Il detenuto, un corpo rifugiato nel suo sacco di pelle... vede il suo spazio carcerario invaso. Il suo corpo è la sua ultima prigione, ma non il suo ultimo rifugio. Al recluso, quale estremo ricorso, non resta che indirizzare al medico la sua istanza d'evasione, per proiettarsi fuori da questo luogo che credeva personale, intangibile: il proprio corpo. Una prescrizione di psicotropi può essere sufficiente per dargli l'illusione di evadere (Daniel Gonin, Il corpo incarcerato)

 

 

Droghe - riduzione del danno (e del rischio)...

 

616 documenti | info@antoniocasella.eu

 

- Che mi dici di Pelikan Bay?

- C'è da non crederci. Iniettano odio nelle vene. Fabbricano mostri, là dentro.

- E' proprio quello che vogliono, quegli imbecilli.

- Sono convinti che fermeranno il crimine adottando il pugno di ferro.

- Già. Non riesco proprio a crederci, voglio dire al modo che hanno scelto di costruire le prigioni. Poi le riempiono con dei fottuti coglioni che scontano pene per storie di droga da quattro soldi. Li trasformano in pazzi criminali, e poi li rimettono fuori tra la gente normale. E' come se allevassero dei pazzi criminali in serra... (Edward Bunker, Cane mangia cane...)

 

 

Faul M, Bohm M, Alexander C. Methadone

# Prescribing and Overdose and the Association with Medicaid Preferred Drug List Policies — United States, 2007–2014

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017;66:320–323.

 

Molly Walker
# Methadone Accounted for 23% of Opioid OD Deaths in 2014 — CDC report: Higher use of the prescription drug found among Medicaid population
MedpageToday - March 30, 2017

 

Luigi Manconi, Antonella Soldo, # La tragedia del proibizionismo, L'Unità, 15 febbraio 2017

Domenico "Megu" Chionetti, # Sorvegliare e punire a 16 anni?, Il Manifesto, 15 febbraio 2017
Sei milioni di consumatori di cannabis e oltre 13mila procedimenti penali aperti ogni anno. I dati del fallimento del proibizionismo sono molti e diversi... Eppure la sensazione è che da soli non bastino a spiegare l'insensata tragedia del proibizionismo...

 

Lloyd D. Johnston, Patrick M. O’Malley, Richard A. Miech, Jerald G. Bachman, John E. Schulenberg
# Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2016: Overview, key findings on adolescent drug use
Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan, January 2017
The 2016 MTF survey involved about 45,500 students in 8th-, 10th-, and 12th grades enrolled in 372 secondary schools nationwide. The first published results based on the 2016 survey are presented in this report. Recent trends in the use of licit and illicit drugs are emphasized, as well as trends in the levels of perceived risk and personal disapproval associated with each drug. This project has shown these beliefs and attitudes to be particularly important in explaining trends in use...

 

Giacomo Galeazzi, Raphaël Zanotti
# Abusa di psicofarmaci un detenuto su due: "dipendenza nascosta"
La Stampa, 23 gennaio 2017
In un'indagine dell'Agenzia regionale della sanità Toscana che ha coinvolto 57 strutture detentive (il 30% di quelle italiane), cinque regioni (Toscana, Lazio, Umbria, Veneto, Liguria) e Asl di Salerno, per un totale di 15.751 detenuti, spicca un dato: il 46% dei farmaci prescritti sono psicofarmaci. La quasi totalità di questi (95,2%) appartiene al gruppo di molecole che agisce sul sistema nervoso, con gli ansiolitici (37,8% del totale) a fare la parte del leone...

 

Maria Katselou, Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Chara Spiliopoulou, Sotiris Athanaselis
# Metabolites replace the parent drug in the drug arena. The cases of fonazepam and nifoxipam
Forensic Toxicol (2017) 35:1–10
... Recently invaded the drug arena as substances of abuse and alerted the forensic community after being seized in powder and tablet forms in Europe between 2014 and 2016... These substances usually mimic the pharmacological effects of already known and abused drugs, possessing euphoric, stimulating or hallucinogenic effects, while avoiding detection and classification as illegal. Thus, being legally placed and generally available in Internet shops and online sales, they often become the causes of an increasing number of poisonings and fatal intoxications.

 

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, Medice
# The Health Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: The Current State of Evidence and Recommendations for Research
www.nap.edu/ January 2017

The committee notes the existence of “cannabimimetic agents” (often referred to as “K2” or “spice”) which are made up of dried plant matter sprayed with synthetic chemicals that mimic the effect of THC by interacting with cannabinoid receptors in the brain...

 

Rose A. Rudd, Puja Seth, Felicita David, Lawrence Scholl,
# Increases in Drug and Opioid-Involved Overdose Deaths — United States, 2010–2015
www.cdc.gov/ December 30, 2016
During 2015, drug overdoses accounted for 52,404 U.S. deaths, including 33,091 (63.1%) that involved an opioid. There has been progress in preventing methadone deaths, and death rates declined by 9.1%. However, rates of deaths involving other opioids, specifically heroin and synthetic opioids other than methadone (likely driven primarily by illicitly manufactured fentanyl), increased sharply overall and across many states. A multifaceted, collaborative public health and law enforcement approach is urgently needed. Response efforts include implementing the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain

 

Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga
# Relazione sui dati relativi allo stato delle tossicodipendenze in Italia (Anno 2015 e primo semestre 2016)
Comunicata alla Presidenza del Senato il 6 dicembre 2016

 

Alberto Cadoppi, Benedetta Scarcella
# California Dreamin'. Per una legalizzazione della cannabis e dei suoi derivati
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 21 dicembre 2016
Col referendum dell’8 novembre 2016 in California si è introdotta una legalizzazione della produzione, del commercio e del consumo di marijuana. La riforma californiana, già attuata anche in altri stati USA, fa riflettere sull’opportunità di introdurre anche da noi una legalizzazione della cannabis e suoi derivati. Una proposta di legge in tal senso (n. 3235) è stata presentata al Parlamento, e si spera possa essere esaminata a breve. Nell’articolo si discute sulla legittimazione dell’approccio proibizionista alle “droghe leggere”, e si giunge a negarla, attraverso il riferimento al classico parametro penalistico continentale del bene giuridico e a quello del “principio del danno” di matrice angloamericana: la legalizzazione appare, de iure condendo, la soluzione migliore.

 

Global Commission on Drug Policy
# Advancing Drug Policy Reform: A New Approach to Decriminalization. 2016 Report
www.globalcommissionondrugs.org/ November 2016
Prohibition makes societies and governments blind to the great variety of reasons why people use drugs either in a controlled or a problematic way. It contributes to the discrimination and marginalization of drug users, considering them as undeserving of understanding and help, when they need treatment and social integration. Furthermore, it justifies criminalizing people who cause no harm to others and punishing those who are suffering. Prohibition also limits scientific research about the possible medical utility of illicit substances...

 

Federica Lamanna
# L'evoluzione legislativa in materia di sostanze stupefacenti
www.diritto.it/ 4 novembre 2016

Prima di arrivare alla scelta proibizionista di politica legislativa, sul finire dell’ottocento, anche in Italia, in linea con lo spirito liberale di quegli anni, l’assunzione di allucinogeni o stimolanti veniva “considerata una scelta non sindacabile del singolo individuo, senza interferenze dello Stato o dell’autorità pubblica”. Si riteneva, infatti, che il codice Zanardelli del 1889, che vietava la vendita e la circolazione di “cose pericolose per la salute umana”, non si riferisse alle droghe...

 

Harald Klingemann
# Dipendenze, come cambiare da sé
www.ilmanifesto.it/ 12.10.2016
L’auto cambiamento (self change), definito in termini clinici come remissione spontanea», è il processo attraverso cui una persona riesce a uscire da una condizione sfavorevole, non voluta, senza un aiuto professionale: può essere l’uscita da una carriera deviante, oppure dalla dipendenza da sostanze... 

Harald Klingemann
# I Don’t Know Your Way. From Self-Change to Assisted Change from Addiction
Forum Droghe Coordinamento Nazionale Comunità di Accoglienza - CNCA Coordinamento Toscano Comunità di Accoglienza – CTCA | Summer School 2016, Florence, September 8th-10th

 

ASAM American Society of Addiction Medicine
# Opioid Addiction - 2016 Facts & Figures
www.asam.org/ 2016
Drug overdose is the leading cause of accidental death in the US, with 55,403 lethal drug overdoses in 2015. Opioid addiction is driving this epidemic, with 20,101 overdose deaths related to prescription pain relievers, and 12,990 overdose deaths related to heroin in 2015.  From 1999 to 2008, overdose death rates, sales and substance use disorder treatment admissions related to prescription pain relievers increased in parallel. The overdose death rate in 2008 was nearly four times the 1999 rate; sales of prescription pain relievers in 2010 were four times those in 1999; and the substance use disorder treatment admission rate in 2009 was six times the 1999 rate... 

 

Grazia Zuffa (a cura di)
# Consumi di Alcol nell’approccio di Riduzione del danno. Culture del bere, politiche pubbliche. Fascicolo di documentazione
www.fuoriluogo.it/ Summer School 2016 | Firenze, 8-9-10 settembre

 

Andrea Baiguera Altieri
# Le disposizioni penali della legge federale svizzera sugli stupefacenti
www.diritto.it/ 5 ottobre 2016

 

 

Angus C, Holmes J, Pryce R, Meier P, Brennan A
# Alcohol and cancer trends: Intervention Studies
University of Sheffield and Cancer Research UK

 

Liana Jacobi, Michelle Sovinsky
# Marijuana on Main Street? Estimating Demand in Markets with Limited Access
American Economic Review 2016, 106(8): 2009–2045
If marijuana were legalized, those under 30 would see modest increases in use of 28 percent, while on average use would increase by 48 percent (to 19.4 percent). Tax policies are effective at curbing use, where Australia could raise AU$1 billion (and the United States US$12 billion). 

Maurizio Ricci # Aumento dei consumatori ma risparmi per tre miliardi: ecco quanto vale la cannabis di Stato www.repubblica.it/ 19 agosto 2016

Camilla Doninelli # Legalizzazione cannabis: quanto ci guadagna lo Stato? www.lindro.it/ 12 agosto 2016

 

ASAM American Society of Addiction Medicine
# Opioid Addiction, 2016 Facts & Figures
www.asam.org/
Drug overdose is the leading cause of accidental death in the US, with 47,055 lethal drug overdoses in 2014. Opioid addiction is driving this epidemic, with 18,893 overdose deaths related to prescription pain relievers, and 10,574 overdose deaths related to heroin in 2014...

Valeria Pini # Eroina, boom di vittime negli Stati Uniti: 28 mila morti in un anno www.repubblica.it/ 17 agosto 2016

 

Franco Corleone, Stefano Anastasia, Leonardo Fiorentini (a cura di)
# 7° Libro Bianco sulla legge sulle droghe. Dopo UNGASS 2016. Un anno di cambiamento nel mondo. Proposte per superare lo stallo in Italia, in Parlamento e nel Paese  #  ... in pillole
La società della ragione - Forum Droghe - Antigone - CNCA | Collaborazione: CGIL, Comunità di San Benedetto al Porto, Gruppo Abele, Itaca, ITARDD, LegaCoopSociali, LILA, Associazione Luca Coscioni - Prima edizione - Giugno 2016

# Camera dei deputati, Proposta di Legge n. 3235 presentata il 16 luglio 2015

 

Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze (EMCDDA)
# Relazione europea sulla droga. Tendenze e sviluppi
Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze, 2016
L’analisi qui presentata descrive un mercato europeo della droga che si conferma resiliente, con alcuni indicatori, per la cannabis e gli stimolanti in particolare, attualmente in ascesa. Nel complesso, dai dati relativi all’offerta si evince che la purezza o la potenza della maggior parte delle sostanze illecite sono elevate o in aumento. La maggioranza dei recenti dati relativi all’indagine sulla prevalenza mostra a sua volta modesti aumenti nel consumo stimato delle sostanze stupefacenti più comunemente assunte...

 

Council of the European Union
# Risk assessment report on a new psychoactive substance: methyl 2-[[1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indole-3-carbonyl]amino]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate (MDMB-CHMICA)
http://data.consilium.europa.eu/ Brussels, 28 July 2016

 

SIAPAD | Regione Lombardia
# Il consumo di sostanze psicoattive legali/illegali nella popolazione residente in Lombardia
www.droga.net/ Giugno 2016
Certamente gli universi osservabili all’interno dei Servizi di cura e fuori sono molto differenti. Tra i cittadini lombardi compresi tra i 15 ed i 64 anni, circa un milione di persone (15-64 anni) dichiara di essersi ubriacato nell’ultimo anno e nella fascia più giovane, tra i 15 ed i 24 anni, si è ubriacata una persona su tre. Quasi due milioni di persone fumano abitualmente tabacco e, tra i 15 e i 24 anni, la percentuale di fumatori abituali è superiore alle altre fasce di età e si colloca al 35,4% . Sono più di 800.000 le persone che hanno assunto una droga illecita almeno una volta nel corso dell’anno: tra i 15 e i 24 anni si tratta di più di una persona su tre. Sempre nell’ultimo anno 703.000 cittadini lombardi hanno usato cannabis: nella fascia di età tra i 15 ed i 24 anni è il 29,3% della popolazione intervistata. 117.000 cittadini ombardi hanno usato cocaina. Più di 252.000 cittadini lombardi hanno dichiarato l’uso di altre sostanze oltre cocaina eroina e cannabis. In testa la cannabis sintetica. A margine è importante notare come i mix di sostanze diverse, anche in grado di potenziarne gli effetti negativi (es. cocaina ed alcol) sono frequenti.

 

Drug Policy Alliance
# Fact Sheet: Synthetic Cathinones
www.drugpolicy.org/ June 2016
In the U.S., while most states and the national focus remains on prohibiting synthetic cathinones and other NPS, this approach actually drives the creation of riskier and less well known substances. Prohibition also drives mass incarceration and the many other harms association with arrest and imprisonment. In 2013, New Zealand took a new approach to the market for synthetic drugs by creating regulated restrictions for licensed importation, manufacture, and commerce of synthetic cathinones and other NPS .

 

Luca Morassutto
# Canapa, 7 piante a Ferrara non sono reato
Il Manifesto, 1 giugno 2016

 

Carlo Bray
# Coltivazione di marijuana e (in)offensività della condotta nella recente giurisprudenza di legittimità: necessità di fare chiarezza
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 23 Maggio 2016
Nota a Cass. pen., sez. VI, 15 dicembre 2015, n. 49476; Cass. pen., sez. IV, 21 gennaio 2016, n. 2548; Cass. pen., sez. VI, 22 gennaio 2016, n. 3037; Cass. pen., sez. VI, 9 febbraio 2016, n. 5254... 1. Con le sentenze in commento, la Corte di cassazione torna a pronunciarsi sull'ostico tema della rilevanza del principio di offensività in relazione alla fattispecie di coltivazione di piante da cui sono estraibili sostanze stupefacenti ex art. 73 d.p.r. 309/1990 (t.u. stup.): un tema che resta attuale anche dopo la recentissima sentenza n. 109/2016 della Corte costituzionale...

 

Louis Appleby, Nav Kapur, Jenny Shaw, Pauline Turnbull, Kirsten Windfuhr, Saied Ibrahim, Cathryn Rodway, Su-Gwan Tham
# Suicide by children and young people in England. National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Homicide by People with Mental Illness (NCISH)
www.bbmh.manchester.ac.uk/ University of Manchester, May 2016
Alcohol use was reported to be excessive in 34 (26%). Illicit drug use was reported in 38 (29%). Twenty-seven (21%) had taken illicit drugs in the 3 months prior to death, and in 6 this included drugs other than cannabis. Four were known to have taken “legal highs”. Fifty-one (39%) had a diagnosis of mental illness. Affective disorder (bipolar affective disorder or depression) was the most common diagnosis. Twenty (15%) people were receiving antidepressants, and in 17 (13%) these were SSRI drugs.

 

Sameer Imtiaz, Jürgen Rehm
# The impact of prescription opioids on all-cause mortality in Canada
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (2016) 11:27
An influential study from the United States generated considerable discussion and debate. This study documented rising morbidity and mortality in midlife among white non-Hispanic Americans in the 21st century, with clear linkages of all-cause mortality to increasing rates of poisonings, suicides and chronic liver disease deaths. All of these causes of deaths are strongly related to the use of legal and illegal substances, but the study stressed the importance of prescription opioids. Given the similarities between the United States and Canada in prescription opioid use, the assessment of similar all-cause mortality trends is relevant for Canada. As this commentary highlights, the all-cause mortality shifts seen in the United States cannot be seen in Canada for either sex or age groups. The exact reasons for the differences between the two countries are not clear, but it is important for public health to further explore this question.

 

Karen Dugosh, Amanda Abraham, Brittany Seymour, Keli McLoyd, Mady Chalk, David Festinger
# A Systematic Review on the Use of Psychosocial Interventions in Conjunction With Medications for the Treatment of Opioid Addiction
J Addict Med Volume 10, Number 2, March/April 2016
Opioid use and overdose rates have risen to epidemic levels in the United States during the past decade. Fortunately, there are effective medications (ie, methadone, buprenorphine, and oral and injectable naltrexone) available for the treatment of opioid addiction. Each of these medications is approved for use in conjunction with psychosocial treatment...

 

David Bewley-Taylor (GDPO), Martin Jelsma (TNI), Steve Rolles (TDPF), Walsh (WOLA)
# Cannabis Regulation and the UN Drug Treaties Strategies for Reform
Briefing Paper, April 2016

 

Luisa Romano

# Ancora dubbi sulla legittimità costituzionale dell’art. 75-bis d.P.R. n. 309 del 1990

www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 28 Aprile 2016

# Giud. di pace Chioggia, 14 dicembre 2015, ord. (G.U. n. 15 del 13.04.2016)

 

Ministero della Salute - Ccm Centro nazionale per la prevenzione e il controllo delle malattie
# Relazione al Parlamento su alcol e problemi alcol correlati, anno 2015
www.ccm-network.it/ aprile 2016

 

Cassazione Penale Sez. 1

# Sentenza n. 14008 del  2016
Data Udienza: 13/01/2016 - dep. 7 aprile 2016
... Il DSM V introduce una nuova distinzione all'interno della categoria generale "disturbi da uso di sostanze", rielaborando i criteri per la diagnosi di questi disturbi, distinti attraverso la loro graduazione in lievi, moderati e gravi. Ne discende conclusivamente che le conclusioni alle quali è giunto il Tribunale di sorveglianza di Roma fanno riferimento a una versione superata del manuale diagnostico richiamato, imponendo un nuovo esame che tenga conto dell'evoluzione dei parametri nosografici applicabili alle ipotesi di abuso di sostanze stupefacenti, cui ci si è riferiti.

 

Francesco Machina Grifeo
# Stupefacenti, la collaborazione del reo può prevalere sulla recidiva reiterata
Il Sole 24 Ore, 8 aprile 2016

# Corte Costituzionale, Sentenza n. 74 dep. 7 aprile 2016

 

Colorado Department of Public Safety
# Marijuana Legalization in Colorado: Early Findings. A Report Pursuant to Senate Bill 13-283
http://cdpsdocs.state.co.us/ March 2016

 

Filippo Lombardi
# Coltivazione di stupefacenti, grado di maturazione della pianta e principio di offensività
www.giurisprudenzapenale.com/ 29 marzo 2016
Cassazione Penale, Sez. VI, 21 gennaio 2016 (ud. 21 ottobre 2015), n. 2618 - Presidente Ippolito, Relatore Fidelbo - La condotta di coltivazione, per essere punita, deve essere in grado in concreto di mettere in pericolo la salute pubblica e ciò può accadere se la pianta ha una effettiva e attuale capacità drogante. Non è pertanto corretto operare un giudizio sulla futura esistenza di principi attivi e, dunque, sulla capacità drogante della  ostanza estraibile dalle piantine, in quanto in questo modo si perverrebbe ad un accertamento ipotetico che fonda il riconoscimento della responsabilità penale con riferimento ad una condotta di coltivazione di cui non risulta dimostrata la capacità di mettere in pericolo il bene tutelato.

 

Giorgio Bignami
# Droghe, la scienza di regime depone le armi
Il Manifesto, 16 marzo 2016
Pur con le dovute riserve sulle ambiguità di una presa di posizione per alcuni aspetti "cerchiobottista", par di intravedere una cauta apertura degli scienziati del governo americano a una diversa politica delle droghe; compresa una presa di distanza dalla quasi secolare demonizzazione del consumo moderato di cannabis.

 

Carlo Bray
# Legittima la nuova formulazione dell'art. 73 co. 5 t.u. stup.: insindacabile la scelta legislativa di equiparare droghe pesanti e leggere
Www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 7 Marzo 2016
# Corte cost., sent. 13 gennaio 2016 (dep. 11 febbraio 2016), n. 23, Pres. Criscuolo, Rel. Cartabia

 

Nora D. Volkow, James M. Swanson, A. Eden Evins, Lynn E. DeLisi, Madeline H. Meier, Raul Gonzalez, Michael A. P. Bloomfield,H. Valerie Curran, Ruben Baler
# Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review
JAMA Psychiatry, Published online February 3, 2016
With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.

