didattica alla giustizia riparativa all’interno della formazione universitaria di tipo giuridico, muovendo da un excursus comparatistico sulle modalità di insegnamento della giustizia riparativa e della mediazione penale in numerose università europee ed extraeuropee. Nel prosieguo del lavoro vengono analizzate le ragioni giuridiche, filosofiche, criminologiche e antropologico-culturali che sorreggono l’autonomia della giustizia riparativa e si mostra come la giustizia riparativa rappresenti il ‘motore’ del dialogo tra numerose discipline (diritto penale, procedura penale, criminologia, antropologia giuridica e filosofica, etica, Law and Literature) indispensabile per una formazione olistica del giurista.

 

Gema Varona
# Who Sets the Limits in Restorative Justice and Why? Comparative Implications Learnt from Restorative Encounters with Terrorism Victims in the Basque Country
Oñati Socio-legal Series [online], 4 (3), 550-572, 2014

 

Devona Gruber, Lauren Hansen, Katrina Soaper, Aaron J. Kivisto
The Role of Shame in General, Intimate, and Sexual Violence Perpetration
In K.G. Lockhart (Ed.), Psychology of Shame: New Research. New York: Nova Science,2014
The relationship between violence and shame is complex, bidirectional, and interactive, although research has tended to emphasize certain aspects of this association and to deemphasize others. In particular, much has been written about shame as a consequence of violence victimization, suggesting that victims of interpersonal violence are at greater risk for developing global self-devaluations  

 

Beau Kilmer and Jesse Sussell
Does San Francisco’s Community Justice Center Reduce Criminal Recidivism?
www.rand.org/ 2014
Community courts emphasize ties to a specific neighborhood within a city. This is typically accomplished by placing the court in the neighborhood (which allows court staff to more easily engage with residents, business owners, and other stakeholders) and by incorporating restorative justice and community service components with direct links back to the neighborhood into each offender’s case management ...

 

Cezary Kulesza
Directive 2012/29/EUof 25 October 2012 Establishing Minimum Standards on the Rights, Support and Protection of Victims
victimsrights.eu/ October 21, 2014
It is very important to underline, that the rights set out in this Directive are without prejudice to the rights of the offender. The term ‘offender’ refers to a person who has been convicted of a crime. However, for the purposes of this Directive, it also refers to a suspected or accused person before any acknowledgement of guilt or conviction, and it is without prejudice to the presumption of innocence (preamble, point 15). Such an assumption can be found in both the preliminary provisions of European codes of criminal procedure and in amendments introducing new rights for victims into these codes...

 

Gerry Johnstone
# Restorative Justice in Prisons: Methods, Approaches and Effectiveness
Council of Europe, Strasbourg, 29 September 2014
In recent decades, many who have voiced such criticisms of imprisonment have suggested that ‘restorative justice’ is the way forward. Restorative justice is most commonly presented as a viable alternative to imprisonment for many offenders.iii On this view, restorative justice interventions can perform many of the functions we expect imprisonment to perform, such as discouraging crime and reoffending, changing the outlook of offenders, and satisfying victims and society that something meaningful is being done in response to crime.

 

Kevin J. Derajtys, Lana A. McDowell
# Restorative Student Judicial Circles: A Way to Strengthen Traditional Student Judicial Board Practices
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology, September 2014
This article describes a way to strengthen traditional student judicial board processes. The proposed judicial option, Restorative Student Judicial Circles (RSJC), incorporates principles of restorative justice to address issues of higher education student misconduct through inclusive student practices. Topics reviewed consist of the definition of effectiveness within student judicial processes, including recidivism rates and personal development, procedural rights within such processes as well as innovative student judicial boards. Lastly, this article provides a detailed description of the proposed Restorative Student Judicial Circles and outlines how such processes may operate upon implementation within higher education settings. 

 

Stephane Jasmin Kirven
# Isolation to empowerment: A review of the campus rape adjudication process
Journal of International Criminal Justice Research, Volume 2 – September, 2014
This article highlights the state of sexual assaults on colleges and university campuses today and reviews the campus adjudication system under the standards of Title IX. In light of these findings, this article introduces restorative justice as an alternative form of justice to reform the adjudicatory process in campus sexual assault cases while complying with the mandates of Title IX.

 

Giovanni Rossi
# La Direttiva 2012/29/UE. Vittima e giustizia riparativa nel sistema penale: il diritto a garanzie nel contesto dei servizi di giustizia riparativa
http://dirittopenitenziarioecostituzione.it/ 2014
Le risorse? Almeno una doverosa, buona formazione, comunque con l’incoraggiamento delle indimenticabili metafore di Omero. Il saggio Nestore così si rivolge al figlio Antìloco nell’imminenza di una gara di carri che lo vede tra i concorrenti: «Tu sai girare bene intorno alla mèta. Ma i tuoi cavalli son tardi a correre; e penso che sarà un guaio. Son più veloci i cavalli degli altri. Essi però non sanno molte più astuzie di te. Tu dunque, mio caro, tutta mettiti in cuore l’arte, ché i premi non ti debban sfuggire. Per l’arte più che per forza il boscaiolo eccelle, con l’arte il pilota sul livido mare regge la rapida nave, squassata dai venti, per l’arte l’auriga può superare l’auriga» [Iliade, libro XXIII, vv. 309-318].  

 

John Braitwaite
# Evidence for Restorative Justice. Rethinking Effectiveness
The Vermont Bar Journal, Summer 2014

 

James Ptacek
# Evaluation Research on Restorative Justice and Intimate Partner Violence: A Review and Critique
http://uknowledge.uky.edu/ 2014
Only victims can initiate the process. A request does not guarantee that a dialogue will take place: many requests do not go forward, often because the offender does not accept responsibility or is not sufficiently remorseful. Sometimes victims are seen as too angry to become involved in a dialogue. If a victim makes a request, and the offender is judged to be eligible, a period of extensive preparation begins, where Book meets separately with the victim  and the offender. This process takes from six months to a year. The dialogue is a one-time only event. It takes place in a correctional facility where the offender is incarcerated. There is a facilitator present, and at times also support people for the victim and the offender. 

 

Andy Engen
# Communication, Expression, and the Justification of Punishment
Athens Journal of Humanities & Arts October 2014
Punishment that expresses condemnation, then, plays the important social role of affirming the rights of crime victims and this could be among those  things that crime victims are owed by the state. I have argued that The Unreceptive Wrongdoer gives us a reason to reject communicative, but not all expressive, theories. Punishment can succeed in expressing condemnation even when the punished is unreceptive to the message of condemnation. Thus, expressive theories can account for our conviction that those serious criminals who are unlikely to be receptive to the message of their punishment should nevertheless be punished.

 

Daryl Higgins, Kristen Davis
# Law and justice: prevention and early intervention programs for Indigenous youth
www.aihw.gov.au/closingthegap, July 2014
Restorative justice programs can also provide the opportunity for a reduction in sentencing, or avoiding detention if offenders agree to be confronted by their victims, apologise for their behaviour and take steps to make amends (either by addressing aspects of their own lives that affect the chances of offending in the future, or by contributing back to the community affected by their criminal behaviour). An example of a mainstream diversionary program for car theft is U- urn, an automotive training course aimed at promoting behavioural change, giving positive life skills, and reducing recidivism

 

Rachel Harding
# Restorative Injustice. Barriers to Victim Engagement in Restorative Justice: Perspectives of Victims of Assault in Derby
Internet Journal of Criminology, 2014
Despite this lack of public confidence, research has shown that Restorative Justice  works significantly more effectively than imprisonment in terms of rehabilitation, and has also been shown to positively alter both the victim’s and offender’s attitudes towards the crime...

 

Daniel Willyam da Silva Cordeiro, Diana Patrícia da Silva Leal Roque
# The Penal Abolitionism and Restorative Justice: Utopia or a Developing Reality?
www.crimmigrationcontrol.com/ 2014
With this proposal, it is our intent to refer to the failure of the present criminal system. We will try to corroborate our ideas through the penal abolitionism theory and the subsequent birth of new forms of Criminal Politics, namely the restorative justice. We’ll make a brief overview of what the abolitionism consists in and its relation with the minimal criminal law, as well as the restorative justice as an alternative way for resolving the so called criminal conflicts. So, it is our intent to question if the criminal punishment is inevitable or if it is possible to avoid it, especially as far as incarceration is concerned.

 

Marie Lefebvre-Billiez
# La justice restaurative s’implante en France
http://reforme.net/ 05/06/2014
Paul Mbanzoulou, directeur de la recherche et de la documentation à l’ École nationale d'administration pénitentiaire (Énap), a rappelé les expériences de médiations pénales en France, avant de présenter les résultats des premières rencontres détenus/victimes (RDV) à la prison de Poissy. L’un de leurs impacts est de lutter contre la récidive en responsabilisant l’infracteur, qui comprend par la bouche des victimes la portée de son geste.

 

Massimo Donini
# Il raddoppio del male
Una Città n. 212 / 2014 Aprile
Il rifiuto di un’ideologia che vede la pena come un male che si aggiunge al male commesso; la lezione di Federico Stella per una sanzione penale come ultima ratio, fondante è invece l’idea riparativa, il risarcimento, che non è necessariamente economico e non è necessariamente destinato alla vittima, ma può essere anche a favore della collettività; l'assurdità di un sistema, quello attuale, che moltiplica le sanzioni abbandonando la vittima alla sola azione civile per ottenere, su un altro binario, una riparazione.

 

Valeria Bove
Messa alla prova per gli adulti: una prima lettura della L. 67/14
Scuola Superiore della Magistratura, 9-11 giugno 2014

 

Filippo Giunchedi
Probation italian style: verso una giustizia riparativa
Archivio Penale, n. 3, 2014

 

Maya Pagni Barak
#  Re-Imagining Punishment: An Exercise in “Intersectional Criminal Justice”
Laws 2014, 3, 693–705

 

James Ptacek
# Evaluation Research on Restorative Justice and Intimate Partner Violence: A Review and Critique
http://uknowledge.uky.edu/ 2014
There are three forms of restorative justice that are commonly used in cases of intimate partner violence. All three of these practices have a shared set of goals. They seek to hold offenders accountable; empower victims; allow for the expression of feelings; clarify facts about the crime; provide an opportunity to address the impact of the crime on the victims and those around them; and come to an agreement about how the offender can make amends. 

 

Brunilda Pali and Christa Pelikan
# Con-texting restorative justice and abolitionism: exploring the potential and limits of restorative justice as an alternative discourse to criminal justice
Restorative Justice: An International Journal (2014) vol 2 issue 2
In this paper, we try to go beyond Christie’s anti-terminology exercise and read between his lines and those of the authors responding to his essay. The core question that has surfaced from the whole provocation, and the one that guides our reflection (and the field of RJ in general), is whether RJ can be seen today to constitute a viable alternative ‘discursive practice’ to the current criminal justice system (CJS). Christie’s ‘Words on words’ and the reactions it has provoked offer fertile ground for thinking and theorising about this...

 

Michael D. Bush, Kimberly D. Dodson
# Police Officers as Peace Officers:A Philosophical and Theoretical Examination of Policing from a Peacemaking Approach
Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology, September, 2014, 6(3): 194-205

 

Jenni Ward
# Are problem-solving courts the way forward for justice?
Howard League, Working Papers 2/2014
It is the case that problem-solving courts working in the way they are supposed to, where the individual person is encouraged and assisted to make positive steps in changing their behaviour and constructing reformed self-identities so that they can reintegrate into family, community and wider societal lives, are forward thinking... The concepts and practices of therapeutic jurisprudence and restorative justice have significantly influenced the development of court and legal practice associated with these programs

 

Cristina Galavotti
# Dalla sociologia della devianza alla sociologia della vittima: teorie, percorsi e prassi operative
Università di Pisa, 2014

 

Cristina Galavotti, Gerardo Pastore, Elisa Corbari (a cura di)
# Dalla teoria alle buone prassi: percorsi per la creazione dei Centri di Supporto alle Vittime
www.istitutofde.it/ 2014

 

Alessandra Dal Moro
# A che punto siamo con la giustizia riparativa
www.generativita.it/ Maggio 2014
E’, quindi, per esperienza diretta che sono da tempo convinta che la riposta alla trasgressione – a qualunque trasgressione- dovrebbe essere sempre coerente ai principi espressi dalle regole fondamentali internazionali e nazionali, per le quali le relazioni tra le persone non possono essere basate sull’esclusione e la separazione che il concetto stesso di “pena” implica, ma sul rispetto e il riconoscimento dell’altro... e, quindi, non solo valorizza il ruolo e la sofferenza patita dalla parte offesa, ma spinge l’autore del fatto criminoso a confrontarsi con se stesso, ad assumersi dignitosamente la responsabilità della propria condotta...

 

David Taylor
# Victim Participation in Transitional Justice Mechanisms: Real Power or Empty Ritual?
www.impunitywatch.org/ April 2014

 

Pierre Noreau, Alexandra Pasca
Les grands modèles de justice de proximité: bilan d’une nouvelle pratique juridique
Revue générale de droit, vol. 44, n° 2, 2014, p. 305-351
Depuis le milieu des années 60, on constate l’émergence d’entités et d’organismes de justice de proximité, tant en Europe, en Amérique du Nord et en Amérique latine, qu’en Océanie... ces pratiques de justice de proximité contribuent à la satisfaction des justiciables à l’égard de la justice. Le taux de satisfaction enregistré auprès des usagers est relativement élevé : 95 % dans le cas des Law Information Centres d’Alberta; 93 % dans le cas du Justice Access Centre de Nanaimo, en Colombie-Britannique; et 82 % dans le cas des Maisons de justice de France.  

 

State of Maine - Judicial BranchForeclosure Diversion Program
Report to the Joint Standing Committee on Insurance and Financial Services and the Jiont Standing Committee on Judiciary
126th Legislature, February 13, 2014
In 2009 the Maine Legislature established the Foreclosure Diversion Program (“FDP”) in the Maine Judicial Branch. It affords a valuable opportunity for homeowners and lenders to consider mutually beneficial alternatives to foreclosure. The FDP continues to see a high level of activity. In 2013, the FDP conducted 2,518 mediation sessions in 1,697 foreclosure cases. A total of 4,756 foreclosure cases were filed in Maine in 2013, an increase from the 4,339 cases filed in 2012. The FDP has achieved positive results...

 

Sonia Chiaravalloti
# La mediazione familiare come strumento alternativo di risoluzione dei conflitti: un laboratorio sperimentale sul territorio calabrese
Tigor: rivista di scienze della comunicazione e di argomentazione giuridica - A.V I (2014) n.1
Tra mediazione e diritto intercorre lo stesso rapporto esistente tra giustizia sostanzialista e giustizia formalista, più specificatamente tra diritto mite e diritto feroce. La ragionevolezza, l’accettazione del pluralismo, il confronto tra gli interessi supera le istanze della logica formale che sancisce inevitabilmente un vincitore e uno sconfitto. La mediazione è la forma più alta di diritto mite, avvalendosi delle alternative proposte da tutte le parti in conflitto e rispondendo alle esigenze di appagamento di tutte le parti in gioco. La mitezza è associata all’etica, alla coesistenza civile e alla moderazione, qualità proprie di una società pluralista, che non ha bisogno di preservarsi attraverso la discriminazione e l’esclusione sociale.

 

Mariano Menna
Mediazione - omologata dall’Autorità giurisdizionale - con gli offesi e con gli enti rappresentativi di interessi diffusi
Diritto e Giustizia Minorile, 1/2014
La mediazione penale è oggi confinata in uno spazio in cui lo Stato rinunzia ad affermare la propria pretesa punitiva per consentire alla sola persona offesa – soprattutto in relazione a reati bagatellari - di dichiararsi o meno soddisfatta. Ci si chiede, invece, se la mediazione ovvero la giustizia riparativa possa diventare tendenzialmente alternativa a quella “retributiva” nel senso che, al di là della spesso oleografica conciliazione – in particolare per reati bagatellari - con la persona offesa, specie se persona fisica, sia possibile sostituire alla filosofia della “retribuzione” la filosofia della riparazione che come tale non presupponga l’accertamento del fatto, non tenga conto di un parametro rigido e formale di sindacato della violazione di un bene giuridico e di reazione ad essa, ma incentri tutto su un ripristino patteggiato e, come si dirà, eventualmente “creativo” dell’ordine violato. Se così fosse la mediazione o, recte, la giustizia riparativa potrebbe estendersi anche ai reati più gravi.

 

Restorative Justice Colorado - Legislative Report
A Glance at Restorative Justice Programs in Colorado
http://www.ajc.state.ak.us/ January 2014

The completion status of participating offenders is tracked by noting whether the offender has fulfilled the expectations of their restorative justice agreement, by the completion date established in the restorative justice process. When the agreement is completed by the assigned completion date the process is considered successful. When an agreement is not completed by the assigned date the process is considered unsuccessful and noted as ‘Did Not Complete’. At the time of this survey there were also many processes that were pending completion. Some processes do not have a written agreement as an outcome or do not reach an agreement within the process. These processes are not considered in the completion rates below. The anticipated success rate of the pending cases is approximately 90% based on the average outcomes of restorative justice programs statewide.

 

Elmar G. M. Weitekamp
Developing Peacemaking Circles in a European Context
http://euforumrj.org/ November 2013
First and foremost, evaluation studies have established beyond doubt that restorative approaches have no negative effects on recidivism. Although some evaluations conclude that VOM and conferencing have no significant impact on re-offending (Hayes, 2005) or results are mixed at best  (Braithwaite 1999). Several more recent large scale evaluation studies conducted of victim-offender mediation and conferencing revealed more promising findings (Strang & Sherman, 2004, 2007; Latimer, Dowden & Muise, 2005; Hayes, 2007; Shapland et al., 2011). 

 

Ibrahim Koodoruth
# The Blending of Retributive and the Restorative Justice Approaches to Combat Domestic Violence: The Case of Mauritius
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 3 No. 18; October 2013
Research carried out in the late 1990’s has indicated the potential of using the restorative approach to address the prevalence of domestic  violence. The aim of this paper is to analyse the approaches used in Mauritius to combatdomestic violence. It shows that in a first instance Mauritius had established coordinated community response initiatives (CCRIs) together with the implementation of a restitutive approach to deal with the issue. However, with the implementation of the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy (VEARP) framework in the workplace, stakeholders have operationalised the concurrent use of the retributive and the restorative approaches to combat domestic violence .

 

European Parliament. Directorate General for Internal Policies | Sylvia Walby, Philippa Olive, Jude Towers, Brian Francis, Sofia Strid, Andrea Krizsán, Emanuela Lombardo, Corinne May-Chahal, Suzanne Franzway, David Sugarman, Bina Agarwal,
Overview of the worldwide best practices for rape prevention and for assisting women victims of rape
www.europarl.europa.eu/ October 2013
Low reporting and conviction rates indicate the limits on the capacity of the law to address rape and sexual assault (Daly et al, 2003). Alternative models have been proposed. In particular, ‘restorative justice’ approaches are being examined for their applicability to sexual assault and domestic violence. These approaches bring together people who have been affected by criminal activity and aim to achieve a reintegration of the offender into the broader community. Restorative justice processes take a large number of forms with widely varying relationships to usual criminal justice processes (Stubbs, 2004). 

 

Luca Poltronieri Rossetti
# Il diritto alla riparazione per le vittime di crimini internazionali: problemi e prospettive a partire dalle decisioni della CPI nel caso Lubanga
Università degli Studi di Trento, 2013

 

Natalie Hogan
Repairing the Harm. Restorative Justice and its Implications on the Criminal Justice System
https://spea.indiana.edu/ Spring 2013
Many experts in the field of restorative justice are hopeful for its continued growth and implementation, especially in local communities and schools across the United States. However, many do agree that for more impactful, structural change in the criminal justice system, a new way of thinking must be implemented from the top down. Obviously, this will require American policymakers to examine more closely and re-evaluate the current criminal justice system while comparing the aspects of the retributive system to the components of a restorative system. If programs are implemented and supported by local and state governments effectively, the potential for restorative justice success is great especially with respect to juveniles...

 

Rebecca Wallace, Karen Wylie, Robert Gordon
# Changing on the Inside: Restorative Justice in Prisons: A Literature Review
The International Journal of Bahamian Studies, 2013
Can restorative justice be integrated into the criminal justice system and prison regime without losing its characteristic elements of respect, engagement and collaboration? ... So returning to whether the dichotomy between restorative and retributive justice is a false one, perhaps it is helpful to avoid confusion between particular conceptions of punishment with the concept of punishment itself. Seen this way, restorative justice is not an alternative to punishment, but an alternative form of punishment.

 

Jan van Dijk
# Victim-centred restorative justice
Restorative Justice, 1(3), 426-429, 2013

 

Giovanni Rossi
# Esperienze di giustizia riparativa
http://dirittopenitenziarioecostituzione.it/ 2012-2013
L’interminabile dibattito sulla teoria e metodologia della c.d. mediazione penale, che certo non ha agevolato lo sviluppo di esperienze di giustizia riparativa, mi richiama alla mente una famosa pagina dei Viaggi di Gulliver, ove Swift narra di una lunga guerra dei minuscoli abitanti dell’isola di Lilliput contro quelli dell’isola di Blefuscu: grande è lo stupore di Gulliver quando apprende che la ragione della guerra è la teoria sul modo di rompere le uova prima di mangiarle, sostenendo gli uni che si debbano rompere dalla parte aguzza, gli altri dalla parte più tonda...

 

Marin County Civil Grand Jury
# STAR Court: A Restorative Justice Success Story
www.marincounty.org/ May 2013
The goal of the STAR Court, a little known supervised diversion program, is to benefit both the individual offender and the community as a whole. By addressing the underlying mental illness and helping the participants deal with it appropriately, the expectation is that participants will be more apt to develop a sense of personal and social responsibility and move gradually toward self-sufficiency and integration into the community. 

 

Francesca Tugnoli
# La mediazione de iure condendo
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza – Vol. VII – N. 1 – Gennaio-Aprile 2013

... Opportuno riferire alcuni esempi di restorative justice tratti dall’esperienza inglese per meglio comprendere l’opportunità di introdurre analoghe pratiche nel nostro ordinamento.  Il primo caso è di tale importanza da riportarne fedelmente - e quasi integralmente - la traduzione dei dialoghi. In particolare, trattasi della storia di Peter Wools, ladro di mestiere, che, grazie alla sua esperienza con la mediazione, ora collabora con la polizia per aiutare i rei nel percorso di restorative justice...

 

Lorenzo Passerini Glazel
# Il perdono come atto nomotrofico
boa.unimib.it/ 2013
Propongo di distinguere due specie di perdono: (i) un perdono quale atto interno alla coscienza, che può essere compiuto senza che vi sia la necessità di comunicarlo ad altri soggetti (ed in particolare al destinatario del perdono  stesso), e che opera soltanto sul piano dei sentimenti interni alla coscienza; (ii) un perdono quale atto sociale, che si rivolge necessariamente ad un altro soggetto, e che opera non solo (o non tanto) sul piano dei sentimenti interni alla coscienza, ma anche (e soprattutto) sul piano di specifiche entità sociali e giuridiche (obblighi e pretese). 

 

Luca Poltronieri Rossetti
# Il diritto alla riparazione per le vittime di crimini internazionali: problemi e prospettive a partire dalle decisioni della CPI nel caso Lubanga
Università degli Studi di Trento, 2013

 

Centro per la mediazione di Trento e Bolzano
# Carta dei servizi
www.regione.taa.it/ 2013

 

Regione Piemonte | Sara Caruso, Eleonora Guidi (Associazione Amapola)
# Gestire i conlitti prima che sia troppo tardi. Quando si assiste una vittima di reato
www.regione.piemonte.it/ Manuale a dispense sulla sicurezza urbana / dispensa n°8 / maggio 2013

 

Monica M. Gerber, Jonathan Jackson
# Retribution as Revenge and Retribution as Just Deserts
Soc Just Res (2013) 26:61–80
Endorsement of retribution as revenge also predicts the support of harsh punishment and the willingness to deny fair procedures. By contrast, retribution as just deserts is mainly predicted by a value restoration motive and by rightwing authoritarianism. After controlling for revenge, retribution as just deserts predicts support for procedural justice in the criminal courts...

 

Alexandra Smith
# Mainstreaming Restorative Justice in South Australia’s Criminal Justice System: A Response to the Over‑Representation of Indigenous Offenders
The ANU Undergraduate Research Journal, Volume Five 2013, published 2014 by ANU Press
This essay discusses the shortcomings of South Australia’s current court system and its failure to adequately respond to the needs of Indigenous offenders, and considers the potential for the increased use of principles of restorative justice to provide beneficial outcomes in addressing those needs. The following is a consideration of how mainstream criminal sentencing can be reimagined to integrate restorative justice, and suggests that South Australia adopt legislation based on the Crimes (Restorative Justice) Act 2004 (ACT) in order to mandate restorative justice considerations as a compulsory part of the criminal sentencing process.

 

Centro per la mediazione - Regione Autonoma Trentino-Alto Adige
# Carta dei servizi
www.regione.taa.it/ Anno 2013
Le pratiche di mediazione penale trovano applicazione nell’ambito di un paradigma di giustizia detto “riparativo”: si tratta di un modello che dà centralità alla vittima e alla riparazione delle conseguenze dannose del reato. Il reato non è visto solo come un’offesa allo Stato, ma come una frattura nelle relazioni sociali la cui ricomposizione passa attraverso la riparazione. 

 

Don Weatherburn, Megan Macadam
# A review of restorative justice responses to offending
journal.anzsog.edu.au/ 2013
The present review sought to determine on the available evidence (a) whether restorative justice (RJ) is an effective means of reducing reoffending (b) what benefits victims of crime obtain from participation in the RJ process (c) whether the public supports the principles of RJ and (d) how the cost and efficiency of RJ proceedings compare with conventional courts in cost and efficiency (i.e. time taken to finalize cases). The review finds little reliable evidence that RJ reduces re-offending. Victims who participate in RJ are generally satisfied with the experience but it is unclear whether they are more satisfied than victims in similar cases that are dealt with in court. The limited evidence available suggests that the public  supports the principles of RJ. It appears to be a less expensive and more efficient way of finalizing criminal cases involving young people but, once again, the evidence on this issue at this stage is rather limited.

 

Slávka Karkošková
# Conditions of Victim-Offender Mediation in Cases of Intimate Partener Violence
in Slávka Karkošková, Lenka Holá, et al, Resolving Disputes in the 21st Century, P-T Muhely Ltd., Budapest, Hungary, 2013
There are some fundamental conditions for application of VOM in domestic violence cases. The baseline condition is the preparedness of the mediator and preparedness of the system on which the mediator depends. The central requirement is the appropriate disposition and attitude of the victim and the offender. And the complementary condition is the appropriate disposition of the community of persons associated with the victim and the offender which (even without their direct VOM participation) can have an indirect influence on the process..

 

Jeffrey J. Rachlinski, Chris Guthrie, Andrew J. Wistrich
# Contrition in the Courtroom: Do Apologies Affect Adjudication?
Cornell Law Faculty Publications, Paper 604, 2013
Apologies usually help to repair social relationships and appease aggrieved parties. Previous research has demonstrated that in legal settings, apologies influence how litigants and juries evaluate both civil and criminal defendants. Judges, however, routinely encounter apologies offered for instrumental reasons, such as to reduce a civil damage award or fine, or to shorten a criminal sentence. Frequent exposure to insincere apologies might make judges suspicious of or impervious to apologies. In a series of experimental studies with judges as research participants, we find that in some criminal settings, apologies can induce judges to be more lenient, but overall, apologizing to a judge is often unhelpful and can even be harmful.

 

Kerstin Braun
# Giving Victims a Voice: On the Problems of Introducing Victim Impact Statements in German Criminal Procedure
German Law Journal, v. 14, n. 09, 2013
In the 1970s and 80s, the victims’ rights movement and scholarship focusing on victims of crime emerged, pointing out deficits in the treatment of victims by the criminal justice system and challenging the conception of victims as mere witnesses without their own rights in the criminal justice process.4 The academic debate on victims and their role in the criminal justice system shifted from theory to the adoption of an international instrument. In 1985, the United Nations (“UN”) General Assembly unanimously adopted the United Nations Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power recognizing that “millions of people throughout the world suffer[ed] harm as a result of crime and the abuse of power and that the rights of these victims ha[d] not been adequately recognized.”

 

Heather Strang, Lawrence W Sherman, Evan Mayo-Wilson, Daniel Woods, Barak Ariel.
# Restorative Justice Conferencing (RJC) Using Face-to-Face Meetings of Offenders and Victims: Effects on Offender Recidivism and Victim Satisfaction. A Systematic Review
www.crim.cam.ac.uk/ Campbell Systematic Reviews 2013
Our definition of an RJC is this: a planned and scheduled face-to-face conference in which a trained facilitator “brings together offenders, their victims, and their respective kin and communities, in order to decide what the offender should do to repair the harm that a crime has caused”. This definition covers a homogenous group of programs inspired by the work of the Australian theorist John Braithwaite and the Australian trainer John McDonald, whose dialogue spread both the idea of RJCs and the opportunity for rigorous evaluations of them from Canberra to the US and UK from 1995 through 2005.

 

Shawn M. Flower
# Community Mediation Maryland. Reentry Mediation Recidivism Analysis
http://re-entrymediation.org/ Choice Research Associates, April 2013
In summary, participation in mediation has a strong impact by reducing the probability of arrest by 10%; and repeated engagements in the service further shores up the impact by 6% for each added mediation session. In addition, analysis reveals that those who participate in mediation appear to survive a longer period of time before a post-release arrest event, compared to those who did not mediate, (although this difference was not statistically significant). 