 

NIH National Institute on Drug Abuse
# Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")
www.drugabuse.gov/ January 2016
Synthetic cathinones are included in a group of drugs that concern public health officials called  "new psychoactive substances" (NPS). NPS are unregulated psychoactive (mind-altering)  substances that have become newly available on  the market and are intended to copy the effects of  illegal d rugs. Some of these substances may have  been around for years but have reentered the  market in  altered chemical forms or due to renewed popularity.

 

International Centre for Science in Drug Policy
# A Call for A Reprioritization of Metrics to Evaluate Illicit Drug Policy
January 21, 2016
In 2016, the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Drugs (UNGASS) will convene to reflect on the impacts of the past two decades of global drug policy, and to chart a course for the future. This process, which was last undertaken in 1998, comes at a time of significant changes in drug policies across countries and regions. The 2016 UNGASS represents a rare opportunity to reassess the global approach to drugs and to move towards drug policies informed by health concerns and that effectively address the three UN pillars of peace and security, human development and human rights.

 

Harm Reduction International
# Realising Rights: Developing Human Rights-based Indicators for Drug Control
www.ihra.net/ 21st January 2016
Briefing for Member States at the International Centre for Science in Drug Policy and UN University event ‘Identifying Common Ground for UNGASS 2016: Rethinking Metrics to Evaluate Drug Policy’

 

Lorenzo Miazzi
# Il “nuovo” V comma T.U. n. 309/1990: dal reato di quantità al reato di condotta?
www.questionegiustizia.it/ 18 gennaio 2016

 

Rose A. Rudd, Noah Aleshire, Jon E. Zibbell, R. Matthew Gladden
# Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths — United States, 2000–2014
www.cdc.gov/ January 1, 2016 / 64(50);1378-82

 

Andrea Affaticati, Maria Lidia Gerra, Andrea Amerio, Maria Inglese, Carlo Marchesi
# The Controversial Case of Biperiden. From Prescription Drug to Drug of Abuse
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology • Volume 35, Number 6, December 2015
Anticholinergic drugs such as biperiden are commonly used in psychiatry for the prophylaxis and treatment of extrapyramidal symptoms caused by antipsychotics, as well as for tremors in Parkinson disease. Anticholinergic abuse has been reported in nonpsychotic patients probably because of inducing mild euphoria with increased sociability and energy through an increase of dopaminergic activity... Further studies are needed to estimate the impact of biperiden as a substance of abuse, especially among marginalized people. Concerning Italy, the preliminary data presented in Table 1 support that biperiden is particularly abused by prisoners coming from North-African countries. 

 

HM Inspectorate of Prisons | Rachel Prime, Helen Ranns, Majella Pearce,Sigrid Engelen, Paul Roberts
# Changing patterns of substance misuse in adult prisons and service responses
www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/ December 2015
There are important differences between drug misuse in prisons and the community. A declining number of prisoners needing treatment for opiate misuse reflects trends in the community, although many of those requiring opiate treatment in prison have complex dependence, social, physical and mental health issues. Prisoners are more likely to use depressants than stimulants to counter the boredom and stress of prison life. The use of synthetic cannabis and diverted medication reflects a response to comparative weaknesses in security measures. Often, the price of drugs is higher and the quality poorer in prison, reflecting greater difficulty of supply.

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse
# Prescription Opioids and Heroin
Updated December 2015
Drug overdose deaths involving prescription opioid pain relievers have increased dramatically since 1999. Pooling data from 2002 to 2012, the incidence of heroin initiation was 19 times higher among those who reported prior nonmedical pain reliever use than among those who did not (0.39 vs. 0.02 percent). A study of young, urban injection drug users interviewed in 2008 and 2009 found that 86 percent had used opioid pain relievers nonmedically prior to using heroin, and their initiation into nonmedical use was characterized by three main sources of opioids: family, friends, or personal prescriptions...

 

Carta di Milano 2015
# Cambiamo verso sulle droghe. Adesso! Da Genova a Milano verso New York 2016
25 novembre 2015

 

Ministero della Salute | Decreto 9 novembre 2015
# Funzioni di Organismo statale per la cannabis previsto dagli articoli 23 e 28 della convenzione unica sugli stupefacenti del 1961, come modificata nel 1972. (15A08888)
(GU n.279 del 30-11-2015)

 

Luisa Romano
# L’art. 75-bis del d.P.R. n. 309 del 1990 al vaglio della Corte costituzionale: ovvero della neve e della droga insieme
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 30 Ottobre 2015
# Cass., Sez. VI penale, ord. 17 giugno 2015 (dep. 23 settembre 2015), n. 38561, Pres. Conti, Est. Mogini

Viene rimessa al vaglio della Corte costituzionale una tra le più controverse modifiche del Testo unico delle leggi in materia di stupefacenti e sostanze psicotrope introdotte dalla cd. legge "Fini-Giovanardi", con cui si è previsto un inedito e variegato sistema di misure restrittive della libertà personale e della libertà di movimento nei confronti di diverse categorie di tossicodipendenti ed assuntori di sostanze stupefacenti che, «in relazione alle modalità od alle circostanze dell'uso» di queste ultime, possano rappresentare un «pericolo per la sicurezza pubblica»

 

Sari Horwitz
# Justice Department set to free 6,000 prisoners, largest one-time release
The Washington Post, October 6, 2015
The Justice Department is set to release about 6,000 inmates early from prison — the largest onetime release of federal prisoners — in an effort to reduce overcrowding and provide relief to drug offenders who received harsh sentences over the past three decades, according to U.S. officials...

 

Sam Taxy, Julie Samuels, and William Adams | Bureau of Justice Statistics
# Drug Offenders in Federal Prison: Estimates of Characteristics Based on Linked Data
www.bjs.gov/ October 2015
This study is based on 94,678 offenders in federal prison at fiscal yearend 2012 who were sentenced on a new U.S. district court commitment and whose most serious offense (as classified by the Federal Bureau of Prisons) was a drug offense. Almost all (99.5%) drug offenders in federal prison were serving sentences for drug trafficking. Cocaine (powder or crack) was the primary drug type for more than half (54%) of drug offenders in federal prison. Race of drug offenders varied greatly by drug type. Blacks were 88% of crack cocaine offenders, Hispanics or Latinos were 54% of powder cocaine offenders, and whites were 48% of methamphetamine offenders.

 

Deborah S. Hasin, Tulshi D. Saha, Bradley T. Kerridge, Risë B. Goldstein, S. Patricia Chou, Haitao Zhang, Jeesun Jung, Roger P. Pickering, W. June Ruan, Sharon M. Smith, Boji Huang, Bridget F. Grant

# Prevalence of Marijuana Use Disorders in the United States Between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013
JAMA Psychiatry. 2015;72(12):1235-1242
The prevalence of marijuana use more than doubled between 2001-2002 and 2012-2013, and there was a large increase in marijuana use disorders during that time. While not all marijuana users experience problems, nearly 3 of 10 marijuana users manifested a marijuana use disorder in 2012-2013. Because the risk for marijuana use disorder did not increase among users, the increase in prevalence of marijuana use disorder is owing to an increase in prevalence of users in the US adult population. Given changing laws and attitudes toward marijuana, a balanced presentation of the likelihood of adverse consequences of marijuana use to policy makers, professionals, and the public is needed.

 

Dipartimento politiche antidroga
# Relazione annuale al Parlamento 2015 sullo stato delle tossicodipendenze in Italia
www.politicheantidroga.it/ 2015
Il processo di stesura della Relazione è iniziato il 24 novembre 2014, con l'istituzione di un Tavolo interistituzionale e interdisciplinare, coordinato dal Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga della Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri, che ha a sua volta designato un Gruppo redazionale, formato da: Ministero della Salute - Ministero dell'Interno - Ministero della Giustizia - Ministero della Difesa - Coordinamento delle Regioni e delle Province autonome - ISTAT - CNR - Istituto Superiore di Sanità - INAIL - Esperti e rappresentanti degli organismi del privato sociale e dei servizi pubblici territoriali...

 

Ministero della Salute
# Schema di decreto del Ministro della Salute che individua le funzioni di Organismo statale per la Cannabis previsto dagli articoli 23 e 28 della Convenzione unica sugli stupefacenti del 1961, come modificate nel 1972
08/09/2015

 

Piero David, Ferdinando Ofria
# Droghe leggere: la legalizzazione è un buon affare
www.lavoce.info/ 19.08.15
L’esperienza del Colorado mostra che la legalizzazione delle droghe leggere non comporta aumenti di spesa sanitaria. Diminuiscono, invece, i furti e in generale le risorse impiegate per reprimere il fenomeno. Senza contare gli introiti fiscali per le casse dello Stato.

 

Luigi Marini
# Carcere, droga e intervento penale in Usa. Un dibattito aperto
Questione Giustizia 3/2015
Le politiche criminali seguite a partire dagli anni ‘80 e, soprattutto, la cd «Guerra alla droga» hanno portato nelle carceri Usa milioni di persone, per la gran parte giovani appartenenti alle classi e ai gruppi marginali. I costi economici e sociali sono oggi considerati insostenibili da rappresentanti di entrambi gli schieramenti politici e a livello federale si registrano progetti di legge e scelte di gestione dei reati che intendono invertire la tendenza.

 

Lloyd D. Johnston, Patrick M. O’Malley, Richard A. Miech, Jerald G. Bachman, John E. Schulenberg
# 2014 Overview Key Findings on Adolescent Drug Use
www.monitoringthefuture.org/ The University of Michigan Institute for Social Research, 2015
Although use of marijuana declined in 2014, youth marijuana attitudes moved toward greater acceptance. Perceived risk of regular marijuana use declined in all three grades, though not significantly. In 2014 the percentages of youth who believe regular marijuana use results in “great harm” physically or in other ways continued its longer-term decline... Additional drugs with declining prevalence include: synthetic marijuana, bath salts, narcotics other than heroin (including the specific drugs Vicodin and OxyContin), ectsasy (MDMA), hallucinogens other than LSD, Salvia, overthe- ounter cough and cold medicines, amphetamine use without a doctor’s orders, Ritalin, Adderall, ‘crack’ cocaine, and any prescription psychotherapeutic drug.

 

Lloyd D. Johnston, Patrick M. O’Malley, Jerald G. Bachman, John E. Schulenberg, Richard A. Miech
# Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2014: Volume 2, College students and adults ages 19–55
www.monitoringthefuture.org/ The University of Michigan, July 2015

Marijuana was seen as the least risky of the illicit drugs, although sharp distinctions were made between different levels of marijuana use. In 2014, experimental use of marijuana was perceived as being of great risk by only 8– to 10% of all high school graduates ages 19–30, whereas regular use was perceived to carry great risk by a considerably higher percentage (35–to 36%). Since 2006 there have been very substantial declines in perceived risk for regular marijuana use...

 

Jordan Bechtold, Theresa Simpson, Helene R. White, Dustin Pardini
# Chronic Adolescent Marijuana Use as a Risk Factor for Physical and Mental Health Problems in Young Adult Men
Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, August 2015
Over the past decade, U.S. policies have increasingly shifted toward a deregulation of marijuana for medical and recreational use. Recent legislation in several states (i.e., Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska) and Washington, D.C., has legalized recreational marijuana use for individuals 21 and older. More states (e.g., California) are likely to follow suit in future elections...

 

Home Office - National Statistics | Deborah Lader (ed)
# Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2014/15 Crime Survey for England and Wales
Statistical Bulletin 03/15, July 2015
As shown in previous years, the level of any drug use in the last year was highest among the youngest age groups; 18.8 per cent of 16 to 19 year olds and 19.8 per cent of 20 to 24 year olds reported any drug use in the last year. Levels of illicit drug use then decreased as age increased, from 12.5 per cent of those aged 25 to 29 to 2.4 per cent of 55 to 59 year olds. Across all drug types, levels of use in the last year were highest among the youngest age groups, and with the exception of ketamine, specifically those aged 20 to 24. However, not all differences between adjacent age groups were statistically significant, with levels of use in the last year being at similar levels for 16 to 19 year olds for some drug types (hallucinogens, amphetamines, cannabis, mephedrone, ketamine, and amylnitrite).

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
# European Drug Report. Trends and Developments
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ 2015

 

Penal Reform International
# Global Prison Trends 2015 | Drugs and imprisonment
www.penalreform.org/ 2015

 

Lorenzo Mantelli
# Cannabis legale, i vantaggi per le casse dello Stato
lettera43.it, 31 luglio 2015

Con la marijuana libera, 10 mld di beneficio per i conti pubblici. E Pil in crescita. Mentre calerebbe la spesa che il governo stanzia per la lotta alle droghe leggere.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
# Synthetic drug production in Europe
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ Updated 29. 5. 2015

 

Mary Jane England, Adrienne Stith Butler, Monica L. Gonzalez (eds)
# Psychosocial Interventions for Mental and Substance Use Disorders: A Framework for Establishing Evidence-Based Standards
www.nap.edu/ Board on Health Sciences Policy; Institute of Medicine; 2015
Mental health and substance use disorders affect approximately 20 percent of Americans and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although the current evidence base for the effects of psychosocial interventions is sizable, subsequent steps in the process of bringing a psychosocial intervention into routine clinical care are less well defined. The data from research supporting these interventions have not been well synthesized, and it can be difficult for consumers, providers, and payers to know what treatments are effective. This report details the reasons for the gap between what is known to be effective and current practice and offers recommendations for how best to address this gap by applying a framework that can be used to establish standards for psychosocial interventions.

 

Luigi Ripamonti
# Le nuove droghe quello che c’è da sapere (e anche da fare). Scuola, famiglia, politica: ognuno deve informare, evitando di rimuovere o falsare il problema
www.corriere.it/ 28 luglio 2015
Ha ancora ragione d’essere un dibattito fra proibizionismo e antiproibizionismo sulle droghe «tradizionali»? Il fronte si è spostato. Bisogna prenderne atto. E anche parlare solo di «droghe sintetiche» rischia di essere una semplificazione. Non si tratta di capire soltanto quali sono le nuove sostanze e di impostare una strategia per arginarle secondo schemi consolidati, di maggiore o minore successo. Non sono cambiati solo gli stupefacenti. Sono cambiati anche i canali di diffusione e il mercato, sempre più fluidi, destrutturati e parcellizzati...

 

Intergruppo parlamentare per la legalizzazione della cannabis
# Norme per la legalizzazione della cannabis e dei suoi derivati - Proposta di legge
www.fuoriluogo.it/ 15 luglio 2015
I punti fondamentali e basilari della proposta: -Monopolio dello Stato sulla Produzione e sulla Commercializzazione della Cannabis;  -Possibilità di Coltivare fino a 5 piante in forma privata;  -Possibilità di creare “Cannabis Social Club”;  -Detenzione consentita di grammi 15 nella propria abitazione; -Detenzione consentita di grammi 5 fuori dalla propria abitazione.

# Camera dei deputati, Proposta di Legge n. 3235 presentata il 16 luglio 2015

 

La società della ragione | Forum droghe | Antigone | CNCA
# 6° Libro Bianco sulla legge sulle droghe. Dopo la Fini-Giovanardi: un anno di transizione e contraddizioni | #  ... in pillole
I dossier di Fuoriluogo.it Giugno 2015
... Il 2016 sarà un anno decisivo sul piano internazionale perché  è convocata a New York nel mese di aprile una sessione straordinaria dell’assemblea generale delle Nazioni Unite sulle droghe per approfondire i cambiamenti avvenuti in molte parti del mondo, ma soprattutto in Sud America, dalla Bolivia all’Uruguay alla quale vorremmo che il nostro Paese arrivasse avendo abbandonato definitivamente la compagine repressiva degli stati proibizionisti e partecipe di un impegno europeo per la modifica delle Convenzioni internazionali.

 

Luisa Romano
# Sollevata questione di legittimità costituzionale dell'art. 75 del d.P.R. n. 309 del 1990, nella parte in cui non annovera la coltivazione finalizzata all'uso personale tra le condotte passibili di mera sanzione amministrativa www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 11 Giugno 2015
La Corte d'appello di Brescia, con l'ordinanza in epigrafe, riteneva rilevante, ammissibile e non manifestamente infondata «la questione di legittimità costituzionale delle disposizioni dell'art. 75 D.P.R. n. 309/90, nella parte in cui escludono tra le condotte suscettibili di sola sanzione amministrativa, qualora finalizzate al solo uso personale dello stupefacente, la condotta di coltivazione di piante di cannabis
# Corte d'Appello di Brescia - Prima Sezione Penale - Ordinanza del 10 marzo 2015

 

Bjoern Moosmann, Leslie A. King, Volker Auwarter
# Designer benzodiazepines: a new challenge
World Psychiatry 14:2 - June 2015

 

Lynn E. DeLisi, W. Wolfgang Fleischhacker
# The problem of substance abuse in people with schizophrenia
Curr Opin Psychiatry 2015, 28:199–200
Future studies need to clearly examine the content of marijuana patients use and also how each component interacts with genetic risk factors to produce a psychotic illness. With the widespread legalization of marijuana, this should serve as a natural experiment, which will allow for evaluating large-scale population-derived findings of cannabinoid use in both the general and the at-risk populations.

 

Paolo Pontoniere
# Nootropiche, nella Silicon Valley è allarme per le "droghe intelligenti".
www.repubblica.it/ 28 maggio 2015
Sono diffuse tra i programmatori di software. Invece di attutire i sensi, li acuiscono. E gli scienziati si interrogano sugli effetti a lungo termine... le nootropiche non sono senza rischio. Una ricerca condotta nel 2014 dalla Drexell University di Pittsburg in Pennsylvania ha infatti rilevato che il Ritalin, il modafinil, le ampakines e altri neurostimolatori possono ridurre la plasticità dei network neuronali del cervello causando un'overdose di dopamina, glutammato e norepinefrina. Ancora più preoccupanti gli effetti collaterali nei giovani fino ai 25, 30 anni, età nella quali il cervello si sta ancora sviluppando. In questo caso i danni possono essere di lunga durata e gli stimolanti possono avere l'effetto contrario a quello desiderato.

# cfr. Kimberly R. Urban, Wen-Jun Gao Performance enhancement at the cost of potential brain plasticity: neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ frontiers in systems neurosciences, 13 may 2014

 

Beau Kilmer
# The “10 Ps” of Marijuana Legalization
Berkeley Review of Latin American Studies. Spring 2015
When it comes to marijuana legalization, we are in uncharted waters. There is much to learn from what is happening with the earliest adopters — Colorado and Washington — but their for-profit commercial approach is only one alternative to easing marijuana prohibition.  The home production model in Washington, D.C., and collectives being implemented in Uruguay highlight some of the other non-commercial approaches.

 

Pew Research Center
# In Debate Over Legalizing Marijuana, Disagreement Over Drug’s Dangers. In Their Own Words: Supporters and Opponents of Legalization
www.pewresearch.org/ April 14, 2015
Public opinion about legalizing marijuana, while little changed in the past few years, has undergone a dramatic long-term shift. A new survey finds that 53% favor the legal use of marijuana, while 44% are opposed. As recently as 2006, just 32% supported marijuana legalization, while nearly twice as many (60%) were opposed...

 

FederSerd

# Carta di Roma per i diritti del detenuto consumatore di sostanze: i principi etici e scientifici per il trattamento del detenuto consumatore di sostanze

Aprile 2015

 

Pietro Fausto D’Egidio - FederSerd
# Tossicodipendenze. FederSerd: “Nella relazione al Parlamento non si trascuri l’operato dei Serd”
www.quotidianosanita.it/ 30 marzo 2015
...Fino ad oggi non è stato così. Troppe volte, soprattutto negli anni più recenti, il Rapporto al Parlamento non ha svolto la sua funzione. Pensiamo invece ad una Relazione 2015 che per la prima volta sia capace di rappresentare il potenziale tecnico scientifico e organizzativo dei SerD e la valutazione dei risultati raggiunti

 

The Centre for Social Justice
# Drugs in Prison
www.centreforsocialjustice.org.uk/ March 2015
The use of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) has skyrocketed in prison over recent years. NPS are similar to “traditional” illegal drugs, but their chemical structures have been altered in order to evade current laws. One particular type of NPS, called “Spice” (a synthetic cannabinoid), dominates the drugs market in prisons in England and Wales: Prison seizures of Spice increased from just 15 in 2010 to around 737 in 2014; It is difficult to determine precisely the proportion of prisoners using Spice, as it is not tested for, yet it was suggested to the CSJ that a majority of prisoners were regularly taking it...

 

Sarah G. Mars, Jason N. Fessel, Philippe Bourgois, Fernando Montero, George Karandinos, Daniel Ciccarone
# Heroin-related overdose: The unexplored influences of markets, marketing and source-types in the United States
Soc Sci Med, 2015 September; 140: 44–53
Heroin overdose, more accurately termed ‘heroin-related overdose’ due to the frequent involvement of other drugs, is the leading cause of mortality among regular heroin users. Heroin injectors are at greater risk of hospital admission for heroinrelated overdose (HOD) in the eastern United States where Colombian-sourced powder heroin is sold than in the western US where black ‘tar’ heroin predominates.  

 

Tista S. Ghosh, Michael Van Dyke, Ali Maffey, Elizabeth Whitley, Dana Erpelding, Larry Wolk
# Medical Marijuana’s Public Health Lessons — Implications for Retail Marijuana in Colorado
The New England Journal of Medicine, March 12, 2015
Colorado has created surveillance systems to monitor the numbers of emergency department visits and hospitalizations related to marijuana use, as well as data on calls to poison-control centers. These efforts should permit early identification of trends and provide data to support any policies or regulations needed to protect children...