 

Denis C. Bracken
# Restorative Justice with Inmates in a Canadian Penitentiary
Faculty of Social Work - University of Manitoba | Institute of Criminology University College Dublin | March 2013
From the perspective of legal thought and jurisprudence, however, there have also been developments in Canada in which restorative principles have, for example, been adopted into sentencing principles contained in the Canadian criminal code. Although it would be difficult to say that restorative justice as a broad concept has become the major focus of the Canadian criminal justice system, it has at least grown to be an accepted set of principles that can be applied in a variety of settings.

 

Chris Cunneen
# Restorative Justice, Globalisation and the Logic of Empire
University of New South Wales Law Research Paper No. 2013-2
The purpose... First, to explore more fully the relationship between restorative justice and what is here termed the ‘logic of empire,’ by examining the role of restorative justice in neoliberal crime control strategies and the broader role played by these strategies in reproducing a particular cultural logic or hegemonic norm about the nature of offending and victimization. Second, to consider the role of restorative justice in the global exchange of crime control strategies, with particular attention paid to the place of restorative justice in achieving justice in transitional societies. The author argues that the universal good that restorative justice promises is firmly captured within a very particular set of processes, which can be understood more generally as neoliberal approaches to crime control. Thus, to the extent that neoliberalism dominates a new globalised world order, restorative justice takes its place without any significant challenge to the values that underpin the new order.

 

Pierluca Massaro
# Prospects for restorative justice in the juvenile justice system
Interdisciplinary Journal of Family Studies, XVIII, 2/2013
The present paper sustains a sociologically based reflection drawn from the models of juvenile justice and proposes the implementation of spaces thus far conquered by restorative justice through processes of penal mediation. Such a paradigm has in practice provided, while in need of further epistemological clarification, a solid account of itself in relation to the needs of the victim and the offender. Participation in mediation is suggested here as functional to the accountability of the minor, a critical step to attaining the activation of rehabilitation pathways, otherwise difficult to achieve. Such considerations may induce the legislature towards non-deferrable regulatory interventions and the juvenile judiciary towards reflecting on its own legal culture, marked by paternalistic attitudes, at the expense of choices simply made in terms of lenience.

 

Procura della Repubblica presso il Tribunale di Milano - Pool reati informatici
# Vittim@ ineffabile. Crimine informatico, persona offesa, processo penale - Working paper
http://www.procura.milano.giustizia.it/ 2013
Alla vittima, all'ambiente sociale aggredito dal reato, si deve dare miglior voce. Come all'autore del reato, di essa si deve raccontare grazie alle istituzioni, entro logiche di laglità, ricostitutive del legame sociale, lontano da attese vendicative. Una vittima destinataria di azioni riparative in senso ampio...

 

Brian Gregory Sellers
# Zero Tolerance for Marginal Populations: Examining Neoliberal Social Controls in American Schools
http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/ January 2013
Given these findings, restorative justice programs are well-suited for addressing school-based infractions and crimes committed by students. In response to the stigmatizing, exclusionary, and harmful effects of school-based zero- olerance policies, restorative justice promotes reparative solutions that attempt to prevent the youthful transgressor from feeling “alienated, more damaged, disrespected, disempowered, less safe and less cooperative with society”. Restorative justice approaches seek to prevent negative outcomes for juveniles by giving offender(s), victim(s), mediator s), and the broader community a voice in a dialogue and negotiation that determines reparative resolutions that heal harm and do not retributively exclude...

 

CNCDH - Commission Nationale Consultative des Droits de l'Homme
Avis sur la prévention de la récidive
www.cncdh.fr/ 21 février 2013
Enfin, au-delà de la problématique de l’emprisonnement, il conviendrait également de développer l’expérience dite de la justice restaurative ou réparatrice48, mise en œuvre notamment au Canada depuis une trentaine d’années, qui semble avoir fait ses preuves... La CNCDH recommande, dans une optique de prévention de la récidive, de développer les expériences de justice restaurative. 

 

Robert Cario
# L'indemnisation des victimes d'actes de terrorisme en droit français
http://afvt.org/ 2013
Les mesures de justice restaurative sont multiples. Mais il doit être clairement souligné qu'elles ont vocation à être appliquées dans le cadre du système de justice pénale dès lors qu'une infraction a été commise, en harmonieuse complémentarité, quelle que soit sa nature et sa gravité. Il peut s'agir de médiation entre victime et infracteur, face à face ou anonymes, de groupe, à tous les stades de la procédure. Les conditions essentielles à la mise en oeuvre de telles mesures sont très claires : consentement éclairé des intéressés, préparation approfondie des rencontres par un professionnel spécialement formé à ces mesures et habilité par le juge compétent. La prise en considération des personnes (infracteur, victime, proches et communautés d'appartenance), au sein du système de justice pénale qui demeure seul compétent pour sanctionner l'acte, devient alors un facteur d'évolution du droit, du procès pénal et, par contagion, du système en son entier, en réaffirmant sa force symbolique et sociale - en aucun cas thérapeutique.

 

Anne Hayden
# Safety issues associated with using restorative justice for intimate partner violence
Women’s Studies Journal, Volume 26 Number 2, December 2012
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is renowned for its potential to harm and its under-reporting. A study in New Zealand explored non-reporting of IPV, and the extent to which using restorative justice (RJ) could increase reporting of this type of crime. Although the use of RJ for IPV is heavily debated, 79% of participants in my (2010) research considered that increased availability of RJ would increase reporting of IPV...

 

Silvio Civello Conigliaro
# La nuova normativa europea a tutela delle vittime di reato. Una prima lettura della direttiva 2012/29/UE del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio, del 25 ottobre 2012 (GUUE 14.11.2012)
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 22 Novembre 2012

 

Marilena Colamussi
# Adulti messi alla prova seguendo il paradigma della giustizia riparativa
Processo penale e Giustizia Anno II, n. 6-2012
Al sistema retributivo classico negli apparati normativi più moderni europei ed extraeuropei si affianca il modello riparativo, che - va subito precisato - non ha la pretesa di sostituire la risposta tradizionalmente punitiva ma di rappresentare una valida alternativa, utile a migliorare l’efficacia e l’efficienza del sistema giustizia. La prospettiva in cui si pone il paradigma della giustizia riparativa ha, dunque, una rilevanza di carattere integrativo e, pertanto, merita di essere armonizzata e collocata negli spazi processuali idonei senza perdere di vista la tutela delle garanzie fondamentali.

 

Elena Bianchini
# L’istituto della riabilitazione tra cancellazione del reato e riparazione alla vittima: la sua applicazione nelle realtà europee italiana e belga
Università di Bologna, 2012

 

Elena Mattevi
# La giustizia riparativa ed il sistema del giudice di pace. Principi, istituti e prospettive di un modello alternativo di risoluzione dei conflitti in materia penale
Università degli Studi di Trento, 2012

 

Erwan Dieu
# La Justice restaurative, résultante de la nouvelle considération des victimes
Journal International De Victimologie, Tome 10, numéro 1 (JIDV28 – Juin 2012)

 

Jennifer Rubin, Lila Rabinovich, Michael Hallsworth, Edward Nason
# Interventions to reduce anti-social behaviour and crime. A review of effectiveness and costs
www.rand.org/ 2012
Restorative justice interventions bring offenders into contact with the consequences of their actions, in the form of meeting with the victims of crime or being made aware of the extent of damage to property. Given the difficulties offenders may have with impulse control and with taking account of the impact of their behaviour, it may prove effective to show individuals the harm they have caused, and, as in some cases of restorative justice programmes, to require them to compensate for that harm by repairing damage or by engaging in community service. Thus, restorative justice is a form of intervention that merits further evaluation.

 

Kathleen J. Bergseth, Jeffrey A. Bouffard
# Examining the Effectiveness of a Restorative Justice Program for Various Types of Juvenile Offenders
International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 2012 57(9) 1054–1075
Meta-analyses have demonstrated varying degrees of program success in recidivism reduction, which may in part reflect differential effectiveness of the RJ approach for various kinds of offenders. This study examined whether an RJ program for juvenile offenders had differential impacts on recidivism across various offender characteristics (including age, gender, racial group, offending history, and current offense). Results generally support the effectiveness of the program for many types of offenders.

 

Prison Reform Trust
# Prison Reform Trust response to Improving the Code of Practice for Victims of Crime
prisonreformtrust.org.uk, 2012
We welcome the new entitlements to restorative justice. As capacity for restorative justice improves, we would want to see the duty to inform victims about the availability of restorative justice amended to become a duty to offer restorative justice, as soon as the capacity to deliver this exists in every area.

 

Jung Jin Choi, Gordon Bazemore, Michael J. Gilbert
# Review of research on victims' experiences in restorative justice: Implications for youth justice
Children and Youth Services Review 34 (2012) 35–42

 

Rebecca Brooks
# Is Restorative Justice the way forward to repair the harm experienced by crime victims?
https://newpoliticalcentre.files.wordpress.com/ 2012
By definition, restorative justice refers to the process of bringing both the victims and offenders together, directly or indirectly, so that the victim’s questions can be answered. It occurs in the aftermath of a crime in a secure environment and allows the offender to have the opportunity to recognise the physical and psychological harm that has been caused, to the victim and their families, because of their actions. The aim is to highlight the impact of the crime, to offer resolution by helping to deal with the situation created, and to discuss any implications for the future

 

Sara Balgoyen, Leigh Courtney, Natalie Defreitas, Jasmine Garfield
Restorative Justice: A Primer and Exploration of Practice Across Two North American Cities
Adler School Institute on Public Safety and Social Justice, 2012
By now it should be somewhat clear that restorative justice cannot be conceptualized as a specific type of program or practice. Restorative justice is a philosophy that may inform how individuals and organizations relate to one another. It can also be a specific process used for a specific reason. Thus, it can be argued that restorative justice does not necessarily exist in a pure form. Restorative justice philosophies and practices typically have many moving pieces and variables, which provide challenges for program evaluation and delivering evidence-based practices.

 

Colleen Pawlychka
# Punishment or Logical Consequences: A Response to the Punishment Debate Within Restorative Justice
University of Alaska, 2012
Perspectives on punishment vary significantly within the restorative justice movement, with some restorative justice scholars and practitioners debating what types of punishment are acceptable in practice and who should decide on appropriate punishments, while others are conflicted as to whether restorative justice constitutes an “alternative to punishment or an alternative punishment”...

 

Jillian M. Furman
An Economic Analysis of Restorative Justice
The University of Massachusetts Boston, 2012
Restorative justice is often conducted among juvenile offenders, but there is growing rhetoric advocating for the implementation with nonviolent adult offenders as well. Despite almost universal agreement of the claimed economic advantage, little research has been conducted validating such a claim. The following study examines contemporary restorative justice in the United States and provides a cost-effectiveness (CE) analysis comparing restorative practice with traditional criminal justice (TCJ) methods in Massachusetts. Furthermore, this economic analysis intends to provide the information necessary to promote broader policy changes introducing more restorative practice into the criminal justice system across Massachusetts.

 

Marco Venturoli
# La tutela della vittima nelle fonti europee
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 18 Settembre 2012
1. Premessa. - 2. Le ragioni di una tutela della vittima in sede europea. - 3. Le fonti europee in materia di tutela della vittima. - 3.1. Le fonti a carattere generale. - 3.2. Le fonti a carattere particolare. - 4. Rilievi in margine alla politica criminale europea in materia di protezione delle vittime. - 4.1. Il potenziamento degli strumenti della restorative justice quale via da privilegiare per la tutela delle vittime. - 4.2. L'opportuno potenziamento della tutela c.d. amministrativa delle vittime. - 5. La vittima nella giurisprudenza della Corte di giustizia. - 6. Prospettive di riforma. - 7. Osservazioni conclusive.

 

Francesco Maisto
# Il difficile rapporto autore-vittima e il ruolo del Tribunale di Sorveglianza
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza – Vol. VI – N. 2 – Maggio-Agosto 2012
E comunque permangono alcuni interrogativi che devono trovare adeguata risposta. Penso soprattutto al fatto che simili tentativi tendono ad annacquare la fondamentale e classica distinzione tra diritto penale e diritto civile quando ritengono che la migliore risposta al delitto sia la riparazione nei confronti delle vittime. Riparazione che, ripeto, è sempre insufficiente quando si tratti di riparare delitti di sangue e tante volte simbolica quando si tratti di riparare delitti contro la proprietà. Nonostante queste difficoltà interne ad una teoria coerente della sanzione penale, il cambiamento di direzione verso la riparazione e le possibilità riconciliative date dai meccanismi di mediazione va salutato come positivo da un punto di vista etico.

 

Francesco Parisi
# Il diritto penale tra neutralità istituzionale e umanizzazione comunitaria. Relazione al seminario transnazionale "The Role of the Community in the Restorative Culture", organizzato dall'istituto CRESM e svoltosi a Gibellina il 26 ottobre 2012.

www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 2012

 

Roberto Flor, Elena Mattevi (a cura di)
# Giustizia riparativa e mediazione penale in materie penali in Europa
Greifswald, Germania, 4-5 maggio 2012 - www.penalecontemporaneo.it
La Conferenza internazionale tenutasi a Greifswald (Germania) in data 4 e 5 maggio 2012, si inserisce nel quadro del progetto “Restorative Justice in Penal Matters in Europe”... Essa ha rappresentato il primo momento di incontro e di scambio tra gli autori dei 36 rapporti nazionali sul tema, chiamati a descrivere le strategie, le procedure e gli interventi di giustizia riparativa sviluppati nei diversi paesi di provenienza, come supporto o alternativa alla giustizia penale tradizionale. Lo scopo della ricerca è quello di analizzare criticamente le diverse esperienze per individuare buone e cattive pratiche, nonché eventuali fattori che possono contribuire od ostacolare lo sviluppo di approcci riparativi in Europa...

 

Josh Bowers, Paul H. Robinson
# Perceptions of Fairness and Justice: the Shared Aims and Occasional Conflicts of Legitimacy and Moral Credibility
Wake Forest Law Review, 2012
This Article examines the shared aims and overlaps in operation and effect of these two criminal justice dynamics-the "legitimacy" that derives from fair adjudication and professional enforcement and the "moral credibility" that derives from just results-as well as the occasional potential for conflict. Specifically, in this Article, we aim to isolate and define the parameters of each dynamic, to compare and examine their similarities and differences, and to explore the settings in which the two run together or (more rarely) cross-wise.

 

Ted Wachtel
# Defining Restorative
International Institute for Restorative Practices, 2012

 

Lara Benetti
# Mediazione e violenza interpersonale intima: un “matrimonio” possibile? Accenni al Progetto Concordo
www.lexop.org/ 2012
Alcuni teorici della Giustizia Riparativa sostengono che, nei casi di violenza intrafamiliare, la mediazione tra vittima e carnefice è improponibile e rischiosa. Si è osservato che la violenza difficilmente cessa dopo l’intervento della mediazione. Numerose ricerche hanno infatti dimostrato che durante la fase di mediazione si corre il rischio che l’autore delle condotte violente (generalmente il maschio) manifesti il proprio rimorso e ammetta le proprie responsabilità solo apparentemente, fingendo di impegnarsi a controllare i propri agiti violenti (riappacificazione apparente e strumentale). Si sono quindi individuati dei limiti di applicabilità della mediazione in tutte quelle dinamiche relazionali caratterizzate da episodi di violenza...

 

James Forsaith, Barrie Irving, Eva Nanopoulos, Mihaly Fazekas
# Study for an impact assessment on aproposal for a new legal framework on the confiscation and recovery of criminal assets
European Commission Directorate General Home Affairs | RAND Europe | 2012
Historically, the EU lacked a specific conferral of power in relation to victims, but had nevertheless acted by passing Council Directive 2004/80/EC on compensation to crime victims, which gives victims of violent, intentional crimes the right to submit applications for compensation in their Member State of residence.24 More recently, the Treaty of Lisbon has specifically recognised the rights of victims as an aspect of the AFSJ (Area of Freedom, Security and Justice).

 

Robert A. Baruch Bush, Joseph P. Fogler
# Mediation and Social Justice: Risks and Opportunities
Ohio State Journal on Dispute Resolution, Vol. 27:1 2012
Mediation can offer a unique opportunity to help preserve and advance social justice while also achieving other very desirable private and public benefits. This by no means suggests that mediation should be regarded as the only or the best means of attaining social justice

 

Kieran McEvoy, Kirsten McConnachie
# Victimology in transitional justice: Victimhood, innocence and hierarchy
European Journal of Criminology 9(5) 527–538, 2012
Significant elements of both conservative and progressive variants of victimology scholarship and policy suggest a dialectical understanding wherein the experience and politics of victimhood can truly be understood only in terms of its relationship to the perpetrators of crime. Several assumptions have become almost axiomatic in such discussion with regard to criminal justice in settled democratic societies. These are: that honouring victims occurs through the punishment of perpetrators; that victims and perpetrators are distinct categories with diametrically opposed needs; and that ‘true’ victim status demands innocence.

 

Susanna Vezzadini (a cura di)
# I Centri di assistenza e supporto alle vittime di reato
www.assemblea.emr.it/ 2012

 

Davide Bianchi
# Sull'efficacia extrapenale della sentenza di proscioglimento per avvenuta riparazione del danno ex art. 35 d.lgs. 274/2000 . Nota a Tribunale di Pisa, sez. civ., 4 marzo 2010 (dep. 20 agosto 2010), n. 974

www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 3 Febbraio 2012

 

# Tribunale di Sorveglianza di Venezia, Ordinanza 7 gennaio 2012, n. 5 - Pres. Pavarin 
Concessione della misura alternativa della semilibertà. La reintegrazione sociale del condannato tra rieducazione, riparazione ed empatia | Grazia Mannozzi, Commento
Diritto penale e processo 7/2012

Ciò che emerge dall’ordinanza, in definitiva, è una «misura progettuale della pena, capace di dare rilievo alla realtà umana del soggetto che ad essa risulti sottoposto, ma anche alla possibile ricomposizione dei legami intersoggettivi sui quali abbia inciso la frattura costituita dal reato». In quest’ottica si collocano peraltro alcune pronunce della Corte di cassazione attraverso la cui filigrana testuale e linguistica si percepisce il superamento dell’idea rieducativa intesa come percorso individuale che muove da «pentimento» e «resipiscenza». Il cambio di prospettiva si coglie dunque già dalle scelte lessicali, specchio fedele di modelli teorici consolidati oppure «in embrione».

 

Massimiliano Dova
La rilevanza della condotta riparatoria nel sistema penale italiano
Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, 2012

 

Antonio Sandu, Simona Damian
Applying Appreciative Inquiry Principles in the Restorative Justice Field
Postmodern Openings, 2012, Volume 3, Issue 2, June, pp: 37-52
Although the convergence between appreciative ideology and the ideologies derived from the need of preserving human dignity is not complete, they can be seen in a single paradigm of affirmative action. Although restorative justice principles are not inspired by appreciative inquiry methodology, are at least converging with it, both of them focusing on human potential positivity. Moving the accent from the offense and its due retribution, on the recovery of prior state offense, both for the victim and the offender, this can be interpreted as waiving the deficiency paradigm, and integrating positive experiences resulting from mediation offender-victim relationship in an appreciative paradigm. Application of appreciative inquiry in restorative justice and in probation systems is a unique area in the world, it being applied only on an experimental level in some restorative justice programs. 

 

Carlo Alberto Romano
Dal modello rieducativo a quello riparativo: spunti e applicazioni
Rassegna Italiana di Criminologia, anno VI, n. 2, 2012
La realizzazione di progetti riparativi può trovare collocazionee anche nell’ambito dell’esecuzione della pena attraverso la stipulazione di accordi convenzionali fra Istituzioni Giudiziarie, Amministrazioni locali e la rete dell’Associazionismo, al fine di individuare spazi per la prestazione di attività non retribuita a favore della collettività nell’ordinamento  penitenziario, utilizzando specifici strumenti già creati in risposta alle finalità rieducative della pena quali l’art. 21 O.P. (Lavoro all’esterno) e l’art. 30 O.P. (Permessi). 

 

Theo Gavrielides, Vasso Artinopoulou
Restorative Justice and Violence Against Women: Comparing Greece and The United Kingdom
www.thl.fi/ 26 January 2012
The appropriateness of RJ in cases of violence against women (VAW) remains largely unexplored. There is general consensus among feminists and victim advocates that RJ is not appropriate for such cases, particularly when it comes to intimate partner violence. Consequently, this area of practice remains under-researched and in the shadow of the law. Nevertheless, this does not hinder passionate practitioners from piloting conferences, mediation and other RJ programmes, most of the time without any government support

 

Richard A. Bierschbach, Stephanos Bibas
Notice-and-Comment Sentencing
Minnesota Law Review, n. 1, 2012

 

Suzan van der Aa
Protection Orders in the European Member States: Where Do We Stand and Where Do We Go from Here?
Eur J Crim Policy Res (2012) 18:183–204
... The general picture emerges that there is a huge variation in levels of victim protection across the EU. In some Member States there are considerable gaps in victim protection legislation, for example, because there is no (pretrial or  post-trial) protection in criminal proceedings or because civil protection orders and/or  barring orders are not available. If we agree that in the light of today’s emphasis on victim protection the current gaps in protection order legislation can no longer be accepted, a strategy needs to be devised on how to solve this problem...

 

Jack B. Hamlin
Restorative Justice: An Answer to the Call of the Gospel of St. Mark for Service and Reconciliation
International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 1 No. 19; December 2011
It is important to note, Restorative Justice is not a panacea, a replacement to the justice industry. In a functional justice system, due process and equal protection are the very foundations.  And while Restorative Justice focuses on a more humanistic view and implementation of justice, it too would be flawed without the procedural protections afforded by a formal and functional justice system. Restorative Justice should therefore be viewed as a parallel or tandem process to the institutionalized justice industry...

 

Pascal Pignol
Le travail psychique de victime : essai de psycho-victimologie
Universit´e Rennes 2, 2011

 

Grazia Mannozzi
Giustizia penale e giustizia riparativa: alternatività o destini incrociati?
Themis, novembre 2011

Ad un osservatore attento delle dinamiche dei sistemi giuridico-penali non può sfuggire come la domanda e l'offerta di giustizia si sottraggano progressivamente ad una visione unidirezionale del "giusto" e si affranchino dalla concezione "monolitica" dell'indefettibilità della pena come risposta al reato. Lo si può constatare seguendo l'evoluzione del sistema penale nel suo complesso e, in particolare, osservando la diversificazione dell'"arsenale sanzionatorio" nonché le variazioni subite dalla criteriologia commisurativa della pena detentiva.

 

Clare Mcglynn
# Feminism, Rape and the Search for Justice
Oxford Journal of Legal Studies · November 2011
In After the Crime, Susan Miller offers another possibility, that of restorative justice. After providing rich, in-depth narratives which tell the positive stories of victims and offenders engaging in dialogue, Miller suggests that the potential for the use of restorative justice in cases of ‘gendered violence’ is ‘vast’. Nonetheless, she continues that it is only post- conviction restorative justice programmes which can guard against the ‘host of legitimate concerns’ over the use of  restorative justice in such cases.

 

Elvira Calluso
La giustizia riparativa: tracce, vissuti e implicazioni nel tessuto sociale
Università di Bologna, 2011

 

Jana Bednarova
# The Heart of the Criminal Justice System: A Critical Analysis of the Position of the Victim
Internet Journal of Criminology, 2011

 

Shadd Maruna
# Lessons for justice reinvestment from restorative justice and the justice model experience: Some tips for an 8-year-old prodigy
Criminology & Public Policy, vol. 10, issue 3, August 2011

 

 

Johnny Brooks
# The Utility of Restorative Justice in Urban Communities For Afro Americans Males 12-17
http://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/ 2011
Restorative justice is facilitated by shared values within the community whereby retributive justice is meted out for more serious transgressions. Restorative justice practices underpin the notion that several components of the restorative justice may be valuable in reducing recidivism for  youth. Equally important, at the core of restorative justice programming is the multifaceted approach that engages the community of stakeholders in a comprehensive effort to reduce youth involvement in the juvenile justice system.  

 

Craig Lambert, Gerry Johnstone, Simon Green, Rebecca Shipley
Building Restorative Relationships for the Workplace. Goodwin Development Trust’s Journey with Restorative Approaches. A research report with recommendations for organisations seeking to implement Restorative Approaches
University of Hull, June 2011
In the spring of 2009 Goodwin Development Trust (GDT), a social enterprise based in Hull, began  a  unique  and  ambitious  project: to  implement  restorative  approaches  across  the  organisation. In  partnership  with  the  University  of  Hull, the  Trust  was also awarded  a  research grant  from the Big Lottery Fund to undertake a 2 year study of the experience of  implementing restorative approaches. This report arises  from that research project

 

Jon Kidde, Rita Alfred
Restorative Justice. A Working Guide for Our Schools
Alameda County School Health Services Coalition, 2011
Brenda Morrison illustrates ways in which restorative practices can be applied — from prevention to intense intervention — with a pyramid. The pyramid is adapted from a public health model where the base affects the whole population; the second tier affects a moderate portion of the population; and the top tier affects a small portion of the population. The idea is that if preventive issues are addressed at the base, and difficulties are managed at the second tier, there will be fewer in need of intensive intervention at the top tier.

 

Yvette Tinsley, Elisabeth McDonald
# Is There Any Other Way? Possible Alternatives to the Current Criminal Justice Process
Canterbury Law Review, Vol 17, 2011
Under a restorative justice model, the criminal act is seen as an act against both the community and the victim. Offending behaviour is seen as damaging human relationships, and restorative justice aims to restore victims, offenders and the community. It seeks to undertake this restoration – a remedying of harm – through collective participation by all those affected by the offence. It aims for re-integration and repair rather than punishment and retribution, although in reality many manifestations of restorative justice combine elements of retribution and restoration...

 

Giovanna Fanci
# La vittimizzazione secondaria: ambiti di ricerca, teorizzazioni e scenari
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza – Vol. V – N. 3 – Settembre-Dicembre 2011
La vittimizzazione secondaria può essere definita una condizione di ulteriore sofferenza e oltraggio sperimentata dalla vittima in relazione ad un atteggiamento di insufficiente attenzione, o di negligenza, da parte delle agenzie di controllo formale nella fase del loro intervento e si manifesta nelle ulteriori conseguenze psicologiche negative che la vittima subisce...

 

Robert Cario
# Les rencontres détenus-victimes à la maison centrale de Poissy : un retour d’expérience
Centre Interdisciplinaire de Recherche Appliquée au champ Pénitentiaire, juillet 2011

 

Tony Susan Goldbach
Sentencing Circles, Clashing Worldviews, and the Case of Christopher Pauchay
Journal of the Centre for Studies in Religion and Society | Graduate Students Association, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2011

 

Jo-Anne Wemmers, Tinneke Van Camp
# The Offer of Restorative Justice to Victims of Violent Crime: Should It Be Protective or Proactive?
Université de Motréal, Juin 2011

 

Christian W. Isaac
# Restorative Justice in Schools: An examination of peace circles within Monroe High School
Rochester Institute of Technology, April 2011
Literature suggests that restorative justice programs can have improved outcomes when examining recidivism rates and satisfaction levels of both victim and offender in many instances compared to traditional approaches. Partners in Restorative Initiatives implemented peace circles and community conferencing, both restorative justice programs, within James Monroe High School in Rochester, NY. The practice of peace circles within Monroe High School was explored in comparison to theory and current national and international uses of peace circles. This paper discussed the restorative justice approach of using peace circles within James Monroe High School in Rochester, NY and how it affected perceptions of safety, respect, violence, and communication amongst teachers and students. 

 

Anthony J. Nocella II
An Overview of the History and Theory of Transformative Justice
Peace & Conflict Review, Volume 6, 2011

 

Arianna Silvestri (ed)
# Lessons for the Coalition: an end of term report on New Labour and criminal justice
Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, January 2011

 

Tommaso Edoardo Frosini
# Un diverso paradigma di giustizia: le "Alternative Dispute Resolutions"
Analisi Giuridica dell'Economia, 2011, issue 1, pages 47-64
Le Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) si esprimono, negli Stati Uniti, attraverso qualunque procedimento che sia “alternativo” al processo giurisdizionale: dalla negoziazione alla mediazione all’arbitrato e alla combinazione di questi ultimi due, la c.d. “med-arb”, alla valutazione preliminare, ai processi sommari con giuria. Una varietà e vastità di altri modi di giudicare. Si tratta, quindi, di fenomeni eterogenei, caratterizzati dal fatto di essere volti a risolvere i conflitti senza pervenire alla decisione del giudice ordinario, in quanto basati sul potere riconosciuto alle parti di disporre delle loro controversie. 

 

Mark S. Umbreit, Marilyn Peterson Armour
Restorative Justice and Dialogue: Impact, Opportunities, and Challenges in the Global Community

Washington  University Journal of Law & Policy, 36, 2011

Rooted in the juvenile justice systems of North America, with a focus on non-violent property crimes, restorative justice policy and practice are now present at virtually all levels of adult and juvenile justice systems, even handling severely violent crimes. Restorative justice and dialogue have now moved far beyond the justice systems of the world and are found in school settings, workplaces, faith communities, and even in the context of deeply-entrenched political violence, such as in Israel and Palestine, and in post-conflict societies such as Northern Ireland, South Africa, Liberia, and Rwanda.

 

Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of Crime
Restorative Justice in Canada: what victims should know
www.crcvc.ca/ Revised: March 2011
As for being ‘soft on crime,’ many offenders who have participated in these programs, particularly those where they have met the victim, say it was tougher than the punishment they would normally receive. Having to account personally for breaking into someone’s home, assaulting someone or murdering someone’s child can be much more difficult than facing a judge and nameless jury

 

Danila Certosino
# Appunti sulla mediazione penale
Annali della Facoltà di Giurisprudenza di Taranto — Anno IV, 2011
La giustizia riparativa può essere definita come una forma di risposta al reato che coinvolge la vittima, il reo e/o la collettività nella ricerca di soluzioni agli effetti del conflitto generato dall’illecito, allo scopo di promuovere, fra l’altro, la riparazione delle conseguenze dell’evento lesivo e rafforzare quindi il senso di sicurezza collettiva. La giustizia riparativa si avvale di strumenti diversi che si pongono il fine di conciliare vittime e autori di reato e di riparare i danni, ma nei Paesi europei lo strumento più diffuso è senz’altro la mediazione penale.

 

Nicole Concordia
# Preserving Liberty in the American Justice System through Circle Processes
University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy, Spring 2011
The modem restorative justice movement has extended retributivist theory to include practical ways of determining what type of punishment is deserved in a particular situation. Generally, three distinct models have emerged: victim- offender conferences, family-group conferences and circleconferences." Each of these models share an important feature in that they include an encounter between key stakeholders (or surrogates), such as victims, offenders, community members and criminal justice personnel. Additionally, restorative justice interventions have been associated with reductions in recidivism for an average of seven percent of participants across all models.

 

Marco Bouchard
# La giustizia riparativa – un panorama europeo
Corso di Formazione CSM 7 marzo 2011
E' vero che, in generale e anche in Italia, la riparazione penale ha meglio attecchito nella giustizia minorile piuttosto che nel sistema penale degli adulti. Questo diverso sviluppo è stato spiegato con la maggior flessibilità dello strumento penale minorile e con una maggior disponibilità culturale e psicologica (da parte di tutti: vittime, istituzioni, opinione pubblica) ad offrire al minorenne una chance riparatoria prima di infliggere una pena secca. Il panorama europeo non conferma però, in assoluto, questo dato.

 

# Mediares - semestrale sulla mediazione - n. 17-18; gennaio-dicembre 2011
Martin Wright, Restorative justice: a new response to crime and conflict | Andrea Cannone, I diritti delle vittime nel panorama legislativo internazionale | Gianpaolo Impagnatiello, La mediazione penale nel quadro degli strumenti di alternative dispute resolution | Anna Coppola De Vanna, La mediazione come strumento d’intervento sociale | Andrea Tünde Barabás, Procedural rights and dignity of victims in Hungary | Armando Saponaro, Paradigmi e modelli di victim-oriented justice nel sistema penale | Olivia Mons, Panorama européen des organismes d’aide aux victimes | Silvio Ciappi, Sicurezza urbana tra repressione, partecipazione e nuova punitività | Lídia Ayora Mascarell, Criminalità minorile: riflessioni dal punto di vista riparativo | Johan Deklerck, The Mediation Process.Going from “Autumn” to “Spring” | Antonio Buonatesta, La place de la médiation dans une politique en faveur des victimes. Réflexion au départ du modèle belge | Ignazio Grattagliano, Ascolto delle vittime: aspetti criminologici e psichiatrico forensi

 

Zachary Hoskins
# Deterrent Punishment and Respect for Persons
http://moritzlaw.osu.edu/Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, vol. 8:369, 2011

 

Lode Walgrave
# Investigating the Potentials of Restorative Justice Practice
Washington University Journal of Law & Policy , vol. 36, 2011
A growing number of countries and states have legislation that favors responses with a view to reparation. International organizations have recently issued statements and recommendations endorsing a restorative approach to offending. At first glance, this expansion alone suggests that restorative justice practices are indeed a feasible response to crime, and that they are attractive to an increasing proportion of the general population, justice officials, and policymakers.

 

Canadian Resource Centre for Victims of Crime
# Restorative Justice in Canada: what victims should know
www.crcvc.ca/ Revised: March 2011
During the past 30 years, a restorative justice movement has emerged in Canada. It is a movement that finds the current justice system inadequate in terms of dealing with offenders, victims and communities in the aftermath of crime. The current criminal justice system is seen as retributive, concentrating solely on fixing blame and guilt. Restorative justice asserts that victims are forgotten entities in the current justice process and should have a greater role in determining the outcome of their case. Restorative Justice (RJ) is not a program, but a way of looking at crime. It can be defined as a response to crime that focuses on restoring the losses suffered by victims, holding offenders accountable for the harm they have caused, and building peace within communities.

 

Ivo Aertsen, Daniela Bolívar, Vicky De Mesmaecker, Nathalie Lauwers
# Restorative justice and the active victim: exploring the concept of empowerment
Temida, 14(1):5-19, 2011
This paper departs from the observation that the victim image leading public discourse has transformed in recent years: increasingly victims reject the traditional victim label implying helplessness and dependency to adopt the image of the emancipated victim that wishes to participate in the criminal proceedings. Restorative justice at first sight provides an answer to these emancipated victims’ wishes, offering them participation in criminal proceedings.

 

Anne Opie
# Homecomings, border encounters and hospitality: Alfred Shutz’s and Jacques Derrida’s contributions to conceptualizing a transition from prison
European Journal of Probation, Vol. 3, No.2, 2011
A significant body of the desistance literature emanating from England and Scotland is concerned with the orientation and focus of offender management  services. It brings to its critique of the dominant concern about risk assessment and management in these countries‟ correctional policies and practices discussion of the demonstrated possibilities and value of an alternative, humanistic approach. This approach does not discount risk as an issue to be addressed, but in place of what in some jurisdictions has become a deterministic practice, foregrounds the importance of a person- entred, strengths-based approach.

 

Estelle Zinsstag, Marlies Teunkens, Brunilda Pali
# A Way Forward for Restorative Justice in Europe
European Forum for Restorative Justice 2011
Restorative  justice  (RJ)  can  be  viewed  as  a  new  social  movement, an  alternative approach  to  solving  conflicts  and  responding  to  crime,  a  tradition-based  set  of  values  and principles, a variety of programmes complementary to the criminal justice system,  or  a  ground‐breaking  social  theory  of  justice.  However  it  is  viewed,  we  have  to  acknowledge  the  fact  that  during  the  last  three  decades,  RJ  has  emerged  around  the  globe  as  an  accepted  approach  at  nearly  every  stage  of  the  criminal  justice  system

 

 Guido Acquaviva, Roberto Alfonso, Giovanni Armone, M. Cherif Bassiouni, Luisella De Cataldo Neuburger, Angelo Giarda, Flavia Lattanzi, Nicoletta Parisi, Valentina Petralia, Eugenio Selvaggi
Processo penale e vittima di reato. Prospettive internazionali, europee e nazionali

Centro di documentazione europea - Università di Catania - Online Working Paper 2010/n. 26 - Dicembre 2010
Negli ultimi anni, in particolare a partire dalla creazione di numerosi tribunali ad hoc e misti istituiti per processare individui sospettati di aver commesso gravi violazioni del diritto internazionale umanitario e dei diritti umani, la vittima è stata sempre meno considerata solo come testimone e sempre di più come soggetto potenzialmente attivo della procedura. Il pericolo, però, di rendere il processo penale in un certo qual modo “ostaggio” delle vittime deve certamente essere attentamente valutato...

 

Kate Bloch
Reconceptualizing Restorative Justice
HeinOnline -- 7 Hastings Race & Poverty L.J. 201, winter 2010
Through both the Classic RJ and the Hybrid RJ models, California has an opportunity to rethink its sentencing practices. These models seek to illumine and address more broadly the human impact of crime and offer more contextual approaches to sentencing. Research suggests that these approaches can, at least in some circumstances, reduce recidivism and leave those involved with a greater sense of satisfaction with the justice process. They offer hope of reducing recidivism and overcrowding, as well as improving the outcomes for victims and offenders, and consequently enhancing public safety.

 

Pamela Podda
All’ombra della mediazione penale
http://www.psicologiagiuridica.com/ 2010

 

Gianluca Tramontano
Conflitti e società. Il contributo della giustizia riparativa
Università degli studi del Molise, 2010
Le ragioni per preferire la giustizia riparativa agli altri modelli di giustizia affermatisi nel mondo occidentale nel corso dei tempi, retributivo e rieducativo, sono diverse e alcune delle quali verranno analiticamente vagliate, anche per capire se davvero ha senso sostenerle o se, come sostengono alcuni, si tratta soltanto di miti e costruzioni fantasiose dettate dall’entusiasmo per il cambiamento che avranno, comunque, vita breve. Ad ogni modo, il modello di giustizia riparativa, che si contrappone secondo alcuni, o si affianca secondo altri ai modelli retributivo e rieducativo (o riabilitativo o trattamentale), rappresenta la sfida cruciale lanciata al diritto penale contemporaneo e allo stesso tempo la possibilità per quest’ultimo, di essere salvato e rivalutato.

 

Maria Chiara Di Gangi
# La mediazione penale quale metodo alternativo di soluzione del conflitto nella prospettiva comparatistica
www.diritto.it/ 18 novembre 2010
1.Introduzione: crisi delle pene tradizionali. Il dibattito italiano sugli scopi della pena. – 2. La mediazione penale in Austria, Germania ed in Francia. – 3. “Mediazione penale” ed “attenzione alla vittima” nella normativa europea ed internazionale. - 4. Fonti normative che aprono alla mediazione penale nell’ordinamento giuridico italiano. – 5. La riparazione nell’ordinamento italiano: obiettivi e rapporto con gli scopi tradizionali della pena. - 6. La mediazione penale quale metodo A.D.R. (“Alternative Dispute Resolutions”).

 

Anne Hayden
# Why Rock the Boat? Non-Reporting of Intimate Partner Violence
Auckland University of Technology - Institute of Public Policy 2010

This study critically examines the reasons for non-reporting of intimate partner violence (IPV). It explores the thesis that the use of restorative justice processes could impact on the rate of reporting and victims seeking early interventions for this form of offending, or giving victims more choice, and therefore power...

 

Martin Wright
# Taking action on rights, support and protection of victims of crime and violence
http://restorativejustice.org/ September 2010
Yes, a restorative justice process should be the norm, as in New Zealand and Northern Ireland (but for all ages, not only for victims of juvenile offenders as in those countries). Exceptions should only be made in specific circumstances, for example where here is a danger of physical or psychological harm, or of course where one party refuses to take part. Each government should support a national NGO whose governing body would include practitioners. It would draw up standards for mediators and mediation services, in consultation with them. It would then make arrangements for  these standards to be applied through a system of accreditation, including a programme of continuing professional development.

 

Jac Armstrong
# Restorative Justice as a Pathway for Forgiveness: How and Should Forgiveness Operate Within the Criminal Justice System?
Restorative Justice as a Pathway for Forgiveness” at the “3rd Global Conference; Forgiveness Probing the Boundaries” at Mansfield College, Oxford, July 2010.
This paper examines the opportunities for forgiveness provided through the integration of restorative justice within the Western criminal justice system. Additionally, the effects such integration would have on increasing forgiveness as a probable outcome are also discussed. It critiques existing debates regarding its implementation, supplementing these interpretations with empirical data collected from victims participating in an extensive restorative justice programme currently operating within the United Kingdom.

 

Julie Stubbs
# Relations of Domination and Subordination: Challenges for Restorative Justice in Responding to Domestic Violence
UNSW Law Journal Volume 33(3) 2010
Without a strong normative commitment to anti-subordination and a clear theoretical framework for understanding victimisation, generic models of RJ cannot be relied on to promote victim interests in cases of gendered violence, nor to challenge racism or other forms of prejudice.

 

Law Reform Commission
# Alternative Dispute Resolution_Mediation and Conciliation
www.lawreform.ie/ November 2010
The Commission appreciates that ADR processes also bring additional benefits that are not available through the litigation process. ADR processes may, for example, lead to a meeting between parties where an apology is offered. They can also facilitate an aggrieved party to participate in the creation of new arrangements or procedures to prevent a recurrence of the incident in dispute. This underlines a key element of ADR – that it has the potential to enhance the empowerment of those involved in its processes. A memorial to victims of a perceived wrong can also emerge from a mediated agreement. The flexibility offered by ADR processes is an important aspect of a civil justice system in its widest sense

 

Joseph Rosansky
# “Reducing Recidivism: Stopping the Trend of Criminal Relapse in America”
Sabiduria, vol. 2.1, 2010
Two thirds of the inmates released from United States’ correctional institutes will be incarcerated again. There are, however, steps that can be taken to reduce the recidivism rate. Many people feel that our punitive practices of incarceration stigmatize criminals and lead to large inmate populations. They promote programs of restorative justice instead. Other programs including drug rehabilitation, family services, and education have all proven to reduce recidivism rates. The United States must reverse its trend of increasing prison populations and reduce recidivism by involving convicted criminals in these programs.

 

Natalie Jaynes
# Conceptualising Restorative Justice within a Transitional Justice Framework
University of Cape Town, February 2010

The concept of ―restorative justice‖ has in recent years been widely invoked in the transitional justice literature. The term is however often used loosely, inconsistently and in apparently different senses. This minor dissertation addresses this dilemma by bringing together three influential bodies of work on restorative justice and exploring what each body of work means by the term ―restorative justice‖. The three bodies of work are that of Archbishop Desmond Tutu, criminal justice theorists and accounts of African Traditional Justice Mechanisms. With a clearer picture of what these respective sources mean when referring to restorative justice, the discussion then turns to the potential relevance and significance of these conceptions of restorative justice for transitional justice.

 

Fiona Hanlon
# Re-Imagining Criminal Conferencing: removing the adjudicative turnstile between pre-trial and restorative justice approaches to resolving criminal cases
www.aija.org.au/ Australasian Institute of Judicial Administration, 2010

To the extent that restorative justice conferencing approaches are included in the management of criminal cases, they tend to be confined to the post-adjudicative phase. Increasingly, courts are adopting criminal conferencing approaches in the pre-trial, pre-adjudicatory phase of the management of a criminal case as dispute resolution tools. The paper considers whether the distinction between the pre and post adjudicative phases is compelling. 

 

Martin Wright
Towards a Restorative Society: a problem-solving response to harm
Restorative Justice Council, Beacon House, 113 Kingsway, London, April 2010
The question ‘How much?’ would arise with restorative justice, as it does with sentencing, and there would still be no precise way of calibrating the offence and assessing an equivalent amount of reparation. It can be argued, however, that the idea is to empower victims and offenders to resolve matters themselves, so what is right for them is right. The best solution is probably that of the New Zealand juvenile system: restorative justice with safeguards.

 

Hee Joo Kim, Jurg Gerber
# Evaluating the Process of a Restorative Justice Conference: an Examination of Factors That Lead to Reintegrative Shaming
Asia Pacific Journal of Police & Criminal Justice, Vol. 8 No. 2 2010
This paper evaluates the process of diversionary restorative justice (RJ) conferences. Based on Braithwaite’s theory of reintegrative shaming (1989), RJ conferences are considered a successful means of effective crime control. Australian Reintegrative Shaming Experiments (RISE) have been examined in many ways. Previous studies, while defining the impact of RJ conferences very narrowly, focused on general effects such as victim satisfaction, recidivism rates, and changes in the attitudes of offenders ...

 

F. Georgia Paleari, Camillo Regalia, Frank D. Fincham
# Forgiveness and Conflict Resolution in Close Relationships: Within and Cross Partner Effects
Univ. Psychol. Bogotà, Colombia V. 9 n. 1, 2010

Do forgiveness and conflict tactics (compromise, aggression, and avoidance)in response to conflicts instigated by a romantic partner's offence uniquely predict effective arguing and relationship quality? Using 92 Italian couples we tested a mediational model in which each partner's responses to conflict predicted bothe partners' perceived effective arguing that, in turn, predict their own relationship quality. For both men and women, negative responses to conflict (unforgiveness, aggression, and avoidance) overlapped and jointly predicted self-reported and partner-reported relationship quality, directly and indirectly via effective arguing. Positive responses investigated (benevolence and compromise) did not overlap for either men or women. Men's positive positive responses to conflict uniquely predicted self-reported and partner-reported relationship quality via effective arguing, whereas women's positive responses did not predict them independently of their male partner's tactics.

 

World Health Organization/London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
# Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women: taking action and generating evidence
World Health Organization, Geneva 2010.

 

Melinda Gyökös, Krisztina Lànyi

# European best practices of restorative justice in the criminal procedure
Budapest 2010

 

Marian Liebmann, Lindy Wootton
Restorative Justice and Domestic Violence/Abuse   # Full report
www.restorativejustice.org.uk/ August 2008, updated January 2010
Many women’s organisations believe that restorative justice has no application to domestic violence, and that victim-offender mediation can only be dangerous for victims, and this view is echoed by the British government. Nevertheless there are places in the world where restorative processes have worked successfully and been well received by victims. This report includes as many of these projects as the authors could find in a limited time...

 

House of Commons Justice Committee
# Cutting crime: the case for justice reinvestment. First Report of Session 2009–10
www.publications.parliament.uk/ 14 January 2010

 

Carlton Waterhouse
The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Moral Agency and the Role of Victims in Reparations Programs
Florida International University, Legal Studies Research Paper Series, December 2009
When past injustices resist material redress, symbolic acts provide past violators with an opportunity to show their remorse and commitment not to repeat the unjust behavior. These actions can take a variety of forms including individual compensation awards, community memorial funds, the creation of monuments and museums, the development and support of educational and cultural awareness programs, the establishment of national holidays, and the national commemoration of victims.

 

Lode Walgrave
Advancing Restorative Justice as the Ground for Youth Justice
www.unicef.org/ Speech at the First World Congress on Restorative Justice, Peru, 4-7 November 2009,
Penal theories do not offer satisfying answers as to why criminal punishment would be an exception to the general ethical rule that deliberately inflicting pain to another human is reprehensible, unless if it serves a higher moral good. But empirical research shows that penal justice does not achieve any of its claims. As a general rule, it appears, on the contrary, to be counterproductive. Punitive apriorism which does not explore thoroughly other possible expressions of public rejection and other ways of promoting social peace in the future is itself a morally wrong position.

 

Harry Mika, Mary Achilles, Ellen Halbert, Lorraine Stutzman, Howard Zehr
Title Listening to victims - a critique of restorative justice policy and practice in the United States
Source Federal Probation, 2009, Vol.6, No. 2, pp 145-162
For at least the past 25 years, the victim role in criminal justice has been debated in theory and contested in practice. Of particular significance to proponents of restorative justice is Christie's assertion that conflict is the "property" of the victim. Normatively then, victims should assume a central role in justice responses to crime and anti-social behavior. But empirically, have they? Elias rather emphatically makes the case that they have not: the use and abuse of victims, he claims, is the stock and trade of the U.S. justice system. 

 

Ugo Pioletti
# La Mediazione penale
in Atti del Convegno “Conciliazione civile e mediazione penale”, Roma, 22 giugno 2009 - http://docenti.unicam.it/ 2009

 

John A. Humphrey, Gale Burford, Meredith P. Huey
# Reparative versus Standard Probation: Community Justice Outcomes
http://restorativejustice.org/ May 9, 2009
The purpose of this investigation is to assess the relative merits of reparative versus standard probation for the reduction in criminal re-offending. Data provided by the Vermont Department of Corrections, which included information from all fourteen Vermont District Courts, formed the basis for the analysis. All court convictions (n=34,471 dockets) for misdemeanor charges sentenced and remanded to the Vermont Department of Corrections for probation supervision for the years 1998-2005 were initially analyzed. 

 

Michael M. O'Hear
# Rethinking Drug Courts: Restorative Justice as a Response to Racial Injustice
Stanford Law & Policy Review, 463, 2009
Court-based diversions may be the best we can do. Although the most popular alternative seems to be the treatment- ased drug court, there are good reasons to favor the development of a different sort of drug court-one that is built around the principles and practices associated with restorative justice. An RJ-based drug court would be a more inclusive venue for handling drug cases than a treatment-based court, welcoming and empowering members of the offender's community through the conferencing process. 

 

Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice
# Victim/Offender Programs
www.appa-net.org/ 2009
Victim/offender programs have become an important and integral component of criminal and juvenile justice processes in the United States. Their focus on validating the impact of crime on victims, identifying and addressing victims’ most important needs, and providing opportunities for juvenile and adult defendants/offenders to accept responsibility for their actions has resulted in an promising programmatic approach to justice and offender accountability.

 

Leonardo Carpentieri
# Restorative Justice in France : Obstacles for the Application of a Truly Restorative Approach to French Dispute Resolution
Restorative Justice Online, Washington DC, Prison Fellowship International, 2009

Restorative justice is not a well known concept in France today. Although mediation between victims and offenders is favoured and encouraged, restoration is not yet a leading principle for conflict resolution. Nonetheless, Restorative justice is slowly developing and getting a foothold into the French legal system. Restorative justice is largely based on social and community-oriented initiatives, which clashes with major French legal principles. More strikingly, French law professionals and policy makers have a hard time integrating restorative approaches mainly because of the lack of legal basis for Restorative justice as an autonomous alternative tool for dispute resolution.

 

Marco Venturoli
# La vittima nel sistema penale
Università degli Studi di Ferrara, 2009
In primo luogo, è auspicabile l‟abbandono di politiche criminali di difesa sociale, che, oltre a comportare un imbarbarimento del diritto penale, contribuiscono ad alimentare l‟idea, tuttora diffusa proprio a causa di scelte di tal tipo, in base alla quale essere “dalla parte della vittima” significa necessariamente essere “contro il reo”...

 

Michelle Funk
# Comparative Justice Reform: What Are the Lessons for British Columbia?
University of Manitoba, 2009
Currently in England and Wales, restorative justice initiatives are encouraged and supported through significant research and development at the levels of government, community NGOs and university research. For example, at the government level in 2010 a Green Paper, Breaking the Cycle: Effective Punishment Rehabilitation and Sentencing of Offenders, called for considerable changes in the way justice is delivered for victims, offenders and the community along with advancements in the implementation, development and continuation of restorative justice processes.

 

Jean Ferguson
# Professional Discretion and The Use Of Restorative Justice Programs in AppropriateDomestic Violence Cases: An Effective Innovation
American University Criminal Law Brief, v. 4, Issue 2, 2009
The restorative justice movement is having an increasing impact upon the criminal justice system throughout the world. 282 Programs throughout the united States have found ways to integrate elements of restorative justice into the current criminal justice system and/or provide restorative justice alternatives with positive results.

 

Michele Riondino
# Giustizia riparativa e mediazione minorile
www.pul.it/ 2009
La riflessione circa l’utilità di nuove forme di giustizia trae origine dalla crescente insoddisfazione circa gli esiti della giustizia penale, sia con riguardo al controllo del crimine, sia con riguardo alle finalità che dovrebbero legittimare le sanzioni e guidarne la determinazione. Spesso il clamore che i mass-media attribuiscono alla cronaca giudiziaria induce, anche i meno esperti, a esprimere considerazioni avventate e superficiali sul tema delicato della criminalità. La percezione, quasi mai suffragata da riscontri empirici, di un progressivo incremento dei reati e, in particolare, dei tassi di recidiva, come pure la constatazione di un ruolo marginale della vittima all’interno del processo, esprimono efficacemente il disorientamento oggi riscontrabile, non solo in Italia, circa il ruolo svolto dal sistema penale.

 

Philippe Landenne SJ
Promuovere una giustizia riparativa sfidando le mura del carcere?
Promotio Iustitiae, n° 103, 2009/3

La comunità cristiana sembra spesso silenziosa e a disagio. Talvolta essa sembra addirittura gridare al vento e rassegnarsi ad appoggiare una visione repressiva della giustizia. È come se non percepisse più che la giustizia biblica è radicalmente interessata ad aprire percorsi di guarigione e di riconciliazione. Una mancanza di formazione e di informazione di qualità sulle poste in gioco di un’assunzione di responsabilità solidale volta a promuovere un modello inclusivo di giustizia riparativa conduce insidiosamente la comunità cristiana a manifestare indifferenza, se non ostilità, nei confronti delle persone coinvolte nella realtà criminosa. Crediamo ancora che la pietra scagliata sia chiamata a diventare la pietra angolare del Regno? E osiamo dire che una giustizia costruita sull’esclusione non trova posto in un progetto di società ispirato dal Vangelo? 

 

David Polizzi, Bruce A. Arrigo
Phenomenology, Postmodernism, And Philosophical Criminology: A Conversational Critique
Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Criminology, 2009, Vol 1 (2), 113-145
Instead, I see an affirmative postmodernism, informed by phenomenology, but extended into chaos theory, cultural criminology, post-structuralism, critical theory, constitutive thought, and psychoanalytic semiotics. I would argue, by way of example, that the language and logic of the psychiatric "consumer movement," "offender reentry initiatives," "restorative justice/ victim offender mediation programs," diversion courts (e.g., mental health/drug) and "therapeutic jurisprudence decision-making, are benignly (and increasingly) part of the systemic pathology (Fromm) problem.  

 

Tony Ward, Robyn Langlands
Repairing the rupture: Restorative justice and the rehabilitation of offenders
Aggression and Violent Behavior 14 (2009) 205–214
The major conclusion in this paper is that restorative justice and rehabilitation models are distinct, although overlapping, normative frameworks and have different domains of application in the criminal justice systemand that it is a mistake to attempt to blend them in any robust sense. Once the normative and capacity building aspects of offender rehabilitation are understood, then there is a natural resonance between restorative justice policies and GLM guided offender rehabilitation

 

Joseph Moloney
Peacemaking Criminology
The Undergraduate Review, vol. 5, 2009

 

R. A. Duff

Can we Punish the Perpetrators of Atrocities?

In: Brudholm Thomas, Cushman Thomas (ed.). The Religious in Responses to Mass Atrocity: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, pp. 79-104, 2009

... but by talking of communication, rather than merely of expression, I want to emphasise the way in which punishment should be not just a one-way process of expressing something to or at someone, but a two-way process that aims to engage, and to solicit an appropriate response from, another rational, responsible agent. If all that we do to the offender is to express our anger; or threaten him with sanctions to deter him or others from future crimes; or subject him to restraints to incapacitate him from future crimes; or impose on him some quantum of suffering that is meant to match, in some cosmic balance, the wrong he committed: we cease to address him as a responsible citizen ...

 

Keith A. Findley
Toward a New Paradigm of Criminal Justice: How the Innocence Movement Merges Crime Control and Due Process
Social Science Research Network Electronic Paper Collection, January 2009

By focusing solely on criminal sanctions, we neglect the need of some victims for other methods to redress wrongs, including “family conferencing, restorative justice, and victim-offender reconciliation” and other forms of “re-integrative shaming through informal, non-punitive and non-adversarial interventions which shame offenders for their crimes, but offer support and re-integration through families and communities.”

 

Maria Ferrara
# La mediazione sociale: uno strumento di intervento sociale oppure una tecnica di controllo sociale?
www.unisob.na.it/ Università degli Studi Suor Orsola Benincasa, Annali 2009

 

Mirjan R. Damaska
# The International Criminal Court Between Aspiration and Achievement
Yale Law School Legal Scholarship Repository, 2009
We saw that in criminal proceedings-in the retributive part of the process-judges are authorized to give redress only to victims of crimes which they have tried. This is typically only a small portion of misdeeds committed in a situation with  which the Court is concerned. Reparation claims of victims can thus often be processed on an individual, piecemeal basis, with an eye toward the ideal of full restitution.

 

Lisa J. Laplante
# Outlawing Amnesty: The Return of Criminal Justice in Transitional Justice Schemes
Virginia Journal of International Law, vol. 49:4, 2009
Latin America helped popularize the truth commission model, reliance upon which grew as a way to compensate for compromised justice schemes. While at first truth commissions were believed to be a “second-best” option,3 they soon became complementary and necessary measures for confronting past repressive and violent regimes through restorative justice. Later, Latin America once again helped reshape the terms of the truth v. justice debate in the 1990s.

 

Giovanna Maciariello

Il diritto come mediazione. Conflitto e relazione nella costruzione sociale
Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 2008

Il diritto in qualità di prodotto culturale e parte integrante dei processi vitali, assume una funzione creativa delle relazioni e diventa veicolo di principi quali legalità e moralità. In qualità di terzo esso produce mediazioni. Tale mediazione non consiste in un’attività di compromesso tra le parti, ma diventa un’attività di comprensione dell’altro diverso da sé, di affermazione ed autocomprensione di sé in funzione della presenza dell’altro,di creazione di uno nuovo stato rappresentativo delle parti successivamente al processo di mediazione. 

 

Giuseppe Maglione
Oltre il delitto, oltre il castigo. Teoria, prassi e critica della giustizia riparativa
www.altrodiritto.unifi.it/ 2008

Rispetto alla commissione di un reato, la condanna del colpevole e la commisurazione della pena, dosata in base alla gravità del fatto commesso ed al bisogno di risocializzazione del suo destinatario, lasciano il posto all'esigenza di riconoscere primariamente la sofferenza insita in ogni esperienza di vittimizzazione. Il presupposto logico dell'acquisizione, da parte del reo, della consapevolezza dei contenuti lesivi della propria condotta è costituito dal riconoscimento della vittima che cessa di apparire come un oggetto impersonale per concretizzarsi a pieno titolo come persona, con il suo vissuto di sofferenza, di insicurezza, di umiliazione. La caratteristica principale legata alla Giustizia riparativa e fondante la sua essenza, è la possibile apertura all'incontro e al dialogo tra la vittima e l'autore di reato.

 

Joanna Shapland
Restorative Justice and Prisons
www.prisoncommission.org.uk/ Presentation to the Commission on English Prisons Today, 7 November 2008

 

Open Society Foundation for South Africa (OSF-SA) | Department of Correctional Services (DCS).
# Creating Paths for Offender Reintegration
www.issafrica.org/ October 2008
Retributive "punishment" and incarceration has not proved to be an effective solution to crime. Prison confinement dehumanizes and diminishes individuals, resulting in former inmates being less capable of effectively reintegrating into society... Restorative justice principles must be incorporated into programmes offered to inmates. NICRO‘s [National Institute for Crime Prevention and the Reintegration of Offenders] programmes are by design inclusive of such principles. Programmes are also designed to achieve behavioural change ...