 

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – News
# Droghe: mi faccio ma non so di che
www.cnr.it/23/03/2015
# ESPAD Italia 2014 – I consumi delle sostanze tra gli studenti italiani. Come si distribuiscono lungo lo stivale nazionale? | # ESPAD®Italia 2014 Questionario | # Studio Espad Italia Ifc-Cnr: l'universo dei consumi di sostanze psicoattive e dei comportamenti a rischio tra gli adolescenti - www.iss.it/ 20-05-2014

 

Maurizio Ricci
# Le mani di Big Tobacco sulla marijuana legalizzata
La Repubblica, 14 marzo 2015 (p. 21)
Stati Uniti: Dopo la liberalizzazione della "erba" in Colorado e Oregon, Philip Morris, Reynolds & co si gettano sul nuovo mercato: in ballo ci sono 36 miliardi di dollari l'anno... Negli Usa, è già "Big Pot": il negato, ma, per molti, inevitabile matrimonio fra Big Tobacco e il "cannabusiness", nome ormai ufficiale della marijuana legalizzata. 

# Leonid Bershidsky, Big Tobacco's Future: Big Pot, www.bloombergview.com/ Feb 20, 2015

 

Grazia Zuffa
# L’Onu e le droghe, è l’ora della svolta
www.ilmanifesto.info/ 10.3.2015
L'Assemblea Generale del 1998 segnò il culmine della retorica della "lotta alla droga": con lo slogan: a drug free world, we can do it e con la Dichiarazione Politica finale che fissava come obiettivi la "eliminazione della coca, del papavero da oppio e della cannabis entro il 2008"... Dalla seconda decade del 2000, si assiste ad una forte accelerazione nella riforma della politica delle droghe. Il regime internazionale è contestato apertamente nei paesi che più ne sopportano il peso...

 

Antigone | A cura di Elia De Caro e Gennaro Santoro
# Yes We Cannabis. Strumenti di tutela, approfondimenti, prospettive antiproibizioniste
www.associazioneantigone.it/ marzo 2015
L'economia della droga (400 miliardi di dollari di fatturato annuo) è la prima al mondo. Vietata quasi ovunque è la merce più reperibile del mondo. Il mercato della droga è nelle mani della malavita e foraggia le attività del crimine organizzato. Il proibizionismo ha fallito in Italia, come nel resto del mondo. Ad accorgersene sono stati proprio gli inventori di tale guerra, gli americani, che in 14 stati federali hanno legalizzato l’uso terapeutico della cannabis, in altri (Colorado) anche l’uso ludico...

 

Marta Di Forti, Arianna Marconi, Elena Carra, Sara Fraietta, Antonella Trotta, Matteo Bonomo, Francesca Bianconi, Poonam Gardner-Sood, Jennifer O’Connor, Manuela Russo, Simona A Stilo, Tiago Reis Marques, Valeria Mondelli, Paola Dazzan, Carmine Pariante, Anthony S David, Fiona Gaughran, Zerrin Atakan, Conrad Iyegbe, John Powell, Craig Morgan, Michael Lynskey, Robin M Murray

# Proportion of patients in south London with first-episode psychosis attributable to use of high potency cannabis: a case-control study
Lancet Psychiatry, February 18, 2015
Between May 1, 2005, and May 31, 2011, we obtained data from 410 patients with first-episode psychosis and 370 population controls. The risk of individuals having a psychotic disorder showed a roughly three-times increase in users of skunk-like cannabis compared with those who never used cannabis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2·92, 95% CI 1·52– ·45, p=0·001). Use of skunk-like cannabis every day conferred the highest risk of psychotic disorders compared with no use of cannabis (adjusted OR 5·4, 95% CI 2·81–11·31, p=0·002). The population attributable fraction of firstepisode psychosis for skunk use for our geographical area was 24% (95% CI 17–31), possibly because of the high prevalence  of use of high-potency cannabis (218 [53%] of 410 patients) in our study.

 

David Nutt
# The UK needs common sense about ketamine
www.theguardian.com/ Wednesday 18 February 2015
Ketamine is a vital medicine, and restricting it has harmed patients without cutting recreational use. Britain should stand up to the UN’s failed ‘war on drugs’. Ketamine is a unique anaesthetic and analgesic that has unfortunately become a popular and harmful recreational drug...

# Sarah Boseley, Ketamine control plan condemned as potential disaster for world's rural poor, www.theguardian.com/ Friday 27 February 2015

 

Transnational Institute drugs and democracy
# Fact Sheet on the Proposal to Discuss International Scheduling of Ketamine at the 58th CND
www.druglawreform.info/ Feb 27, 2015
Ketamine is an essential medicine used for anaesthesia. It is the only available anaesthetic for essential surgery in most rural areas of developing countries, home to more than 2 billion of the world’s people. Scheduling ketamine will leave these populations with no alternative anaesthesia for essential surgery, and will further deepen the already acute crisis of global surgery.

 

Roberto Saviano
# L'erba contro i narcos
www.repubblica.it/ 12 febbraio 2015
Per la prima volta nella loro storia i cartelli messicani hanno visto precipitare la richiesta di marijuana. Entra in crisi un business miliardario che sino ad ora non aveva mai subito flessioni. I dati diffusi dalla polizia frontaliera americana (l'Us Border Patrol) non lasciano spazi a dubbi: la riduzione del traffico di erba nel 2014 è stata del 24% rispetto al 2011. Che è successo? Nessuno fuma più spinelli? Una stagione di arresti particolarmente efficace? La risposta è più semplice: ed è la legalizzazione delle droghe leggere in Colorado e nello Stato di Washington...

 

Dirk W. Lachenmeier, Jürgen Rehm
# Comparative risk assessment of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs using the margin of exposure approach
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Scientific Reports 30 january, 2015
On a population scale, only alcohol would fall into the “high risk” category, and cigarette smoking would fall into the “risk” category, while all other agents (opiates, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants, ecstasy, and benzodiazepines) had MOEs > 100, and cannabis had a MOE > 10,000. The toxicological MOE approach validates epidemiological and social science-based drug ranking approaches especially in regard to the positions of alcohol and tobacco (high risk) and cannabis (low risk).

 

SIRUS Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Research
# The Drug Situation in Norway 2014 - Annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction - EMCDDA
http://wpstatic.idium.no/ Oslo 2015
In 2012, clonazepam was for the first time the second most commonly found substance (38 % of all cases) after alcohol. Clonazepam maintained its “top position” in 2013, together with THC, each accounting for 35 per cent of the cases (Table 10). This may be partly explained by the lowering of the detection limit. This means that clonazepam is now found in some cases where the substance would not previously have been detected. The NIPH most often finds clonazepam in combination with illegal substances (methamphetamine/amphetamine etc.), which indicates that thesubstance is increasingly being sold and used as a drug. Othersubstances that were frequently found wereamphetamine (32 %) followed by methamphetamine (29 %) and diazepam (20 % of all cases). 

 

Lael Reinstatler, Nagy A. Youssef
# Ketamine as a Potential Treatment for Suicidal Ideation: A Systematic Review of the Literature
Drugs R D (2015) 15:37–43
Consistent with clinical research on ketamine as a rapid and effective treatment for depression, ketamine has shown early preliminary evidence of a reduction in depressive symptoms, as well as reducing SI, with minimal short-term side effects. Additional studies are needed to further investigate its mechanism of action, long-term outcomes, and long- erm adverse effects (including abuse) and benefits. In addition, ketamine could potentially be used as a prototype for further development of rapid-acting antisuicidal medication with a practical route of administration and the most favorable risk/benefit ratio.

 

San Francisco Department of Public Health
# Naloxone for opioid safety. A provider's guide to prescribing naloxone to patients who use opioids
http://prescribetoprevent.org/ 2015
The American Medical Association has endorsed the distribution of naloxone to anyone at risk for having or witnessing an opioid overdose. There are 240 sites across 18 states that prescribe or distribute naloxone. Since 1996, naloxone has been distributed to over 53,000 people and more than 10,000 overdose reversals have been reported.

 

Hans Wolff
# Médecine face à la justice? Addiction, RdR et continuité des soins en prison
www.tdo4.be/ 2015

 

T. P. Freeman, A. R. Winstock
# Examining the profile of high-potency cannabis and its association with severity of cannabis dependence
Psychological Medicine (2015), 45, 3181–3189
High-potency cannabis use is associated with an increased severity of dependence, especially in young people. Its profile is strongly defined by negative effects (memory, paranoia), but also positive characteristics (best high, preferred type), which may be important when considering clinical or public health interventions focusing on cannabis potency.

 

Sara Reardon
# Rave drug tested against depression. Companies and clinicians turn to ketamine to treat mental-health disorder as pipeline of new drugs dries up
www.nature.com/ 8 january 2015
Ketamine, a psychoactive ‘party drug’ better known as Special K, has pharmaceutical companies riding high. Used clinically as an anaesthetic in animals and humans, it has proved an extremely effective treatment for depression, bipolar disorder and suicidal behaviour. It also works incredibly fast. Unlike conventional  antidepressants, which generally take weeks to start working, ketamine lifts depression in as little as two hours. 

 

Francesco Sanna
# Marijuana, Colorado un anno dopo: meno reati e incidenti, più soldi per l’erario
www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/ 3 gennaio 2015

 

Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga
# Uso di sostanze stupefacenti e tossicodipendenze in Italia. Dati relativi all’anno 2013 e primo semestre 2014 - elaborazioni 2014
www.politicheantidroga.it/

 

Faculty of Addictions Psychiatry, Royal College of Psychiatrists | Owen Bowden-Jones, Chris Fitch, Christopher Hilton, Joel Lewis, Grace Ofori-Attah
# One new drug a week. Why novel psychoactive substances and club drugs need a different response from UK treatment providers
The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2014
Drug use in the UK is changing. Ten years ago, reports describing the harms of substance use were dominated by illegal drugs such as heroin, crack and ecstasy. A decade later, a new set of drug-related problems has emerged with... the increasing availability of drugs deliberately manufactured to legally mimic the effects of traditional recreational drugs (often known as legal highs or novel psychoactive substances (NPS))...

 

Ezio Manzato, Fabio Lugoboni, Cristina Biasin, Sara Rosa, Giuseppina Cifelli, Gisella Manzato, Felice Nava
# Le benzodiazepine e i disturbi d’ansia: utilizzo clinico corretto, abuso, dipendenza e strategie di disassuefazione
www.federserd.it/ Mission, 42, 2014

Nella pratica clinica è stato evidenziato che la prognosi con una disintossicazione da BDZ lenta è solitamente abbastanza buona, con due terzi di pazienti che raggiungono la cessazione completa; altri soggetti invece riescono a ottenere solo una riduzione del dosaggio dell’agente farmacologico: questo è un outcome del trattamento inadeguato in quanto tali pazienti ricadono in percentuale alta. Infatti i soggetti che falliscono l’interruzione completa delle BDZ hanno una prognosi scarsa e ripetono i fallimenti.

 

Gill Bradbury, Danny Morris, Neil Hunt
# Overdose prevention from prison. Best practices from Scotland, Denmark, Italy and Spain
Eurasian Harm Reduction Network, 2014
The Eurasian Harm Reduction Network (EHRN) is a regional network of harm reduction programmes, groups of people who use drugs and their allies from across 29 countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) who work to advocate for the universal human rights of people who use drugs in order to protect their lives and health. EHRN’s mission it is to promote humane, evidence-based harm reduction approaches to drug use, with the aim of improving health and well-being, while protecting human rights at the individual, community and societal level.

 

Anil G. Suryaprasad, Jianglan Z. White, Fujie Xu, Beth-Ann Eichler, Janet Hamilton, Ami Patel, Shadia Bel Hamdounia, Daniel R. Church, Kerri Barton, Chardé Fisher, Kathryn Macomber, Marisa Stanley, Sheila M. Guilfoyle, Kristin Sweet, Stephen Liu, Kashif Iqbal, Rania Tohme, Umid Sharapov, Benjamin A. Kupronis, John W. Ward, Scott D. Holmberg
# Emerging Epidemic of Hepatitis C Virus Infections Among Young Nonurban Persons Who Inject Drugs in the United States, 2006–2012
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2014;59(10):1411–9
These data indicate an emerging US epidemic of HCV infection among young nonurban persons of predominantly white race. Reported incidence was higher in 2012 than 2006 in at least 30 states, with largest increases in nonurban  counties east of the Mississippi River. Prescription opioid abuse at an early age was commonly reported and should be a focus for medical and public health intervention.

 

RCPsych in Wales
# National Assembly for Wales - Health and Social Care Committee Inquiry into new psychoactive substances (“legal highs”)
The Royal College of Psychiatrists in Wales 2014
Statistics from the Global Drug Survey, 2014 paint an alarming picture, particularly in terms of the biggest users of research chemicals and legal highs. The United Kingdom trails only the US in the percentage of users of legal highs in the past 12 months. 22% of respondents from the UK said they had bought drugs on the internet.

 

Maurizio Fea
# Le condizioni necessarie per poter parlare di scelte responsabili
www.federserd.it/ Mission, 41, 2014

 

Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Prisons
# Response to National Assembly for Wales - Health and Social Care Committee: Inquiry into new psychoactive substances
HM Inspectorate of Prisons - 28 October 2014
The number of violent incidents had increased since the last inspection and there had been two recent serious assaults. Although the level was still low, more prisoners reported victimisation than at the last inspection and at similar establishments. This appeared, at least in part, to be due to the availability of ‘Spice’ – a synthetic cannabinoid – and associated debt and bullying. Current testing methods did not detect Spice, so the very low positive drug testing rate did not give an accurate picture of the availability of drugs in the prison. The prison’s response to the issue was inadequate

# HM Chief Inspector of Prisons for England and Wales - Annual Report 2013–14

 

Theodore J. Cicero, Matthew S. Ellis, Hilary L. Surratt, Steven P. Kurtz
# The Changing Face of Heroin Use in the United States. A Retrospective Analysis of the Past 50 Years
JAMA Psychiatry, 2014;71(7):821-826.
In recent years, there have been a number of mainstream media reports that the abuse of heroin has migrated from low- ncome urban areas with large minority populations tomore affluent suburban and rural areas with primarily white populations. Large-scale epidemiological studies have documented significant increases in heroin use9,10 and overdoserelated hospitalizations nationwide, particularly over the  past 10 years...

 

Global Commission on Drug Policy
# Taking Control: Pathways to Drug Policies That Work
http://static.squarespace.com/ September 2014
The international drug control regime is broken. In our 2011 report we called on global leaders to join an open conversation on drug policy reform... We asked policy makers to break the fifty year taboo on talking about more effective and humane ways to manage drugs... Today, three years later, we are pleased to see that a genuine debate on new approaches to drug policy is underway in an array of national and regional forums. Crucially, the discussion is based on evidence, and new, exciting innovations are spreading across the Americas, Africa, Europe, South and South East Asia, and Australia and the South Pacific.

 

California Budget Project
# Proposition 47: Should Cslifornia Reduce Penalties for Drug and Property Crimes and Invest in Treatment?
http://www.cbp.org/ September 2014
Proposition 47, which will appear on the November 4, 2014 statewide ballot, would amend the state Penal Code to reclassify certain drug and property crimes as misdemeanors and allow people previously convicted of these crimes to be resentenced. Additionally, Proposition 47 would invest state criminal justice savings resulting from these sentencing changes in drug and mental health treatment, as well as in victim services and programs designed to improve outcomes for K-12 public school students. This Budget Brief provides an overview of this measure and the policy issues it raises. The California Budget Project (CBP) neither supports nor opposes Proposition 47.

 

UNODC, Global SMART Update. Methamphetamine manufacture:
# Global Patterns and Regional Differences Volume 12
www.pnsd.msssi.gob.es/ September 2014
The threat of synthetic drugs is a significant drug problem worldwide. After cannabis, amphetaminetype stimulants (ATS) are the second most widely used drugs in the world, exceeding the use of cocaine and heroin. Along with ATS, the continued growth of the market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) over the last years has become a policy challenge and of major international concern.

 

The Pew Charitable Trusts
# Prescription Drug Abuse Epidemic. Spotlight on Methadone
www.pewtrusts.org/ Aug 2014

 

Mayor's press releases
# Mayor of London launches UK’s first compulsory sobriety ‘tag’ scheme for binge drinkers
www.london.gov.uk/ 31 July 2014

A year-long pilot of the scheme begins today in the South London Local Justice Area, covering the Croydon, Lambeth, Southwark and Sutton. It is anticipated that between 100-150 offenders will be sentenced by the courts to an ‘alcohol abstinence monitoring requirement' where they will be banned from drinking any alcohol for up to 120 days and tested constantly using the new ankle tag.

 

Keith Humphreys
# Britain's street are now booze-soaked war zones. A new judicial approach to managing lager louts that is being piloted in South London, has an excellent chance of reversing the tide
www.telegraph.co.uk/ 31 Jul 2014
24/7 sobriety was born when an American judge named Larry Long became frustrated with seeing the same drink driving offenders appear in his court month after month. He fined them, rescinded their driving licences and ordered them to alcohol treatment, but many of them nonetheless went on to die in alcohol-fuelled car crashes or be sent to prison for causing the death of another driver

 

Annalisa Pastore, Luigi Levita
# La disciplina degli stupefacenti alla luce della recente giurisprudenza costituzionale
Gazzetta Forense, Luglio-agosto 2014
L’avvenuta trasformazione della fattispecie prevista dall’art. 73, comma 5, d.P.R. 9 ottobre 1990, n. 309, da circostanza attenuante ad ipotesi autonoma di reato non ha comportato alcun mutamento nei caratteri costitutivi del fatto di lieve entità, che continua ad essere configurabile nelle ipotesi di minima offensività penale della condotta, deducibile sia dal dato qualitativo e quantitativo, sia dagli altri parametri richiamati dalla disposizione (mezzi, modalità, circostanze dell’azione), con la conseguenza che, ove uno degli indici previsti dalla legge risulti negativamente assorbente, ogni altra considerazione resta priva di incidenza sul giudizio.

 

Jesse Wegmam
# The Injustice of Marijuana Arrests
www.nyt.com/ 28 july 2014
In New York City, where the strategy was introduced and remains popular today, the police made fewer than 800 marijuana arrests in 1991. In 2010, they made more than 59,000. Nationwide, the numbers are hardly better. From 2001 to 2010, the police made more than 8.2 million marijuana arrests; almost nine in 10 were for possession alone. In 2011, there were more arrests for marijuana possession than for all violent crimes put together.

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
# World Drug Report 2014
www.unodc.org/ June 2014

 

WACD Wuest Africa Commission on Drugs
# Not Just in Transit. Drugs, the State and Society in West Africa. An Independent Report of the West Africa Commission on Drugs
www.wacommissionondrugs.org/ June 2014
3 .Develop, reform and/or harmonise drug laws on the basis of existing and emerging minimum standards and pursue decriminalization of drug use and low-level non-violent drug offences. 3.1 Ensure that efforts to develop, reform and/or harmonise drug laws are carried out on the basis of existing and emerging minimum standards in which the protection of the security, health, human rights and well-being of all people is the central goal. 3.2 Pursue decriminalisation of drug use and low-level non-violent drug offences through reform of national legislation as a means to reduce the enormous pressures on overburdened criminal justice systems and protect citizens from further harms.

 

LSE Expert Group on the Economics of Drug Policy
# Ending the Drug Wars. Report of the LSE Expert Group on the Economics of Drug Policy
http://www.lse.ac.uk/ May 2014
The pursuit of a militarised and enforcement-led global ‘war on drugs’ strategy has produced enormous negative outcomes and collateral damage. These include mass incarceration in the US, highly repressive policies in Asia, vast corruption and political destabilisation in Afghanistan and West Africa, immense violence in Latin America, an HIV epidemic in Russia, an acute global shortage of pain medication and the propagation of systematic human rights abuses around the world. The strategy has failed based on its own terms...

 

U.S. Department of Justice
# The Dangers and Consequences of Marijuana Abuse
www.dea.gov/ May 204

 

Symeon Brown
# Synthetic cannabis causing serious health problems in English prisons. Prisoners increasingly using 'spice', which is undetectable but has put growing numbers of users in hospital
www.theguardian.com/ Thursday 15 May 2014
Synthetic cannabis known as "spice" or "black mamba" is a growing problem in UK prisons with serious physical and mental health consequences, the chief inspector of prisons, Nick Hardwick has said. Its popularity with inmates has surged because the psychoactive designer drug can be passed off as a tobacco roll-up, has no distinctive smell and it evades current drug testing capabilities in prisons.

 

Global Drug Survey GDS2014
# Last 12 Month Prevalence of Top 20 Drugs
www.globaldrugsurvey.com/ April 2014

 

Nora D. Volkow, Ruben D. Baler, Wilson M. Compton, Susan R.B. Weiss
# Adverse Health Effects of Marijuana Use
N Engl J Med 2014;370:2219-27
The regular use of marijuana during adolescence is of particular concern, since use by this age group is associated with an increased likelihood of deleterious consequences. Although multiple studies have reported detrimental effects, others have not, and the question of whether marijuana is harmful remains the subject of heated debate. Here we review the current state of the science related to the adverse health effects of the recreational use of marijuana, focusing on those areas for which the evidence is strongest.