 

Margherita Saraceno
Access to Justice and Litigation Trade-off: A Theoretical Analysis
www.side-isle.it/ Preliminary Draft (September 2008)
This paper presents a simple model of disputes resolution both from a macro-perspective (social planner's problem) and from a micro-perspective (parties' choice). Furthermore, it analyzes the e§ects of a number of policies on: a) victim's access to justice, b) parties' choice between settlement and litigation, c) social costs of disputes resolution. Our research extends the existing literature by showing that reducing litigation rate is not always socially efficient. Rather,  in many cases, a social trade-off exists between curbing litigation and enhancing access to justice. Using this
framework, we derive policy implications for access to justice and judicial economy

 

Jennifer Rubin, Federico Gallo, Adam Coutts
Violent crime. Risk models, effective interventions and risk management
www.nao.org.uk/ Rand, 2008
Victim restoration involves victims in workshops, seminars, the arts and support groups, at times with offenders as well... In evaluating the effectiveness of the programme over 100 offenders’ reoffending and rearrest rates were compared to a randomly chosen matched control group. The reduction in overall criminal recidivism for participants was 48.3 per cent compared with 34.7 per cent for the control group. Interestingly, the reduction in specifically violent recidivism was more dramatic, at 66.7 per cent for the programme participants versus 41.0 per cent for the control group.

 

Sarah Thiessen
# Victim Offender Reconciliation Program Recidivism Study
Center for Community Justic, 18 June 2008

 

Joanna Shapland, Anne Atkinson, Helen Atkinson, James Dignan, Lucy Edwards, Jeremy Hibbert, Marie Howes, Jennifer Johnstone, Gwen Robinson, Angela Sorsby
# Does restorative justice affect reconviction? The fourth report from the evaluation of three schemes
www.justice.gov.uk/ Ministry of Justice Research Series 10/08, June 2008

A key aim for the restorative justice schemes was that those who received restorative justice should be reconvicted less often (or less frequently, or for offences of lower seriousness) than those who did not experience restorative justice, represented by the control group. However, one has to be realistic in expectations for reconviction...

 

Ministere de la Justice | Service des Affaires Europeennes et Internationales Paris
# Inventaire des dispositifs et des procedures favorisant les rencontres entre les victimes et les auteurs dans le cadre de la mise en oeuvre de la Justice Restaurative. Le cas du Canada
www.juriscope.org/ Etude à jour le 15 juillet 2008

 

Ministere de la Justice | Service des Affaires Europeennes et Internationales Paris
# Inventaire des dispositifs et des procedures favorisant les rencontres entre les victimes et les auteurs dans le cadre de la mise en oeuvre de la Justice Restaurative. Le cas du Belgique
www.juriscope.org/ Etude à jour le 5 juin 2008

 

Clara Casado Coronas | European Forum for Restorative Justice
# Restorative justice: an agenda for Europe. Supporting the implementation of restorative justice in the South of Europe
http://euforumrj.org/ 2008
Since the 1980s, victim-offender mediation projects have been implemented in several European countries. In 1998, more than 900 programmes existed in Europe. Since then, restorative justice practices have further evolved and victim-offender mediation legislation has already been passed in many countries. Some countries have gone so far as to make a conscious policy decision introducing restorative justice in a more structured way in  the organisation of the criminal justice system with the aim to make it more humane and responsive to the needs of victims 

 

Véronique Strimelle
# La justice restaurative : une innovation du pénal ?
Champ Pénal, 2008
L’introduction de mesures plus réparatrices au sein d’institutions à vocation essentiellement pénale n’est pas sans susciter des interrogations portant justement sur les rapports et la possible coexistence entre les deux modèles de justice. Quels accommodements sont pris de la part des deux modèles mis en présence? Faut-il parler d’hybridation des modèles ou d’appropriation de l’un par rapport à l’autre? En d’autres termes, ce processus contribue-t-il à transformer et à déformer les principes de justice restaurative?

 

Fernando Carvajal Sánchez
La Justice Restauratrice comme moyen émancipateur
www.justicereparatrice.org/ 2008
La MP peut être utilisée comme une pratique emblématique de la JR. A ce titre, il est intéressant d’évoquer les aspects pour lesquels elle peut être considérée comme un outil démocratique. La MP est émancipatrice car : Elle est un espace de reconnaissance. Participer à une MP suppose une décentration pour les deux parties d’un conflit. La résolution d’un conflit juridique àtravers la MP mobilise certaines compétences des parties concernées qui ne s’inscrivent pas dans le droit étatique et ont un caractère moral. Ces normes émanent des parties et ne peuvent être
réduites à un cadre normatif unique, autrement dit les parties doivent créer un aut reespace dans lequel elles pourront se confronter pacifiquement

 

Elisabetta Grande, Ugo Mattei
Giustizia allo specchio
www.ledijournals.com/ Antropologia, 8, 2008

 

Paula Kenny
Exploring Restorative Justice in Ireland
www.netcare-ni.com/ Greenhouse Press 2008
The main argument made by advocates of Restorative Justice is that sentences should move away from punishment of the offender towards restitution and reparation, aimed at restoring the harm done to the victim and to the community. Restorative Justice is not a new idea in criminology or in crime control; most traditional systems of justice in continents such as Africa and Asia have been based on restorative justice. Aboriginal and Native American forms of justice are just two examples of systems that operate on the basis of restoration and reparation. 

 

Susan Bandes
Victims, "Closure", and the Sociology of Emotion
The Law School of Chicago, March 2008

 

Mirjan R. Damaska
What is the Point of International Criminal Justice?
Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 341 2008
And even if international criminal trials were largely free of bipolar pressures, as they someday might be in the  International Criminal Court, downplaying the aspiration to satisfy victims' interest in criminal prosecution would still be worth considering. The main reason is that effective measures to provide victims with satisfaction require that elements of restorative justice be injected into criminal proceedings, and, as is well known, retributive and restorative forms of justice do not mix very well.

 

Linda Henderson
# Incorporating Restorative Justice Concepts in Sexually Based Offenses
Law Enforcement Executive Forum • 2008 • 8(3)

Restorative conferencing (victim/offender face-to face meetings) provides an avenue where victims’ voices can be heard in a way that the traditional court process is unable to provide. In interviews with victims of childhood sexual abuse, Jülich found that many victims wanted the chance to tell the offender how the abuse affected them and expressed a desire for accountability on behalf of the perpetrator.

 

Roberto Rella
Della negozialità nel diritto penale
Alma Mater Studiorum – Università di Bologna , 2008

 

Mary Koss, Mary Achilles
Restorative Justice Responses to Sexual Assault
www.vawnet.org/ February 2008
Although it is true that sexual assault survivor/victims are vastly more satisfied with the help they receive from these agencies compared to conventional justice, an array of arguments exist against this position. There are elements of the criminal justice system that neither survivor/victims nor advocates are ready to give up, including the power to force or coerce participation of the offender. Given the size and richness of the restorative justice literature, the minimal number and small scale of programs for sexual assault is notable. The reality is that policy, system, and resource barriers hinder their development more than for other crimes.

 

Intervista a Marco Bouchard
Quando l' amore supera il diritto
www.ilgiornale.it/ 21.02.2008
Il perdono è più grande del diritto perché non lo nega e lo oltrepassa. Il suo terreno si espande oltre i confini del diritto ma al tempo stesso limita il diritto tutte le volte che deborda dalle sue funzioni, diventando inefficace o addirittura pericoloso. In questo senso ho individuato tre forme storiche in cui il perdono in senso lato (e non solo in senso cristiano) si è incarnato: l'amnistia ovvero la necessità di non ricordare; la prescrizione ovvero il peso dello scorrere del tempo sui sentimenti offesi; la grazia ovvero la clemenza più o meno arbitraria del sovrano. Il fenomeno nuovo su cui vale la pena soffermarsi oggi è, invece, la ricerca della riconciliazione come modalità di coesistenza degli antagonismi.

Ermanno Roberto Tura, Recensione: “Sul perdono. Storia della clemenza umana e frammenti teologici”, di Marco Bouchard e Fulvio Ferrario, "Studia Patavina" 2008, nr. 3

 

Alberto Caperna
Le frontiere dell'esecuzione penale tra inedite esperienze rieducative ed inefficienza del sistema - La Giustizia riparativa
Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura - Roma, 7 febbraio 2008
Il modello di giustizia riparativa abbandona le tradizionali finalità di retribuzione e riabilitazione della sanzione penale: considera il reato non come un illecito contro la società o contro l’ordine costituito ma come una condotta offensiva nei confronti della vittima; centralizza la figura della vittima del reato; considera l’autore non semplicemente il passivo destinatario della sanzione penale, ma un soggetto a cui è richiesto di operare attivamente per l’eliminazione del danno provocato con la sua condotta illecita; individua come finalità primaria l’eliminazione delle conseguenze dannose provocate dal reato, attraverso l’attività riparatrice del reo...

 

Kathleen Daly
Seeking Justice in the 21st Century: Towards an Intersectional Politics of Justice
www98.griffith.edu.au/ 19 November 2007
... calls attention to the danger of “putting too much responsibility onto victims and offenders and their ‘communities of care’ for crime reduction,” which absolves the state of its responsibilities and obligations. In particular, the state must provide adequate resources for effective rehabilitation of offenders and for services and support for victims.  

 

John Braithwaite
Encourage Restorative Justice
www.anu.edu.au/ Criminology and Public Policy, vol. 6, no. 4, November 2007

 

Enrico Molinari, Andrea Ceccarelli
Il processo del perdono: aspetti psicologici
Rivista di Psicologia Clinica n.3 – 2007
Il perdono è divenuto oggetto di interesse da parte della psicologia soltanto in questi ultimi anni. Per lungo tempo le persone hanno praticato e studiato il perdono soprattutto all’interno del contesto religioso e filosofico. Lo studio scientifico dello stesso, al contrario, è iniziato solamente in questi ultimi anni, una volta aumentati l’interesse, la comunicazione tra le discipline e il dibattito teorico riguardanti questo costrutto. Il concetto di perdono ha quindi una icca storia in filosofia e nella tradizione religiosa Giudaico-Cristiana, mentre gli studi psicologici che lo riguardano sono stati molto rari fino a pochi anni fa...

 

Jessica Ames
Restorative Justice: Including Victims, Offenders and Communities in Criminal Justice Dialogue
Smith College School for Social Work, 2007
An alternative to the dominant U.S. retributive justice system, restorative justice has been suggested as a more rehabilitative criminal treatment model and is regarded by advocates as a social movement with principles that support ethical treatment across government and community systems (Pranis, 2005; Zehr, 2002). Restorative justice proponents suggest that all individuals affected by a crime should have an opportunity to heal, which in turn creates safer communities and more positive outcomes for both victims and offenders

 

Arie Nadler, Samer Halabi, Gal Harpaz-Gorodeisky
Inter-Group Helping as Status Organizing Processes: Implications for Inter-Group Misunderstandings
www.humiliationstudies.org/ April 2007
Intergroup helping can result in group misunderstandings and increased intergroup tensions. Further, both examples are emblematic of helping relations that occur between differentially advantaged groups during times of social change towards greater equality. Affirmative action programs are designed to facilitate a transition to more equal relations between ethnic and racial groups, and peace building projects are designed to facilitate a shift from conflict between differentially powerful groups to co-existence between equals.

 

Brunilda Pali, Christa Pelikan
Building Social Support for Restorative Justice. Media, civil society and citizens
http://euforumrj.org/ European Forum for Restorative Justice 2007
The project “Building Social Support for Restorative Justice” has addressed three main questions: 1) how can cooperation with the media be set up to inform and educate the public about restorative justice?; 2) how can cooperation be developed with civil society organisations to create broad support for restorative justice?; 3) how can we increase the involvement of citizens in local restorative justice programmes? 

 

Megan Stephens
Lessons From the Front Lines in Canada's Restorative Justice Experiment: The Experience of Sentencing Judges
Queen’s Law J 33 no1 Fall 2007
Ten years into the Canadian experiment incorporating restorative principles into Criminal Code's sentencing regime, the verdict is still out on whether the experiment has been a success. However, there have been some positive outcomes of the 1996 sentencing reforms. First, Canada's incarceration rates have declined significantly. As a prominent criminologist has noted, this country has experienced "a reduction in the use of custody on a scale unparalleled in western nations." Given the high economic and human costs associated with imprisonment, this should be recognized for what it is - a welcome change in sentencing practices.

 

Carrie Menkel-Meadow
Restorative Justice: What is it and Does it Work?
Georgetown University Law Center, 2007
This article reviews the now extensive literature on the varied arenas in which restorative justice is theorized and practiced—criminal violations, community ruptures and disputes, civil wars, regime change, human rights violations, and international law. It also reviews—by examining empirical studies of the processes in different settings— how restorative justice has been criticized, what its limitations and achievements might be, and how it might be understood. I explore the foundational concepts of reintegrative shaming, acknowledgment and responsibility, restitution, truth and reconciliation, and sentencing or healing circles for their transformative and theoretical potentials and for their actual practices in a variety of locations— family abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal violations, problemsolving courts, indigenous-colonial-national disputes, ethnic and religious conflicts, civil wars, and liberation struggles.

 

Lawrence W Sherman, Heather Strang
Restorative Justice: the Evidence
www.iirp.edu/ 2007
RJ seems to work best when it is focused on the kinds of offences that have a personal victim, who can – at least in principle – be invited to meet with the offender. The major criteria for “working” in this claim include helping victims and reducing reoffending. • RJ seems to work best when it is focused on violent crime, rather than property crime, with major exceptions: burglary victims gain reduced post-traumatic stress symptoms, and property offenders may commit less crime in future (or at least no more) if they get RJ than if they get prison. • RJ may be best able to reduce court and imprisonment costs, as well as crime and its medical and financial impact on victims, if it is used as a form of diversion from CJ – including prosecution, or on a post-conviction basis, as a diversion from likely incarceration.

 

Anne Lemonne, Tinneke Van Camp, Inge Vanfraechem | Institut National de Criminalistique et de Criminologie Bruxelles
# Recherche relative à l’évaluation des dispositifs mis en place à l’égard des victimes d’infraction
https://nicc.fgov.be/ Rapport final - Juillet 2007

 

Joanna Shapland, Anne Atkinson, Helen Atkinson, Becca Chapman, James Dignan, Marie Howes, Jennifer Johnstone, Gwen Robinson, Angela Sorsby
# Restorative justice: the views of victims and offenders. The third report from the evaluation of three schemes
www.restorativejusticescotland.org.uk/ Ministry of Justice Research Series 3/07, June 2007

 

Jarem Sawatsky
# Rethinking Restorative Justice: Ehen the Geographies of Crime and of Healing Justice Matter
Peace Research, bol. 39, n. 1-2, 2007

... One option is for restorative justice to learn from those who practise the geography of healing justice. Of course, this has already been happening. Arguably, the main processes of restorative justice have roots in such communities—North American Mennonites (Victim-Offender Conferencing), the Maori in New Zealand (Family Group Conferencing), and Aboriginal peoples of North America (Circle processes). Furthermore, we can point to restorative justice advocates who try to draw on biblical justice, on Aboriginal justice, and on many other traditions.

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
Training Manual on Alternative Dispute Resolution and Restorative Justice
www.unodc.org/ October 2007
Seven Advantages of ADR: 1. Strengthens judicial modernization efforts; 2. Delay reduction by unclogging courts; 3. Increases access to justice for the poorest disputants; 4. Reduces costs of justice for all users; 5. Preserves, improves or restores relationships among disputants; 6. Supports economic development by reducing transaction costs of disputes and increasing certainty of investments; 7. Increases satisfaction of the users.

 

Alfonso Peter Castro, Antonia Engel
# Negotiation and mediation techniques for natural resource management. Case Studies and Lessons Learned
FAO, 2007
Alternative conflict management uses participatory negotiation, mediation and related procedures similar to those that already exist in most local conflict management systems. It also has the virtue of being flexible and offering generally low-cost access to conflict management processes. Alternative conflict management provides a means to widen and strengthen people’s access, particularly among poor and marginalized populations, to natural conflict management institutions, whether based in national legal structures, customary law or other settings

 

Robert Cario
La justice restaurative: vers un nouveau modèle de justice pénale?
http://www.justicereparatrice.org/ September 2007
Trois principales raisons concourent à l’émergence de ce nouveau modèle de justice : la crise de la pénalité moderne ; la (re)considération de la victime ; la (re)découverte de modalités traditionnelles de régulation des conflits d’ordre pénal. Il importe de préciser immédiatement que la justice restaurative doit s’affranchir de deux sérieux et dangereux travers en résistant aux démons de l’abolitionnisme pénal comme aux tentations du victimaire. Mais pour autant et dans le même esprit, il convient de ne pas caricaturer la Justice restaurative en la croyant uniquementpréoccupée par les victimes. Eriger les souffrances de la victime comme paradigme de la justice restaurative constitue une graveerreur. Son ambition est plus prometteuse : la punition en vue de la resocialisation du condamné, la réparation globale de la victime, le  rétablissement de la paix sociale

 

Jessica Metoui
Returning to the Circle: The Reemergence of Traditional Dispute Resolution in Native American Communities
Journal of Dispute Resolution, 2007
Although scholars use a variety of terms to describe the non-adversarial approach to criminal conflict resolution traditionally utilized by many Native American groups, many writers categorize these traditional processes as types of restorative justice. Although a precise definition is difficult to verbalize because of the many shapes that the process can take, restorative justice often combines, "within a criminal justice framework, elements of mediation and reparative justice.

 

C. Bezuidenhout
# Restorative Justice with an Explicit Rehabilitative Ethos: Is This the Resolve to Change Criminality?
Acta Criminologica, 20(2):43-60, 2007
The question of how society should respond to wrongdoers is problematic. To suggest that restorative justice will be more effective when accompanied by an explicit rehabilitative ethos before it has been settled and accepted as the future of criminal justice, is premature. Rehabilitation is a complex process and would usually not be accomplished after one restorative justice meeting. Proper macro-scale research is needed before the question is answered and policymakers can be influenced.

 

Patrizia Ciardiello
Riparazione e mediazione nell'ambito dell'esecuzione penale per adulti
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 2, 2007

La constatazione della "complessità e delicatezza della materia e la rilevazione della forte diversificazione delle prassi poste in essere in alcune realtà territoriali "per iniziativa soprattutto della Magistratura di sorveglianza" ha sollecitato i vertici del Dipartimento dell'Amministrazione penitenziaria ad un approfondimento teorico, affidato ad una Commissione istituita ad hoc, conclusosi nel 2005 con l'emanazione di "Linee di indirizzo sull'applicazione nell'ambito dell'esecuzione penale' di condannati adulti" in grado di assicurare "... l'adozione di modelli (implicitamente plurali, n.d.r.) negli interventi di giustizia riparativa che risultino conformi alle Raccomandazioni delle N.U. e del Consiglio d'Europa...".

 

Simona Tigano
Giustizia riparativa e mediazione penale
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 2, 2006
La situazione di emergenza in cui versa il sistema penale nel suo complesso richiede, in misura sempre maggiore, soluzioni alternative di definizione delle controversie. La crisi della giustizia, in realtà, pervade tutta la "macchina" giudiziaria, non soltanto la fase di accertamento della responsabilità, ma anche, in egual misura, la fase di applicazione della pena e la stessa struttura del sistema sanzionatorio. Tecniche sostitutive appaiono necessarie, principalmente, per cercare di soddisfare le esigenze di economia processuale, compromesse dalla rilevanza quantitativa della criminalità bagatellare...

 

Jennifer Larson Sawin, Howard Zehr
# The ideas of engagement and empowerment
in Handbook of Restorative Justice, Routledge, 2006
In societies governed by democratic principles, a basic ethical precept of decision-making is to include in the decision process those who will be most directly affected by it. Restorative justice practitioners and theorists argue these parties need to be included in seeking justice...

 

Mirjan R. Damaska
L’incerta identità delle Corti penali internazionali
Criminalia, 2006
Esistono altri strumenti utili a soddisfare gli interessi delle vittime. Ampi schemi di risarcimento delle vittime, restituzioni forzate dei proventi del crimine, cause civili, e varie altre forme di giustizia riparatoria sono disponibili come alternative. Dal momento che la loro applicazione non dipende dalla soddisfazione dell’elevato onere della prova richiesta per la condanna penale, essi sono – in questo senso – molto più facilmente accessibili alle vittime. La pena inflitta dai tribunali internazionali non è neppure l’unica misura disponibile per dare soddisfazione a quelle vittime, i cui sentimenti di vendetta e la cui domanda di punizione non possono essere appagati dagli strumenti della giustizia risarcitoria.

 

Joanna Shapland, Anne Atkinson, Helen Atkinson, Becca Chapman, Emily Colledge, James Dignan, Marie Howes, Jennifer Johnstone, Gwen Robinson, Angela Sorsby
Restorative Justice in Practice. The second report from the evaluation of three schemes
The University of Sheffield, July 2006

 

Jacques Faget

Les fantômes français de la restorative justice: l’institutionnalisation conflictuelle de la médiation »

The French Phantoms of Restorative Justice: The Institutionalization of ‘Penal Mediation’, In, I. Aertsen, T.
Daems and L. Robert, editors, Institutionalizing Restorative Justice. Cullomption, Devon and Portland: Willan
Publishing Press, 151-165, 2006

 

Mario Chiavario
# Processo penale e alternative: spunti di riflessione su un «nuovo» dalle molte facce (non sempre inedite)
Rivista di diritto processuale, N. 2 – Aprile-Giugno 2006
1. Alternative al processo e alternative nel processo, un’antitesi meno rigida che in apparenza: a) la mediazione … – 2. … b) i riti « premiali » … – 3. … c) la prescrizione del reato. – 4. Alternative e principio di obbligatorietà dell’azione penale: postulati formali … – 5. … ed esigenze reali di tutela. – 6: Alternative e garanzie del diritto di difesa e del contraddittorio. – 7. Alternative e ragionevole durata del processo.

 

Maria Francesca Ghirga
Conciliazione e mediazione alla luce della proposta di direttiva europea
Rivista di Diritto Processuale, Aprile-Giugno 2006
1. Introduzione. – 2. La conciliazione quale forma di ADR. – 3. I vantaggi del ricorso alla conciliazione. – 4. La necessità di una precisazione terminologica. – 5. Le diverse classificazioni delle tipologie di conciliazione. – 6. La conciliazione stragiudiziale e il ruolo delle Camere di Commercio. – 7. Il quadro di riferimento europeo. – 8. La conciliazione stragiudiziale in materia societaria e i Regolamenti attuativi: aspetti poco convincenti della disciplina. – 9. La Proposta di Direttiva del Parlamento Europeo e del Consiglio relativa a determinati aspetti della mediazione in materia civile e commerciale. – 10. Le iniziative interne de iure condendo. – 11. Conclusioni.

 

Arie Nadler, Nurit Shnabel
Instrumental and Socio-Emotional Paths to Intergroup Reconciliation and the Need-Based Model of Socio-Emotional Reconciliation
www.humiliationstudies.org/ October 2006
When the victim expresses empathy with the perpetrator’s pains they also implicitly convey a message that they accept them as similar human beings who also suffer from conflict-related pains. Such expressions of empathy by the victims rehumanize the perpetrators and render them as individuals who have committed bad acts, rather than bad and immoral people. The Need-Based Model of reconciliation suggests that the weaker party in the conflict, which is also likely to experience itself as the victim, will be more ready to reconcile after receiving a message which contains an acceptance of responsibility for past wrongdoings than after a message which expresses empathy to their suffering.

 

Hal Pepinsky
# Peacemaking. Reflections of a Radical Criminologist
http://critcrim.org/ Ottawa 2006
In the global movement now known as “restorative justice,” a cardinal principle is that the focus is on harms done rather than on blame and punishment for rule violations, as in “retributive justice.” ... The challenge where safety is threatened is to mobilize concerned parties to work things out as best they can with those who have hurt and who threaten them. “Restorative justice” is an umbrella term for such efforts to transform “retributive justice.” 

 

Derek Brookes, Ian McDonough
# The Differences between Mediation and Restorative Justice/Practices
http://www.moj.gov.jm/ 2006

 

Judicial Council of California - Administrative Office of the Courts
# Balanced and Restorative Justice: An Information Manual for California
www.courts.ca.gov/ 2006
Restorative justice is not a program, but a practiced theory that can be viewed as a continuum, with certain practices being more restorative than others. Restorative justice theory is a principle-driven philosophical framework focused on the beliefs that crime harms people and that justice, in turn, should facilitate healing. Restorative justice is a collaborative process in which all stakeholders are offered an opportunity to have a voice in the justice system and are empowered to ensure that their needs are met. Victims, communities, and offenders have the opportunity to come to the table...

 

Yossawan Boriboonthana
# The effect of restorative justice practices on crime victims: a meta-analysis
University of Sheffield, February 2006
To summarise, crime victims of either property or personal crimes, experience psychological distress. If victim-offender mediation could have an effect on this distress or cause any positive effect on crime victims, it should be studied  more thoroughly and carefully... Does victim-offender mediation reduce psychological distress and fear of crime among victims? And in what extent? Do victims, who experience exchange of information, validation, material reparation,symbolic reparation and empowerment during the mediation process show less distress and fear of crime than those who do not?

 

George Pavlich
# Restorative Justice and its Paradoxes
VOMA Connections, n. 22, Winter 2005-2006

 

Tom R. Tyler
Restorative Justice and Procedural Justice: Dealing with Rule Breaking
Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 62, No. 2, 2006
The goal of this review is to point to common elements shared by this procedural justice approach, the restorative justice movement, and a focus on morality  and moral development. These approaches are united by their common goal: to encourage the development or activation of people’s internal values so that they will become more motivated to engage in self-regulatory behavior. It is suggested that a civil society is most effective when its members buy into commonly held values and follow rules because they are motivated to do so, rather than because they are motivated by  incentives or sanctions.

 

Alexandra Natapoff
Underenforcement
Fordham Law Review, vol.75, Issue 3, 2006
Underenforcement casts a long shadow over the viability and legitimacy of our criminal system. Like overenforcement, rampant underenforcement makes the rule of law into a democratic luxury; it renders full, fair, and balanced law enforcement an experience limited to those who can bend the government to their will. To address this democratic deficit, underenforcement should be better recognized as a potentially destructive phenomenon in its own right. In recognition of the linkages between overand underenforcement, underenforcement needs to be approached qualitatively, as a call not for harsher but for more responsive policing.

 

Mark S. Umbreit, Betty Vos, Robert B. Coates
Restorative Justice Dualogue: Evidence-Based Practice
Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking. An International Resource Center in Support of Restorative Justice Dialogue, Research and Training, January 1, 2006
Victim Offender Mediation. The vast majority of studies reviewed reported in some way on satisfaction of victims and offenders with victim offender mediation and its outcomes. Expression of satisfaction with VOM is consistently high for both victims and offenders across sites, cultures, and seriousness of offenses. Typically, eight or nine out of ten participants report being satisfied with the process and with the resulting agreement...

 

Toran Hansen
Restorative Justice in Eastern Europe
www.cehd.umn.edu/ Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking, January 2006

 

Terry O’Connell
Restorative Practices in Probation & Parole
www.iirp.edu/ Seventh International Conference on Conferencing, Circles and other Restorative Practices, 9-11 November 2005

 

Mark S. Umbreit, Betty Vos, Robert B. Coates, Elizabeth Lightfoot
RestorativeJustice in the Twenty-First Century: a Social Movement Full of Opportunities and Pitfalls
Marquette Law Review, 89, 2005
A burglary victim comes face-to-face with the young offender and his father. She is able to express the full impact of the crime, get answers to many questions, and help develop a plan to repair the harm. Her involvement in this community-based victim-offender mediation program leads to a deep sense of satisfaction, fairness, and ability to move on with her life. Meeting his victim has a huge impact on the young offender and leads to his getting his life in order and staying out of further criminal activity

 

Jeff Latimer, Craig Dowden, Danielle Muise
The Effectiveness of Restorartive Justice Practices: A Meta-Analysis
The Prison Journal, Vol. 85 No. 2, June 2005
This article provides an empirical synthesis of the existing literature on the effectiveness of restorative justice practices using meta-analytic techniques. The data were aggregated from studies that compared restorative justice programs to traditional nonrestorative approaches to criminal behavior. Victim and offender satisfaction, restitution compliance, and recidivism were selected as appropriate outcomes to adequately measure effectiveness. Although restorative programs were found to be significantly more effective, these positive findings are tempered by an important self-selection bias inherent in restorative justice research. A possible method of addressing this problem, as well as directions for future  research, are provided.

 

Brenda Morrison, Beta Blood, Margaret Thorsborne
Practicing Restorative Justice in School Communities: The Challenge of Culture Change
Public Organization Review: A Global Journal 5: 335–357 (2005)
The practice of restorative justice in schools has the capacity to build social and human capital through challenging students in the context of social and emotional learning. While restorative justice was originally introduced in schools to address serious incidents of misconduct and harmful behavior, the potential this philosophy offers is much greater. The conviction is that the key challenge for schools is addressing the culture change required to make the shift from traditional discipline, driven by punitive (or rewards based) external motivators, to restorative discipline, driven by relational motivators that seek to empower individuals and their communities.

 

Greg Mantle, Darrell Fox, Mandeep K. Dhami
Restorative Justice and Three Individual Theories of Crime
Internet Journal of Criminology IJC 2005
RJ aims to ‘reintegrate’ offenders - but into what? As Sullivan and Tifft (2001) point out, communities may disable people, leading to the view that RJ might never be successful unless radical changes were made in existing social structures and processes: in other words, the relationship between criminal and social justice cannot be skated over 

 

John Braithwaite, ValerieBraithwaite, Eliza Ahmed
# Reintegrative Shaming
in Stuart Henry & Mark Lanier (eds.), The Essential Criminology Reader, Westview Press, Boulder USA, pp. 286-297, 2005.

 

Marinetta Cannito
La giustizia rigenerativa, percorso per una trasformazione personale e collettiva
Da "Arca notizie", anno XX, n. 2, aprile-giugno 2005

 

Adriaan Lanni
The Future of Community Justice
Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review, Vol. 40, 2005
The community justice initiatives have flourished within their niche dealing with quality of life and minor crimes. Perhaps the movement will continue to expand in new cities and states, but I have tried to show that  extending community justice practices to the serious criminal docket is unlikely and unwise. Sentencing circles, reparative boards, community courts, and community prosecution groups are coalitions of the willing with neither the resources nor the representative legitimacy required to dole out serious punishment, particularly in light of the due process problems inherent in the informality of these community justice practices.

 

Shaneela Khan
Mediation in the Criminal System: an Improved Model for Justice
http://voma.org/ Spring 2005
In the United States, our criminal law system defines crime as acts against the State rather than as acts against individuals or communities at large. In these definitional parameters, we often overlook the  unmet needs of victims and society after a crime is committed. In our current system, we are preoccupied with retribution instead of restoring the victims and healing the harm done. From here stems the goals of restorative justice: an alternative to the typical criminal justice process. Restorative justice is concerned with healing the wounded victim: financially, emotionally, and socially. It expects offenders to rectify the harms they have inflicted...

 

Zvi D. Gabbay
Justifying Restorative Justice: A Theoretical Justification for the Use of Restorative Justice Practices
Journal od Dispute and Resolution, vol. 2, 2005
This paper analyzes the premises of the two main theories of punishment that influence sentencing policies in most Western countries— retributivism and utilitarianism—and compares them to the basic values that structure the restorative justice theory. It then makes clear distinctions between restorative justice and the rehabilitative ideal and addresses the criticism that, like rehabilitation, restorative justice results in different punishments to equally culpable offenders. The paper concludes that restorative justice does not contradict retribution and utility as theoretical justifications for penal sanctioning.

 

Kathleen Daly
The Limits of Restorative Justice
www.griffith.edu.au/ 15 January 2005

That there exist limits on what RJ can achieve should not be grounds for dispensing with it, nor for being disillusioned, once again, with a new justice idea. My reading of the evidence is that face-to-face encounters between victims and offenders and their supporters is a practice worth maintaining, and perhaps enlarging, although we cannot expect it to deliver strong stories of repair and goodwill most of the time.

 

John Braithwaite
Restorative Justice: Theories and Worries
Resource Material Series No. 63, P 47-56, 2004
The final theory, Defiance Theory, holds that sanctions that are considered illegitimate by offenders, which is often the case with traditional criminal justice approaches, will increase crime while sanctions considered legitimate will deter further offending. The author argues that restorative justice processes are likely to meet the conditions of a legitimate sanction for offenders and victims alike. Finally, the author considers four main critiques of restorative justice processes: (1) that restorative justice processes can increase victim fears; (2) they can be a “shaming machine” that increases the stigmatization of offenders; (3) they are vulnerable to being hijacked by the dominant group within society; and (4) they may trample individual rights because of a lack of articulated procedural safeguards.

 

Paul Takagi and Gregory Shank
# Critique of Restorative Justice
Social Justice Vol. 31, No. 3 (2004)
Restorative justice has become a business beyond U.S. federal agencies. A college located in rural California advertised the study of restorative justice as a new and growing occupational future. Established departments of criminology now offer a specialized curriculum called “Balanced and Restorative Justice.” The Center for Restorative Justice and Peacemaking at the University of Minnesota is lodged in the School of Social Work. There are several national organizations, among them The Center for Justice and Reconciliation at Prison Fellowship. Another is the Victim Offender Mediation Association (VOMA), and there are many private consulting firms...

 

UNAFEI
# The Protection of Victims of Crime and the Active Participation of Victims in the Criminal Justice Process Specifically Considering Restorative Justice Approaches
www.unafei.or.jp/ 2004
The Evolution of Restorative Justice > John Braithwaite | Restorative Justice: Theories and Worries > John Braithwaite | Victim Protection in Criminal Proceedings: The Victim’s Rights to Information, Participation and Protection in Criminal Proceedings > Sylvia Frey | Victim Protection in Criminal Proceedings, Reparation and Damages > Sylvia Frey | Restorative Justice: The Thai Experience > Kittipong Kittayarak | A Brief Outline of the Current Situation on the Protection of Victims of Crime in Thailand > Kittipong Kittayarak | Victim Support in the United Kingdom: Its History and Current Work > Peter Dunn | Victim Support in the United Kingdom: Victim Support Services in Detail > Peter Dunn | Restorative Justice In Minnesota and the USA: Development and Current Practice > Kay Pranis | Restorative Justice In Minnesota and the USA: Implementation and Outcomes > Kay Pranis 

 

Ministero della Giustizia
Atti del seminario conclusivo del progetto M.E.D.I.A.Re (2004)
www.giustizia.it/ 2004
Il Consiglio Europeo di Tampere ha stabilito le priorità ed i programmi necessari per realizzare lo spazio europeo di sicurezza, libertà e giustizia, ponendo una particolare attenzione tra l'altro alla necessità di istituire negli Stati Membri procedure extragiudiziali alternative per agevolare l'accesso alla giustizia e di elaborare norme minime di tutela delle vittime della criminalità, in particolare sull'accesso delle vittime alla giustizia e sui loro diritti al risarcimento dei danni. Tutto ciò in accoglimento delle direttive provenienti dalla Comunità internazionale nelle numerose Raccomandazioni emanate sul tema della tutela delle vittime... 

 

Elena Rocco
Riparazione e pena. Profili giuridici e pedagogici di una rinnovata concezione della pena
Università degli Studi di Padova, 2004

 

Ronald Claassen
Two Useful Models for Implementing Restorative Justice
ACResolution Summer 2004
Most people are willing and even enthused about helping each other solve their own problems rather than having someone tell them what to do. Most people are more willing to modify their behavior when they decide that change is something they want to do. However, most of our structures still depend on coercion and authority and do not value cooperative decision-making as a central part of the organizational structure. Devising structures that prefer the use of cooperative and restorative models can help change old patterns of thinking and move people in new and more constructive directions.

 

Loraine Gelsthorpe
# Back to Basics in Crime Control: Weaving in Women. A gendered reading of David Garland’s analysis of The Culture of Control
Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy, Vol. 7, No. 2, Summer 2004, pp. 76-103
Greater attention has also been given to restitutive and reparative forms of intervention (for example compensation orders and reparation order) and to mediation schemes and restorative interventions so as to emphasise the impact of crime upon the victim. The Government’s White Paper Justice for All (2002) signifies a continuation of this increased attention to victims...

 

Michael Kearns
Restorative Justice. Integrating Restorative Practice into the English Justice System
www.iirp.edu/ April 2004
Restorative Justice has its roots in a number of tribal cultures. These can be traced back to ancient Arab, Greek, Indian and Roman civilisations. Native American sentencing circles and Maori justice in New Zealand are good examples. It has origins in the Australian Aboriginal methods of resolving disputes. Familial perspectives of indigenous people across the globe sought to repair harm done to communities and individuals. They engaged the transgressor of laws or customs in a process that empowered those with a stake in it to restore the equilibrium of the community by addressing the needs of the victim and reintegrating the offender.

 

Arie Nadler
Going beyond guilt and revenge: The effects of admitting responsibility and expressing empathy for the enemy's suffering on inter-group reconciliation
Workshop on Humiliation and Violent Conflict, November 18-19, 2004, at Columbia University, NY
There are many differences between socio-emotional and trust-building/instrumental reconciliation. One stands out quite clearly- A different temporal focus: While socio-emotional reconciliation asserts that confronting the pains of the past is the key to a reconciled future, trust building reconciliation suggests that cooperation in the present is the key to a reconciled future. Other differences include the goal of reconciliation (i.e., social integration vs. social separation, and whether the change is evolutionary or revolutionary).

 

Francesco Giacca
La mediazione penale minorile, una risorsa o una reale alternativa?
Telematic Journal of Clinical Criminology, 2004

 

Ted Wachtel, Paul McCold
From Restorative Justice to Restorative Practices: Expanding the Paradigm
www.iirp.edu/ Thursday, August 5, 2004

 

Carolyn Boyes-Watson
The Value of Citizen Partecipation in Restorative/Community Justice: Lessons from Vermont
Criminology and Public Policy, 3, 2004
My remarks focus on the role of citizen participation through volunteering. In addition to the direct participation of victims and offenders, restorative justice prioritizes active involvement of the community, both because communities are seen to be (direct and indirect) victims of crime and because communities are viewed as responsible stakeholders in the maintenance of social norms within the community.

 

Fulvia D’Elia (a cura di)
# Forum. Voci di Pasquale Andria,Silvio Ciappi, Adelmo Manna
Mediares, n. 3, 2004
Ritengo che una giustizia autenticamente riparativa, rispetto alla quale la mediazione costituisce una grande risorsa e, prima ancora, una cultura in grado di alimentarla, sia la sola adeguata a tutelare efficacemente la vittima. Il risarcimento del danno è sicuramente un aspetto importante, ma tuttavia non esaustivo, in quanto vi sono interessi e diritti compromessi dal reato che non possono essere ripristinati se non attraverso una più ampia attività di mediazione.

 

Sarah Anne Behtz
Justice for All?: Victim Satisfaction with Restorative Justice Conferences
Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 974. http://dc.etsu.edu/etd/974 2004

 

Howard Zehr, Ali Gohar
The Little Book of Restorative Justice
www.unicef.org/ 2003
Restorative justice began as an effort to deal with burglary and other property crimes that are usually viewed (often incorrectly) as relatively minor offenses. Today, however, restorative approaches are available in some communities for the most severe forms of criminal violence: death from drunken driving, assault, rape, even murder. Building upon the experience of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa, efforts are also being made to apply a restorative justice framework to situations of mass violence.

 

Erik Luna
# Introduction: The Utah Restorative Justice Conference
Utah Law Review, 2003
In the end, restorative justice proves to be a fascinating topic and a provocative foil for challenging contemporary crime and punishment in the United States. The Utah Restorative Justice Conference may be the first of its kind in American legal academe, providing a much-needed forum to hash out the arguments for and against restorativism vis-à-vis traditional approaches to the criminal process.

 

Sara Johnson
# Restorative Justice Programs and Services in Criminal Matters: Summary of Consultations
Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 2003
Restorative justice redefines crime by interpreting it not so much as breaking the law or offending against the state, but as an injury or wrong done to another person or persons. (F-P-T Working Group on Restorative Justice, 2000). In general, restorative justice is viewed as more than just a practice or program, but rather as a philosophy, a way of looking at crime and a response to crime in which the following principles exist: • Crime is viewed predominantly as a violation of relationships among people, not just as an act against the State. Crime results in harm to victims, offenders and communities and they are included among the key stakeholders in justice. • All those affected by crime have roles and responsibilities to address the harm....

 

Paul Crosland, Marian Liebmann (eds)
# 40 Cases. Restorative Justice and Victim-Offender Mediation
http://restorativejustice.pbworks.com/ October 2003
How can we connect our vision of Restorative Justice with the real ways in which victims, offenders and communities seek to address the aftermath of a crime? Case studies are a valuable tool in enabling us to build bridges between theories and practice. They also widen our imagination to see more of the actual range of issues, feelings, needs and strategies that either do or don’t help people and communities meet their individual and collective needs. This book provides a diverse range of first hand accounts from mediators and facilitators offering some means of communication between victims and offenders...

 

Paul H. Robinson
# The Virtues of Restorative Processes, the Vices of Restorative Justice
Utah Law Review, pp. 375-388, 2003

 

John Braithwaite

# Principles of Restorative Justice

in A. von Hirsch, J.V. Roberts, A.E. Bottoms, K. Roach and M. Schiff (ed.), Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice: Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms?, Hart Publishing, Oxford, pp. 1-20, 2003

 

Paul McCold, Ted Wachtel | IIRP
# In Pursuit of Paradigm: A Theory of Restorative Justice
www.iirp.edu/ http:// International Institute for Restorative Practices 2003

 

Loretta M. Frederick, Kristine C. Lizdas
# The Role of Restorative Justice in the Battered Women’s Movement
www.ncdsv.org/ The Battered Women's Justice Project, September 2003

 

Irvin Waller
# Crime Victims: Doing justice to their support and protection
European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, Helsinki 2003

 

Tony Peters, Ivo Aertsen, Katrien Lauwaert, Luc Robert
# From Community Sanctions to Restorative Justice: The Belgian Example
https://www.ncjrs.gov/ From Annual Report for 2002 and Resource Material Series No. 61, P 180-211, 2003

In more recent years, victimology research has shifted the focus from the offender to the victim and the consequences of victimization. This focus on victims has led to the emergence of a restorative approach to justice that broadens the aims and practices of offender punishment. The focus of the current paper is on the development of a restorative approach within the sentencing and punishment process.

 

Claudia Mazzucato
# Giustizia e riparazione
Dignitas, giugno 2003
Si ha talvolta l'impressione  che l'esperienza abbia preso il via prima della sedimentazione della cultura riparativa, con il concreto e grave pericolo che si usino strumenti nuovi con una mentalità antica. Il punto è delicatissimo e ci si augura di poter continuare ancora la riflessione insieme al lettore; basti per ora un cenno indifferibile: se il modello di giustizia è, e continua a essere, la ritorsione retributiva é facile cadere nella trappola di un'applicazione repressiva della restorative justice. La trappola potrebbe consistere, per esempio, nell'aggiunta della mediazione a percorsi già definiti sul piano processuale, nella irrilevanza giudiziaria dell'incontro positivo tra reo e vittima, nella previsione di comportamenti riparativi obbligatori...

 

Andrew Woolford, R.S. Ratner
# Nomadic Justice? Restorative Justice on the Margins of Law
Social Justice Vol. 30, No. 1 (2003)

 

John Blad
# Against Penal Instrumentalism
www.iirp.edu/ 30 August 2003

 

Alan Edwards, Jennifer Haslett
# Domestic Violence and Restorative Justice: Advancing the Dialogue
www.voma.org/ 2003
Our experience leads us to conclude that if restorative justice is to be taken seriously as a valuable intervention in cases of domestic violence, it will only be as a result of informed practitioners demonstrating their thorough understanding of the risks (and also the benefits) involved in doing this work. This includes the ability to take meaningful steps to maximize victim safety and choice, and create opportunities for offenders to reflect on their actions and make new choices.

 

Sara Sun Beale
# Still Tough on Crime? Prospects for Restorative Justice in the United States
Utah Law Review, 2003
Is the American public prepared to tum from punitive policies to restorative justice? As a background to the issue ofthe public's receptivity to restorative justice principles and policies, this Article first reviews the punitive policies ofthe 1980s and 1990s and the dramatic declines in American crime rates during the last decade. The sharply declining crime rate might mean the time is ripe for a switch from punitive to restorative criminaljustice policies, and there is some evidence that public anxiety about crime is starting to decrease and that support for punitive policies has declined.

 

Stephen P. Garvey
# Restorative Justice, Punishment, and Atonement
Utah Law Review, 303, n.1, 2003
I argue here for two claims. First, I argue in Part II that restorative justice cannot have it both ways: it cannot achieve the restoration of the victim it seeks without the punishment it rejects. If restorative justice really wants to fully restore victims of crime, then it cannot eliminate punishment. Second, I argue in Part III that restorative justice does not, despite what its proponents say, really insist on the total elimination of punishment. Instead, it insists on its transformation.

 

Katherine van Wormer
# Restorative Justice: A Model for Social Work Practice With Families
Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, vol 84, n. 3, 2003

 

# Restorative Justice and its Relation to the Criminal Justice System
Papers from the second conference of the European Forum for Victim-Offender Mediation and Restorative Justice, Oostende (Belgium), 10-12 October 2002
www.euforumrj.org/

Nadia Biermans, Restorative justice and the prison system: For the last two years, together with a group of people working in Flemish prisons, I have had the chance to take restorative justice initiatives in prisons. It is based on this experience that I would like to raise some questions and share some thoughts with you this afternoon. I hope that this will provide an incentive to do into more detail during the conference, look for an answer and who knows – actually find one

 

Anna Mestitz
# A First Survey on Victim-Offender Mediation in Italy

From a session presented at "Dreaming of a New Reality," the Third International Conference on Conferencing, Circles and other Restorative Practices, August 8-10, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota
www.iirp.edu/ 2002

Victim-offender mediation (VOM) was introduced in Italy in the mid 90s. The present study was aimed at providing a first overview of the characteristics and functioning of the VOM services throughout the country. Specifically, the investigation focused on the organization of VOM services, and resources available, as well as on the characteristics of the profession of the mediator (i.e., training, motivations, perceptions). It should be noted that VOM practice in Italy is currently limited to the juvenile criminal justice system...

 

Julie Stubbs

# Domestic Violence and Women's Safety: Feminist Challenges to Restorative Justice
in Restorative Justice and Family Violence, H. Strang, J. Braithwaite, eds., pp. 42-61, Cambridge Un. Pr., 2002

Restorative justice has made strong claims about providing better outcomes for victims than conventional criminal justice system practices and these claims are analysed with reference to empirical data concerning domestic violence. The chapter also examines the extent to which restorative justice practices mobilise resources for the protection of women and children - this is especially crucial at a time when resources are being withdrawn from the formal legal system and from the community.

 

Jim Dignan
# Restorative Justice and the Law: The Case for an Integrated, Systemic Approach
In, Lode Walgrave, ed., Restorative Justice and the Law. Devon, UK: Willan Publishing. Pp. 168-190

 

Barb Toews
# Offenders and Restorative Justice. Listening to prisoners raises issues about prison-based restorative justice
VOMA Connections, Summer 2002

 

Brian Tkachuk
# Criminal Justice Reform: Lessons Learned Community Involvement and Restorative Justice Rapporteur’s Report
The European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with the United Nations, Helsinki, 2002

Despite their successes and vast potential it is noted that while restorative justice and community based programs exist in many countries, both principally and legislatively, they remain limited in practice. This is somewhat disconcerting in light of the promise they hold for achieving a more humane, effective and efficient criminal justice system.

 

R. Coates, M. Umbreit, B. Vos
# Systemic Change Toward Restorative Justice: Washington County in Minnesota
www.cehd.umn.edu/ Center for Restorative Justice & Peacemaking, May 1, 2002
In Minnesota, Washington County Community Corrections has taken steps to adapt restorative justice principles as the basis for shaping their responses to crime, involving offenders, victims, and communities. The Center for Restorative Justice and Peacemaking at the University of Minnesota was asked to document this ongoing change process, to ferret out the key change elements, barriers and resistance to change, to outline the immediate impact as perceived by staff, justice officials, and community members, and to address issues surrounding continuing progress toward integrating restorative justice policies and practices into the department's responses to crime. 

 

Christa Pelikan
# Victim-Offender-Mediation in Domestic Violence cases—A Comparison of the Effects of Criminal Law Intervention: the Penal Process and Mediation. Doing Qualitative Research
Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung 3(1), 2002
One of the main arguments, the protagonists of the women's movement had led against the use of VOM concerned the supposed lack of ability (due to insufficient training and qualifications) of social workers and mediators to uncover the (male) perpetrator's defences and excuses as well as the "false" readiness of women to accede to a settlement; in other words: the VOM-workers' inability to recognise and consequently denounce "gendered" power relationships. Precisely the same kind of suspicion, or even accusation was brought forward with regard to social scientists that refrained from overtly "taking sides" by attributing greater or exclusive credibility to female victims...

 

Jo-Anne Wemmers, Marisa Canuto
# Victim's Experiences with, Expectations and Perceptions of Restorative Justice: A Critical Review of the Literature
www.justice.gc.ca/ March 2002
Restorative justice programs cannot replace the traditional criminal justice system. There will always be victims and offenders who choose to have their cases remain in the traditional criminal justice system. While the criminal justice system should offer victims many of the services that are offered in restorative justice programs, such as notification and restitution, it is often only within the context of restorative justice programs that these services are provided. Restorative justice programs cannot replace the responsibility of criminal justice authorities to carry out victim policy, as reflected in the Statement of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime, and efforts must always be instituted to treat victims in the system with dignity and respect.

 

Gilda Scardaccione
# Contributi significativi al dibattito sulla giustizia riparativa: presentazione
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 3, 2002
La giustizia riparativa e la mediazione in particolare ribaltano sotto molti aspetti i principi della giustizia retributiva e riabilitativa e pur senza voler essere una panacea introduce dei principi del tutto nuovi quali a). la rivalutazione della vittima nel processo nella sua esecuzione e nei suoi esiti, b). l'attribuzione al reo e alla vittima della capacità di contrattare gli esiti processuali, c). la creazione di una nuova figura professionale che è quella del mediatore, d). lo spostamento dell'interesse sul danno e sul conflitto piuttosto che sulla violazione della norma giuridica e). il maggiore impatto sui principi della sicurezza sociale e il coinvolgimento della comunità.

 

Gaetano De Leo
# Temi e nodi della mediazione penale
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 3, 2002
Un primo punto da mettere in evidenza è che da dieci anni a questa parte, sicuramente, anche rispetto ad altri momenti in cui abbiamo fatto delle verifiche, la cultura della mediazione si è diffusa e si è allargata; ciò si è verificato però prevalentemente se non quasi esclusivamente nell'ambiente degli esperti e degli operatori  della giustizia. Vi sono stati dibattiti anche critici da parte di magistrati e questo, a mio avviso, è un aspetto molto positivo perché sono emerse perplessità, opinioni divergenti che credo siano salutari al dibattito e al progresso di questa cultura della mediazione.

 

Martin Wright
# In che modo la giustizia riparativa è riparativa?
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, Numero 3, 2002

La giustizia riparativa, piuttosto che portar via il procedimento dagli stessi attori, offre la possibilità sia alla vittima che all'autore del reato di parlarne e decidere come gestirlo, attraverso la mediazione vittima/autore del reato, o una sua estensione nota come 'conferenza' (conferencing), ove vittima e autore del reato possono portare anche membri della loro famiglia....Ci sono almeno cinque modi per fare ciò...

 

Eligio Resta

# Teorie della giustizia riparativa
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 3, 2002

Il mediatore a differenza del giudice non è equidistante, ma equi-prossimo, non esita cioè a sporcarsi le mani nel confrontarsi con i conflitti, anche se deve come mediatore assumere un ruolo non sbilanciato. In tal senso nell'amministrazione della giustizia il mediatore non deve essere un giudice in miniatura cioè con poteri ridotti poiché la giustizia riparativa implica l'attuazione del perdono che non può essere di competenza del giudice. La mediazione infatti adotta un paradigma che impone di non parlare delle proprie colpe, ma delle proprie responsabilità, asserendo che sussiste responsabilità solo nel momento in cui dobbiamo rispondere a qualcuno.

 

Justice Options for Women | Status of Women Canada
# Dialogue on Restorative Justice and Women Who Are Victims of Violence
www.ncdsv.org/ A Discussion Paper in preparation for the Restorative Justice and Violence Against Women Workshop: January 15, 2002
Restorative justice is a way of “looking at” the problem of crime, rather than a specific program. Programs that are restorative include: mediation, family group conferencing, community justice forums, and circle sentencing. Restorative justice processes can be used at any phase of the criminal justice system. They require the voluntary participation of the victim. The offender must accept responsibility for the actions and agree to participate. Restorative processes that are victim focussed take  place when the victim is ready. This will mean  preparation for the victim so that she may chose if and when to participate. Timing with criminal justice processes may not fit the timing of the victim... 

 

John Braithwaite
# In Search of Restorative Jurisprudence
in Lode Walgrave (ed.), Restorative Justice and the Law, Willan Publishing, Devon, UK, pp. 150-167, 2002

 

Laura Nader
# Coercive Harmony: the Political Economy of Legal Models
Kroeber Anthropological Society Papers, n. 80, 2005

 

Grazia Mannozzi
# Collocazione sistematica e potenzialità deflattive della mediazione penale
In De Francesco-Venafro, Meritevolezza di pena e logiche deflattive, Giappichelli, Torino, 2002, pp. 117-140

 

Grazia Mannozzi
# Problemi e prospettive della giustizia riparativa
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica - dicembre 2001
La mediazione, in ogni caso. pur con i limiti applicativi che ontologicamente le appartengono e con le sue difficoltà di integrazione nel sistema penale e nelle dinamiche processuali, sembra destinata ad essere oggetto di una applicazione sempre maggiore sino a svolgere un ruolo di tutto rilievo nell’ambito degli strumenti della giustizia riparativa. Almeno, questo è il trend che emerge dall’esperienza di numerosi ordinamenti europei ed extra europei; la scelta di campo in tal senso effettuata dalle Nazioni Unite con la "Dichiarazione di Vienna" ne rappresenta un’ultima, fondamentale, conferma. 

 

John Braithwaite
# Restorative Justice and a new criminal law of substance abuse
Youth & Society, Vol. 33 No.2, December 2001
I have suggested an alternative to targeting and arrest. This is prearrest conversations with such offenders that their pattern of offending is known to the police. They are advised that a judge has approved  that there is "reasonable suspicion" for their being targeted for special surveillance. However, they are given the opportunity to get  off this targeting program before it succeeds in arresting them by participating in a healing circle with their loved ones about the problems that are besetting their life...  

 

Arie Nadler
# From Tel Aviv to Ulcinj. Can we learn from each other about reconciliation and peace−building?
www.eurozine.com/ 2001
What are the ways to build equality between unequal former adversaries? One important principle is that of equal and continuous involvement. Joint projects should involve all concerned parties, from the design through the implementation and running stages of the projects. Another vehicle to solve the "equality paradox" in instrumental reconciliation is to use the equalising effect of involving third parties in the project, parties who are viewed as a valuable, impartial resource by the parties involved.

 

Carol E. Davies and Rev. Kathy Lancaster Staff
# Justice or "Just Desert"? An Adult Study of the Restorative Justice Approach. Rev. Virginia Mackey and Dr. Carolyn C. Shadle
Presbyterian Criminal Justice Program, 2001

 

V. E. Jantzi
# Restorative Justice in New Zealand: Current Practise, Future Possibilities

August 2001
Restorative Justice—Restitution, Reconciliation and Healing of Victim and Offender. Restorative justice focuses on restoration by repairing harm that was done to victims and restoring the balance within the community. It involves arranging a meeting between victim and offender in which the victim or victims can describe how the offence has affected them and where the offender accepts responsibility, answers victim’s questions and works with the victim to identify how to repair the harm and develop a plan of action that will make the reparations, ensure that the victim feels safe again, and reduces the offenders chances of reoffending.

 

Melanie Spiteri
# Sentencing circles for aboriginal offenders in canada: furthering the idea of aboriginal justice within a western justice framework
University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada, 2001

 

Massimo Pavarini, Paolo Zancan, Franco Giordana, Livio Pepino, Laura D'Amico, Antonio Rossomando, Rudolf Schaller, Desi Bruno, Duccio Scatolero, Angelo Cutolo, Libero Mancuso
# La vittima del reato, questa sconosciuta
Torino 9 Giugno 2001

 

Michael E. Smith
# What Future for “Public Safety” and “Restorative Justice” in Community Corrections?
www.ncjrs.gov/ Sentencing & Corrections, June 2001

 

Caritas Ambrosiana (a cura di)
# Giustizia riparativa e riforma del Giudice di pace. Verso una nuova giustizia
Atti del seminario del 28 marzo 2001

 

David R. Karp
# Harm and Repair: Observing restorative justice in Vermont
Justice Quarterly, 18:4, 727-757, 2001
Below I advance two versions of restoration, "thin" and "thick," and I examine the restorative justice practices in light of each. The thin version of restoration can be defined as any positive act directed toward a crime victim and/or the affected community. In this version, criminal harm is offset by prosocial behavior. The thick version of restoration is defined as a positive act directed at the victim and/or the affected community that is linked specifically to the identified harm of the crime. Under this model, what specifically has been damaged must be repaired. This damage may be material, interpersonal, or communal. Any restoration that is insufficient to the task or tangential to the specified harm falls short of achieving this justice ideal. Therefore, identification of arm is crucial to assessment, as is the effectiveness of the strategy in repairing the damage.

 

CSM Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura
# Tutela dei diritti, efficacia e tempi della giurisdizione
Quaderni del CSM, n. 120, Anno 2001
Un terreno privilegiato su cui sperimentare la costruzione di una vera alternativa alla risoluzione in sede giudiziaria dei conflitti in ambito penale è costituito dal sempre maggiore interesse che suscita nel dibattito istituzionale, non solo italiano, il concetto di mediazione, inteso come modalità autonoma di regolamentazione dei conflitti. Con tale espressione si vuole indicare quel processo attraverso il quale una persona neutrale rispetto alla lite si adopera, attraverso l’organizzazione di scambi tra le parti, per consentire loro di confrontare i propri punti di vista ed individuare, con l’aiuto del mediatore, una soluzione al conflitto che li oppone. 

 

Tracy M. Godwin
# The Role of Restorative Justice in Teen Courts: A Preliminary Look
www.globalyouthjustice.org/ 2001
There are three primary stakeholders and three primary goals of restorative justice. Primary stakeholders are victims, offenders, and the community. Goals of restorative justice include accountability, competency development, and community protection. The emphasis on victims’ roles in restorative justice is about choice. Restorative justice cannot exist without giving victims the opportunity to participate in the justice process and making every effort to respond to their needs and desire for participation. The level of their participation may vary...