 

College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia
# Methadone Maintenance Program: Clinical Practice Guideline
www.cpsbc.ca/ February 2014 (Revised July 2014)
Alcohol use poses unique concerns in methadone maintenance patients. The risk of overdose is increased, given the synergistic respiratory depressant effect alcohol has with methadone. In addition, alcohol interferes with the metabolism of methadone. In its early stages, problem drinking has the potential to induce hepatic enzymes which can accelerate methadone metabolism. At later stages, liver failure can precipitously reduce a patient’s tolerance to methadone. These complicated interactions underscore the need for physicians to appropriately screen and monitor for alcohol use disorders and provide intervention and treatment.

 

Betty Tai, Steven Sparenborg, Udi E Ghitza, David Liu
# Expanding the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network to address the management of substance use disorders in general medical settings
www.dovepress.com/ Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2014:5 75–80
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (2008) expand substance use disorder (SUD) care services in the USA into general medical settings. Care offered in these settings will engage substance-using patients in an integrated and patient-centered environment that addresses physical and mental health comorbidities and follows a chronic care model. This expansion of SUD services presents a great need for evidence-based practices useful in general medical settings, and reveals several research gaps to be addressed.

 

Beau Kilmer
# Taking a Sober Look at Legalizing Marijuana
San Francisco Chronicle on July 12, 2014 | The Rand Blog
California and a handful of other states will probably vote on legal pot in 2016. Whether it passes will depend on several factors, including the quality of the proposal, how much money is involved in the campaigns, and how things play out in Colorado, Washington and other places that have legalized production and sales...

 

Corte Suprema di Cassazione - Quarta Sezione Penale
# Sentenza 28198/14
30 giugno 2014 (Romis Pres.)
Anche chi ha patteggiato per reati di droga ha diritto a una revisione della sua pena, per effetto della parziale abolizione della legge Fini-Giovanardi dopo la dichiarazione di illegittimità da parte della Corte costituzionale che ha condotto a una rivisitazione della disciplina. La Cassazione, con la sentenza 28198 depositata ieri, afferma l'applicabilità del trattamento più favorevole al reo, anche quando la pena è stata concordata dalle parti.

 

La società della ragione | Forum droghe | Antigone | CNCA
# 5° libro bianco sulla legge Fini-Giovanardi
I dossier di Fuoriluogo.it  Giugno 2014
Intanto, però, è bene ricordare che la strage continua: continuala criminalizzazione dei consumatori (solo attenuata dal ritorno a pene più miti per la detenzione di droghe leggere) e continua scandalosamente la detenzione di condannati a pene giudicate illegittime dalla Corte costituzionale e che meriterebbero, secondo la giurisprudenza della Corte di cassazione, di vedersi rideterminata la pena dal giudice dell’esecuzione: alcune migliaia di detenuti abbandonati a se stessi dal cinismo con cui le istituzioni politiche si rifiutano di prendere decisioni che possano essere delegate alla magistratura. Per evitare l’esecuzione di pene illegittime si sarebbe potuto intervenire per decreto o addirittura approvare un indulto ad hoc, e invece i singoli detenuti sono stati lasciati a se stessi, con il risultato che o gli uffici giudiziari saranno intasati dal ricalcolo delle pene o molte persone finiranno di scontare in carcere la loro pena ingiusta.

 

Mandy Stahre, Jim Roeber, Dafna Kanny, Robert D. Brewer, Xingyou Zhang
# Contribution of Excessive Alcohol Consumption to Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost in the United States
www.cdc.gov/ Prev Chronic Dis, Volume 11 — June 26, 2014
Excessive drinking accounted for 1 in 10 deaths among working-age adults in the United States. AAD rates vary across states, but excessive drinking  remains a leading cause of premature mortality nationwide. Strategies recommended by the Community Preventive Services Task Force can help reduce excessive drinking and harms related to it.

 

CEWG Community Epidemiology Work Group | NIH National Institute on Drug Abuse
# Epidemiologic Trends in drug Abuse. Proceedings of the Community Epidemiology Work Group
www.drugabuse.gov/ June 2014

 

Nicholas B. King, Veronique Fraser, Constantina Boikos, Robin Richardson, Sam Harper
# Determinants of Increased Opioid-Related Mortality in the United States and Canada, 1990–2013: A Systematic Review
American Journal of Public Health - June 12, 2014
In 2010, the 11th consecutive year in which drug overdose deaths increased, 75% of all pharmaceutical overdose deaths involved opioids, and prescription opioids were involved in 16 651 deaths in the United States, a more than 4-fold increase since 1999.

 

Jennifer E. Murray, Ruth Dilleen, Yann Pelloux, Daina Economidou, Jeffrey W. Dalley,
David Belin, Barry J. Everitt
# Increased Impulsivity Retards the Transition to Dorsolateral Striatal Dopamine Control of Cocaine Seeking
Biol Psychiatry 2014; 76:15-22
The results demonstrate that high impulsivity is associated with a delayed transition to DLS-dopamine-dependent control over cocaine seeking. This suggests that, if impulsivity confers an increased propensity to addiction, it is not simply through a more rapid development of habits but instead through interacting corticostriatal and striato-striatal processes that result ultimately in maladaptive drug-seeking habits.

 

Corte di Cassazione | Ufficio del Massimario | Settore Penale | a cura di Vittorio Pazienza
# Relazione n. III/08/2014 del 4 giugno 2014
www.cortedicassazione.it/
Novità legislative: L. 16 maggio 2014, n. 79 “Conversione in legge, con modificazioni, del decreto-legge 20 marzo 2014, n. 36, recante disposizioni urgenti  in materia di disciplina degli stupefacenti e sostanze psicotrope, prevenzione, cura e riabilitazione dei relativi stati di tossicodipendenza, di cui al decreto del Presidente  della Repubblica 9 ottobre 1990, n. 309, nonché di impiego di medicinali meno  onerosi da parte del Servizio sanitario nazionale”.

 

Luisa Romano
# La riforma della normativa di contrasto agli stupefacenti: osservazioni sulla legge 16 maggio 2014, n. 79. Ovvero tra novità, conferme e "sviste"
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 29 Maggio 2014

1. Introduzione. - 2. L'art. 73, co. 5, del d.P.R. n. 309 del 1990: ancora una modifica. - 3. Il restyling dell'art. 75 del d.P.R. n. 309 del 1990: la non punibilità "dell'uso personale". - 4. segue: Il restyling dell'art. 75 del d.P.R. n. 309 del 1990: in particolare, il nuovo comma 1-bis. - 5. segue: Il restyling dell'art. 75 del d.P.R. n. 309 del 1990: riflessi sull'art. 75-bis. - 6. Un paio di modifiche "non innovative". - 7. La sorte degli atti amministrativi adottati sulla base della legge cd. "Fini-Giovanardi".

 

Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze (EMCDDA)
# Relazione europea sulla droga. Tendenze e sviluppi
28.05.2014

Tra i carcerati si segnalano tassi di consumo di stupefacenti complessivamente più alti di quelli riscontrati tra la popolazione generale e modelli di consumo più dannosi; studi recenti indicano infatti che una percentuale di detenuti compresa tra il 5 % e il 31 % ha assunto stupefacenti per via parenterale almeno in un’occasione. Con l’ingresso in carcere, la maggior parte dei consumatori riduce o interrompe il consumo di stupefacenti; non è raro tuttavia che le sostanze illecite riescano a entrare nelle prigioni, cosicché alcuni carcerati continuano o cominciano a consumare droghe durante il periodo di detenzione.

 

Fabrizio Ricci (ed) | Regione Umbria
# La droga in Umbria. Saggi, inchieste, interviste
www.regione.umbria.it/ 2014
Così muoiono gli emarginati e i tossicodipendenti di lunga data. Ma il discorso non finisce qui. Di droga muoiono anche gli “insospettabili”. Persone “normalissime”, che conducono vite altrettanto normali o addirittura di successo. Muoiono gli imprenditori, gli operai, i professionisti e persino i cantanti famosi, gli attori, le star. Nelle vene c’è sempre la stessa roba: eroina, cocaina, psicofarmaci. Ma certe volte si fa fatica ad associare queste morti, inattese e in certi casi clamorose, morti che fanno notizia, a quelle dei poveracci che si ritrovano per strada o sotto qualche ponte. Eppure, tutti allo stesso modo vanno ad alimentare le statistiche. Anche in questo caso la morte è una livella.

 

C Chérrez-Bermejo, R Alás-Brun
# Consumo de sustancias y trastornos de salud mental en agresores de violencia de género ingresados en prisión. Un estudio descriptivo
Rev Esp Sanid Penit 2014; 16: 29-37
Estudio descriptivo sobre una muestra de 106 varones ingresados en prisión por violencia de género. Estimación de porcentajes de consumo perjudicial de sustancias y de diagnósticos psiquiátricos al ingreso en prisión con uso de la historia clínica informatizada del Servicio Navarro de Salud. Resultados: el 61’3% realizan un consumo perjudicial de sustancias. El porcentaje es mayor que en otros estudios realizados sobre poblaciones de agresores denunciados y detenidos. Las sustancias mayormente implicadas son alcohol y cocaína...

 

Anene Ukaigwe, Paras Karmacharya, Anthony Donato
# A Gut Gone to Pot: A Case of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome due to K2, a Synthetic Cannabinoid
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ Case Reports in Emergency Medicine, Volume 2014
Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome (CHS) was first described in 2004. Due to its novelty, CHS is often unrecognized by clinicians leading to expensive workup of these patients with cyclical symptoms. It may take up to 9 years to diagnose CHS. CHS is characterized by cyclical nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, and an unusual compulsion to take hot showers in the presence of chronic use of cannabinoids. Cannabicyclohexanol is a synthetic cannabinoid, popularly known as K2 spice. It is a popular marijuana alternative among teenagers and young adults since it is readily available as herbal incense. Unlike marijuana, many users know that K2 is not detected in conventional urine drug screens, allowing those users to conceal their intake from typical detection methods. Serum or urine gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry is diagnostic, though not widely available.

 

Francesco Viganò
# Convertito in legge il d.l. n. 36/2014 in materia di discipina degli stupefacenti, con nuove modifiche (tra l'altro) al quinto comma dell'art. 73
www.,penalecontemporaneo.it/ 19 Maggio 2014

 

Isabelle Giraudon, Guillermo Mena, João Matias, Julian Vicente | European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
# Emergency health consequences of cocaine use in Europe. A review of the monitoring of drug-related acute emergencies in 30 European countries
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ April 2014
The use and seizures of cocaine have increased during the last decade, particularly in some countries, and cocaine is now the second most used illicit drug in Europe, after cannabis. However, levels of use differ widely between countries, and there is a noticeable diversity among cocaine  users, both in patterns of use and sociodemographic characteristics, which complicate an assessment of the prevalence of the drug’s use, its health and social consequences, and the necessary responses.

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC Washington
# Examining the Growing Problems of Prescription Drug and Heroin Abuse
www.cdc.gov/ April 29, 2014
One of the reasons we are gathered here today is our shared concern over reports that heroin use and overdoses are increasing. This is true; the number of persons meeting criteria for heroin abuse or dependence more than doubled from 2007 to 2012. Some states, cities, and counties from across the country have reported recent increases in heroin-related deaths, including Maryland, Kentucky, and New York City. This increase in deaths is alarming. However, opioid abuse/dependence is still approximately four times greater than heroin abuse/dependence. In 2012, more than two million people reported opioid abuse/dependence-approximately the population of Houston-compared to about 467,000 people reporting heroin use.

 

NACD Research Advisory Group
# Study on the prevalence of drug use, including intravenous drug use, and blood-borne viruses among the Irish prisoner population
National Advisory Committee on Drugs and Alcohol (NACDA) April 2014
Over the past two decades the presence of illicit drugs and the associated harm from their problematic use has changed considerably the reality of prisons throughout Europe and the rest of the world (WHO, 2005). Prison populations are well known to have personal histories of drug use and have a high concentration of injecting drug use when compared to the general population. For example, in a major national survey of a random sample of all 131 prisons in England and Wales, Boys et al. (2002) found the prevalence of heroin use in UK prisons was approximately forty times what would be expected from a random population sample...

 

Jacques Besson, Thilo Beck, Gerhard A. Wiesbeck, Robert Hämmig, André Kuntz, Sami Abid, Rudolf Stohler
# Opioid maintenance therapy in Switzerland: an overview of the Swiss IMPROVE study
Swiss Med Wkly. 2014;144
Switzerland’s drug policy model has always been unique and progressive and is based on “four pillars”, consisting of measures in the following four areas: prevention, therapy, harm reduction and law enforcement. The first European supervised drug-consumption room was established in Bern in 1986. In the years that followed, more of these facilities were established all over the country, which gave status to medical institutions in Switzerland. A great deal of the evidence base on opioid substitution treatment was collected from these settings.

 

Mattick RP, Breen C, Kimber J, Davoli M
# Buprenorphine maintenance versus placebo or methadone maintenance for opioid dependence (Review)
www.bibliotecacochrane.com/ The Cochrane Collaboration and published in The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 2
Buprenorphine is an effective medication in the maintenance treatment of heroin dependence, retaining people in treatment at any dose above 2 mg, and suppressing illicit opioid use (at doses 16 mg or greater) based on placebo-controlled trials. However, compared to methadone, buprenorphine retains fewer people when doses are flexibly delivered and at low fixed doses. If fixed medium or high doses are used, buprenorphine and methadone appear no different in effectiveness (retention in treatment and suppression of illicit opioid use); however, fixed doses are rarely used in clinical practice so the flexible dose results are more relevant to patient care. Methadone is superior to buprenorphine in retaining people in treatment, and methadone equally suppresses illicit opioid use

 

Monica Bawor, Brittany B Dennis, Rebecca Anglin, Meir Steiner, Lehana Thabane, Zainab Samaan
# Sex differences in outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addiction: a systematic review protocol
Systematic Reviews 2014, 3:45
Use of methadone for the treatment of opioid addiction is an effective harm-reduction approach, although variability in treatment outcomes among individuals has been reported. Men and women with opioid addiction have been known to differ in factors such as opioid use patterns and characteristics at treatment entry; however, little has been reported about differences in methadone treatment outcomes between men and women. Therefore, we present a protocol for a systematic review which aims to provide a summary of existing literature on sex differences in outcomes of methadone treatment for opioid addiction.

 

Adam Miller
# Powerful psychotropic drug used in Canada’s federal prisons
The Canadian Press, April 14, 2014
Canada’s prison watchdog has launched an investigation into the prescribing practices in federal prisons, after it was revealed that more than 60 per cent of female inmates across the country are receiving psychiatric medication. A joint investigation by The Canadian Press and CBC has learned that in August 2013, of 591 female federal inmates in five correctional institutions, 370 were being prescribed at least one psychotropic medication, drugs that impact mood and behaviour

# Government of Canada | Correctional Service of Canada, New Approval Criteria for Quetiapine, Feb 07 2011

 

Joseph A. Messina
# Report of a Fully Integrated Outpatient Program for the Treatment of Co-Occurring Substance and Mental Health Disorders
http://www2.leg.state.vt.us/ 2014
Patient data collected in this study revealed a cooccurring disorders rate of 62.6%. The primary substance use diagnoses reported in this study were alcohol, opioid, cocaine and marijuana dependence ranked in that order. The primary mental health diagnoses were affective and anxiety disorders which is consistent with data from other outpatient substance use programs. Many patients had comorbid psychiatric disorders and required more than one psychiatric medication. Over the course of this 12 month study,  39.7% of the patients who started the program maintained abstinence and completed the program regardless  of primary substance.

 

U.S. Department of Justice | Office of Justice Programs | Bureau of Justice Assistance
# Swift and Certain Sanctions (SAC) Training and Technical Assistance Resource Center FY 2014 Competitive Grant Announcement
www.bja.gov/ April 15, 2014
The 24/7 Sobriety project, initiated in South Dakota in 2005, was created in reaction to the state having the highest rates of drunken driving and roadside fatalities in the United States. 24/7 Sobriety requires individuals arrested for or convicted of alcohol-involved offenses to submit to breathalyzer tests twice per day or wear an alcohol monitoring bracelet at all times. Positive tests result in swift and certain, though modest, penalties, such as a day or two in jail.

 

Francesco Sanna
# Detenuti tossicodipendenti? Italia al top per la spesa... ma i dati sono sbagliati!
Il Fatto Quotidiano, 2 aprile 2014

In Italia "i piani di azione sulla droga non hanno associato budget", "non ci sono recensioni sulle spese esecutive" e "le stime per le spese correlate al tema sono molto limitate". Ma soprattutto "uno studio recente (il Report annuale 2011 del Dipartimento antidroga) che mirava a stimare i costi sociali del consumo di droga, ha incluso la stima della spesa pubblica, ma non ha dettagliato la metodologia utilizzata".

 

Claudia Astarita
# La Nuova Zelanda e la legalizzazione delle droghe sintetiche, un modello da seguire. Se il proibizionismo non funziona, meglio bandire gli eccitanti più pericolosi e promuovere gli altri
www.panorama.it/ 29 marzo 2014

 

Corte di Cassazione (Sezione Sesta Penale, Presidente F. Ippolito, Relatore G. Paoloni)
# Sentenza del 20 marzo 2014 - depositata 2 aprile 2014, n. 15152

Reviviscenza del previdente trattamento sanzionatorio più favorevole - Conseguenze. La Sesta Sezione della Corte di cassazione ha affermato che il principio dell’applicazione della disciplina più favorevole, determinatasi per effetto della sentenza della Corte costituzionale n. 32 del 2014 con riferimento al trattamento sanzionatorio relativo ai delitti previsti dall’art. 73 d.P.R. n. 309 del 1990 in relazione alle “droghe leggere”, ed il conseguente dovere di rideterminare la pena, opera necessariamente non solo quando il giudice di merito, applicando la più rigorosa normativa dichiarata incostituzionale, abbia individuato una pena base superiore al massimo previsto dalla previgente legge più favorevole, ma anche quando abbia ritenuto di attenersi ai minimi edittali in vigore prima della dichiarazione di incostituzionalità.

 

Nature Neuroscience - Editorial
# High time for advancing marijuana research
Nature Neuroscience volume 17 | number 4 | April 2014
Marijuana use is expected to increase as its legalization spreads. With more marijuana users, we should prioritize research on this pervasive, but relatively understudied, drug... As the use of marijuana appears to be headed toward wide acceptance in the United States, it is urgent that we support a comprehensive research program addressing the critical gaps in our understanding. If the harmful aspects of marijuana use outweigh the therapeutic benefits, we need to find out now, not far in the future. If there are components of cannabis with specific therapeutic value, we need to develop drugs that target them. Ultimately, we need data and hard facts in hand to responsibly regulate  the use of marijuana and educate consumers about their choices.

 

Tara Gomes, Muhammad M. Mamdani, Irfan A. Dhalla, Stephen Cornish, J. Michael Paterson, David N. Juurlink
# The burden of premature opioid-related mortality
Addiction, 109, 1482–1488 (2014)
We reviewed 5935 opioid-related deaths in Ontario between 1991 and 2010. The overall rate of opioid-related mortality increased by 242% between 1991 (12.2 per 1 000 000 Ontarians) and 2010... Rates of opioid-related deaths are increasing rapidly in Ontario, Canada, and are concentrated among the young, leading to a substantial burden of disease...

 

Peggy van der Pol, Nienke Liebregts, Tibor Brunt, Jan van Amsterdam, Ron de Graaf,  Dirk J. Korf, Wim  van den Brink, Margriet van Laar
# Cross-sectional and prospective relation of cannabis potency, dosing and smoking behaviour with cannabis dependence: an ecological study
Addiction (Society for the Study of Addiction) 2014
Cannabis users titrate their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol intake by inhaling lower volumes of smoke when smoking strong joints, but this does not fully compensate for the higher cannabis doses per joint when using strong cannabis. Thus, users of more potent cannabis are generally exposed to more delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Smoking behaviour appears to be a stronger predictor for cannabis dependence severity than monthly delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol dose.

 

Carla Rossi
# Valutazione dell’efficacia degli interventi di repressione e del mercato
Presentazione di Lifestyles and history of use of drug users in four EU countries: exploratory analysis of survey data, di
Roberto Ricci e Carla Rossi (Ed. UniversItalia) - 24 marzo 2014

 

Francesco Viganò
# Droga: il governo corre ai ripari con un d.l. sulle tabelle, ma la frittata è fatta (e nuovi guai si profilano all'orizzonte...)
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 24 Marzo 2014

Decreto-legge 20 marzo 2014, n. 36
# Disposizioni urgenti in materia di disciplina degli stupefacenti e sostanze psicotrope, prevenzione, cura e riabilitazione dei relativi stati di tossicodipendenza, di cui al decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 9 ottobre 1990, n. 309, nonché di impiego di medicinali meno onerosi da parte del Servizio sanitario nazionale.
(Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 67 del 21-3-2014) - Vigente al: 21-3-2014

 

Corte Suprema di Cassazione IV sezione penale
# Sent. 28 febbraio 2014 (dep. 24 marzo 2014), n. 13903, Pres. Zecca, Est. Dovere, Ric. Spampinato
La Corte ribadisce che il vigente comma 5 dell'art. 73 t.u., nel testo sostituito dal d.l. 146/2013 (nel frattempo converito in l. n. 10/2014), configura una fattispecie autonoma di reato, e non più (come in precedenza) una mera circostanza attenuante... Ribadisce, altresì, che tale norma deve considerarsi ancora vigente, nonostante l'intervento ablatorio compiuto sul testo dell'art. 73 dalla sent. n. 32/2014 della Corte costituzionale... Ribadisce, ancora, che la nuova norma - pur prevedendo un trattamento sanzionatorio indifferenziato per i fatti di lieve entità concernenti droghe 'pesanti' e 'leggere' - non può considerarsi irragionevole al metro dell'art. 3 Cost.