 

Augusto Balloni
# Cause ed effetti del ritardato sviluppo della vittimologia
in La vittima del reato, questa dimenticata, Atti tavola rotonda della Conferenza annuale della Ricerca, 5 dicembre 2000 - Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, Roma, 2001

 

Lois Presser, Emily Gaarder
# Can Restorative Justice Reduce Battering? Some Preliminary Considerations
Social Justice Vol. 27, No. 1 (2000)
In recent years, the restorative justice movement has introduced new variations on mediation. These interventions promise social justice through healing encounters between victims and offenders, sponsored by community members. While feminists have all but rejected traditional mediation, restorative justice is being called a “feminist vision of justice”. Increasingly, the potential for restorative justice approaches to reduce domestic violence is being revisited from this perspective

 

Mark S. Umbreit, Jean Greenwood
# Guidelines for Victim-Sensitive Victim-Offender Mediation: Restorative Justice Through Dialogue
U.S. Department of Justice, April 2000
The guidelines offered in this monograph are grounded in more than 20 years of practical experience in the field of victimoffender mediation in North America, numerous conversations with individual victim advocates and staff members of victim advocacy organizations, and the results of the recently completed national survey of victim-offender mediation programs in the United States (appendix A).  The number of VOM programs is increasing in communities throughout the country, and these guidelines will help lead to the development of the highest quality victim-sensitive mediation services possible. Considerable room, however, remains for continued experimentation in this emerging field.  

 

Gordon Bazemore
# Community Justice and a Vision of Collective Efficacy: The Case of Restorative Conferencing
www.ncjrs.gov/ Criminal Justice 2000
This paper examines restorative conferencing as a case study in the involvement of crime victims, offenders, and other citizens as active participants in a nonadversarial sanctioning response to youth crime, generally focused on repairing harm. The purpose of this paper is to link conferencing both to a broader vision of the citizen and community role in a more effective response to juvenile crime and to a larger effort to build community “collective efficacy.”

 

Karin Jewel Stone
# An Evaluation of Recidivism Rates for Resolutions Northwest's Victim-Offender Mediation Program
Portland State University, Dissertations and Theses, 2000

 

Craig Proulx
# Current Directions in Aboriginal Law/Justice in Canada
The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 2(2000)
Many Aboriginal peoples struggle with the Canadian state to re-establish self-determination and self-government over law/justice in rural and urban contexts. This paper discusses directions in Aboriginal law/justice based upon these goals. It surveys embedded political, cultural and socio- conomic debates and emerging justice philosophies and practices. This survey aims to assist Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal justice professionals, policy makers and academics in understanding the issues within justice for Aboriginal peoples in Canada.

 

Adriano Morrone
# Mediazione e riparazione del danno nella competenza penale del giudice di pace
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 1, 3, 2000

Ispirato, quindi, dalla finalità di deflazione del carico giudiziario pendente presso i tribunali, nonché dall'esigenza di avvicinare la giustizia alle esigenze quotidiane del cittadino, il legislatore non si è limitato ad attribuire la competenza penale al giudice di pace, ma ha introdotto nel codice di procedura penale un vero e proprio procedimento speciale, corredato da un apparato sanzionatorio del tutto autonomo dal sistema delle pene contenuto nel codice Rocco.

 

Anna C. Baldry
# Mediazione e violenza domestica. Risorsa o limiti di applicabilità?
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 1, 3, 2000
Una delle espressioni della giustizia riparativa maggiormente utilizzate in varie parti di Europa e negli Stati Uniti, è la mediazione fra vittima e autore del reato. L'obiettivo della mediazione è quello di dare la possibilità alle parti coinvolte di esprimere il proprio punto di vista, fare domande con l'aiuto di un "terzo neutrale" e imparziale che facilita la comunicazione e l'ascolto. La vittima può così esprimere i propri vissuti e, se lo vuole, anche concordare con l'autore del reato una forma di "riparazione" soddisfacente. Tale riparazione può essere fatta sotto forma di restituzione, o risarcimento ma in molti casi può anche trattarsi di forme di riparazione  simboliche come una lettera di scuse, o anche la sola manifestazione di pentimento...

 

Claudius Messner
# Mediazione penale e nuove forme di controllo sociale
Padova, 29 gennaio 2000 | Dei delitti e delle pene, VII, 3, 2000, pp. 93-111

 

Leena Kurki
# Incorporating Restorative and Community Justice Into American Sentencing and Corrections
Sentencing & Corrections, September 1999
Programs based on restorative and community justice principles have proliferated in the United States over the past decade simultaneously with tough-on-crime initiatives like three-strikes, truth-in- entencing, and mandatory minimum laws. Restorative justice and community justice represent new ways of thinking about crime. The theories underlying restorative justice suggest that government should surrender its monopoly over responses to crime to those most directly affected—the victim, the offender, and the community. Community justice redefines the roles and goals of criminal justice agencies to include a broader mission—to prevent crime, address local social problems and conflicts, and involve neighborhood residents in planning and decisionmaking. 

 

Paul G. Cassell
# Barbarians at the Gates? A Reply to the Critics of the Victims' Rights Amendment
Utah Law Review, 1999
Today the criminal justice system too often treats victims as secondclass citizens, almost as barbarians at the gates that must be repelled at all costs. The widely shared view is that this treatment is wrong, that victims have legitimate concerns that can—indeed must—be fully respected for the system to be fair and just. The Victims’ Rights Amendment is an indispensable step in that direction, extending protection for the rights of victims while doing no harm to the rights of defendants and of the public.

 

William R. Nugent, Mark S. Umbreit, Lizabeth Wiinamaki, Jeff Paddock
# Participation in Victim-Offender Mediation Reduces Recidivism. A Study of 1,298 Juveniles Finds a 32% Reduction in Recidivism
VOMA Connections - Summer 1999, Number 3

 

Ernesto U. Savona - Silvio Ciappi - Guido V. Travaini
# Prevenzione e mediazione tra esperienze passate e progetti futuri: una proposta di mediazione integrata
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, n. 2,3, 1999
La mediazione è cresciuta di importanza negli ultimi tempi perchè il monopolio della funzione disciplinare della giustizia penale oggi evidenzia dei limiti nel governare la violenza e i reati. L'idea di mediazione nasce dal più ampio concetto di giustizia riparativa (Restorative Justice), modello di politica criminale che si caratterizza appunto da una drastica riduzione dell'uso delle agenzie di controllo formale utilizzando nuove misure di risoluzione dei conflitti dirette da un lato allo sfoltimento del carico giudiziario e dall'altro alla ricomposizione diretta del conflitto tra le parti. La mediazione si è sviluppata prevalentemente nei paesi di area e cultura anglosassone (Stati Uniti, Inghilterra, Scozia e Canada) e in altri paesi europei quali la vicina Austria, Francia e Germania.

 
Dennis Cooley | Law Commission of Canada
# From Restorative Justice to Transformative Justice. Discussion Paper
http://dalspace.library.dal.ca/ 1999
The idea of restorative justice represents an innovative way of responding to crime and conflict. Although approaches we now call restorative justice can be found in the histories of peoples across the world, the most recent movement towards restorative justice in western criminal law systems began in the early 1970s... Restorative justice begins from the premise that the most effective response to conflict is to repair the harm done by the wrongful act. Material and symbolic reparations begin the process of restoration, but restoration means more than receiving compensation...

 

Tony E. Marshall
# Restorative Justice: An Overview
http://kb.keepbritaintidy.org/ A Report by the Home Office Research Development and Statistics Directorate

“Restorative Justice is a process whereby all the parties with a stake in a particular offence come together to resolve collectively how to deal with the aftermath of the offence and its implications for the future”

 

Kathleen Daly
# Revisiting the Relationship between Retributive and Restorative Justice
Presented at Restorative Justice and Civil Society Conference, Australian National University, Canberra, February 1999

Restorative justice practices assume mentally competent and hence morally culpable actors, who are expected to take responsibility for their actions, not only to the parties directly injured, but perhaps also to a wider community. As such, restorative justice practices embrace retributive justice assumptions of individual culpability and they also include a wider notion of community (or, at times, familial) responsibility for those acts...

 

European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research
# Communities and Crime
Volume 7 No. 4 1999

 

Francesca Vianello
# Per uno studio socio-giuridico della mediazione penale
in Sociologia del diritto, XXVI/1999/2, pp.81-93
L’emergere del paradigma compensatorio all’interno dei sistemi di giustizia criminale è un fenomeno registrabile su scala internazionale. L’idea di una giustizia riparativa come fondante di un nuovo modello penale consensuale e partecipativo, da opporsi ai limiti e alle deficienze dei più tradizionali modelli retributivo e riabilitativo, nasce in ambienti diversificati, traendo forza argomentativa sia dagli stessi approcci di tipo riabilitativo che essa supera, sia dalle critiche più radicali offerte dai movimenti abolizionisti.

 

Serge Charbonneau, Denis Béliveau
# Un exemple de justice réparatrice au Québec: la médiation et les organismes de justice alternative
Criminologie, vol. 32, n° 1, 1999, p. 57-77.
Les premières expériences québécoises de médiation en matière criminelle se sont donc développées à la fin des années 1970 dans le secteur de la justice des mineurs... Il apparaît en outre essentiel que la pratique de la médiation puisse déborder le champ de la justice des mineurs pour se faire une place dans ce qu’il est convenu de nommer le champ de la justice des adultes.

 

Kathleen Daly, Russ Immarigeon
# The past, present, and future of restorative justice: some critical reflections
www.griffith.edu.au/ The Contemporary Justice Review 1 (1): 21-45, 1998
We worry that advocates of restorative justice may be promising too much: of repairing social bonds, of offenders making reparations to the community, of the reintegration of offenders into communities, of victims receiving compensation, of victims being satisfied with the process, and on and on it goes. We should remember that justice is elusive, “an experience of the impossible”. Restorative justice, already “complicated and confused enough as it is,” may do well by reducing its excess of promises.

 

Bob Gaucher
# Punitive Justice & the Victims’ Movement
Journal of Prisoners on Prisons Vol. 9 No. 2 (1998)

 

Jean-Pierre Bonafé-Schmitt
# La médiation pénale en France et aux États-Unis
Droit et Société. Recherches et Travaux, 1998

 

Daniel Van Ness, Pat Nola
# Legislating for Restorative Justice
Regent University Law Review, vol. 10, 1998
The increasing credibility of restorative justice means that its advocates must become even more skillful at negotiating the political process. We have suggested that this will require a transition in how those proponents think and behave in their advocacy, funding, programs, vision and political sophistication. Those who have been challenging their justice systems to "think differently" about crime now need to think differently about themselves and their roles. Their success in doing so may determine whether the final result of "legislating for restorative justice" is simply more legislation, or is indeed a justice system that restores victims, offenders and communities.

 

Luciano Eusebi
# Dibattiti sulle teorie della pena e mediazione
Rivista italiana di diritto e procedura penale, n. 3, 1997

Prima ancora di esigere una certa caratterizzazione contenutistica delle sanzioni, l’indirizzo rieducativo sancito dalla Costituzione sembra indicare una scelta precisa fra le possibili strategie politico criminali: una scelta fondata sulla consapevolezza del fatto che la forza dei precetti penali dipende soprattutto dal livello più o meno elevato della loro capacità di imporsi al consenso dei cittadini – perfino al consenso di chi li abbia trasgrediti – per ragioni che vadano al di là di quelle legate alla mera dimensione coercitiva.

 

Gilda Scardaccione
# Nuovi modelli di giustizia: giustizia riparativa e mediazione penale
www.rassegnapenitenziaria.it/ Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, nn.1-2, 1997

La giustizia riparativa rappresenta un nuovo modello di giustizia penale che si differenzia dai modelli di giustizia che si sono succeduti nel tempo quali quello retributivo e trattamentale. Tale nuovo paradigma è soprattutto orientato verso la rivalutazione della parte offesa del reato all'interno del processo e verso una finalità più riparativa che punitiva attribuita alla pena applicata nei confronti del reo. La mediazione penale costituisce la fondamentale modalità applicativa della giustizia riparativa. Viene effettuata una rassegna internazionale delle esperienze di mediazione in ambito giudiziario penale non priva di spunti e valutazioni critiche.

 

Shruti Gola Gulati
# Healing the Circle: Exploring the Conjuncture of Peacemaking Criminology and Native Justice Initiatives
University of Ottawa, 1996

 

Jacques Faget
# La double vie de la médiation
Droit etSocieté, 29, 1995

 

FWM McElrea
# Accountability in the Community: Taking Responsibility for Offending
Legal Research Foundation, 1995

 

Françoise Tulkens
# La justice négociée
Document de travail du Departement de Criminologie et de Droit Pénal del l'Université catholique de Louvain, n. 37, 1995

 

Lucia Zedner
# Reparation and Retribution: Are They Reconcilable?
The Modern Law Review, Vol. 57, No. 2 (Mar., 1994), pp. 228-250
Proponents of reparation suggest that the costs suffered by the offender (the stigma of conviction, the pains of imprisonment, the disadvantages faced on release from custody) are so burdensome as to be counterproductive. Reparative sentences would, it is argued, not only lessen the burden of punishment on the offender but offer the possibility for constructive, forward-looking sentencing. Making good, whether via monetary compensation or other reparative endeavour, is also applauded as having psychological advantages over traditional retributive penalties. Reparation, it is argued, relieves the offender's feelings of guilt and alienation which may precipitate further crimes. The effect is said to be restorative not only to the victim but also to the offender, increasing their sense of self-esteem and aiding reintegration.

 

Victorian Parliament Law Reform Committee
# Inquiry into Restitution for Victims of Crime. Final Report
www.parliament.vic.gov.au/ 1994

The ability of sentencing courts to deploy a range of sentencing options so as to match the punishment with the crime means that in many cases the dual purpose of victim compensation and offender punishment can be met without greater difficulty than is already inherent in balancing such a difficult consideration as deterrence with rehabilitation and the other purposes of sentencing. It is not at all difficult to envisage members of the lay public saying that an offender who was subjected to no penalty but a substantial and effectively enforced reparation order was “getting his just deserts”...

 

Ute I. Hartmann
# Victim-Offender Reconciliation with Adult Offenders in Germany
www.aic.gov.au/ 1994
In International victimology: Selected papers from the 8th International Symposium – proceedings of a symposium held in Adelaide, 21-26 August 1994, ed. by Chris Sumner, Mark Israel, Michael O-Connell, and Rick Scarre, 321-327. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.

 

David Garland
# Sociological Perspectives on Punishment
Crime and Justice, Vol. 14 (1991),115-165

 

Richard C. Boldt
# Restitution, Criminal Law, and the Ideology of Individuality
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, vol. 77, 1987

 

Howard Zehr
# Retributive Justice, Restorative Justice, in New Perspectives on Crime end Justice
MCC U.S. Office of Criminal Justice, September 1985
Will VORP (Victim Offender Reconciliation Program) be just another alternative program, an alternative that becomes institutionalized, ossified, coopted  until it is just another program, and perhaps not an alternative at all? Or will VORP be a means of exploring, communicating, embodying an alternative vision? Will it demonstrate that there is another way? Could it even be the beginning of a quiet revolution?

 

Richard Dagger
# Restitution, Punishment, and Debts to Society
http://scholarship.richmond.edu/ In Victims, Offenders, and Alternative Sanctions, edited by Joe Hudson and Burt Galaway, 3-13. Lexington: Lexington Books, 1980.

 

Roger Pilon
# Criminal Remedies: Restitution, Punishment, or Both?
Ethics 88, July 1978

 

Randy E. Barnett
# Restitution: A New Paradigm of Criminal Justice
Ethics, 87, 1977

 

Nils Christie
# Conflicts as Property
The British Journal of Criminology, January 1977
Conflicts are seen as important elements in society. Highly industrialised societies do not have too much internal conflict, they have too little. We have to organise social systems so that conflicts are both nurtured and made visible and also see to it that professionals do not monopolise the handling of  hem. Victims of crime have in particular lost their rights to participate. A court procedure that restores the participants' rights to their own conflicts is outlined.

 

 

 

# Decreto Legislativo 15 dicembre 2015, n. 212

Attuazione della direttiva 2012/29/UE del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio, del 25 ottobre 2012, che istituisce norme minime in materia di diritti, assistenza e protezione delle vittime di reato e che sostituisce la decisione quadro 2001/220/GAI. (15G00221) (GU n.3 del 512016)

 

Stati Generali dell'Esecuzione Penale

# Tavolo n. 13 - Giustizia riparativa, mediazione e tutela delle vittime del reato. Coordinatore Grazia Mannozzi, docente Università degli Studi dell'Insubria (finale)
# Tavolo 13 - Giustizia riparativa, mediazione e tutela delle vittime del reato - Rapporto di medio termine

www.giustizia.it/ aggiornamento: 12 ottobre 2015

 

Thirteenth United Nations Congress on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice
# Workshop 4: Public contribution to crime prevention and raising awareness of criminal justice — experiences and lessons learned
Doha, 12-19 April 2015 - Background paper 2 February 2015

 

Senato - XVII legislatura
# Dossier del Servizio Studi sull'A.S. n. 925, 110, 111, 113 e 666-A "Deleghe al Governo in materia di pene detentive non carcerarie e di riforma del sistema sanzionatorio. Disposizioni in materia di sospensione del procedimento con messa alla prova e nei confronti degli irreperibili"

www.senato.it/ dicembre 2013 - n. 89

 

Michelle Girard, Etienne Mullet
# Development of the Forgiveness Schema in Adolescence
Universitas Psychologica, 11(4),2012 Oct.-Dic.
In summary, among adolescents aged 11 to 18, the cancellation of consequences factor and the intent factor appeared as the main situational determinants of willingness to forgive, and their effects were additively combined. A clear developmental change was observed regarding the balance of these factors: (a) The cancellation of consequences factor was stronger among younger adolescents than among older adolescents, and (b) The effect of the intention factor was stronger among older adolescents than among young ones.

 

UNODC
# Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice Reform | 2012 - 2015
www.unodc.org/ 20 June 2012

 

Hafnidar, L. Chang, H. Lin
# Forgiveness as a Mediator for the Relationship between Spirituality and Posttraumatic Growth in Aceh Conflict Victims, Indonesia
International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 2, No. 3, May 2012
People in Aceh are still suffering from a highly traumatic experience of Aceh conflict. As a religious community, Acehnese people believe that forgiveness is righteous. The purpose of the present study was to examine the mediational role of forgiveness on the relationship between spirituality and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Two hundred sixty-eight participants were recruited to complete the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), Heartland Forgiveness Scale (HFS), and the Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS). Results based on Sobel analyses revealed that forgiveness mediated the relationship between spirituality and PTG. Implications of these findings for future research on PTG and forgiveness are discussed.

 

Ministry of Justice
# Restorative Justice Action Plan for the Criminal Justice System
www.gov.uk/ November 2012

 

# Direttiva 2012/29/UE del Parlamento Europeo e del Consiglio dell'Unione Europea del 25 ottobre 2012 che istituisce norme minime in materia di diritti, assistenza e protezione delle vittime di reato e che sostituisce la decisione quadro 2001/220/GAI | English
«Giustizia riparativa»: qualsiasi procedimento che permette alla vittima e all'autore del reato di partecipare attivamente, se vi acconsentono liberamente, alla risoluzione delle questioni risultanti dal reato con l'aiuto di un terzo imparziale.

 

Restorative Justice Council
# Best Practice Guidance for Restorative Practice
www.restorativejustice.org.uk/ February 2011

 

# Raccomandazione R(2010)1 del Comitato dei Ministri del Consiglio d'Europa sulle Regole del Consiglio d'Europa in materia di Probation

 

European project ‘Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention’
# Restorative Justice and Crime Prevention. Presenting a theoretical exploration, an empirical analysis and the policy perspective
http://euforumrj.org/ April 2010

 

UNODC
# La giustizia nelle questioni che coinvolgono minori vittime e testimoni di reato
Nazioni Unite, New York, 2009

 

National Commission on Restorative Justice - Ireland
# Interim Report
http://www.justice.ie/ March 2008

 

European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ)
# Better implementation of mediation in the member States of the Council of Europe - Concrete rules and provisions
www.coe.int/ 2007

 

Julien Lhuillier | European commission for the efficiency of justice (CEPEJ) - Working Group on Mediation (CEPEJ-GT-MED)
# The Quality of Penal Mediation in Europe
Strasbourg, 22 August 2007

 

UNODC
# Alternatives to imprisonment and restorative justice | United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for Non-custodial Measures (the Tokyo Rules)
www.unodc.org/ 2006

 

European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ)
# Working group on mediation (CEPEJ-GT-MED) - Strasbourg, 8-10 March 2006 - Meeting report
https://wcd.coe.int/ Strasbourg, 22 March 2006 CEPEJ-GT-MED(2006)4

 

United Nations | Office on Drugs and Crime
# Handbook on Restorative justice programmes
www.unodc.org/ New York, 2006

 

26th Confrence of European Miniters of Justice (Helsinki, 7-8 April 2005)
# Resolution No 2 on The Social Mission of the Criminal Justice System - Restorative Justice

www.coe.int/ MJU-26 (2005) Resol. 2 Final

 

Commissione delle Comunità Europee
# Libro verde sul ravvicinamento, il reciproco riconoscimento e l’esecuzione delle sanzioni penali nell’Unione europea
Bruxelles, 30.04.2004 | COM(2004)334 definitivo

 

United Nations
# Basic principles on the use of restorative justice programmes in criminal matters
ECOSOC Resolution 2002/12

1. “Restorative justice programme” means any programme that uses restorative processes and seeks to achieve restorative outcomes. 2. “Restorative process” means any process in which the victim and the offender, and, where appropriate, any other individuals or community members affected by a crime, participate together actively in the resolution of matters arising from the crime, generally with the help of a facilitator. Restorative processes may include mediation, conciliation, conferencing and sentencing circles.

 

Gazzetta ufficiale delle Comunità europee
# Iniziativa del Regno del Belgio in vista dell'adozione di una decisione del Consiglio che istituisce
una rete europea di punti di contatto nazionali per la giustizia riparatoria (2002/C 242/09)

http://eur-lex.europa.eu/ 8.10.2002

 

Home Office
# Justice for All
www.cps.gov.uk/ July 2002
... Expanding the use of restorative justice schemes, where the offenders can meet with victims (should the victim wish to), community representatives and others to resolve how to deal with the aftermath of the offence and implications for the future. These can help the victim convey to the offender the consequences of their crime and influence the reparation which the offender makes for that crime ...

 

# New Zealand Sencencing Act 2002

 

Consiglio dell'Unione Europea
# Decisione Quadro del Consiglio del 15 marzo 2001 relativa alla posizione della vittima nel procedimento penale
Gazzetta ufficiale delle Comunità europee, 22.3.2001, L. 82/1
«Mediazione nelle cause penali»: la ricerca, prima o durante il procedimento penale, di una soluzione negoziata tra la vittima e l'autore del reato... Mediazione nell'ambito del procedimento penale: 1. Ciascuno Stato membro provvede a promuovere la mediazione nell'ambito dei procedimenti penali per i reati che esso ritiene idonei per questo tipo di misura. 2. Ciascuno Stato membro provvede a garantire che eventuali accordi raggiunti tra la vittima e l'autore del reato nel corso della mediazione nell'ambito dei procedimenti penali vengano presi in considerazione., con la mediazione di una persona competente...  

 

United Nations
# Vienna Declaration on Crime and Justice: Meeting the Challenges of the Twenty-first Century

Tenth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, Vienna, 10-17 April 2000
28. We encourage the development of restorative justice policies, procedures and programmes that are respectful of the rights, needs and interests of victims, offenders, communities and all other parties.

 

Council of EuropeCommittee of Ministers
# Recommendation No. R (99) 19 of the Committee of Ministers to member States concerning mediation in penal matters (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 15 September 1999 at the 679th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies)
www.coe.int/ 1999

# European Committee on Crime Problems (CDPC) -  Draft Recommendation No. R(99) … concerning mediation in penal matters - Memorandum

 

Council of Europe - Committee of Ministers
# Recommendation n. R(99)22 concerning prison overcrowding and prison population inflation (adopted on 30 September 1999)
wcd.coe.int/ 1999

 

Council of Europe Committee of Ministers
# Recommendation n. R(92) 16 - (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 19 october 1992 at the 482th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies) --> # IT

 

Council of Europe Committee of Ministers
# Recommendation n. R(87) 21 - (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 17 September 1987 at the 410th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies)
Dame Helen Reeves
# The relevance today of Recommendation N° R (87) 21 on assistance to victims and prevention of victimisation, www.coe.int/ Strasbourg, 16 January 2003

 

Council of Europe Committee of Ministers
# Recommendation n. R(87) 18 - (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 17 September 1987 at the 410th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies)

 

Council of Europe Committee of Ministers
# Recommendation n. R(85) 11 - (Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on  on 28 June 1985 at the 387th meeting of the Ministers' Deputies)

 

Consiglio d'Europa
# Convenzione europea relativa al risarcimento delle vittime di reati violenti
Strasburgo, 24 novembre 1983

 

Giustizia minorile

 

Valerie A. Earnshaw, Marc N. Elliott, Sari L. Reisner, Sylvie Mrug, Michael Windle,Susan Tortolero Emery, Melissa F. Peskin, Mark A. Schuster
# Peer Victimization, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use: A Longitudinal Analysis
Pediatrics, Volume 139, number 6, June 2017
Youth who experienced more frequent peer victimization in the fifth grade were more likely to use substances in the tenth grade, showing that experiences of peer victimization in early adolescence may have a lasting impact by affecting substance use behaviors during mid- to late adolescence. Interventions are needed to reduce peer victimization among youth and to support youth who have experienced victimization.

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# I Servizi della Giustizia minorile - Dati statistici
www.giustizia.it/ 15 febbraio 2017

 

Lloyd D. Johnston, Patrick M. O’Malley, Richard A. Miech, Jerald G. Bachman, John E. Schulenberg
# Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2016: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use
Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, January 2017
The 2016 MTF survey involved about 45,500 students in 8th-, 10th-, and 12th grades enrolled in 372 secondary schools nationwide. The first published results based on the 2016 survey are presented in this report. Recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs are emphasized, as well as trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug. This project has shown these beliefs and attitudes to be particularly important in explaining trends in use...

 

The Sentencing Project
# How Tough on Crime Became Tough on Kids: Prosecuting Teenage Drug Charges in Adult Courts
www.sentencingproject.org/ 2016
It is widely understood that serious offenses, such as homicide, often are tried in adult criminal courts. In fact, for as long as there have been juvenile courts, mechanisms have existed to allow the transfer of some youth into the adult system. During the early 1990s, under a set of faulty assumptions about a coming    eration of “super-predators,” 40 states passed legislation to send even more juveniles into the adult courts for a growing array of offenses and with fewer procedural protections...

 

Baiguera Altieri Andrea
# La riforma del diritto penale minorile in Canton Ticino
www.diritto.it/ 17 ottobre 2016

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità
# I Servizi della Giustizia minorile - Dati statistici
www.giustizia.it/ 15 ottobre 2016

 

La Giudice dell'Udienza Preliminare del Tribunale di Roma Paola Di Nicola
# Trib. Roma, 20 settembre 2016 (dep. 5 ottobre 2016), Est. Di Nicola

www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 7 ottobre 2016

Sentenza del Tribunale di Roma sul risarcimento, in un caso di prostituzione minorile, mediante acquisto in favore della vittima di opere sulla condizione femminile

 

Center for American Progress (CAP)
# Unjust: How the Broken Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems Fail LGBTQ Youth
www.lgbtmap.org/ August 2016
LGBTQ youth are overrepresented in juvenile detention centers: the percentage of LGBT and gender nonconforming youth in juvenile detention is double that of LGBTQ youth in the general population. LGBTQ youth, particularly LGBTQ youth of color, face discrimination and stigma that lead to criminalization and increased interactions with law enforcement and the criminal justice system.

 

Consiglio Superiore della Magistratura
# Parere del CSM sul ddl "Delega al Governo per la soppressione del tribunale per i minorenni e dell’ufficio del pubblico ministero presso il tribunale per i minorenni"
Delibera consiliare del 13 luglio 2016

 

Barbara A. Oudekerk, Rachel E. Morgan
# Co-Offending Among Adolescents in Violent Victimizations, 2004–13
Bureau of Justice Statistics, July 2016
From 2004 to 2013, the simple assault victimizing rate decreased 36% among adolescents who acted alone. Adolescents who acted alone committed 34.1 victimizations per 1,000 in 2004, which decreased to 21.8 simple assaults per 1,000 adolescents in 2013. During the same period, the rate of simple assaults committed by adolescents who co-offended with other adolescents increased 72%, from 6.9 to 11.8 simple assaults per 1,000 adolescents. The simple assault victimizing rate among adolescents who acted with young adults did not change significantly from 2004 to 2013.

 

Dipartimento Giustizia minorile e di comunità | Maria Stefania Totaro, Viviana Condrò, Monica Nolfo, Irene Pergolini
# Analisi dei flussi di utenza dei Servizi della Giustizia Minorile. Anno 2015
Roma, giugno 2016

 

Silvio Civello Conigliaro
# Alle origini del giusto processo minorile europeo. Una prima lettura della Direttiva 2016/800/UE sulle garanzie procedurali dei minori indagati o imputati nei procedimenti penali
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 13 Giugno 2016

# Direttiva (UE) 2016/800 del Parlamento Europeo e del Consiglio dell'11 maggio 2016 sulle garanzie procedurali per i minori indagati o imputati nei procedimenti penali, Gazzetta Ufficiale dell'Unione Europea, 21.5.2016

 

Anlan Zhang, Lauren Musu-Gillette, Barbara A. Oudekerk | BJS - National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)
# Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2015
www.bjs.gov/ May 2016
In 2013, approximately 3 percent of students ages 12–18 reported being victimized at school during the previous 6 months. Two percent of students reported theft, 1 percent reported violent victimization, and less than one-half of 1 percent reported serious violent victimization. Between 1995 and 2013, the percentage of students ages 12–18 who reported being victimized at school decreased overall, as did the percentages of students who reported theft, violent victimization, and serious violent victimization...  In 2013, about 27,600 criminal incidents on campuses at postsecondary institutions were reported to police and security agencies, representing an 8 percent decrease from 2012 (29,800 incidents). The number of on-campus crimes reported per 10,000 full-time-equivalent students also decreased, from 19.8 in 2012 to 18.4 in 2013.

 

Parlamento Europeo
# Stesse garanzie per i minori nei processi penali in tutta l'UE
Sessioni plenarie [09-03-2016]

Risoluzione legislativa del Parlamento europeo del 9 marzo 2016 sulla proposta di direttiva del Parlamento europeo e del Consiglio sulle garanzie procedurali per i minori indagati o imputati in procedimenti penali (COM(2013)0822 – C7- 428/2013 – 2013/0408(COD)) (Procedura legislativa ordinaria: prima lettura)

 

Trevor Fronius, Hannah Persson, Sarah Guckenburg, Nancy Hurley, Anthony Petrosino
# Restorative Justice in U.S. Schools: A Research Review
http://jprc.wested.org/ February 2016
This report presents information garnered from a comprehensive review of the literature on restorative justice (RJ) in U.S. schools. The purpose of our review is to capture key issues, describe models of RJ, and summarize results from studies conducted in the field. The review was conducted on research reports and other relevant literature published, or made publicly available, between 1999 and mid-2014

 

J.O.D.A. Juvenile Offenders Detention Alternative in Europe
# Misure alternative alla detenzione per minorenni autori di reato in Europa. Indicazioni di buone pratiche
International Juvenile Justice Observatory (IJJO), February 2016
Esiste il bisogno di sostenere in modo continuo la ricerca sull’adozione delle misure alternative a vari livelli, in modo tale da ottenere dati concreti ed affidabili. Questo prevede non solo l’effettuazione di monitoraggi e valutazioni sul funzionamento dei vari specifici interventi, ma anche il supporto alla ricerca sullo sviluppo dell’adolescente, comprese le ricerche neuroscientifiche sullo sviluppo del cervello.

 

Ramona R. Rantala, Allen J. Beck
# Survey of Sexual Violence in Juvenile Correctional Facilities, 2007–12 - Statistical Tables
http://www.bjs.gov/ January 2016

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile
# Dati statistici
www.giustizia.it/ 30 novembre 2015

 

Agenzia dell’Unione europea per i diritti fondamentali (FRA) e Consiglio d'Europa
# Manuale di diritto europeo in materia di diritti dell’infanzia e dell’adolescenza
Agenzia dell’Unione europea per i diritti fondamentali e Consiglio d’Europa, 2015
Il presente manuale sul diritto europeo in materia di diritti dell’infanzia e dell’adolescenza
nasce da una redazione congiunta dell’Agenzia dell’Unione europea per i diritti fondamentali (FRA) e del Consiglio d’Europa con la cancelleria della Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo... I minori sono titolari di diritti a pieno titolo. Il presente manuale pertanto mira a sensibilizzare e migliorare le conoscenze delle norme di legge che proteggono e promuovono questi diritti in Europa...

 

Jesuit Social Services
# Too much too young: Building a Just Society
http://sjapc.net/ October 2015
Currently in all Australian jurisdictions children as young as ten are considered to be criminally responsible at law and are subject to criminal hearings and sanctions in Children’s Courts. Yet evidence about brain development shows that the brains of children under 12 are not sufficiently developed to enable them to have the necessary skills for full criminal responsibility – and that these skills do not adequately develop in many children until around 15. For this reason, the United Nations has ruled that age 12 is an absolute minimum for jurisdictions to hold children criminally responsible.

 

J. McLeod
# Strategies For Improving Outcomes for Justice-Involved Youth
Governors Association Center for Best Practices, June 15, 2015

One stud found that among youth with similar backgrounds, those incarcerated as juveniles were 38 times more likely to reoffend as adults. Even limited contact with the system, such as through arrest, can decrease the odds of high school graduation by more than 70 percent. Poor educational outcomes, in turn, lead to poor employment prospects. Youths incarcerated before age 20 are more likely to be unemployed and have lower wages a decade or more after incarceration

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la giustizia Minorile
# Dati statitici - 31 maggio 2015
www.giustiziaminorile.it/
La criminalità minorile è connotata dalla prevalenza dei reati contro il patrimonio e, in particolare, dei reati di furto e rapina. Frequenti sono anche le violazioni delle disposizioni in materia di sostanze stupefacenti, mentre tra i reati contro la persona prevalgono le lesioni personali volontarie

 

Autorità Garante per l’Infanzia e l’Adolescenza – CISMAI – Fondazione Terre des Hommes Italia,
# Indagine nazionale sul maltrattamento dei bambini e degli adolescenti in Italia. Risultati e Prospettive
www.terredeshommes.it/ 2015
La raccolta dei dati e il monitoraggio sul fenomeno del maltrattamento all’infanzia costituiscono uno strumento indispensabile per la conoscenza del fenomeno, l’adozione di efficaci politiche di contrasto e prevenzione, la misurazione dei risultati di queste politiche. Già # l’Organizzazione Mondiale della Sanità (OMS), nel suo primo rapporto su violenza e salute, richiamava la necessità di un approccio di salute pubblica alla violenza, fondato su una “rigorosa impostazione del metodo scientifico”, che aveva come primo step l’individuazione della “maggiore quantità di conoscenze di base relative a tutti gli aspetti della violenza – attraverso una sistematica raccolta dei dati sulle dimensioni, la portata, le caratteristiche e le conseguenze della violenza a livello locale, nazionale e internazionale”.

 

John Pitts
# Youth Crime and Youth Justice 2015–2020
Youth & Policy, 2015
The substantial over-representation of Black African Caribbean prisoners in Young Offender Institutions (YOIs) has been a hotly debated feature of the English justice system for several decades. An analysis conducted by the Ministry of Justice in 2012 found that, for comparable offences, Black and Asian defendants were almost 20% more likely to be sent to jail than their white counterparts. Moreover, the average prison sentence for Black defendants was seven months longer than for whites.

 

Terry Fain, Susan Turner, Sarah Michal Greathouse
# Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act. Fiscal Year 2013-2014 Report
www.rand.org/ Rand Corporation 2015
California's Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act was designed to provide a stable funding source for juvenile programs that have proven effective in curbing crime among at-risk and young offenders. It provides funds to counties to add evidence-based programs and services for juvenile probationers identified with higher needs for special services than those identified for routine probationers, at-risk youth who have not entered the probation system but who live or attend school in areas of high crime or who have other factors that potentially predispose them to criminal activities, and youth in juvenile halls and camps.

 

Justice des enfants & des adolescents
# Chifres clés
www.justice.gouv.fr/ Février 2015
Les mineurs impliqués dans une affaire pénale représentent une faible proportion des enfants et des adolescents : ils étaient 234 000 en 2013, soit 3,6% des 6,5 millions de mineurs âgés de 10 à 17 ans. En 2013, parmi les 234 000 mineurs impliqués dans des affaires pénales, près de la moitié (47%) avaient 16 ou 17 ans. Les statistiques relatives aux condamnations des jeunes ne révèlent aucun rajeunissement de la délinquance : depuis 30 ans, on observe que le nombre de condamnés selon l’âge est stable. En 2013, les moins de 13 ans ne représentaient que 3% des mineurs condamnés.

 

Frieder Dünkel, Philip Horsfield, Andrea Păroşanu (Eds.)
# Research and Selection of the Most Effective Juvenile Restorative Justice Practices in Europe. Snapshots from 28 EU Member States
International Juvenile Justice Observatory - European Council for Juvenile Justice, 2015

 

Jason P. Nance
# Students, Police, and the School-To-Prison Pipeline
Wash. U. L. Rev, vol. 93, 2015
Students’ increased involvement with the justice system is part of a growing concern that many dub the “school-to- prison pipeline.” The term “school-to-prison pipeline” (“Pipeline”) connotes the intersection of the K–12 public education system and law enforcement and the trend of referring students directly to law enforcement for ommitting offenses at school or creating conditions that increase the probability of students being arrested, such as suspending or expelling them.

 

Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Katherine Jackson, Tony Hodgson, Eilish Gilvarry, Paul Cassidy, Simon Coulton, Vicky Ryan, Graeme B. Wilson, Ruth McGovern, Eileen Kaner
# Alcohol-related risk and harm amongst young offenders aged 11-17
www.emeraldinsight.com/ International Journal of Prisoner Health,  Vol. 11 Iss 2, 2015

The purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) amongst young people in the criminal justice system (CJS) in the North East of England and to compare the ability of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to the Youth Justice Board ASSET tool in identifying alcohol-related need in Youth Offending Team (YOT) clients...

 

Commission on Youth, Public Safety and Justice
# Final Report of the Governor's Commission on Youth, Public Safety and Justice. Recommendations for Juvenile Justice Reform in New York State
www.governor.ny.gov/ 2015
Victim-offender mediation and community service have shown a reduction in recidivism rates in participants. In one study, victim-offender rehabilitation programs’ participants showed recidivism reductions of at least 10 percent in five out of six sites. “Recidivism rates ranged from 21 percent to 105 percent lower than those of the comparison groups at these five sites.”

 

Istat
# I giovani nelle strutture minorili della giustizia - Anno 2013
www.istat.it/ 29 dicembre 2014

 

Aaron J. Curtis
# Tracing the School-to-Prison Pipeline from Zero-Tolerance Policies to Juvenile Justice Dispositions
The Georgetown Law Journal, 2014
This young man’s story represents a troubling trend in the U.S. education system. In recent years, schools have attempted to combat school violence and other behavioral problems by instituting harsh disciplinary policies and referring students to law enforcement. Civil rights advocates argue that these practices push students, especially students of color, “out of school and into the juvenile and criminal justice systems.” The process has come to be known as the school-to-prison pipeline.

 

U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights
# Civil Rights Data Collection: Data Snapshot (School Discipline)
http://ocrdata.ed.gov/ March 21, 2014

 

European Commission and the Council of Europe | Matina Magkou (co-ordinator of the editorial team)
# Perspectives on youth. Volume 1. 2020 – what do YOU see?
http://pjp-eu.coe.int/ February 2014

 

Barry Goldson
# Youth justice in a changing Europe: crisis conditions and alternative visions
http://pjp-eu.coe.int/ 2014
So, what will be the shape and nature of youth justice in Europe in 2020? If politicians and policy makers heed the messages from research, they will combine humanity with pragmatism in constructing an approach underpinned by a substantial welfare state that commands trust and enjoys legitimacy, that limits intervention and maximises diversion and, ultimately, that avoids the calamitous practices of youth imprisonment...

 

Marta Munoz De Morales Romero
# La responsabilità penale dei minori nella giurisdizione minorile spagnola
Diritto e Giustizia Minorile, 1/2014

Le cosiddette quattro “D” (cioè depenalizzazione, degiuridicizzazione, diversificazione e deistituzionalizzazione), la creazione di un sistema progressivo di giustizia minorile, la reintegrazione e il rispetto dei diritti fondamentali sono diventati progressivamente gli assi centrali del diritto penale minorile. Tuttavia per il recepimento di tali direttive si è dovuto tuttavia attendere fino alla legge organica 5/2000, regolatrice della responsabilità penale dei minori e alla sua regolamentazione attuativa (1774/2004), che ha disciplinato i profili organizzativi (polizia giudiziaria e team tecnico), nonché l’esecuzione delle misure detentive oltreché il regime disciplinare dei centri d’internamento dei minori.

 

Kerrin C. Wolf
# Booking Students: An Analysis of School Arrests and Court Outcomes
http://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/ Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy, Fall 2013

... The analysis reveals three troubling trends that have important policy implications. First, the use of arrests in response to student misbehavior has resulted in a great number of students being arrested for minor misbehaviors. Second, a highly disproportionate rate of black students faced arrests for their behavior in school, and female students seemed to experience differential treatment. Third, the juvenile justice system is forced to devote its scarce resources to processing a high volume of minor school arrests, a plurality of which lead to diversionary services that could have been offered directly through schools in a much more efficient manner.

 

Ministry of Justice
# Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2012. A Ministry of Justice publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991
www.gov.uk/ November 2013
Between 2008/09 and 2011/12, arrests of juveniles (those aged between 10 and 17) decreased across all ethnic groups, while arrests of adults (those aged 18 or older) decreased for most ethnic groups. However, the number of arrests for White individuals (both juveniles and adults) have decreased at a higher rate than arrests of the BAME groups (except adults from the Chinese or other ethnic group) in this period: o For juveniles, there was a decrease of 42% in arrests of White juveniles, compared with decreases of 15% for Black juveniles, 30% for Asian juveniles, 25% for juveniles from the Mixed ethnic group and 26% for juveniles from the Chinese or Other ethnic group. 

 

Department of Justice Canada
# Youth Criminal Justice Act: Summary and Background
www.justice.gc.ca/ 2013
The Youth Criminal Justice Act is the law that governs Canada’s youth justice system. It applies to youth who are at least 12 but under 18 years old, who are alleged to have committed criminal offences.

 

MMWR - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
# Homicide Rates Among Persons Aged 10–24 Years — United States, 1981–2010
www.cdc.gov/mmwr/ July 12, 2013
For the past three decades, homicide has been a leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults in the United States. The findings in this report demonstrate that homicide rates among persons aged 10–24 years varied substantially over time but showed a decline from 1994 through 2010. Changes in the overall homicide rate for this age group during the 30-year study period primarily reflect variations in homicide rates for the groups at highest risk (i.e., males, persons aged 20–24, and blacks)

 

Istat
# I minorenni nelle strutture della giustizia. Anno 2011
www.istat.it/ 2 luglio 2013
Sono 20.157 i minorenni autori di reato presi in carico nell’anno 2011 dagli Uffici di Servizio Sociale per i Minorenni. Nei Centri di prima accoglienza si contano 2.343 ingressi, nelle Comunità 1.926, in Istituti penali per i minorenni 1.246. Le principali aree geografiche da cui provengono i minori stranieri segnalati dall’Autorità Giudiziaria sono la Romania, il Marocco e la Tunisia, anche se con forti differenze di genere... La maggior parte delle ragazze proviene infatti dalla Romania, dalla Croazia, dalla Bosnia Erzegovina e dalla Serbia. I minori assistiti sono nell’83,8% dei casi italiani e nel 90% maschi. Più della metà ha 16-17 anni (51,8%), il 27,2% 18-215 e il 20,6% 14-15 anni. I 14-17enni presi in carico sono 14.600, pari allo 0,6% del totale della popolazione minorile residente in Italia in questa fascia di età.

 

Sebastiano Pennisi
# Devianza e giustizia penale minorile
Journal of Educational, Cultural and Psychological Studies (ECPS Journal), 7/2013
Il fenomeno dell'antisocialità del minorenne è, genericamente e comprensivamente, inglobato nel concetto di «devianza», intesa da un lato quale consolidato rifiuto di valori, di obiettivi, di regole sociali e dall'altro di violazione di norme fondamentali che inibiscono lo sviluppo della persona e ostacolano la stessa convivenza sociale allorché sfociano in vere e proprie condotte criminali.

 

Delphine Theobald, David P. Farrington, Alex R. Piquero
# Childhood broken homes and adult violence: An analysis of moderators and mediators
Journal of Criminal Justice 41 (2013) 44–52
With regard to broken homes, we are interested in identifying what circumstances and for whom experiencing a family breakdown led to a violent conviction. We can test this moderator effect using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), which tests the differential effect of the predictor variable on the outcome variable as a function of the moderator...

 

JunSung Hong,Joseph P. Ryan, Yu-Ling Chiu, Bushra Sabri
# Re-Arrest Among Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth: An Examination of the Static and Dynamic Risk Factors
Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 30:131–148, 2013
The purpose of this study is to investigate the static and dynamic risk factors for re-arrest among detained youth by examining gender, race/ethnicity, age, special education, and mental health variables (i.e., anger/irritability, depression/anxiety, somatic complaints, suicide ideation, thought disturbances, and traumatic experiences). The demographic profiles of detained youth with one admit were also compared with those with multiple admits to the juvenile detention center. With regard to static risk factors, older, White, and special education were significantly at risk of re-arrest. Concerning dynamic risk factors, only anger/irritability predicted re-arrest. Practice implications are also discussed.

 

Karen M. Abram, Linda A. Teplin, Devon C. King, Sandra L. Longworth, Kristin M. Emanuel, Erin G. Romero, Gary M. McClelland, Mina K. Dulcan, Jason J. Washburn, Leah J. Welty, Nichole D. Olson
# PTSD, Trauma, and Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Youth
www.ojjdp.gov/ Juvenile Justice Bulletin, June 2013
Each year there are approximately 2.11 million arrests of youth, accounting for 16 percent of all violent crime and 26 percent of all property crime arrests (Puzzanchera, 2009). On a typical day, approximately 81,000 youth are detained (Sickmund, 2010). The number of youth with psychiatric disorders in the juvenile justice system is a considerable public health problem. Two-thirds of males and three-quarters of females in juvenile detention have one or more psychiatric disorders...

 

Holly A. Wilson, Robert D. Hoge
# The Effect of Youth Diversion Programson Recidivism. A Meta-Analytic Review
Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol. 40, No. 5, May 2013, 497-518
Pre- and postcharge diversion programs have been used as a formal intervention strategy for youth offenders since the 1970s. This meta-analysis was conducted to shed some light on whether diversion reduces recidivism at a greater rate than traditional justice system processing and to explore aspects of diversion programs associated with greater reductions in recidivism. Forty-five diversion evaluation studies reporting on 73 programs were included in the meta-analysis. The results indicated that diversion is more effective in reducing recidivism than conventional judicial interventions. Moderator analysis revealed that both study- and program-level variables influenced program effectiveness. Of particular note was the relationship between program-level variables (e.g., referral level) and the risk level targeted by programs (e.g., low or medium/high). Further research is required implementing strong research designs and exploring the role of risk level on youth diversion effectiveness.

 

Isabella Mastropasqua
# I ragazzi stranieri nel sistema della giustizia minorile italiana
Rassegna Italiana di Criminologia, A, VIII, n. 4, 2013
Il tema della devianza degli stranieri si connota di tratti particolari quando si riferisce alla devianza degli adolescenti. In questo articolo vengono evidenziati sia i numeri che i tratti che definiscono la specificità del fenomeno . I ragazzi stranieri che commettono reati nel nostro paese sono infatti un universo variegato: minori non accompagnati, di prima e seconda generazione, nomadi, comunitari e non. Ognuna di queste categorie racconta percorsi diversi accomunati dalla fatica di sentirsi parte integrante del nostro paese, dalla esposizione a medesimi fattori di rischio. Di contro le risposte penali, seppure evidenziando segnali di cambiamento, mostrano ancora la fatica del sistema della giustizia minorile a farsi carico dei ragazzi stranieri...

 

Amélie Petitclerc, Uberto Gatti, Frank Vitaro, Richard E. Tremblay
# Effects of juvenile court exposure on crime in young adulthood
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 54:3 (2013), pp 291–297
Rather than decreasing recidivism, juvenile court intervention increased both violent and nonviolent future crimes. Along with previous studies, this study highlights a pressing need for more research and knowledge transfer about effective interventions to reduce recidivism among youths who commit crime. 

 

Piercarlo Pazé
# Il sistema della giustizia penale minorile in Italia
Rassegna Italiana di Criminologia, A, VIII, n. 4, 2013
L’autore fa un bilancio dell’attuale sistema della giustizia penale minorile italiana, a venticinque anni dalla riforma del 1988, che prevedeva una forte connotazione educativa del processo e delle misure per i minorenni, evidenzia le potenzialità che erano presenti nelle novità introdotte dalla riforma ed analizza i ritardi e le difficoltà che devono essere superate per giungere ad un sistema capace di contenere la devianza giovanile e di rispondere ai bisogni dei soggetti coinvolti.

 

European Forum for Urban Security
# EU Street Violence. Bande giovanili e violenza nello spazio pubblico
http://streetviolence.eu/ 2013
La specificità particolare del fenomeno dei gruppi giovanili problematici consiste nel fatto che si devono prendere in considerazione gli individui, il gruppo e il contesto territoriale. Affrontare il problema delle bande richiede pertanto un approccio a tre livelli; individuale, di gruppo e del territorio

 

Grant Duwe, Valerie Clark
# The Effects of Minnesota Prison-Based Educational Programming on Recidivism and Employment
www.doc.state.mn.us/ April 2013
Several studies have linked poor academic performance among adolescents to juvenile delinquency and future offending, although the direction of the causal relationship remains unclear. A large proportion of adult offenders lack their General Educational Development (GED) or (HS) high school diploma. Although corrections administrators usually value educational programming, these programs require funding from prison budgets that have not kept pace with growing prison populations and operations costs.

 

Department of Justice and Attorney General - Youth Justice - Queensland
# Evidence informing the youth boot camp program models
www.justice.qld.gov.au/ February 2013
Military style boot camps have been found to produce positive, short-term attitude change among offenders. Their impact on offending behaviour, however, has been mixed. Some studies have reported that boot camp participants have lower rates of subsequent offending than non-participants, other studies have found no difference in the rate of re-offending among participants and non-participants, and a third group of studies have found participation in boot camps may increase the risk of re-offending among some young people. 

 

Anthony Petrosino, Carolyn Turpin-Petrosino, Sarah Guckenburg
# Formal System Processing of Juveniles: Effects on Delinquency
Crime Prevention Research Review, No. 9, February 2013
This review, which examined the results of 29 randomized controlled trials, finds no evidence that formally moving juveniles through the juvenile justice system has a crime control effect. In fact, all analyses showed an average main effect that was negative: i.e., processing increased delinquency. This was consistent not only across measures of prevalence, incidence, severity, and self-report but also regardless of whether looking at the first or longest time interval the crime measure was reported. A moderating analysis examining the type of diversionary alternative indicated that processing was not as effective as “doing nothing” (i.e., diversion without services) and was even more negative when diversion was coupled with some type of service or intervention (i.e., diversion with services).  

 

Ministry of Justice Statistics bulletin
# Statistical bulletin on the public disorder of 6th to 9th August 2011 – September 2012 update
www.gov.uk/ 13 September 2012
Of those brought before the courts for offences related to the public disorder, 27 per cent were aged 10-17 (juveniles) and a further 26 per cent were aged 18-20. Only five per cent of those appearing before the courts for the disorder were aged 40 or over. This is different to the age distribution of those appearing before the courts for similar offences in 2010 when the proportion of juveniles was 16 per cent, the proportion of 18-20 year olds was 15 per cent and the proportion  aged 40 or over was 15 per cent.

 

Workshop at Yale Law School | Hope Metcalf, Sia Sanneh
# Overcriminalization and Excessive Punishment: Uncoupling Pipelines to Prison
http://www.law.yale.edu/ July 2012
The conversation then turned to the idea that police and judges may place children in the criminal justice system because it is one of the very few places to access services.  Many children, therefore, may be enmeshed in the criminal justice system not primarily because they have committed a chargeable offense, but because they have unmet needs.  One explanation is that the system conflates high risk and high needs.  Social workers put children in detention to save or to protect them but they do not perceive that this option can itself be criminogenic.  

 

Leena Augimeri, Margaret Walsh, Sarah Woods, Depeng Jiang
# Risk Assessment and Clinical Risk Management for Young Antisocial Children: The Forgotten Group
Universitas Psychologica, 11(4), 1147-1156, 2012
Centre for Children Committing Offences (CCCO), at Child Development Institute (CDI) in Toronto, Canada, developed Early Assessment Risk Lists  (EARL-20B for boys; EARL-21G for girls), for young children at-risk for future criminality. In this first EARL prospective longitudinal study, 573 boys and 294 girls who participated in SNAP, a gender-specific evidencebased model for at-risk children (6-11 years), 8.2% of boys and 3.1% of girls had registered criminal offences at follow up (mean age 14.9 and 14.6 respectively). EARL Total, Family, Child, and Responsivity domain scores, including two gender-specific risk items and Overall Clinical Judgment predicted early onset of criminal activity. Findings suggest that gender-sensitive clinical risk assessment and management tools are important for effectively identifying and potentially reducing criminal outcomes.

 

David M. Ramey
# The Social Control of Childhood Behavior via Criminalization or Medicalization: Why Race Matters
The Ohio State University, 2014
Recent rates of school suspension and expulsion have increased more than 33 percent and nearly one in four American boys will have been suspended or expelled from school at least once by the time they reach 10th grade (Bertrand and Pan 2013). Alongside this increase in the use of suspensions and expulsions, the numbers of diagnosed cases of ADHD increased by almost 400% and prescriptions for stimulant drugs, often marketed as treatment for the growing number of behavioral and conduct disorders, have increased tenfold...

 

Marilyn Armour | North East Independent School District
# Ed White Middle School Restorative Discipline Evaluation: Implementation and Impact, 2012/2013. Sixth Grade
www.utexas.edu/ 2012-2013
The purpose of this evaluation study is to assess the process and outcomes of the first-year implementation of a school-wide restorative justice intervention for discipline at Ed White Middle School in San Antonio, Texas. Restorative Discipline is proactive approach to discipline management that seeks to redress bullying and the disproportionate assignment of suspensions and Disciplinary Alternative Education Programs (DAEP) among minority students. Instead of viewing misbehavior as a violation of rules and authority, Restorative Discipline seeks to change our views of student misconduct and in doing so impacts bullying and other infractions. As such it uses a relationship perspective where the focus is on the culture of the school and the violation of people and relationships.

 

Joseph Murray, David P. Farrington, and Ivana Sekol
# Children’s Antisocial Behavior, Mental Health, Drug Use, and Educational Performance After Parental Incarceration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Psychological Bulletin, 2012, Vol. 138, No. 2, 175–210
Children with incarcerated parents have been referred to as the “forgotten victims” of crime (Matthews, 1983), the “orphans of justice” (Shaw, 1992a) and the “unseen victims of the prison boom” (Petersilia, 2005, p. 34). They can experience multiple emotional and social difficulties during their parent’s incarceration, which may develop into a range of adjustment problems in the long term. This article describes key aspects of children’s experiences during parental incarceration and reports results from a systematic review and meta-analysis on the associations between parental incarceration and children’s later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and low educational performance.

 

John W. Bailie III
# Power and Authority in the Student-Instructor Relationship in a Restorative Practices-Based Graduate Program
www.iirp.edu/ Lesley University, 2012

 

Francesca Arancio, Diego Grassedonio, Annapaola Specchio | Save the Children Italia
# Just Juvenile Justice. Manuale di presentazione dei metodi di intervento
images.savethechildren.it/ Settembre 2011
Il Manuale mira a fornire una descrizione dei principali metodi di intervento individuati dai partner progettuali fra quelli ritenuti maggiormente idonei a favorire la prevenzione della recidiva e a promuovere il reinserimento sociale dei minori coinvolti nel circuito penale, con particolare attenzione ai minori stranieri (in Italia e Grecia).

 

Ann Skelton
# From Cook County to Pretoria: A Long Walk to Justice for Children
Northwestern Journal of Law and Social Policy, vol. 6, Spring 2011
The turn of the twentieth century has again been a time for renewal. The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen positive developments for child offenders in both countries. The cases of Roper, Graham, and Sullivan in the United States, and the case of Centre for Child Law v. Minister of Justice in South Africa indicate recognition from the highest courts that children are different from adults; they are less mature, less culpable, and need to be treated in accordance with that reality. The work is not complete. Child rights and criminal justice campaigners in both countries must strive to steer a more restorative, proportionate response to child offenders.

 

Cristina Oddone, Luca Queirolo Palmas
# Dalle gang al carcere: vissuti della detenzione
Studi sulla questione criminale, VI, n. 1, 2011, pp. 43-64
Se la strada, come luogo ed esperienza dell’esclusione ma anche del protagonismo, produce il carcere, anche il carcere – esperienza massiva per i giovani che hanno frequentato a Genova e Milano la cultura delle gang – produce la strada, riversando in essa corpi trasformati, etiche e visioni del mondo. Dovremmo dunque apprendere a leggere il carcere in una società postmigratoria nelle sue funzioni di specchio – specchio della costruzione di una categoria di soggetti come nemici e barbari – ma anche nelle sua funzione prisma, di produzione del sociale e di riversamento in esso di corpi e habitus trattati e ricostituiti dall’inflizione della pena e dal protagonismo dei detenuti. 

 

Matthew W. Burris
# Mississippi and the School-To-Prison Pipeline
Widener Journal of Law, Economics & Race, vol. 3, 2011
The “School-to-Prison Pipeline” (STPP) refers to the framework of the United States school system that, by design, pushes students out of public schools through suspension or expulsion and into a juvenile detention facility or prison. The popularity of this practice recently exploded as a result of “zero-tolerance” policies, high-stakes testing, and state laws tying school funding to property taxes. Unfortunately, the students most affected by the STPP are the students in need of the most help, including students living in low-income or homeless conditions, minority students, students learning the English language, and students with disabilities.

 

David J. Deming
# Better Schools, Less Crime?
The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011) 126, 2063–2111
In this article I estimate the longer-term impact on adult crime of winning an admissions lottery to attend a better middle or high school. I find that winning the lottery greatly reduces crime, and the impact is concentrated among the highest risk youth in the sample. The impacts persist beyond the years of school enrollment, 7 years after random assignment. The findings suggest that schools may be a particularly important setting for the prevention of future crime. Many high-risk youth in the sampledropout of school at a veryyoungageandareincarcerated for serious crimes prior to the age of high school graduation. For these youth on the margins of society, public schools may present the best opportunity to intervene...

 

Charlotte Walsh
# Youth Justice and Neuroscience. A Dual-Use Dilemma
Brit. J. Criminol. (2011) 51, 21–39
Neuroscience is rapidly increasing comprehension of the human brain. This paper considers its prospective relevance to youth justice policy. In the United States, neuroscientific findings have been co-opted as a liberalizing tool. The parallel lure of these studies in the United Kingdom is foreseeable, given how they plausibly mesh with arguments in support of raising the age of criminal responsibility, along with bolstering policies of de-carceration and diversion. However, caution should be exercised: neuroscience can be used in ways that both contribute to human flourishing, along with potentially diminishing it. In science, this is a well recognized quandary, referred to as the dual-use dilemma. More problematically, neuroscience could be utilized to ‘prove’ poor parenting, to ‘predict’ future criminality.