 

Vittorio Manes, Luisa Romano

# L’illegittimità costituzionale della legge c.d. “Fini-Giovanardi”: gli orizzonti attuali della democrazia penale. Nota a Corte cost., sent. 25 febbraio 2014, n. 32, Pres. Silvestri, Est. Cartabia
www.penaleontemporaneo/ 23 Marzo 2014

1. L'incostituzionalità per violazione dell'art. 77, secondo comma, Cost. e l'istanza di democrazia discorsiva. - 1.1. Il progressivo restraint sulla decretazione d'urgenza e sulla emendabilità in sede di conversione. - 1.2. La legge di conversione come "legge funzionalizzata": i criteri di controllo del necessario "nesso di omogeneità". - 1.3. Le ulteriori censure assorbite e quelle dichiarate inammissibili. - 2. Gli effetti immediati della sentenza: la reviviscenza della previgente disciplina. - 2.1. La caducazione della "fonte" impugnata e degli effetti abrogativi. - 2.2. L'obiter dictum sull'insistenza di obblighi di penalizzazione di fonte europea: prospettive in punto di "giustiziabilità" del c.d. inadempimento statale sopravvenuto. - 2.3. La "primavera silenziosa" delle sentenze con effetti in malam partem. - 3. Gli effetti mediati della sentenza: le vicende intertemporali. - 3.1. Il postulato di base: la delega delle questioni intertemporali al giudice a quo. - 3.2. Gli effetti sui procedimenti in corso. - 3.3. Gli effetti sui procedimenti passati in giudicato.

 

Dave Bewley-Taylor, Tom Blickman, Martin Jelsma
# The Rise and Decline of Cannabis Prohibition
http://druglawreform.info/ Amsterdam/Swansea, March 2014

Faced with particular challenges and democratic decisions, a number of jurisdictions are moving beyond merely tolerant approaches to the possession of cannabis for personal use to legally regulating markets for the drug. 

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction

# Regional drug strategies across the world
EMCDDA, Lisbon, March 2014
This paper offers a comparison of the drug strategies and plans adopted over the last five years by six intergovernmental organisations engaging 148 countries in four continents. It informs decision-makers, professionals and researchers working in the area of international drug policy about the way in which countries of the same region have decided to strategically approach drug-related security, social and health problems. Drug strategies and plans offer interesting insights both when analysed individually and when compared across regions. This paper describes the way in which drug strategies are structured and addresses their priorities and objectives. It looks at the main approaches to demand and supply reduction and analyses the manner in which these interventions are referred from region to region. The

 

Kristin Finklea, Lisa N. Sacco, Erin Bagalman
# Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs
http://fas.org/
Congressional Research Service March 24, 2014
In the midst of national concern over illicit drug use and abuse, prescription drug abuse has been described by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) as an epidemic in the United States.Nearly 7 million individuals aged 12 or older (2.6% of this population) were current (past month) nonmedical users of prescription—or psychotherapeutic—drugs in 2012, and 16.7 million individuals aged 12 or older (6.4% of this population) had used prescription drugs for a nonmedical purpose in the past year (2012). Over 1.2 million emergency department visits involved nonmedical use of pharmaceuticals in 2011.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
# Estimating public expenditure on drug-law offenders in prison in Europe
EMCDDA Papers, Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg 2014
The EMCDDA has estimated annual public expenditure on drug-law offenders in prisons in Europe. Between 2000 and 2010, this expenditure is estimated to have been within the range of 0.03 % to 0.05 % of GDP, on average, in 22 European countries. By applying these percentages to the whole EU for the year 2010, it can be estimated that the expenditure was within the range of EUR 3.7 billion to EUR 5.9 billion.

 

Robert G. Morris, Michael TenEyck, J. C. Barnes, Tomislav V. Kovandzic
# The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Crime: Evidence from State Panel Data, 1990-2006
www.plosone.org/ March 2014 | Volume 9 | Issue 3
Debate has surrounded the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes for decades. Some have argued medical marijuana legalization (MML) poses a threat to public health and safety, perhaps also affecting crime rates. In recent years, some U.S. states have legalized marijuana for medical purposes, reigniting political and public interest in the impact of marijuana legalization on a range of outcomes... Results did not indicate a crime exacerbating effect of MML on any of the Part I offenses. Alternatively, state MML may be correlated with a reduction in homicide and assault rates, net of other covariates. Conclusions: These findings run counter to arguments suggesting the legalization of marijuana for medical purposes poses a danger to public health in terms of exposure to violent crime and property crimes.

 

Laurent Karila, Perrine Roux, Benjamin Rolland, Amine Benyamina, Michel Reynaud, Henri-Jean Aubin, Christophe Lançon
# Acute and Long-Term Effects of Cannabis Use: A Review
Current Pharmaceutical Design, 2014
Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which may be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Acute adverse effects include hyperemesis syndrome, impaired coordination and performance, anxiety, suicidal ideations/tendencies, and psychotic symptoms. Acute cannabis consumption is also associated with an increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, especially fatal collisions. Evidence indicates that frequent and prolonged use of cannabis can be detrimental to both mental and physical health. Chronic effects of cannabis use include mood disorders, exacerbation of psychotic disorders in vulnerable people, cannabis use disorders, withdrawal syndrome, neurocognitive impairments, cardiovascular and respiratory and other diseases.

 

Mario Centorrino, Pietro David e Ferdinando Ofria
# Effetto cannabis sui conti pubblici
www.lavoce.info/ 21.03.14
La legalizzazione del mercato delle droghe leggere determinerebbe benefici netti consistenti per le casse dello Stato. Non solo per il maggior gettito. Una volta divenute legali, queste attività entrerebbero nel Pil, contribuendo a migliorare gli indicatori di stabilità del nostro paese.

 

Sherrica Tai, William E. Fantegrossi
# Synthetic Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Behavioral Effects, and Abuse Potential
Curr Addict Rep, March 2014
Across the United States, commercial preparations of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) (eg, labeled “K2” or “Spice”) have gainedmuch attention among drug users and lawmakers. According to a 2012 survey, SCBs are the second-most commonly used illegal drug among young adults, with only cannabis use occurring at a higher rate. In a 3-year product surveillance study in our state, 26 individual SCBs were detected in commercial products...

 

United Nations | Economic and Social Council
# Draft Joint Ministerial Statement of the 2014 high-level review by the Commission on Narcotic Drugs of the implementation by Member States of the Political Declaration and Plan of Action on International Cooperation towards an Integrated and Balanced Strategy to Counter the World Drug Problem
http://www.unodc.org/ 12 March 2014

 

Laetitia Clavreul, Pascale Santi
# Alcoolisme : feu vert officiel à la prescription de baclofène
Le Monde, 5 mar 2014
L’addiction à l’alcool concerne environ 2 millions de personnes en France et causerait 45 000 décès par an. Le baclofène agit notamment sur le « craving », l’envie irrésistible de boire. C’est le médecin Olivier Ameisen, décédé en 2013, qui a expérimenté sur lui-même le baclofène, qui l’a guéri. La publication de ses travaux, en 2004, était passée inaperçue. Pas son livre, Le Dernier Verre (Denoël), paru en 2008. Des alcooliques l’essayent, deviennent indifférents à l’alcool, et relatent sur Internet leurs expériences. De plus en plus de médecins le prescrivent. D’autres restent sceptiques, voire critiques. Pas la panacée...

# Sandrine Blanchard, Sandrine Cabut, Catherine Vincent, Olivier Ameisen, l'apôtre du Baclofène, Le Monde.fr | 19.07.2013

# Sandrine Cabut, Alcoolisme:le baclofène au banc d’essai, Le Monde, Samedi 31 mars 2012

 

Eric Holder | Department of Justice
# Attorney General Holder Urges Changes in Federal Sentencing Guidelines to Reserve Harshest Penalties for Most Serious Drug Traffickers
www.justice.gov/ Thursday, March 13, 2014

... Reduce the average sentence by 11 months, or nearly 18%, according to the Commission. As an added result of the new proposal, the Commission projects that the Bureau of Prisons population would drop by 6,550 inmates at the end of five years.

 

# Matt Apuzzo, Holder Endorses Proposal to Reduce Drug Sentences in Latest Sign of Shift, www.nytimes.com/ March 13, 2014

 

Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri | Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga
# La valutazione nel lungo periodo dell'andamento dei consumi di sostanze stupefacenti in Italia | # Grafici
www.politicheantidroga.it/ Marzo 2014
Il documento evidenzia un dato preoccupante e cioè la riduzione degli investimenti in ambito preventivo che è stata rilevata a livello delle varie regioni dove si è avuta una diminuzione del 56,3% dei finanziamenti dedicati alla prevenzione universale dal 2011 al 2012 e dell' 33,1% nelle prevenzione selettiva sempre in riferimento allo stesso periodo. Così come riportato anche nell'ultima Relazione al Parlamento su base dati regionali. Inoltre nell'analisi dei consumi del lungo periodo sono stati messi in evidenza i dati"hard" e cioè quelli derivanti da varie indagini scientifiche anche di tipo laboratoristico e non solo da questionari.

 

Corte Costituzionale

# Sentenza n. 32/2014 - Deposito del 25/02/2014

www.cortecostituzionale.it/

Francesco Viganò
# Depositata la sentenza della Corte costituzionale sulla disciplina Fini-Giovanardi in materia di stupefacenti
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 26 febbraio 2014


# Quadro storico del testo dell'art. 73 del D.P.R. 9 ottobre 1990, n. 309
www.penalecontemporaneo.it 26 febbraio 2014

 

# Can David Nutt wean us off the demon drink with his alcohol substitute?
www.theguardian.com/ 27 February 2014

# Sam Wong, Synthetic alcohol substitute could eliminate health risks – and hangovers, http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/ 12 November 2013

 

London New Drugs Group / London Medicines Evaluation Network Review
# Nalmefene for alcohol dependence
www.medicinesresources.nhs.uk/ October 2013
Nalmefene (Selincro®), is an opioid receptor modulator which is licensed for the reduction of alcohol consumption in adult patients who continue to have a high drinking risk level 2 weeks after initial assessment, without physical withdrawal symptoms and who do not require immediate detoxification. Nalmefene should be prescribed in conjunction with continuous psychosocial support...

 

Luis Royuela, Linda Montanari, Miriam Rosa, Julian Vicente European | Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
# Drug use in prison: assessment report. Reviewing tools for monitoring illicit drug use in prison populations in Europe
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ February 2014

According to the latest available data on the prison population, on 1 September 2010 there were an estimated 635 000 prison inmates in EU Member States. Most prisoners are from poor communities and vulnerable social groups, with the proportion who are immigrants or from minority ethnic backgrounds on the increase. Drug users form a large part of the overall prison population. Studies show that a majority of prisoners have used illicit drugs at some point in their life, and many have chronic and problematic drug use patterns.

 

Benoît Gomis
# Illicit Drugs and International Security: Towards UNGASS 2016
www.chathamhouse.org/ International Security | February 2014
According to estimates by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the global illicit drugs market has an annual value of $320 billion, making it the third largest market in the world after oil and arms... The international drug trade causes numerous fatalities worldwide every year. In 2011, UNODC estimated the number of deaths related to illicit drugs use to be 211,000...

 

Simona Pichini, Roberta Pacifici (eds) | ISS
# SmartDrugs (terza edizione)
www.iss.it/ 2011, 2014

 

Angela Della Bella, Francesco Viganò
# Convertito il d.l. 146/2013 sull'emergenza carceri: il nodo dell'art. 73 co. 5 t.u. stup. Legge 21 febbraio 2014 n. 10
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/
24 Febbraio 2014
La sensazione è che, un po' casualmente, in parte grazie alle varie misure deflattive contenute nei decreti legge sull'emergenza carceri, ma soprattutto per effetto della Corte costituzionale, che ha rimosso una legge carcerogena come la Fini-Giovanardi, ci si stia finalmente avviando a dare una risposta agli obblighi impostici da Strasburgo. Quel che è sicuro, però, è che si è ancora una volta persa l'occasione, che i giudici di Strasburgo ci avevano offerto su di un piatto d'argento, di mettere finalmente a punto una riforma strutturale del sistema sanzionatorio. Ed il prezzo da pagare per questo procedere 'a tentoni', per la totale assenza, cioè, di un disegno organico di politica criminale è alto, e si traduce in un sistema normativo sempre più incoerente e complicato, come dimostra la vicenda paradigmatica dell'art. 73 co. 5 Cost.

 

Christian Hopfer
# Community, Siblings, Heritability and the Risk for Drug Abuse
Am J Psychiatry 171:2, February 2014

The major findings of the study are that drug abuse is substantially heritable in both males (55%) and females (73%) and that shared environmental factors were present in males but not in females. Socioeconomic status and neighborhood deprivation both predicted drug abuse, and a substantial portion of the shared environmental influence on drug abuse was a community-wide, not household, influence.

 

Drug Policy Alliance
# Approaches to Decriminalizing Drug Use & Possession
www.drugpolicy.org/ February 2014
More than 1.5 million people are arrested every year for a drug law violation. Since the 1970s, drug war practices have led to unprecedented levels of incarceration and the marginalization of tens of millions of Americans – disproportionately poor people and people of color – while utterly failing to reduce problematic drug use and drug-related harms. The severe consequences of a drug arrest are life-long.

 

# Bill Piper | Drug Policy Alliance, Public Comments submitted to the United States Sentencing Commission regarding
whether the Commission should lower by two levels the base offense levels in the Drug Quantity Table across drug types in guideline §2D1.1
- March 14, 2014

# Drug Policy Alliance,Approaches to Decriminalizing Drug Use & Possession, February 2013

 

Federal Bureau of Prisons | Clinical Practice Guidelines
# Detoxification of Chemically Dependent Inmates
www.bop.gov/ February 2014
Inmate education regarding the detoxification process is a necessary component of a successful detoxification plan. In addition, clinicians should conduct periodic assessments to detect the development of any psychiatric symptoms such as depression, suicidal thinking, or underlying psychosis. Inmates should be considered for follow-up psychological support through group therapy, individual counseling, 12-step recovery meetings, or similar programs. These services provide alternative methods of coping with the stresses that trigger alcohol or drug abuse. Psychology staff can also determine whether referrals to drug education or to nonresidential or residential drug treatment programs are indicated. 

 

Corte Costituzionale - Ufficio Stampa
# Trattamento sanzionatorio in materia di sostanze stupefacenti
www.cortecostituzionale.it/ Palazzo della Consulta,12 febbraio 2014

# Comunicato di Forum droghe www.fuoriluogo.it

# Cannabis, la Consulta boccia la legge Fini-Giovanardi: no a equiparazione tra leggere e pesanti
www.ilsole24ore.com/ 12 febbraio 2014
La Corte costituzionale boccia la legge Fini-Giovanardi che equipara droghe leggere e pesanti: nella norma di conversione - questo il verdetto della Consulta - furono inseriti emendamenti estranei all'oggetto e alle finalità del decreto. Con la decisione di oggi rivive la legge Iervolino-Vassalli, come modificata da referendum del '93, che prevede pene più basse per le droghe leggere.

 

Earl Blumenauer et al. (Congress of the United States)

# Letter to the Honorable Barack Obama
http://blumenauer.house.gov/ February 12, 2014
We were encouraged by your recent comments in your interview with David Remnick in the January 27, 2014 issue of the New Yorker, about the shifting public opinion on the legalization of marijuana. We request that you take action to help alleviate the harms to society caused by the FederaI Schedule I classifìcation of marijuana. Lives and resources are wasted on enforcing harsh, unrealistic, and unfair marijuana laws.

 

# Trib. Avellino, sent. 11 febbraio 2014 n. 23, GUP Riccardi
(Sull'individuazione della versione più favorevole all'imputato dell'art. 73 co. 5 t.u. stup.)

 

ITARDD Rete Italiana Riduzione del Danno

# Lettera aperta

www.itardd.net/ 30 gennaio 2014

È tempo che in Italia il dibattito sulle politiche sulle droghe riparta, e questa volta ispirato alle linee guida europee e libero da tensioni moraliste o ideologiche. In questi anni il Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga si è mosso in maniera totalmente scollegata dalla base, ossia da operatori e studiosi dei fenomeni sociali legati al consumo di droghe in Italia, disegnando una traiettoria oltranzista e giudicante che si fregia di presentare come "verità scientifica". Da anni non viene convocata la Conferenza Nazionale sulle droghe ...

 

Uintah County Drug Court
# Partecipant handbook
http://uintahcountydrugcourt.org/ January 2014
The Drug Court is a court-supervised, comprehensive substance abuse treatment program for individuals who have drug-related charges in the Eighth Judicial District Court for Uintah County. This is a voluntary program that includes regular appearances before the assigned Drug Court Judge. The program length is a minimum of one year and a maximum of 30 months. Advancement depends on your progress in recovery.

 

Francesco Radicioni

# Legislazione sulla marijuana e cannabis terapeutica nel mondo
www.radicali.it/ Radicali Italiani, 29 gennaio 2014
... Uruguay: Il 31 luglio 2013 la Camera dei Rappresentanti di Montevideo ha approvato una legge esecutiva che regola la produzione, la vendita e il consumo di cannabis. Il 10 dicembre il nuovo regolamento è stato approvato anche dal Senato: così l’Uruguay è diventato il primo Paese al mondo a legalizzare la cannabis per scopi medici, industriali e ricreativi

 

Corte Suprema di Cassazione - Sezione I Penale
# Sentenza n. 279 / 2014
Udienza del 28 gennaio 2014
Principio di diritto: “Nel deliberare in ordine al riconoscimento della continuazione, il giudice deve verificare che i reati siano frutto della medesima, preventiva, risoluzione criminosa, tenendo conto se il condannato, in concomitanza della relativa commissione, era tossicodipendente, se il suddetto stato aveva influito sulla commissione delle condotte criminose“.

 

Lucia Capuzzi
# Il business si nasconde dietro una foglia
www.avvenire.it/ Avvenire, 27 gennaio 2014

Kevin Sabet, direttore dell’istituto di politiche delle droghe dell’Università della Florida e presidente del gruppo Smart Approaches to Marijuana (Smart), contrario alla legalizzazione, non si stanca di ripeterlo: la nascente industria della marijuana diventerà una nuova Big Tobacco...

 

McLellan AT, Starrels JL, Tai B, Gordon AJ, Brown R, Ghitza U, Gourevitch M, Stein J, Oros M, Horton T, Lindblad R, Jennifer McNeely J.
# Can substance use disorders be managed using the chronic care model? Review and recommendations from a NIDA consensus group.
Public Health Reviews, January 2014
The chronic illness management approach is still new in the field of addiction and research is limited. However comparative findings suggest that most proactive, team treatment-oriented clinical management practices now used in diabetes management are applicable to the substance use disorders; capable of being implemented by primary care teams; and should offer comparable potential benefits in the treatment of substance use disorders. Such care should also improve the quality of care for many illnesses now negatively affected by unaddressed substance abuse.

 

Maria L. La Ganga
# As marijuana attitudes shift, this may be a year of legalization
www.latimes.com/ Los Angeles Times, January 19, 2014
California and four other states may put initiatives on the ballot in November. A recent poll shows a clear majority of Americans supports legalizing pot... In other words, Americans don't necessarily like pot more than they used to. The percentage of those who have actually tried it has stayed in the 30% range for three decades. Rather, Americans are simply fed up with criminal penalties they say are neither cost-effective nor just.

 

Sandro Gozi,  Luigi Manconi
# Cannabis libera. Le ragioni del si
l'Unità 9 gennaio 2014
“Siamo pieni di criminali pur non avendo un crimine”, per usare le parole della National Review, storica rivista dei conservatori americani, che ha aperto alla depenalizzazione. Possiamo permetterci di essere più conservatori dei conservatori americani? Noi crediamo di no.

 

Roberto Saviano
# Il Padrino proibizionista
la Repubblica, 9 gennaio 2014

Io credo che la legalizzazione, e non la liberalizzazione, sia l'unica strada. Due termini simili che spesso vengono confusi, ma che indicano due visioni completamente diverse. Legalizzare significa spostare tutto quanto riguarda la produzione, la distribuzione e la vendita di stupefacenti sotto il controllo dello Stato. Significa creare un tessuto di regole, diritti e doveri. Liberalizzazione è tutt'altro. È privare il commercio e l'uso di ogni significatività giuridica, lasciarlo senza vincoli, disinteressarsi del problema, zona franca.

 

Federico Varese
# Marijuana, il Colorado innesca la valanga anti-proibizionista. Ecco come cambierà il mercato: fuori i narcos, arriva la produzione legale su larga scala
La Stampa, 6 gennaio 2014
Dal primo gennaio è possibile acquistare marijuana nei negozi del Colorado. Ora nulla sarà più come prima. La legalizzazione è destinata a diffondersi in altri Stati americani, e cambierà sia la dinamica del dibattito politico statunitense che la «war on drugs» così come la conosciamo. Queste trasformazioni avranno effetti sui Paesi produttori e distributori. Anche l’Europa - Italia inclusa - ne sentiranno gli effetti. 

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EMCDDA
# Drug squads: units specialised in drug law enforcement in Europe
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ December 2013
At the time of the survey, September 2012, the staff of drug law enforcement units in Europe amounted to about 19 000, 90% of whom were law enforcement officers (17 000). Drug law enforcement units represent about 1 %, on average, of all police staff in Europe, though proportions vary from 0.1 % to 3.5 % in the 23 countries providing information.

 

Louis E. Baxter, Sr,Anthony Campbell, Michael DeShields, Petros Levounis, Judith A. Martin, Laura McNicholas, J. Thomas Payte, Edwin A. Salsitz, Trusandra Taylor, Bonnie B. Wilford
# Safe Methadone Induction and Stabilization. Report of an Expert Panel
J Addict Med Volume 7, Number 6, November/December 2013
Methadone maintenance treatment has been the subject of hundreds of clinical studies and outcomes assessments. Overall, such studies have found that treatment with methadone is safe and effective for most patients. Experience suggests that most methadone deaths in OTPs occur during the induction period because the initial dose is too high, the dose is increased too rapidly, or the methadone interacts with another drug.

 

ACMD Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs
# Ketamine: a review of use and harm
www.gov.uk/10th December 2013
UK population surveys suggest that ketamine use is more common in males and in the 20–24 age group. There was an increase in life-time, last year and last month ketamine use from 2006/7 to 2010/11 in both adults (16–59) and young people (16–24). More recently, there has been a statistically significant decrease in last month prevalence of ketamine use in adults from 2010/11 to 2011/12 and a statistically significant decrease in last year prevalence of ketamine use in adults and young people from 2011/12 to 2012/13.

 

Public Health England
# Substance misuse among young people in England 2012-13
www.nta.nhs.uk/ December 2013
Despite the downward trends, there remain serious concerns. The proportion of children in the UK drinking alcohol remains well above the European average. We continue to rank among the countries with the highest levels of consumption among those who do drink, and British children are more likely to binge drink or get drunk compared to children in most other European countries. Emerging substances, including ‘legal highs’, are also becoming an issue among young people.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EMCDDA

# Co-morbid substance use and mental disorders in Europe: a review of the data

www.emcdda.europa.eu/ December 2013

Psychiatric co-morbidity particularly affects vulnerable groups, such as young people, people from ethnic minorities, prisoners and sex workers. Psychiatric co-morbidity in prison settings is a problem affecting a large part of the prison population. A large number of studies have estimated the prevalence of mental disorders as well as substance use in prisons, with prevalence estimates varying widely. In general, studies on the prevalence of mental illnesses in prison show large differences between the prison population and the general population in severe pathologies such as psychosis and personality disorders, as well as problems such as anxiety and depression...

 

Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze (EMCDDA)
# Relazione europea sulla droga. Tendenze e sviluppi
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ 2013

Il consumo di droga rimane alto rispetto agli standard storici, ma si intravedono alcuni cambiamenti positivi, con livelli record di erogazione del trattamento associati ad alcuni segnali di riduzione per quanto riguarda l’assunzione di droga per via parenterale, il nuovo consumo di eroina, il consumo di cocaina e l’uso di cannabis. A smorzare l’ottimismo  tuttavia c’è la preoccupazione che la disoccupazione giovanile e i tagli ai servizi possano far riemergere i “vecchi” problemi. Inoltre, un esame più attento rivela che la situazione delle droghe è in continua evoluzione e i “nuovi” problemi mettono in discussione i modelli e le prassi correnti: nuove droghe sintetiche e nuovi modelli di consumo compaiono sia sul mercato delle sostanze illecite che nell’ambito delle sostanze non controllate.

 

Eleonora Vona
# Droga e criminalità: la detenzione come rimedio o come ripiego?
www.filodiritto.com - 5 dicembre 2013
Se la criminalità è sinonimo di devianza, non è necessariamente vero il contrario. Il tossicodipendente può essere considerato invece deviante in quanto mette in atto comportamenti non conformi che sfidano il senso comune, in un dato momento storico, in un determinato luogo ed in un particolare contesto sociale. Il tossicodipendente è considerato deviante, in quanto generalmente, la società stigmatizza chi fa uso di sostanze psicotrope. Sostanze, nello specifico, il cui commercio è anche illegale.

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime UNODC
# Patterns and Trends of Amphetamine-Type Stimulants and Other Drugs: Challenges for Asia and the Pacific 2013. A Report from the Global SMART Programme
www.unodc.org/ November 2013

Methamphetamine use continues to increase in most countries in East and Southeast Asia. •• The manufacture of illicit amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) continues at high, albeit slightly declining,levels. •• Methamphetamine seizures reached record highs in 2012. •• There has been a resurgence of the ‘ecstasy’ market in East and Southeast Asia. •• The market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) not under international control is growing rapidly in the region...

 

Charles M. Katz, Lidia Nuňo, David E. Choate, Michael D. White, Michael Schafer
# Medical Marijuana Use and Diversion: Prevalence and Correlates from an At-Risk Sample
http://cvpcs.asu.edu/ – Maricopa County Manager’s Office, November 2013
Our findings suggest that most non-authorized medical marijuana users obtain it from individuals whom they already trust. Traditional law enforcement strategies are largely insufficient for addressing these types of issues and a regulatory approach similar to that of pharmacy monitoring systems might be an appropriate strategy for further understanding the scope and nature of this problem and determining appropriate responses. 

 

Marta Pelazza

# Ancora sulla coltivazione “limitata e domestica” di marijuana per uso personale: una aperta ribellione all'insegnamento delle Sezioni Unite
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 7 Novembre 2013

# GUP Trib. Cremona, 10.10.13 (sent.), Giud. Salvini

 

Kofi Annan, Fernando Henrique Cardoso
# Stop 'war on drugs'
http://edition.cnn.com/ November 5, 2013

Each year, hundreds of thousands of people around the world die from preventable drug-related disease and violence. Millions of users are arrested and thrown in jail. Globally, communities are blighted by drug-related crime. Citizens see huge amounts of their taxes spent on harsh policies that are not working.

 

Billy T. Chen, Hau-Jie Yau, Christina Hatch, Ikue Kusumoto-Yoshida, Saemi L. Cho, F. Woodward Hopf, Antonello Bonci
# Rescuing cocaine-induced prefrontal cortex hypoactivity prevents compulsive cocaine seeking
www.med.upenn.edu/ Nature 2013
Loss of control over harmful drug seeking is one of the most intractable aspects of addiction, as human substance abusers continue to pursue drugs despite incurring significant negative consequences. Human studies have suggested that deficits in prefrontal cortical function and consequential loss of inhibitory control could be crucial in promoting compulsive drug use.

 

Tom Decorte, Paul De Grauwe, Jan Tytgat
# Cannabis: bis ? Plaidoyer pour une évaluation critique de la politique belge en matière de cannabis
www.kuleuven.be/ 18 novembre 2013
Une politique qui vise à réduire l'offre de substances psychoactives au moyen de la répression se heurte cependant à un paradoxe fondamental. Ce dernier peut être décrit comme suit. Plus la répression est intense, mieux elle réussit à limiter l'offre et à créer une pénurie, et plus le prix que les consommateurs doivent payer pour obtenir de la drogue est cher. En conséquence, la rentabilité de la production et de la distribution de drogues augmente. Ces activités ont beau être risquées, les profits élevés qu'elles génèrent n'en exercent pas moins un pouvoir d'attraction majeure sur les gens qui sont prêts à prendre des risques.

 

Emiliano Fittipaldi
# Legalize marijuana
L'espresso 02/11/2013
Molti considerano la decisione di Montevideo una rivoluzione. L'ideologia proibizionista è in crisi da tempo, e in Occidente si è riaperto il dibattito su quali siano le migliori politiche sui narcotici. Nel 2011 la Commissione globale sulla politica delle droghe, organismo di cui fanno parte esperti in materia e personaggi come l'ex presidente dell'Onu Kofi Annan, ha pubblicato una relazione devastante in cui si spiega che «la lotta alla droga iniziata cinquant'anni fa è fallita», e si sottolineava come in primis per la cannabis, «occorre sperimentare modelli di legalizzazione che colpiscano la criminalità organizzata salvaguardando la salute dei cittadini»

 

Jonathan P. Caulkins, Angela Hawken, Beau Kilmer, Mark A. R. Kleiman, Katherine Pfromer, Jacob Prues, Timothy Shaw

# High Tax States: Options for Gleaning Revenue from Legal Cannabis

Oregon Law Review, vol. 91 2013
Potential tax rates and revenues have been a prominent theme in discussions about legalizing marijuana. State agencies have produced fiscal impact analyses—some featuring fairly large projected revenue numbers—to inform voters about discussion has focused on revenue estimation, analysis of likely postlegalization prices compared to current illicit prices, and the questions of evasion through “gray” and “black” markets.

 

Thierry Favrod-Coune, Mariem Baroudi, Alejandra Casillas, Jean-Pierre Rieder, Laurent Gétaz, Javier Barro, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, Barbara Broers, Hans Wolff
# Opioid substitution treatment in pretrial prison detention: a case study from Geneva, Switzerland
www.smw.ch/  Swiss Med Wkly. 1 november 2013
The mean age was 29.6 years (SD 7.1) and 95.4% of prisoners were male. Among 233 opioid users (9.1%) at baseline, 221 (94.8%) used other substances, and 39.9% had used drugs intravenously. Opioid dependence was confirmed in 71.2% of opioid users. OST was offered to all dependent users, and all patients accepted treatment. Methadone was the treatment of preference, with a prescribed mean dose of 41.7 mg (standard deviation 29.1) upon departure. No serious side effects or death by overdose occurred. There was postrelease OST continuity-of-care for 49.7% of OST patients. Prescription of OST for opioid dependent detainees by trained physicians is feasible and safe in a pretrial setting. The methadone dose was lower when compared with general OST treatment recommendations. Nevertheless, treatment was available in accordance with national and international guidelines. In-prison OST offers access to a much needed and safe healthcare service for this vulnerable population.

 

Azlin Baharudin, Noormazita Mislan, Normala Ibrahim, Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar
# Depression in male patients on methadone maintenance therapy
AsiaPacific Psychiatry 5 (2013)
Even though depression is common among men on MMT, it is often missed by the treating doctors. It is important to make the treating doctors aware that depression is a serious clinical condition that has a profound impact on the individual and compliance to treatment.

 

Ugo Adamo
# Sulla (mancata) sostanziale omogeneità delle norme contenute nella legge di conversione (che equipara ai fini sanzionatori le droghe leggere con quelle pesanti) con quelle del decreto-legge convertito (sulle olimpiadi invernali di Torino)
http://www.associazionedeicostituzionalisti.it/ AIC Associazione Italiana dei Costituzionalisti - Osservatorio Ottobre 2013
Con la recente ordinanza di rimessione n. 25554/2013 (depositata lo scorso 11 giugno), la III Sezione penale della Corte di Cassazione solleva q.l.c. su alcune disposizioni del Testo Unico sugli stupefacenti. Piú precisamente, con tale ordinanza, il giudice a quo dubita della legittimità degli art.  4-bis e 4-vicies-ter, comma 2, lett. a), e comma 3, lett. a), n. 6, del decreto-legge 272/2005 (‘Norme  urgenti per garantire la sicurezza ed i finanziamenti per le prossime Olimpiadi invernali, nonché la  funzionalità dell’Interno. Disposizioni per favorire il recupero dei tossicodipendenti recidivi’) così  come introdotti dalla legge di conversione n. 49/20061, battezzata giornalisticamente come legge ‘Fini-Giovanardi’...

 

Policy Exchange
# Sobriety Schemes: Lessons from the US
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/ October 2013
Transdermal alcohol monitoring is a relatively new technology in the UK. It allows individuals’ alcohol consumption patterns to be monitored through an ankle bracelet. The bracelet samples an individual’s skin for the presence of alcohol once every thirty minutes (or 48 times a day). Based on the frequency of the testing, this technology is generally accepted as providing Continuous Alcohol Monitoring (CAM). The bracelet has tamper detection alerts which will notify the relevant authorities if the offender attempts to place objects in between the leg and the skin.  The system is water resistant.

 

Keith Humphreys
# The International Diffusion of a Drug Policy Innovation: 24/7 Sobriety comes to the U.K.
Presented at the 2013 Meeting of the International Society for the Study of Drug Policy Bogotá, Colombia
For at least two decades, individual judges and jurisdictions in the United States have imposed the condition of closely-monitored abstinence on criminal offenders who were on community  supervision. One such program operated in Lansing, Michigan; another was in Washington D.C. However, such initiatives rarely came to the attention of the general public or of public policy makers.  Rather they were locally admired innovations that stayed local. One exception in the past decade is  24/7 Sobriety, which was created by Judge (and one time-State Attorney General) Larry Long in South  Dakota. In addition to spreading to a number of states in the U.S., 24/7 “jumped the pond” in 2012 to  arrive in the United Kingdom

 

Addiction Suisse
# Tendances de consommation et politique des dépendances: Rapport de monitorage d'avril à septembre 2013
www.dipendenzesvizzera.ch/ octobre 2013
Considérée sur la durée, la consommation de substances psychoactives montre à maints égards des changements plus ou moins importants. En Suisse, la quantité d’alcool consommée par habitant fluctue depuis 100 ans, tandis que les types d’usage et la répartition de l’alcool consommé au sein de la population varient. Après le boom de l’héroïne dans les années 70 et 80, le cannabis occupe aujourd’hui le devant de la scène, flanqué d’autres drogues favorisant une pratique ou expérience festive effrénée. La palette traditionnelle de ces drogues s’enrichit de nouvelles substances de synthèse. Dans certains groupes, la consommation multiple est à l’ordre du jour, et surtout de la nuit.

 

Corte di Cassazione, Sezione 6 penale
# Sentenza 4 ottobre 2013, n. 41090
http://associazionedegliavvocatiromani.it/
La disposizione in tema di reato associativo dimostra che l'ipotesi  attenuata di cui all'articolo 73, Legge cit. ben può ricorrere in caso di "reiterazione" nel tempo delle attività di spaccio; e/o di possesso di un "non indifferente" numero  di dosi; e/o nel caso in cui lo spaccio sia posto in essere grazie alla organizzazione di più persone e che possa essere definito "professionale"...

 

Charles Doyle
# Federal Mandatory Minimum Sentencing: The 18 U.S.C. 924(c) Tack-On in Cases Involving Drugs or Violence
Congressional Research Service - October 21, 2013
Section 924(c) requires the imposition of one of a series of mandatory minimum terms of imprisonment upon conviction for misconduct involving the firearm and the commission of a federal crime of violence or a federal drug trafficking offense... Section 104 of the Firearms Owners Protection Act expanded the predicate offenses to include drug trafficking as well as crimes of violence and added a flat 10-year minimum for cases involving machine guns or silencers...

 

Gallup
# For First Time, Americans Favor Legalizing Marijuana
www.gallup.com/ October 22, 2013
For marijuana advocates, the last 12 months have been a period of unprecedented success as Washington and Colorado became the first states to legalize recreational use of marijuana. And now for the first time, a clear majority of Americans (58%) say the drug should be legalized. This is in sharp contrast to the time Gallup first asked the question in 1969, when only 12% favored legalization.

 

Avinash Tharoor
# Five Things We Can Learn from New Zealand's Innovative Law to Regulate New Drugs
September 30, 2013
One of the biggest risks with consuming any illegal substance is the question of purity. Cocaine, MDMA, ketamine, and many of the substances colloquially referred to as ‘bath salts’ all come in the form of an indistinct white powder. The Psychoactive Substance Bill ensures that newly legalized drugs are rigorously tested, have their contents clearly detailed on packaging, and that purity is guaranteed...

 

Ernesto Grenier, Molly Ryan, Zain Mithani, Patricia Junquera
# Cannabis Use and Psychosis: Current Perspectives
Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment, Volume 12, Number 3 September 2013
Cannabis is the most commonly abused illicit drug in the United States. Its use, however, is not without its dangers. Mounting evidence has recently shown a possible link between cannabis use and the development of psychosis and a subsequent predisposition to developing schizophrenia. In this article, the authors review the literature related with cannabis use and the appearance of a psychotic disorder, data supporting the existence of cannabis-induced psychosis and the association between cannabis and schizophrenia along with the case of an 18-year-old white man with a severe cannabis dependence who developed schizophrenia-like symptoms.

 

Lisa K. Brents, Sarah M. Zimmerman, Amanda R. Saffell, Paul L. Prather, and William E. Fantegrossi
# Differential Drug–Drug Interactions of the Synthetic Cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073: Implications for Drug Abuse Liability and Pain Therapy
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 346:350–361, September 2013
This study demonstrates that the analgesic potential of phytocannabinoids and other lowefficacy cannabinoids, which exhibit fewer adverse effects and lower abuse potential than SCBs and commonly prescribed opioids, can likely be increased by optimizing cannabinoid combinations, possibly offering a superior alternative to current treatment strategies.

 

Lisa J. Merlo, Supachoke Singhakant, Simone M. Cummings, Linda B. Cottler
# Reasons for Misuse of Prescription Medication Among Physicians Undergoing Monitoring by a Physician Health Program
J Addict Med Volume 7, Number 5, September/October 2013
All participantswere diagnosed with substance dependence, and 69.1% of them endorsed a history ofmisusing prescription drugs. Participants documented the following 5 primary reasons for prescription drug misuse: (1) to manage physical pain, (2) to manage emotional/psychiatric distress, (3) to manage stressful situations, (4) to serve  recreational purposes, and (5) to avoid withdrawal symptoms.

 

J.C. Fell, A.S. McKnight
# Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring (TAM) in compliance with abstinence: Records from 250,000 offenders in the United States
Proceedings of the 2013 Australasian Road Safety Research, Policing & Education Conference 28th – 30th August, Brisbane, Queensland
These monitoring devices have the potential to (a) help judges, court and probation officials monitor the abstinence requirement of various offenders and impose swift sanctions for non-compliance; (b) help offenders with alcohol abuse and addiction issues to remain abstinent  while they are receiving professional treatment for their alcohol problem; (c) reduce DUI recidivism  and improve public safety; and (d) provide a cost effective alternative to incarceration for many alcohol offenders...

 

Department of Justice
# Smart on Crime. Reforming The Criminal Justice System for the 21st Century
www.justice.gov/ August 2013
It is time for meaningful sentencing reform. As a start, the Attorney General is announcing a change in Department of Justice charging policies so that certain people who have committed low-level, nonviolent drug offenses, who have no ties to large-scale organizations, gangs, or cartels will no longer be charged with offenses that impose draconian mandatory minimum sentences. Under the revised policy, these people would  instead receive sentences better suited to their individual conduct rather than excessive prison terms more appropriate for violent criminals or drug kingpins. Reserving the most severe penalties for serious, high-level, or violent drug traffickers will better promote public safety, deterrence, and rehabilitation – while making our expenditures smarter and more productive.

 

Dan Roberts
# Eric Holder calls for criminal justice reforms aimed at easing drug sentences. US attorney general mandating changes that would eradicate mandatory minimum sentences for some drug-related crimes

The Guardian | Monday 12 August 2013

Non-violent drug offenders will avoid mandatory minimum sentences under proposals to cut America's soaring prison numbers due to be unveiled on Monday. Attorney general Eric Holder is expected to issue new guidance to prosecutors that could have a dramatic effect on the lengthy jail terms that judges are required to give anyone convicted of possessing more than a proscribed amount of certain drugs. Too many Americans go to too many prisons for far too long, and for no good law-enforcement reason … Although incarceration has a role to play in our justice system, widespread incarceration at the federal, state and local levels is both ineffective and unsustainable.

 

Emma Disley, Andrew Mulcahy, Mafalda Pardal, Jennifer Rubin, Kai Ruggeri
# Development of a framework to estimate the cost of opioid dependence
www.rand.org/ 2013
Dependence on heroin and on prescription and over-the-counter opioids can impose significant harms on the state, communities, families, patients and users. Some of these possible harms are tangible – loss of life, poor health and the cost of healthcare and the criminal justice system. Others are less tangible, such as reduced quality of life and the psychological health of both users and their families. 

 

Franz Trautmann, Beau Kilmer, Paul Turnbull
# Further insights into aspects of the EU illicit drugs market
www.trimbos.org/ 2013
There are more inadequacies in a primarily prohibitionist approach to new psychoactive substances... a strategy of ‘more of the same’ ignores the fact that prohibition has severe unintended consequences. This has brought several experts to the conclusion that it is time to reconsider prohibition and to explore alternatives for control measures under the current drug laws. In the current situation there are only two options: either to submit a new substance to criminal control measures, or it can decide to leave it ‘uncontrolled’.

 

Alexander Constas, Mark Ware
# An audit of patients currently using legally acquired cannabis as a means of managing chronic pain
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Student Medical Journal 2013; 6(1): 17-21.
This audit suggests that cannabis can be effective at managing mild to moderate levels of pain in patients suffering from a variety of pathologies. Considering the economic, psychological and physical burden associated with pain, and the growing problem of prescribed narcotic dependency around the world, the need for further research into the uses of cannabis as an alternative method of pain management is clear...

 

Emanuela Rosso
# Cannabis è arrivato il primo farmaco
www.associazionelucacoscioni.it/ 23 Ago 2013
L'utilità della cannabis nella cura di diversi disturbi e malattie è accertata. «l'efficacia è riferita ad alcuni suoi principi attivi. In particolare al "Thc (tetraidrocannabinolo) e al Cbd (cannabidiolo), per i quali c'è il maggior numero di dati consolidati, sia dalla ricerca scientifica sia dall'esperienza con i malati» specifica il dottor Vidmer Scaioli, specialista in Neurofisiopatologia all'istituto neurologico Besta di Milano. Usati in maniera controllata, tali principi attivi hanno dimostrato di avere effetti benefici sui malati in diversi ambiti.