 

Lizbet Simmons
# Buying Into Prisons, and Selling Kids Short
The Modern American, vol. 6, 2010
Zero-tolerance policies sponsor exclusionary school disciplinary practices, such as suspension and expulsion. Because these policies do not allow for discretion, even minor offenses can be deemed intolerable. Fairly recently, an adolescent boy with a hyperactive diagnosis was punished under a zero-tolerance policy for saying during a cafeteria conversation, “I am going to get you,” to classmates whom he suspected of eating potatoes intended for him.22 The child was suspended from school, placed in the custody of the local police, charged with “terrorist threats,” and incarcerated for two weeks while awaiting his trial...

 

Yves Cartuyvels, Fr. Bailleau, D. Defraene
# The criminalisation of youth and current trends: the sentencing game
In: Cartuyvels Y., Bailleau Fr. (dir.), The Criminalization of Youth. Juvenile Justice in Europe, Turkey and Canada, VUBpress : Brussels 2010, p. 7-27

 

Kath Cronin­Lampe, Ron Cronin­Lampe
# Developing a restorative school culture: The blending of a personal and professional ‘pilgrimage’
www.pilgrimpractices.co.nz/ Explorations: An E-Journal of Narrative Practice, 2010, Issue 1, 14–33. 

 

UCLA School of Law
# The Impact of Prosecuting Youth in the Adult Criminal Justice System. A Review of the Literature
www.campaignforyouthjustice.org/ July 2010

 

Willie McCarney
# A Restorative Justice Approach to Working with Children in Residential Care
Law&Justice Review, Volume:1, Issue: 1, September 2010

 

Stephen Machin, Olivier Marie, Sunčica Vujić
# The Crime Reducing Effect of Education
Discussion Paper No. 5000, June 2010

Making the assumption that an extra year of schooling at age 16 is equivalent to obtaining an educational qualification, we estimate that this would cost a little under £22 million to achieve a one percent change in this population. This leaves us with a net social benefit in terms of crime reduction of between £87 and 32 million ...

 

Tiggey May, Tracey Gyateng, Mike Hough, Bina Bhardwa, Isabella Boyce, Juan-Carlos Oyanedel | Institute for Criminal Policy Research
# Differential treatment in the youth justice system
www.equalityhumanrights.com/ Spring 2010
The study confirms that ethnic minority youngsters are disproportionally present in all stages of the youth justice system and that elements of discrimination are still evident. A greater proportion of young people are drawn into the youth justice system through reactive policing than through proactive policing tactics such as stop and search. However arrests through proactive policing still account for a significant minority of the total, leaving ample scope for differential policing to shape inflows into the system.

 

Daniele Cologna, Elena Granata e Christian Novak | Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli
# Approssimandosi. Vita e luoghi dei giovani di seconda generazione a Torino
www.codiciricerche.it/ 2010
Nei racconti dei giovani che si trovano trapiantati in un nuovo contesto di vita la descrizione del primo impatto con Torino e con la realtà dell’emigrazione è spesso caratterizzata da sconcerto, meraviglia e da un certo livello di ansia, soprattutto man mano che si prende coscienza del fatto che non soltanto ci si deve misurare con realtà nuova e quasi sempre del tutto sconosciuta, ma anche dell’amara constatazione ben presto ci si trova cucita addosso una nuova “pelle sociale”, quella dello “straniero che si deve integrare”

 

Anthony Petrosino, Carolyn Turpin-Petrosino, Sarah Guckenburg
# Formal System Processing of Juveniles: Effects on Delinquency
Campbell Systematic Reviews, 29 January, 2010

Justice practitioners have tremendous discretion on how to handle juvenile offenders. Police officers, district attorneys, juvenile court intake officers, juvenile and family court judges, and other officials can decide whether the juvenile should be “officially processed” by the juvenile justice system, diverted from the system to a program, counseling or some other services, or to do nothing at all (release the juvenile altogether). An important policy question is which strategy leads to the best outcomes for juveniles.

 

Eleonora Riva
# Cambiamenti sociali e ricostruzione del sé : un percorso di negoziazione tra appartenenza ed identità nelle bande di “latinos” italiani
In Psicologia dello sviluppo sociale e clinico, Unicopli 2009
All’interno di questi gruppi la “latinità” diventa un’appartenenza che unifica al di là delle varie provenienze nazionali, pertanto anche ragazzi che provengono da paesi d’origine storicamente e culturalmente in antagonismo tra loro si riuniscono in una nuova forma di fratellanza, sotto l’egida del “sangue latino”, della “pelle morena”. All’interno del gruppo, come accennato, possono venire accolti anche ragazzi autoctoni o immigrati provenienti da paesi non latini. Rivali divengono le altre bande, o spesso la società civile in cui risiedono. Ogni bandadiventa una “Nazione”, che origina, affilia e protegge i propri adepti...

 

Ted Wachtel
# My Three Decades of Using Restorative Practices with Delinquent and At-Risk Youth: Theory, Practice and Research Outcomes
www.unicef.org/ First World Congress on Restorative Juvenile Justice, Lima, Peru, November 5, 2009

 

Nancy A. Heitzeg
# Education Or Incarceration: Zero Tolerance Policies And The School To Prison Pipeline
The Forum on Public Policy, 2009
While the school to prison pipeline is facilitated by a number of trends in education, it is most directly attributable to the expansion of zero tolerance policies. These policies have no measureable impact on school safety, but are associated with a number of negative effects racially disproportionality, increased suspensions and expulsions, elevated drop-out rates, and multiple legal issues related to due process. A growing critique of these policies has lead to calls for reform and alternatives.

# Nancy A. Heitzeg, Education not Incarceration: Interrupting the School to Prison Pipeline, Oxford Round Table: Education and Cyberspace Law, July 2009

 

CENSIS
# La deregulation dei comportamenti
www.censis.it/ 16 giugno 2009

L’altro che invade i miei confini, che rappresenta un limite alla libera espressione della mia volontà diventa un antagonista con cui tendo a regolare i conti direttamente, per difendere me stesso e quello che sono o voglio mostrare di essere. Ed anche nell’incremento dei fenomeni di bullismo, segnalato dall’80,2% dei genitori intervistati in un’indagine Censis del 2008, può essere letto in questa chiave; nel bullismo si intravede  un comportamento di affermazione di sé e nello stesso tempo di ricerca di riconoscimento ed identità giocato su una piccola appartenenza e sulla identificazione del “nemico” nel più debole, che sempre secondo i genitori (il 74,3% ritiene che sia diminuita l’età media del “bullo”) coinvolge peraltro sempre più precocemente i ragazzi...

 

Unicef Albania
# Implementing alternative measures to detention in penal cases – Introducing and sharing experiences on restorative justice and victim offender mediation application for juveniles and beyond
www.unicef.org/ Tirana 25 -26 February 2009

 

Uberto Gatti, Richard E. Tremblay, Frank Vitaro
# Iatrogenic Effect of Juvenile Justice
J. Child Psychol. & Psychiatry 50:8, 991–98 (2009)
The results show that youths who are poor, impulsive, poorly supervised by their parents, and exposed to deviant friends are more likely, for the same degree of antisocial behavior, to undergo intervention by the Juvenile Court, and that this intervention greatly increases the likelihood of involvement with the penal system in adulthood. The results also show that the various measures recommended by the Juvenile Court exert a differential criminogenic effect; those that involve placement have the most negative impact.

 

Paul J. Hirschfield
# Preparing for prison? The criminalization of school discipline in the USA
http://youthjusticenc.org/ Theoretical Criminology, vol. 12, 2008
American schools increasingly define and manage the problem of student discipline through a prism of crime control. Most theoretical explanations fail to situate school criminalization in a broader structural context, to fully explain its spatio-temporal variations, and to specify the processes and subjectivities that mediate between structural and legal forces and the behavior of school actors. A multilevel structural model of school criminalization is developed which posits that a troubled domestic economy, the mass unemployment and incarceration of disadvantaged minorities, and resulting fiscal crises in urban public education have shifted school disciplinary policies and practices and staff perceptions of poor students of color in a manner that promotes greater punishment and exclusion of students perceived to be on a criminal justice ‘track’.

 

The Future of Children
# Juvenile Justice
www.princeton.edu/ Fall 2008
Introducing the Issue by Laurence Steinberg | Adolescent Development and the Regulation of Youth Crime by Elizabeth S. Scott and Laurence Steinberg | Improving Professional Judgments of Risk and Amenability in Juvenile Justice by Edward P. Mulvey and Anne-Marie R. Iselin | Disproportionate Minority Contact by Alex R. Piquero | Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes by Jeffrey Fagan | Understanding the Female Offender by Elizabeth Cauffman | Adolescent Offenders with Mental Disorders by Thomas Grisso | Juvenile Justice and Substance Use by Laurie Chassin | Prevention and Intervention Programs for Juvenile Offenders by Peter Greenwood

 

Carmela Cavallo | Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento Giustizia Minorile
# Aggiornamento Linee di indirizzo e di coordinamento in materia di mediazione penale minorile
www.giustiziaminorile.it/ 30.04.2008

 

Senato della Repubblica | Camera dei Deputati | Commissione parlamentare per l'infanzia
# La violenza sulle bambine e sui bambini Seminario di studio. Palazzo della Minerva, 29 ottobre 2007
www.senato.it/ Convegni e seminari n. 14, aprile 2008

 

Simona Ardesi
# La mediazione nel processo penale minorile
www.ordineavvocatibrescia.it/ Formazione permanente avvocati - 18 aprile 2008

 

Ministero della Giustizia - Dipartimento per la Giustizia Minorile
# Nuove esperienze di giustizia minorile
www.giustiziaminorile.it/ N. 2, 2008
Gli operatori della Giustizia Minorile, siano essi magistrati o educatori, psicologi o assistenti sociali, che appartengano al nostro Paese o ad altro Paese dell’U.E., ritengono, nella quasi totalità, che si debba puntare, da una parte sulle misure sostitutive ed alternative al carcere e sulla messa alla prova, dall’altra sulla formazione congiunta degli operatori. Emerge chiaramente, infatti, che la struttura chiusa difficilmente è produttiva di cambiamento; ma soprattutto non può esserlo quella struttura in cui le relazioni interpersonali sono rigidamente predefinite e tali da impedire che il minore esprima i suoi bisogni psicologici ed entri in rapporto con l’altro da sé...

 

Adolfo Ceretti, Claudia Mazzucato
# Mediazione reo/vittima_ le "istruzioni per l'uso" del Consiglio d'Europa
www.giustiziaminorile.it/ Nuove Esperienze di Giustizia Minorile 1-2008

 

John Howard Society
# Youth Criminal Justice Act Handbook
www.johnhoward.ab.ca/ 2002 - 2007
The YCJA does not apply to youth under the age of 12. A child who is not yet 12 and commits a crime will not go through the youth justice system. However, there may still be consequences for the child as a result of what they have done. The police, people in the community, the school and/or the parents or guardians may be involved in making sure that the child understands what he or she has done, how it has affected other people and what the child is expected to do about it...

 

Le mediazioni: seminari internazionali di contaminazione tra le pratiche mediative.
# La mediazione penale minorile negli Stati Uniti | Incontro - laboratorio - scambio di esperienze con Mark Umbreit
C. Eu. S. Nisida, 14-15 Settembre 2007
www.giustiziaminorile.it/

 

Federica Lombardo
# Le seconde generazioni di immigrati ed il concetto di metissàge
Università degli Studi di Genova - 2007
Metissàge vuole dire non solo incontro ma anche “scontro”di cultura... La cultura maghrebina in Italia o quella definita “black” in Gran Bretagna sono classificate come “culture terze”, le quali trascendono sia le culture d’origine che quella di carattere dominante della società d’arrivo. Esse sono invenzioni meticcie che si fondano su “reinterpretazioni di forme culturali di diversa origine”. In sostanza queste forme culturali rappresentano composizioni di resistenza o espressione di strategie identitarie difensive da parte di quei gruppi sociali classificati come “esclusi”.

 

Massimo Conte
# Latinos metropolitani
Contest, n. 4, pp. 22-28, 2007
In che cosa è consistita la strategia che abbiamo messo in campo? Due i poli principali: il ricorso alla mediazione quale fattore di contenimento e gestione delle dinamiche conflittuali, la spinta all’emersione dei gruppi quali soggetti collettivi portatori di istanze e progettualità. La mediazione dalla strada e l’emersione ci stanno consentendo di chiudere una stagione di conflitti urbani per aprirne una diversa. Mi pare che il problema, però, sia questo: potenzialmente sottratto il campo alle politiche penali e repressive resta da vedere se e quali politiche sociali prenderanno il loro posto.

 

Barry Holman, Jason Ziedenberg |
# The Dangers of Detention: The Impact of Incarcerating Youth in Detention and Other Secure Facilities
www.justicepolicy.org/ November 28, 2006
Despite the lowest youth crime rates in 20 years, hundreds of thousands of young people are locked away every year in the nation’s 591 secure detention centers. Detention centers are intended to temporarily house youth who pose a high risk of re-offending before their trial, or who are deemed likely to not appear for their trial.

 

Nazioni Unite - Assemblea Generale Sessantunesima sessione | Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro
# I diritti dei bambini. Rapporto a cura dell'esperto indipendente delle Nazioni Unite incaricato di realizzare uno studio sulla violenza sui bambini
www.garanteinfanzia.org/ Agosto 2006

 

Knut Gundersen, Frode Svartdal
# Aggression Replacement Training in Norway: Outcome evaluation of 11 Norwegian student projects
Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 50, No. 1, February 2006, pp. 63–81

 

ENAP
# Mineurs délinquants. Une problématique à dimension européenne
www.enap.justice.fr/ 15 et 16 mai 2006
Nous avions proposé de poursuivre la recherche avec un nouvel objectif : explorer l'hypothèse d'une influence croissante de l'idéologie néo- ibérale dans la production législative concernant les mineurs et dans le fonctionnement des tribunaux pour enfants... nous avons identifié différents changements législatifs, organisationnels ou au niveau de l'application des mesures/sanctions proposées dans le champ de la Justice pénale des mineurs permettant, de notre point de vue, de préciser cette tendance "néo-libérale"... (Francin Bailleau, La justice des mineurs sous influence neo-liberale?)

 

Luca Queirolo Palmas
# Il fantasma delle bande e la costruzione sociale della paura. Una ricerca etnografica sui giovani latinos fra Genova e Barcellona
www.sociol.unimi.it/ Working Papers del Dipartimento di studi sociali e politici - 8 febbraio 2006
Anche nello scenario di oggi, ovviamente carico di situazioni problematiche anche per l’assenza di politiche (in primo luogo giovanili) all’altezza della sfida, è possibile individuare risorse di trasformazione e di empowerent su cui far leva; non abbiamo di fronte un processo deterministico in cui i vincoli sopra elencati concorrono a produrre in modo lineare traiettorie di devianza ed esclusione sociale.

 

William Bradshaw, David Roseborough
# Restorative Justice Dialogue: The Impact of Mediation and Conferencing on Juvenile Recidivism
Social Work Faculty Publications. Paper 24, December 2005

The aim of restorative justice is to repair the harm done by the crime by bringing together the people most affected by the offense to determine how to deal with the offence. Dialogue, reparation, and accountability are critical components of all restorative interventions. This process aims to benefit victim, offender, and the community. The victims are able to express their feelings, get questions answered regarding the crime, and have input into the reparation plan. The offender is held personally accountable in providing restitution and the restorative process also promotes the support and reintegration of the victim and offender into the community.

 

Anne M. Dannerbeck

# Differences in Parenting Attributes, Experiences, and Behaviors of Delinquent Youth With and Without a Parental History of Incarceration
Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice Volume:3 Issue:3, July 2005

A higher proportion of youth with a parental incarceration history had prior referrals. Early onset of criminal activity, lack of parental monitoring, disruptions in life, and lack of social support are common characteristics of these youth, characteristics that help in understanding criminal involvement. A pattern of delinquent behavior that begins early is more likely to continue.

 

Associazione Centro Studi Opera don Calabria
# "CROMLECH". Modelli di mediazione penale minorile
www.giustiziaminorile.it/ 2004

 

Dana Peterson, Terrance J. Taylor, Finn-Aage Esbensen
# Gang Membership and Violent Victimization
Justice Quarterly, vol. 21, n. 4, December 2004
The connection between victimization and delinquency cannot be ignored. The extant literature has established that delinquents and victims are often one and the same. We too find violent delinquency to be associated with violent victimization (for both nongang and gang youths); adding gang membership to the equation, however, exacerbates the situation: Gang members who engage in violent offending experience higher levels of violent victimization than all other youths, even nongang youths who engage in violence.

 

Barbara Moretti
# Mediazione e reati violenti contro la persona: nuovi confini per i paradigmi di giustizia riparativa?
In G. Mannozzi (ed), Mediazione e diritto penale, Milano 2004
La mediazione considera il reato non solo come un’offesa commessa ai danni dell’individuo e della società (punto di vista retributivo), ma soprattutto come un comportamento dannoso che ha provocato dolore, sofferenza ed in alcuni casi anche morte (punto di vista riparativo). L’accento è così posto sull’aspetto relazionale (4) del reato dove la “coscienza” dell’altro ed i suoi vissuti acquistano un ruolo fondamentale. In quest’ottica, la componente c.d. comunicativo/relazionale diventa prioritaria  

 

Barry Krisberg, Vanessa Patino
# Juvenile Justice in Florida: What Kind of Future?
www.prisonpolicy.org/ March, 2004
The first principle of a model system of graduated sanctions is to have in place a broad array of sentencing options that are responsive to public safety concerns and youth needs. The juvenile justice system needs a flexible response system that can increase supervision and services as a youth’s behavior becomes more delinquent, and can gradually deescalate those controls as the youth shows improvement...

 

Centre for the Prevention of Youth Crime (ed.)
# Prevention of Youth Crime in Germany: Educational Strategies. Trends, Experiences and Approaches
Deutsches Jugendinstitu 2004
As in many other European countries, experts in Germany view criminal tendencies among children and young people as ubiquitous and episodic. Violating norms has always been part of growing up. Many minors who infringe the law are not even »caught« in doing so, and in the course of time most of them automatically relinquish such behaviour: it is a temporary phenomenon that generally involves so-called »petty« offences (such as shoplifting), and in the rare cases in which it entails theft on a larger scale, the financial damage done is minimal.

 

Giandomenico Amendola, Rita Biancheri, Giorgio De Filippi, Barbara Ferrone (a cura di)
# Insicurezza, paura, criminalità. Lo studio di un caso: i giovani e la sicurezza sociale nella Provincia di Massa-Carrara
http://portale.provincia.ms.it/ Report 2003

 

Mark S. Umbreit, William Bradshaw, Robert B. Coates
# Victim Sensitive Offender Dialogue in Crimes of Severe Violence. Differing Needs, Approaches, and Implications
Restorative Justice & Peacemaking, November 18, 2001
Both restorative justice in general, and victim offender mediation specifically, continue to be identified with primarily, if not exclusively, addressing non-violent property crimes, and perhaps even minor assaults. This monograph will challenge such assumptions by providing empirical evidence that suggests that many of the principles of restorative justice can be applied in crimes of severe violence, including murder. Some would even suggest that the deepest healing impact of restorative justice is to be found in addressing and responding to such violent crime. 

 

Lance Lochner, Enrico Moretti
# The Effect of Education on Crime: Evidence from Prison Inmates, Arrests, and Self-Reports
California Center for Population Research, August 2002

Our estimates suggest that a 1% increase in male high school graduation rates would save as much as $1.4 billion, or about $2,100 per additional male high school graduate. These social savings represent an important externality of education that has not yet been documented. The estimated externality from education ranges from 14-26% of the private return to high school graduation, suggesting that a significant part of the social return to education is in the form of externalities from crime reduction.

 

William H. Barton
# Alternatives in Juvenile Corrections
Indiana Family Impact Seminars - January 2000
Boot camps, a variation of shock incarceration, have become increasingIy popular. Resembling military basic training, boot camps focus on discipline, physical conditioning and authoritarian controi. The popular appeal of boot camps satisfies the public's retributive desire. They appear to be "tough," cost less than traditional prisons or training schools, and purportedly instill positive values. Evidence is mounting that boot camps are ineffective and inappropriate for juveniles. 

 

Finn-Aage Esbensen, L. Thomas Winfree
# Race and Gender Differences Between Gang and Nongang Youths: Results from a Multisite Survey
Justice Quarterly, vol. 15, n. 3, September 1998
Most examinations of youth gangs have been limited to a single city or a single state. In this article we examine gang affiliation in a multisite survey of 5,935 eighth grade students in 42 schools located in 11 cities across the United States, We use this diverse sample to examine two related issues: the demographic composition of gangs and the level of delinquent activity of gang members compared with nongang members. Our findings call into question the validity of prevailing notions about the number of girls in gangs and their level of delinquency involvement, and the number of white youths active in gangs and the extent of their illegal activities. 

 

Lawrence W. Sherman, Denise C. Gottfredson, Doris L. MacKenzie, John Eck, Peter Reuter, Shawn D. Bushway
# Preventing Crime: What Works, What Doesn’t, What’s Promising
National Institute of Justice, July 1998
Many crime prevention programs work. Others don’t. Most programs have not yet been evaluated with enough scientific evidence to draw conclusions. Enough evidence is available, however, to create provisional lists of what works, what doesn’t, and what’s promising. Those lists will grow more quickly if the Nation invests more resources in scientific evaluations to hold all crime prevention programs accountable for their results. These are the major conclusions of a 1997 report to Congress, which was based on a systematic review of more than 500 scientific evaluations of crime prevention practices

 

Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention
# Juvenile Justice Reform Initiatives in the States 1994-1996
www.ncjrs.gov/ October 1997
State efforts to combat youth violence and delinquency have taken many forms. From prevention to deterrence through tough, accountability-based sanctions to innovative blended sentencing options, policymakers are searching for programs and policies that effectively stop juveniles from becoming lifelong criminals.

 

John Scalia - Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Juvenile Delinquents in the Federal Criminal Justice System
www.bjs.gov/ February 1997
In contrast to the Federal system, the State systems frequently charge juveniles with delinquency. During 1994 there were more than 1.5 million delinquency cases in courts with juvenile jurisdiction. Of these, almost 855,000 were formally processed in the juvenile justice system. Nearly half (49%) of those juveniles formally processed at the State level were charged with property offenses. Few (9%) were charged with drug offenses. Approximately 58% of those juveniles formally charged at the State level were adjudicated delinquent...

 

Susanne Walther
# Reparation and Criminal Justice: Can They Be Integrated?
Israel Law Review, ns. 3-4, 1996
The role of the victim within the public criminal justice process has traditionally been one of supporting public prosecution. Without the victim's cooperation, police and prosecutors would neither be informed  about the occurrence of crimes, nor be able to bring sufficient evidence to secure convictions or extra-judicial settlements. In Germany, for instance, about 90% of all prosecutions are initiated by private complaint. Compared to what the victim gives the state, the state traditionally gives little to the victim.

 

Thomas Blomberg
# Diversion and Accelerated Social Control
The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, vol. 68, n. 2, 1977

 

Forgiveness... "Perdonare"

 

Marta Nussbaum
# Excerpt from Anger and Forgiveness
Oxford University Press 2016
The “road” of forgiveness begins, standardly, in terrible anger over a wrong one has suffered at the hands of another. Through a typically dyadic procedure involving confrontation, confession, apology, and “working through,” the wronged person emerges triumphant, unburdened from angry emotion, her claims fully acknowledged, ready to bestow the grace of  her non-anger. That Is what I shall call “transactional forgiveness,” and it is both enormously influential historically and very common today. It is plausible to think of it as the canonical form of forgiveness in today‟s world.

 

# Troppi soldi spesi per le carceri, il perdono fa bene (anche) all'economia
Vita, 16 novembre 2016
Esiste un rapporto molto profondo tra perdono ed economia. Stando ai risultati preliminari di una ricerca attualmente in corso all'Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore e iniziata grazie a un finanziamento ottenuto cinque anni fa da una fondazione americana, il Fetzer Institute, il perdono è un gesto che può dare a chi ha sbagliato una seconda possibilità con ricadute positive per la società e l'economia.

 

Valeria Pini
# Il perdono mette in moto l'economia
www.repubblica.it/ 13 ottobre 2016
Lo sostiene uno studio dell’Università cattolica del Sacro Cuore che ha portato avanti una serie di test su detenuti, tossicodipendenti e bambini che vivono in zone di guerra. Amore e comprensione possono cambiare le cose... Senza perdono non ci sarebbe una società organizzata.

 

Daryl R. Van Tongeren, Jeni L. Burnette, Ernest O’Boyle, Everett L. Worthington Jr., Donelson R. Forsyth
# A meta-analysis of intergroup forgiveness
The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2013
In the past decade, interest has flourished in the empirical study of forgiveness in the wake of intergroup conflicts. In the current paper, we sought to empirically integrate the diverse predictors of intergroup forgiveness building on a tripartite model that incorporates affective, cognitive, and constraining features. Using a random effects approach, we meta-analyzed (N = 13,371; k = 43) correlates of intergroup forgiveness across diverse conflicts (e.g. 65% intrastate, 35% interstate) and populations (20 different nationalities; 60% female). We tested the effect of nine distinct predictors and investigated study characteristics as moderators of these effects (i.e. sex of victim and conflict type). Collective guilt [r = 0.49] and trust [r = 0.42] emerged as the strongest facilitators, whereas negative emotions [r = −0.33] and in-group identity [r = −0.32] emerged as the strongest barriers to intergroup forgiveness...

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Scott R. Braithwaite, Edward A. Selby, Frank D. Fincham
# Forgiveness and Relationship Satisfaction: Mediating Mechanisms
J Fam Psychol. 2011 August ; 25(4): 551–559
In any event, many researchers have concluded that forgiveness is the cornerstone of a successful relationship. This belief underpins the development of several new marital interventions that emphasize forgiveness, particularly in the context of marital infidelity. The present research points to the possibility of addressing forgiveness for less severe transgressions when they hamper progress in couple therapy. Given popular misconceptions that impede forgiveness (e.g., it condones bad behavior, is a sign of weakness) gains might be made by including psycho-education regarding forgiveness in therapy.

 

Collin D. Barnes, Mauricio Carvallo, Ryan P. Brown, Lindsey Osterman
# Forgiveness and the Need to Belong
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2010
Although we might wish sometimes to exchange our fractured and damaged relationships for better functioning ones, the reality is that dropping one relationship to pick up another of the same depth and quality is not a quick or easy process. The going often gets tough in human relationships. If people responded to all interpersonal conflicts by ending their relationships to start over with new ones, they would be in a perpetual state of seeking belongingness but never experiencing it, and this would run counter to the fundamental need to belong that animates much human behavior. What, then, are people to do in the face of relational difficulties? One solution is to offer forgiveness to wrongdoers. 

 

Holly K. Orcutt
# The Prospective Relationship of Interpersonal Forgiveness and Psychological Distress Symptoms Among College Women
Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2006
Forgiveness has frequently been theorized to be related to decreased psychological distress, and longitudinal survey research is important for the examination of this relationship. The prospective relation of forgiveness to psychological distress symptoms (i.e., depression, anxiety, and stress) at a later time point (an average of 36 weeks later) was examined in a sample of 182 female undergraduate students. Through use of structural equation modeling, it was observed that offense-specific (as compared with dispositional) forgiveness toward an offender of a self-identified interpersonal transgression was significantly negatively related to psychological distress symptoms at Time 2, above and beyond the impact of symptom levels at Time 1...

 

Michael E., McCullough, Charlotte Vanoyen Witvliet
# The psychology of forgiveness.
Snyder, C. R. (Ed); Lopez, Shane J. (Ed), (2002). Handbook of positive psychology. , (pp. 446-458). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press, xviii, 829 pp.
We first define the term forgiveness and differentiate three senses in which it can be applied as a psychological construct. Then we review the existing research on the psychology of forgiveness. The aim of positive psychology is to catalyze change in psychology from a preoccupation only with repairing the worst things in life to also building the best qualities in life. The field of positive psychology at the subjective level is about positive subjective experience: well-being and satisfaction (past); flow, joy, the sensual pleasures, and happiness (present); and constructive cognitions about the future--optimism, hope, and faith. At the individual level it is about positive personal traits--the capacity for love and vocation, courage, interpersonal skill, aesthetic sensibility, perseverance, forgiveness, originality, futuremindedness, high talent, and wisdom. At the group level it is about the civic virtues and the institutions that move individuals toward better citizenship: responsibility, nurturance, altruism, civility, moderation, tolerance, and work ethic.

 

Michael E. McCullough, C. Garth Bellah, Shelley Dean Kilpatrick, Judith L. Johnson
# Vengefulness: Relationships With Forgiveness, Rumination, Well-Being, and the Big Five
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, May 2001
Because forgiveness theory has tended to neglect the role of dispositional factors, the authors present novel theorizing about the nature of vengefulness (the disposition to seek revenge following interpersonal offenses) and its relationship to forgiveness and other variables. In Study 1, vengefulness was correlated cross-sectionally with (a) less forgiving, (b) greater rumination about the offense, (c) higher negative affectivity, and (d) lower life satisfaction. Vengefulness at baseline was negatively related to change in forgiving throughout an 8-week follow-up. In Study 2, vengefulness was negatively associated with Agreeableness and positively associated with Neuroticism. Measures of the Big Five personality factors explained 30% of the variance in vengefulness.

 

David M. Lerman
# Forgiveness in the Criminal Justice System: If it Belongs, then Why is it so Hard to Find?
Fordham Urban Law Journal, 2000
This essay advocates the role of forgiveness within the criminal justice system, particularly from a prosecutor’s perspective, and discusses common impediments to its increased presence and the leadership needed to allow it to develop within the system.