 

Lisa N. Sacco, Kristin Finklea
# Reauthorizing the Office of National Drug Control Policy: Issues for Consideration
Congressional Research Service CRS Reporto for Congress, August 13, 2013
Over the past several years, Director Kerlikowske has repeatedly stated that while drug use was previously considered a law enforcement or criminal justice problem, it transitioned to being viewed as a combination of criminal justice, social policy, and public health problems. He  contends that recently, drug use has been seen more as a public health problem.44 For instance,  according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, about 22.5 million Americans aged 12  and older were current (in the past month) illegal drug users in 2011, representing 8.7% of this population.45 This also represents the largest proportion in the past decade of people aged 12 and  older being identified as current illegal drug users. Further, the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs  contributes to over 100,000 deaths in the United States annually.

 

Wendy Swift, Alex Wong, Kong M. Li, Jonathon C. Arnold, Iain S. McGregor
# Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile
PLoS|ONE 8(7), July 24, 2013
Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used...

 

CDC Vitalsigns
# Prescription Painkiller Overdoses. A growing epidemic, especially among women
www.cdc.gov/ July 2013
More than 5 times as many women died from prescription painkiller overdoses in 2010 as in 1999. ◊ Women between the ages of 25 and 54 are more likely than other age groups to go to the emergency department from prescription painkiller misuse or abuse. Women ages 45 to 54 have the highest risk of dying from a prescription painkiller overdose. ◊ Non-Hispanic white and American Indian or Alaska Native women have the highest risk of dying from a prescription painkiller overdose. ◊ Prescription painkillers are involved in 1 in 10 suicides among women...

 

American Civil Liberties Union ACLU
# The War on Marijuana in Black and White
www.aclu.org/ June 2013
The report finds that between 2001 and 2010, there were over 8 million marijuana arrests in the United States, 88% of which were for possession. Marijuana arrests have increased between 2001 and 2010 and now account for over half (52%) of all drug arrests in the United States, and arijuana possession arrests account for nearly half (46%) of all drug arrests. In 2010, there was one marijuana arrest every 37 seconds, and states spent combined over $3.6 billion enforcing marijuana possession laws.

 

Icro Maremmani, Massimo Barra, Elizabeth Burton-Phillips, Isabella Cecchini, Gaetano di Chiara, Gilberto Gerra, Lorenzo Mantovani, Pier Paolo Pani, Gail Pitts, Alessandro Rossi, Lorenzo Somaini, Fabrizio Starace
# Manifesto Italiano per la Cura delle Tossicodipendenze: il Modello di Cura Misto Un manifesto per una nuova organizzazione dell’assistenza sanitaria a soggetti tossicodipendenti da oppiacei
Rivista Società Italiana di Medicina Generale, Giugno 2013
Gli interventi di “riduzione del danno” non devono essere considerati in modo ideologico, in contraddizione con la prospettiva del trattamento delle dipendenze e del recupero. Riduzione del danno e trattamento sono strategie complementari e non opposte. La riduzione del danno è una modalità di intervento, già terapeutica in sé, che opera a bassa soglia. Con questo tipo di intervento si cerca di raggiungere tutti i soggetti affetti da tossicodipendenza, in particolare i più marginalizzati e i meno motivati, per offrire loro la possibilità di migliorare le loro condizioni di salute e ridurre i rischi connessi alla pratica tossicomanica (infezioni, overdose, disagio sociale, affiliazione alle organizzazioni criminali).

 

National Association of Drug Court Professionals NADCP
# Adult Drug Court. Best Practice Standards
www.nadcp.org/ 2013
Drug Courts are the shining example of what works in the justice system. Today, there are over 2,700 Drug Courts operating in the U.S., and another  thirteen countries have implemented the model. Drug Courts are widely applied to adult criminal  cases, juvenile delinquency and truancy cases, and family court cases involving parents at risk of  losing custody of their children due to substance abuse. In the 24 years since the first Drug Court was founded in Miami/Dade County, Florida, more  research has been published on the effects of Drug Court than on virtually all other criminal  justice programs combined. The scientific community has put Drug Courts under a microscope  and concluded that Drug Courts significantly reduce drug abuse and crime and do so at far less  expense than any other justice strategy.  Such success has empowered NADCP to champion new generations of the Drug Court model.  These include Veterans Treatment Courts, Reentry Courts, and Mental Health Courts, among  others.

 

Michael Capriola
# Synthetic cathinone abuse
Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications 2013:5 109–115
Coingestion of other drugs of abuse and alcohol frequently accompanies synthetic cathinone use. While there are no data regarding people seeking treatment for synthetic cathinone dependence/addiction, users have reported a strong compulsion to redose, as well as addiction/ dependence...

 

ACLU Foundation
# A Living Death. Life without Parole for Nonviolent Offenses
www.aclu.org/ 2013
About 79 percent of the 3,278 prisoners serving life without parole were sentenced to die in prison for nonviolent drug crimes. This report documents the thousands of lives ruined and families destroyed by sentencing people to die behind bars for nonviolent offenses, and includes detailed case studies of 110 such people. It also includes a detailed fiscal analysis tallying the $1.784 billion cost to taxpayers to keep the 3,278 prisoners currently serving Life without parole (LWOP) for nonviolent offenses incarcerated for the rest of their lives.  

 

Ricardo Abduca, Pien Metaal | transnational institute TNI
# Working towards a legal coca market: The case of coca leaf chewing in Argentina

Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies No. 23, June 2013
Argentine coca consumption does not fit commonly held preconceptions on the subject. Furthermore, the social acceptance and legitimacy of the habit has created an absurd situation in which the sale and possession of coca leaf for consumption is legal, but the supply and wholesale purchase of it are prohibited, and therefore part of an illegal circuit...

 

Jonathan P. Caulkins, Susan Andrzejewski, Linden Dahlkemper
# How much revenue could the cannabis tax generate, under different scenarios?
www.liq.wa.gov/ BOTEC Analysis Corporation June 28, 2013
This report explores various scenarios concerning potential I-502 tax revenues, per year and in total over a decade. The dominant finding is sobering though perhaps not surprising: There is enormous uncertainty. Different plausible scenarios lead to radically different projections for potential revenue. It is not even clear that revenues will trend steadily over time; there are plausible scenarios under which revenues will first rise and then fall. With information currently in hand, it is not possible to set specific bounds on the possible range of tax revenues.

 

Ministère des Affaires Sociales et de la Santé
# Guide des traitements de substitution aux opiacés en milieu carcéral
www.sante.gouv.fr/ Juin 2013
En 2001, cinq ans après le lancement du processus de généralisation des traitements de substitution aux opiacés (TSO) en France, la Commission nationale consultative des traitements de substitution, placée sous l’autorité du ministre de la Santé, avait lancé un programme de travail visant à améliorer  la prise en charge par les TSO. Ce programme a été adopté lors de la séance du 27 septembre 2001. Un des axes de ce programme concernait la situation en détention.

 

Amanda C. Cissner, Michael Rempel, Allison Walker Franklin, John K, Roman, Samuel Bieler, Robyn Cohen, Carolyn R. Cadoret
# A Statewide Evaluation of New York’s Adult Drug Courts. Identifying Which Policies Work Best
Urban Institute June 2013
Incarceration: Do New York’s drug courts reduce incarceration compared to conventional case processing? Because drug court participants were less likely than the comparison group to be sentenced to prison, participants also averaged significantly fewer total days incarcerated on the instant case (in either state prisons or local jails). In addition, due to reductions both in jail/prison time on the instant case and reductions in jail/prison sentences on avoided future re-arrests, drug court participants spent fewer total days incarcerated on all criminal cases arising over a three-year tracking period.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
# Perspective on Drugs. Preventing overdose deaths in Europe
www.emcdda.europa.eu/ UPDATED 28.5.2013
The heroin epidemics that spread across Europe in the 1980s resulted in increasing numbers of overdose deaths among opioid users (1). Although the annual number of reported deaths peaked around the turn of the millennium, drug overdose still claimed more than 70 000 in Europe in the subsequent decade. Despite the fact that recent data show some promising signs, with the number of reported overdose deaths falling from around 7 700 to 6 500 between 2009 and 2011, stable or increasing death tolls continue to be reported, for example in Estonia, Sweden and the United Kingdom (Scotland).

 

Global Commission on Drug Policy
# The Negative Impact Of The War On Drugs On Public Health: The Hidden Hepatitis C Epidemic
www.globalcommissionondrugs.org/ Report May 2013

The silence about the harms of repressive drug policies has been broken – they are ineffective, violate basic human rights, generate violence, and expose individuals and communities to unnecessary risks. Hepatitis C is one of  these harms – yet it is both preventable and curable when public health is the focus of the drug response. Now is the  time to reform.

 

New South Wales. Parliament. Legislative Council. General Purpose Standing Committee No. 4
# The use of cannabis for medical purposes | Report 27 - 15 May 2013
www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/
Thus we consider that a system which qualifies this group for the use of cannabis for medical purposes should be established by providing a complete defence from arrest and prosecution. We believe that this could be achieved via amendment to the Drug Misuse and Trafficking Act, by adding a complete defence to the list of present defences for use and possession, so as to cover the authorised medical use of cannabis.

 

Guillermo Garat
# Un siglo de políticas de drogas en Uruguay
www.fesur.org.uy/ ANÁLISIS n.1/2013

En junio de 2012 el gobierno presentó su idea de regular el mercado del cannabis en el país acompañado de una serie de medidas conocidas como “Estrategia por la vida y la convivencia”... El gobierno reconoció que las incautaciones de las sustancias prohibidas no logran desfinanciar al narcotráfico pero comprometen los presupuestos públicos y recursos de diversa índole como acontece con la sobrepoblación carcelaria o el desborde del sistema judicial.

 

Mary-Lynn Brecht, Diane M. Herbeck
# Methamphetamine Use and Violent Behavior: User Perceptions and Predictors
Journal of Drug Issues 43(4) 2013
The prevention of interpersonal violence has been a public health priority of the U.S. Center for Disease Control for some time; although the cost of violence translates into billions of U.S. dollars spent on premature death, disability, medical care, and law enforcement, the human cost in grief and pain cannot be calculated. Violent behavior and victimization are common among individuals with substance abuse problems , and use of substances is involved in many violent incidents...

 

Organization of American States General Secretariat
# The Drug Problem in the Americas
http://www.countthecosts.org/ 2013
Decriminalization of drug use needs to be considered as a core element in any public health strategy. An addict is a chronically sick person who should not be punished for his or her dependence, but rather treated appropriately. If it proves impossible to adopt such a radical shift in treatment from one day to another, a start should at least be made with transitional methods, such as drug courts, substantial reductions in penalties, and rehabilitation. Incarceration runs counter to this approach and should only be used when an addict’s life is in danger or when his or her behavior constitutes a threat to society.

 

King County Drug Diversion Court
# Policy and Procedure Manual
www.kingcounty.gov/ Revised May 2013
The King County Drug Diversion Court (DDC) was implemented in August 1994, the twelfth Drug Court in the country. The DDC is a pre-adjudication program that provides eligible defendants the opportunity to receive drug treatment in lieu of incarceration. Eligible defendants can elect to participate in the program or proceed with traditional court processing. If defendants meet the requirements of each of the four phases of DDC, they graduate from the program and the charges are dismissed. If defendants fail to make progress they are terminated from the program and sentenced on their original charge. Drug courts are built upon a unique partnership between the criminal justice system and drug treatment community, one which structures treatment intervention around the authority and personal involvement of a single drug court judge. Drug courts are also dependent upon the creation of a nonadversarial courtroom atmosphere where a dedicated team of court officers and staff work together toward a common goal of breaking the cycle of drug abuse and criminal behavior.

 

Nancy C. Bernardy
# The Role of Benzodiazepines in the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
PTSD Research Quarterly, vol. 23/4, 2013
The 2010 revised version of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for the management of PTSD established evidencebased psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy recommendations that promote quality care for Veterans with PTSD (VA, 2010). Beyond recommended treatments, the guideline cautioned providers against the use of benzodiazepines to manage PTSD due to a lack of efficacy data and growing evidence for the potential risk of harm. The research, however, supporting this recommendation is sparse. Currently, no data support the efficacy of benzodiazepines for the treatment of what is considered “core” PTSD symptoms such as avoidance, hyperarousal, numbing, or dissociation.

 

DEA Drug Enforcement Administration
# The DEA Position On Marijuana
http://www.dea.gov/ April 2013
There is no uniform drug policy in Europe. Some countries have liberalized their laws, while others have instituted strict drug control policies, which mean that the so called “European Model” is a misnomer. Like America, the various countries of Europe are looking for new ways to combat the worldwide problem of drug abuse. In recent years the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) has reported a tendency among European countries to make a stronger distinction between those who use drugs and those who sell or traffic drugs. 

 

David C. Peters II
# Patients and Caregivers Report Using Medical Marijuana to Decrease Prescription Narcotics Use
Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, Issue 35, 2013
In depth qualitative interview data were collected from medical marijuana patients and knowledgeable producers in Michigan about their perceptions and observations on the medical use of marijuana. Patients consistently reported using marijuana to substitute or wean off prescription drugs. All patients and producers who were taking opiate pain killers claimed they reduced overall drug use, especially opiates, by using medical marijuana. Patients and caregivers also claimed medical marijuana was preferred over opiates, eased withdrawal from opiates, and in some cases was perceived as more effective at relieving pain.

 

Todd Garvey, Brian T. Yeh
# State Legalization of Recreational Marijuana: Selected Legal Issues
Congressional Research Service - April 5, 2013
May a state authorize the use of marijuana for recreational purposes even if such use is forbidden by federal law? This novel and unresolved legal question has vexed judges, politicians, and legal scholars, and it has also generated considerable public debate among supporters and opponents of “legalizing” the recreational use of marijuana.

 

Ushang Desaia, Paras Patel
# Medical marijuana: a public health perspective
International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology | March-April 2013 | Vol 2 | Issue 2
Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the US and all over world, several risks associated with it. Major concern is medical marijuana increased the use of marijuana and will create the public health problem in the society. There are several medical benefits from the marijuana but require more research to establish the marijuana as a medicine. Control of medical marijuana is also major issue for the law enforcement agencies and challenge for policymakers also in the United States.

 

La Società della Ragione
# La Fini-Giovanardi a giudizio. Dossier di documentazione In occasione dell’Udienza presso il Tribunale di Tolmezzo del processo contro Rototom.
www.societadellaragione.it/ Udine, 22 aprile 2013
La vicenda nasce dalla condanna inflitta dal tribunale a due ragazze, che erano state fermate dai carabinieri perché trovate in possesso di 27 dosi di marijuana. Nel giudizio di appello, svoltosi il 28 gennaio, il difensore delle ragazze ha eccepito la incostituzionalità della legge e la Corte di appello gli ha dato ragione. La decisione è molto importante perché ritiene che la Fini- Giovanardi contrasta con la Costituzione sotto tre profili. Anzitutto perché è stata inserita come “maxiemendamento” al decreto legge sulle Olimpiade invernali del 2006, che con la droga non avevano nulla a che fare... I giudici romani sottolineano poi la assurdità della equiparazione tra droghe “pesanti” e “leggere”... Infine, secondo i giudici, la legge Fini-Giovanardi viola anche la legislazione europea perché “unificando la pena prevista sia per le droghe leggere che per le droghe pesanti” non si è attenuta ad una decisione del 2004 del Consiglio dell’Unione Europea

 

ISTAT
# L’uso e l’abuso di alcol in Italia
www.istat.it/ 18 aprile 2013
Nel 2012 il 66,6% della popolazione di 14 anni e più ha consumato almeno una bevanda alcolica nell’anno. Tale quota è stabile rispetto all’anno precedente e in diminuzione rispetto a 10 anni prima (70,2%)... Comportamenti a rischio più frequenti si osservano fra gli ultrasessantacinquenni (il 40,7% degli uomini contro l’10,1% delle donne), i giovani di 18-24 anni (il 21,0% dei maschi e il 9,5% delle femmine) e gli adolescenti di 11-17 anni (il 12,4% dei maschi e l’8,4% delle femmine).

 

Robert E. Brutcher
# Effects of sleep disruption and quetiapine on cocaine abuse: the path to development of a monkey model of PTSD
Wake Forest University, May 2013

 

Giovanni Serpelloni, Bruno Genetti, Roberto Mollica, Alessandra Andreotti, Iulia Alexandra Carpignano, Nadia Balestra, Maria Alessandra Tullio, Milena Sperotto
# I diversi fattori di rischio per l’uso di sostanze illecite tra le adolescenti 15-19 anni e i coetanei maschi
Italian Journal on Addiction Vol. 3 Numero 2 2013

Lo studio Italiano evidenzia che per tutte le sostanze illecite analizzate si osservano prevalenze di consumo maggiori tra i maschi rispetto le femmine, dato confermato anche dalla letteratura internazionale. Inoltre, la sostanza stupefacente maggiormente assunta dagli studenti intervistati risulta la cannabis, con prevalenza sempre maggiore tra gli studenti di genere maschile, in relazione a tutti i periodi temporali considerati (almeno una volta nella vita, almeno una volta nell’ultimo anno, almeno una volta nell’ultimo mese). In Europa, in media, il 21% dei maschi tra i 15 e i 16 anni ha sperimentato almeno una sostanza illecita nel corso della propria vita, contro il 15% delle femmine. Inoltre, la stragrande maggioranza dei giovani che hanno sperimentato una droga hanno assunto cannabis, ed è più probabile che questo avvenga tra i maschi rispetto alle femmine.

 

C. Alexander Paleos, Stephen Ross
# Ketamine: A Light in the Darkness
MAPS Bulletin Special Edition, spring 2013
Ketamine ha been FDA-Approved for use as an anesthetic in surgical procedures since 1970, an indication for which it continues to be widely used, especially in disaster relief efforts and battlefield operations. In more recent years, it has been increasingly used for the purposes of conscious sedation and analgesia for painful or anxiety-provoking procedures performed in emergency room settings, particularly in pediatric populations. For almost as long, however, ketamine has been earning notoriety as a drug used illicitly for a variety of non-medical purposes.

 

Kim Wolff, Roger Brimblecombe, J. Colin Forfar, Robert Forrest, Eilish Gilvarry, Atholl Johnston, Judith Morgan, David Osselton, Lily Read, David Taylor
# Driving Under the Influence of Drugs. Report from the Expert Panel on Drug Driving
www.gov.uk/ Department for Transport March 2013
The main challenge in establishing recommendations for driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs is the need to provide an easily‐understood and justifiable scientific rationale for particular drugs being covered by the offence of drug‐driving, whilst  recognising that the evidence base is dynamic and will develop as our knowledge and understanding increases. The Panel aimed to establish whether there was sufficient  evidence in the scientific literature to be able to determine a relationship between the use of psychoactive drugs and an effect on driving performance in average members of the general public...

 

Pompidou Group of the Council of Europe |Co-operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs.
# Mental Health and Addiction in Prisons. Written controbutions to the International Conference on Mental Health and Addiction in Prisons.
27-28 Febrary 2013, Bucharest - http://www.coe.int/ 2013
Introduction, by Robert Teltzrow, Pompidou Group | Drug use, mental health and drugs in prisons by Prof Heino Stöver | Professional independence of health care workers in the penitentiary system by Dr Jörg Pont | Opiate Substitution Treatment and Harm Reduction in prisons: the Geneva model by Dr Hans Wolff | Mental Health Services in the Belgian prison system by Dr Sven Todts | Romania and illegal drugs at a glance – Trends and services by Dr Mihai Corciova | Drug treatment and risk assessment of drug-using inmates in Serbia: Treating drug users in prison | Prison reforms in the Republic of Macedonia – Drug treatment in Macedonian prisons by Ms Elisaveta Sekulovska | Psychological and medical care for drug users in prison establishments in the Republic of Moldova by Svetlana Doltu and Iuliana Adam | Art Therapy in Prisons by Prof Peter Sinapius | Drugs and mental health in prisons: constant concerns of the Health in prisons Programme (HIPP) of WHO/Europe by Mr Stefan Enggist

 

Ernest Drucker
# Drug Law, Mass Incarceration, and Public Health
Oregon Law Review, Vol. 91, 2013
The U.S. incarceration rate climbed steadily throughout a thirtyyear period beginning in the mid-1970s —coinciding with the most aggressive era of the United States’ War on Drugs. Incarceration did not reach a peak until 2009, topping out with 2.3 million people behind bars, a rate of 720 prisoners per 100,000 members of the population—by then the highest rate and greatest number of prisoners of any nation in the world. During this time a total of about eight million individual Americans went to prison.

 

Valeria Fraschetti

# La rivoluzione dell'Uruguay: marijuana come monopolio di Stato

La Repubblica 2 agosto 2013

La legge uruguaiana non solo autorizza i cittadini a coltivare fino a sei piante in casa (99 nel caso di cooperative tra persone): permette anche a società private di darsi alla produzione industriale, a patto che il raccolto sia venduto interamente allo Stato. Il Paese incastonato tra Brasile e Argentina non diventerà però un'oasi del "turismo dello spinello", stile Amsterdam: l'acquisto sarà vietato agli stranieri e permesso ai cittadini maggiorenni (massimo 40 grammi al mese) solo nelle farmacie dotate di licenza. In sostanza: monopolio di Stato, la cannabis come il tabacco.

 

Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga
# Relazione annuale 2013: presentazione
24 luglio 2013 | Testo in file:
www.politicheantidroga.it/

Al pari di quanto succede in Europa e come riferito il mese scorso dall'Osservatorio Europeo di Lisbona, prosegue anche quest'anno il trend del calo dei consumi di sostanze stupefacenti nel nostro Paese. L'analisi generale dell'andamento dei consumatori negli ultimi 12 mesi, riferiti alla popolazione generale 15-64 anni, conferma la tendenza alla contrazione del numero di consumatori, già osservata nel 2010 per le sostanze quali eroina, cocaina, allucinogeni, stimolanti e cannabis. Questo il dato generale che emerge dalle indagini campionarie sulla popolazione e dalle analisi delle acque reflue eseguite dal DPA, contenute nell'ultima Relazione al Parlamento 2013 sull'uso di sostanze stupefacenti e tossicodipendenze in Italia, elaborata dal Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga.

 

University of Michigan Institute for Social Research | Lloyd D. Johnston, Patrick M. O’Malley, Jerald G. Bachman, John E. Schulenberg
# Monitoring the Future: National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings 2012
# Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2012. Volume I: Secondary school students
# Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2012. Volume II: College students and adults ages 19-50
http://monitoringthefuture.org/ 2013

 

Mario Santoro, Livio Triolo, Carla Rossi
# Drug user dynamics: A compartmental model of drug users for scenario analyses
Drugs: education, prevention and policy, June 2013; 20(3): 184–194
Based on monitoring drug use in young people and in problem drug users in Italy, the following dynamic compartmental model of differential type is proposed. The compartments are defined by frequency of use and assortment of drugs, and the main issue is to extract from the estimated rates of change among different compartments the evolution of patterns of drug use...

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
# International Standards on Drug Use Prevention
www.unodc.org/ UNODC (Last updated 10 March 2013)
Prevention is one of the main components of a health-centred system to address drugs, as mandated by the existing three international Conventions.  This document focuses on prevention of the initiation of drug use and the  prevention of transition to drug use disorders. The global International Standards do not address other kinds of prevention (e.g. the prevention of health and social consequences of drug use), drugdependence treatment and care, or law enforcement efforts.

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
# Opioid overdose: preventing and reducing opioid overdose mortality. Contribution of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and the World Health Organization to improving responses by  Member States to the increasing problem of opioid overdose deaths
Discussion paper UNODC/WHO 2013

Recent periods of abstinence (particularly when enforced, such as in a period of incarceration) are a major risk factor for fatal opioid overdose. Substantial evidence from a number of longitudinal studies indicates that the period immediately following release from prison and the period immediately following discharge from a detoxification facility pose a significantly elevated risk of overdose.

 

Wade Berrettini
# Opioid Pharmacogenetics of Alcohol Addiction
http://perspectivesinmedicine.org/ Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2013;3:a012203
Alcohol addiction is one of the most common and devastating diseases in the world. Given the tremendous heterogeneity of alcohol-addicted individuals, it is unlikely that one medication will help nearly all patients. Thus, there is a clear need to develop predictors of response to existing medications. Naltrexone is a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, which has been approved in the United States for treatment of alcohol addiction since 1994. It has limited efficacy, in part because of noncompliance, but many patients do not respond despite high levels of compliance. There are reports that a missense single nucleotide polymorphism (rs179919 or A118G) in the μ-opioid receptor gene predicts a favorable response to naltrexone if an individual carries a “G” allele. This work will review the evidence for this hypothesis. The data are promising that the “G” allele predisposes to a beneficial naltrexone response among alcohol-addicted persons, but additional research is needed to prove this hypothesis in prospective clinical trials.

 

S Nielsen, M Hillhouse, C Thomas, A Hasson, W Ling
# A comparison of buprenorphine taper outcomes between prescription opioid and heroin users
J Addict Med. 2013 January ; 7(1): 33–38
Short term taper is not recommended as a stand-alone treatment, however patients may taper from buprenorphine as part of a treatment plan. Despite greater co-morbidity, prescription opioids (PO) users appear to have favorable taper outcomes compared to heroin users. Further studies are required to examine longer term treatment outcomes.

 

Mirella van Dun, Hugo Cabieses Cubas, Pien Metaal | transnational institute TNI
# Between Reality and Abstraction. Guiding Principles and developing alternativesfor illicit crop producing regions in Peru
www.tni.org/ Drug Policy Briefing Nr. 39 January 2013
The Guiding Principles for Alternative Development should break with the applied logic in which forced eradication is the principal objective and development considered a detail.  Peru is trying to peddle to the world the success of its model to replace coca economy, but this model confirms in the short, medium, and long term the most common failures of “Alternative Development”  According to the Alternative Development project participants in the Upper Huallaga, national and international agencies only measure “success” by the reduction of coca crops and do not take into account the opinion of residents...

 

La società della ragione onlus - Forum droghe - Antigone - CNCA - con l'adesione di Magistratura Democratica e Unione delle Camere Penali Italiane
# 4° Libro Bianco sulla legge Fini-Giovanardi
Edizione 2013 sui dati 2012 | i dossier di FUORILUOGO.it - www.fuoriluogo.it 2013

Un detenuto su tre entra in carcere ogni anno per la violazione dell’art. 73 D.P.R. 309/1990.
Sono significativi i dati degli ingressi in carcere per violazione della legge antidroga in rapporto al totale degli ingressi. Nel 2006 gli ingressi in carcere in violazione dell’art. 73 (detenzione di sostanze illecite) della legge antidroga sono stati 25.399 (su un totale di 90.714); nel 2012 sono state incarcerate 20.465 persone (su un totale di 63.020).

 

Gioacchino Romeo
# Le Sezioni unite sul consumo di gruppo di sostanze stupefacenti
www.penalecontemporaneo.it/ 24 Giugno 2013

Cass. pen., Sez. un., 31 gennaio 2013 (dep. 10 giugno 2013), n. 25401, Pres. Lupo, Rel. Franco, ric. G. (anche dopo le modifiche recate dalla legge n. 49 del 2006 al T.u. stup., non costituiscono reato, ma solo l'illecito amministrativo di cui all'art. 75 del citato T.u., l'acquisto e la detenzione di sostanze stupefacenti destinate all'uso di gruppo, purché sin dall'inizio essi avvengano anche per conto di soggetti diversi dall'agente e sia certa l'identità di questi ultimi, e risulti altresì manifesta la loro volontà di procurarsi le sostanze destinate al proprio consumo)

 

# Cass. pen., Sez. un., 31 gennaio 2013 (dep. 10 giugno 2013), n. 25401, Pres. Lupo, Rel. Franco,

 

Michele Passione

# Il Giudice e la Costituzione materiale

Manifesto del 17 luglio 2013.

 

Franco Corleone (ed)
# La Parola alla Corte Costituzionale | Dopo 7 anni si apre una nuova strada per cancellare la legge Fini-Giovanardi sulle droghe
La Società della Ragione ONLUS 2013
La questione di legittimità costituzionale | Appendice: Una proposta ad alta penalità, di Franco Maisto | Dal penale al sociale, una proposta alternativa, Giuseppe Cascini | Autonomie locali e regionali sotto scacco, di Alessandro Margara
 

Luigi Saraceni
# Perché la legge Fini-Giovanardi è incostituzionale [Intervento di Luigi Saraceni al convegno Lotta alla Droga. I danni collaterali. Udine 1 giugno 2012]
Fuoriluogo.it - 01/06/2012

Basti ricordare la unificazione in unica tabella e la parificazione del trattamento sanzionatorio delle droghe “leggere” e “pesanti”, prima suddivise in due diverse tabelle e sottoposte a diversi regimi punitivi. Con la conseguenza, tanto per restare al caso Rototom, che la pena minima per la “agevolazione dell’uso di sostanze stupefacenti” è passata, per la cannabis, da uno a tre anni di reclusione (art. 79 del testo unico, come modificato dal comma 25 dell’art. 4 vicies ter della legge di conversione). Così stando le cose, occorre verificare se e quali modifiche introdotte dalla legge di conversione al testo unico sugli stupefacenti siano compatibili con il quadro costituzionale.

 

Corte di cassazione - Sezione III penale – Ordinanza 11 giugno 2013 n. 25554

# Legge Fini Giovanardi: Rinvio alla Consulta per l’equiparazione di droghe leggere e pesanti
 

Giovanni Bianconi

# La legge Fini-Giovanardi è inconstituzionale | Cassazione: Norme introdotte nel decreto Olimpiadi e senza i requisiti di necessità e urgenza. Dovrà esprimersi la Consulta | Corriere della Sera, 12 giugno 2013

 

Home Office
# Drug Misuse: Findings from the 2012/13. Crime Survey for England and Wales
http://www.statistics.gov.uk/ July 2013
Including mephedrone, the proportion of adults aged 16 to 59 taking any illicit drug in the last year was 8.2% in 2012/13 (i.e. no different to the proportion when excluding mephedrone). This was a decrease from 9.1% in 2011/12. According to the 2012/13 CSEW, 2.6% of adults aged 16 to 59 had taken a Class A drug in the last year (equivalent to around 850,000 people). As shown in Figure 1.1, the long-term trend in Class A drug use in the last year for all adults has been broadly stable since 1996. Supporting this finding, there is no statistically significant difference between the 1996 (2.7%) and 2012/13 (2.6%) surveys... As in 2011/12 after cannabis, the next most commonly used drug in the last year by adults aged 16 to
59 was powder cocaine (1.9%).

 

Jan Bashford, Jan Copeland, Ross Flett
# Cannabis Use and Disorder Transitions Among a Mixed Community Sample of At-Risk Adolescents and Adults: A Prospective New Zealand Study
The Open Addiction Journal, 2013, 6, 6-15
While extending the international research on the natural history of CUD (cannabis use disorder), this prospective New Zealand study confirms that younger adolescents can - and do - rapidly develop cannabis dependence, reporting similar and equally severe symptoms as longer-term adult users. The ostensibly inexorable course of problematic cannabis use makes a compelling case for stronger investment in public health SEI (screening and early intervention)  initiatives at an early age to avert or reduce harmful consequences of cannabis use in the community.

 

John Walsh (ed), with contributions from Mark Kleiman and BOTEC Analysis
# Q&A: Legal Marijuana in Colorado and Washington
Governance Studies at Brookings, may 2013

Washington and Colorado took identical approaches to possession and age limits: adults 21 and older can possess up to one ounce at any time, normally a misdemeanor charge. The states also appear likely to adopt the same DUI policy, restricting driving with blood THC concentrations higher than five nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). The Colorado laws are more liberal in that they allow unlicensed production for personal use (up to three maturing plants at a time) and non-commercial transactions up to one ounce. The states’ laws share similar taxation structures, with modestly heavier taxes in Washington. Washington levies between two and three 25 percent excise taxes within the supply chain, depending on industry structure, yielding a total tax burden likely somewhere between 30 and 40 percent, plus sales tax. Colorado has enacted a 15 percent excise tax on unprocessed product and a 10 percent sales tax, for an approximate effective tax rate between 15 and 25 percent.

 

Luisa Romano
# Art. 73 del D.P.R. N. 309 del 1990: la parola alla Corte Costituzionale. Osservazioni su Corte d’appello di Roma, Sez. III, ord. 28 gennaio 2013, Pres. ed Est. Bettiol
Diritto Penale Contemporaneo, www.penalecontemporaneo.it 28 maggio 2013
Altra censura mossa nei confronti dell’art. 4-bis del d.l. n. 272 del 2005 è quella relativa all’asserita incompatibilità della citata disposizione con il principio di eguaglianza dei cittadini di fronte alla legge di cui all’art. 3 Cost., previsione costituzionale, quest’ultima, che farebbe divieto al legislatore di sanzionare con la medesima pena comportamenti notevolmente differenti, come notevolmente differenti sarebbero, a parere della Corte remittente, quelli, tra gli altri, di importazione, detenzione e spaccio aventi ad oggetti droghe cc.dd. leggere o, piuttosto, droghe cc.dd. pesanti, a ragione della modestia degli effetti negativi sull’organismo delle prime rispetto a quelli devastanti prodotti dalle seconde.

# Corte d’appello di Roma, Sez. III, ord. 28 gennaio 2013, Pres. ed Est. Bettiol

 

Corte Suprema di Cassazione - Sezioni Unite Penali

# Sentenza n. 36258/2012 del 24 maggio 2012 - Dep. 20 settembre 2012

Corte Suprema di Cassazione - Sezioni Unite Penali | Rel. n. 06/2013 | Roma 08/03/2013
# RIF. NORM.: d.P.R. 09/10/1990, num. 309, art. 80 comma 2 (Ingente quantità)
Le Sezioni Unite penali, con decisione assunta all’udienza del 24 maggio 2012, dep. il 20 settembre 2012, n. 36258, Biondi, Rv. 253150, hanno affermato il principio di diritto così massimato: «In tema di produzione, traffico e detenzione illeciti di sostanze stupefacenti, l'aggravante della ingente quantità, di cui all'art. 80, comma secondo, d.P.R. n. 309 del 1990, non è di norma ravvisabile quando la quantità sia inferiore a 2.000 volte il valore massimo, in milligrammi (valore - soglia), determinato per ogni sostanza nella tabella allegata al D.M. 11 aprile 2006, ferma restando la discrezionale valutazione del giudice di merito, quando tale quantità sia superata».

# D.M.S. - Q.M.D. - D.M.G.

Limiti massimi di sostanza stupefacente previsti dall’art. 73 comma 1-bis del Testo Unico approvato con D.P.R. 309/1990, come modificato dalla Legge 21 febbraio 2006 n. 49

 

Simone Grimm, Milan Scheidegger
# A Trip Out of Depression. Ketamine, an Anesthetic and Illicit Party Drug, Is Emerging as a Fast-Acting Antedepressant
www.ScientificAmerican.com/Mind June 2013
One hypothesis suggests that ketamine quickly and dramatically increases the function and density of synapses, the junctions between neurons, in areas of the brain where cells have atrophied because of stress or depression. The prefrontal cortex—a region essential to complex decision making, learning and memory—is one such area. In depressed people, it appears to have reduced volume and less activation than in healthy individuals, as well as fewer synapses on neurons in one subregion.

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime UNODC
# World Drug Report 2013
United Nations, May 2013
The multitude of new psychoactive substances and the speed with which they have emerged in all regions of the world is one of the most notable trends in drug markets over the past five years. While the existing international control system is equipped to deal with the emergence of new substances that pose a threat to public health, it is currently required to provide a response commensurate with the unprecedented fast evolving nature of the phenomenon of new psychoactive substances. Some countries have adopted innovative approaches to curb the rise of these substances, but the global nature of the problem requires a response based on international cooperation and universal coverage.

 

Roger A. Roffman
# Legalization of marijuana: unraveling quandaries for the addiction professional
www.frontiersin.org/ Frontiers in Psychiatry May 2013

... The pendulum appears to be swinging further away from the full prohibition end of the policy continuum. Advocates for policy reform underscore the substantial adverse consequences of prohibition for society. First, a large black market largely nullifies efforts to prevent ready access to marijuana, with billions of dollars in profits enriching gangs and cartels and fueling egregiously high rates of violence and murder. The illicit marijuana that some 30 million Americans consume each year is therefore not subjected to regulations that might require accurate labeling of potency and cannabinoid ratios, testing to assure non-contamination, and limiting sales to adults...

 

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
Droga e adolescenti: aumenti in vista
http://www.stampa.cnr.it/ 3 maggio 2013
In un quadro di sostanziale stabilità, le ultime rilevazioni dello studio Espad-Italia 2012 curato dall’Istituto di fisiologia clinica del Cnr di Pisa  sull’uso di sostanze psicotrope da parte degli studenti vedono in crescita cannabis, eroina e stimolanti. Netta la prevalenza maschile per tutte le sostanze. Tendenza all’incremento soprattutto nel Sud.

 

Maud Pousset et al. | Observatoire français des drogues et des toxicomanies
# Drogues et addictions, données essentielles
OFDT 2013
La dépendance est entendue comme un comportement psychopathologique présentant certaines caractéristiques biologiques, psychologiques et sociales au-delà de la seule dépendance physique. Les principaux critères contribuant à sa définition sont : le désir compulsif du produit, la difficulté à contrôler la consommation, la prise du produit pour éviter le syndrome de sevrage, le besoin d’augmenter la dose pour atteindre les mêmes effets qu’auparavant et la place centrale prise par le produit dans la vie du consommateur... Les données de remboursements font apparaître une baisse des consommations d’hypnotiques et d’antidépresseurs au cours des années 2000. Celles d’anxiolytiques étaient en baisse entre 2002 et 2009, mais ont fortement augmenté en 2010 et retrouvent ainsi à peu près le niveau du début des années 2000. Pour les antidépresseurs, la baisse intervient après 2005, en rupture avec une phase de croissance continue entre 1990 et 2003.

 

# Corte di cassazione - Sezione VI penale - Sentenza 30 aprile 2013 n. 18969

Droga, custodia cautelare in carcere solo se la pericolosità è fuori della norma. Niente custodia cautelare in carcere per il tossicodipendente trovato in possesso di 47 involucri di marijuana: deve prevalere la prospettiva di recupero della persona. Lo ha stabilito la Corte di cassazione con la sentenza 18969/2013 annullando l’ordinanza del tribunale di Catania che all’opposto aveva negato la misura alternativa della reclusione domiciliare.

 

Wayne Hall
# British cannabis policy: an enduring and uneasy compromise
www.thelancet.com Vol 381 April 20, 2013
Mills cogently describes how the policy compromise succeeded in reducing the public profile of cannabis use but at a cost—namely, that the police used their discretion in enforcement to selectively detain minority cannabis users and young people who already had criminal records and who were suspected of more serious off ences

 

Pew Research Center
# Majority Now Supports Legalizing Marijuana
www.people-press.org/ April 4, 2013

For the first time in more than four decades of polling on the issue, a majority of Americans favor legalizing the use of marijuana. A national survey finds that 52% say that the use of marijuana should be made legal while 45% say it should not. Support for legalizing marijuana has risen 11 points since 2010. The change is even more dramatic since the late 1960s. A 1969 Gallup survey found that just 12% favored legalizing marijuana use, while 84% were opposed.

 

New York Academy of Medicine | Drug Policy Alliance
# Blueprint for a Public Health and Safety Approach to Drug Policy

March 2013
Illicit drug use and our current policy responses to it are costly and require a revised approach. The economic cost of illicit drug use to the U.S. is estimated to be more than $193 billion annually. 11 The average annual cost of incarceration to New York tax payers is estimated at $3.6 billion.As incarceration has increased substantially over the last 40 years, illicit drug use has not seen a substantial reduction. New York is poised for change. There is much momentum to move our drug policies toward a public health-based approach. At the local level, communities around the state are actively calling for a new approach. They are challenging criminal justice-dominated strategies for dealing with drug use—such as stop, question, and frisks leading to arrests for low-level marijuana possession—and mass incarceration.

 

Penal Reform International PRI

# The unintended negative consequences of the ‘war on drugs’: mass criminalisation and punitive sentencing policies
www.penalreform.org March 2013

Criminalisation of drug users, excessive levels of imprisonment, and punitive sentencing practices, including mandatory sentencing, the death penalty and enforced ‘drug detention centres’, are some of the unintended negative consequences of the 50 year ‘war on drugs’, a policy with direct impact on the vulnerable, poor and socially excluded groups, including ethnic minorities and women.

 

Riffat Sadiq, Safia Umer, Haider Ali
# A Study of Self- Reported Criminal Behaviors among Drug Abusers
Drug Free Nation, March 2013
The purpose of the present study was to explore self- reported criminal behaviors among drug abusers. Total one hundred (N= 100) drug abusers (heroin, cannabis, alcohol and crystal abusers) were interviewed sitting in Drug Treatment and Rehabilitation Centers of Karachi, Pakistan. A semi- structured interview form was used to collect information pertaining to demographic characteristics, drug abuse and crime history. Results have revealed that most of the participants (67%) were involved in different crimes and among them majority were heroin abusers (84%). All drug abusers were commonly involved in the crime of pickpocketing (40.29%). Pickpocketing was mainly associated with heroin abuse (48%). About 20% cannabis users were equally involved in the crimes of pickpocketing, robbery and gambling. Alcoholics were, most of the time, involved in fighting (28%), whereas majority of crystal users (16%) had committed the crime of pickpocketing. Results also have depicted that majority of drug abusers (55.22%) had committed crimes to buy drug

 

Livia Curcio, Maria V. Podda, Lucia Leone, Roberto Piacentini, Alessia Mastrodonato, Pamela Cappelletti, Silvia Sacchi, Loredano Pollegioni, Claudio Grassi, Marcello D’Ascenzo
# Reduced D-serine levels in the nucleus accumbens of cocaine-treated rats hinder the induction of NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity
Brain. A Journal of Neurology, March 20, 2013
Cocaine seeking behaviour and relapse have been linked to impaired potentiation and depression at excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens, but the mechanism underlying this process is poorly understood. We show that, in the rat nucleus accumbens core, D-serine is the endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, and its presence is essential for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent potentiation and depression of synaptic transmission. Nucleus accumbens core slices obtained from cocaine-treated rats after 1 day of abstinence presented significantly reduced D-serine concentrations, increased expression of the D-serine degrading enzyme, D-amino acid oxidase, and downregulated expression of serine racemase, the enzyme responsible for D-serine synthesis. The D-serine deficit was associated with impairment of potentiation and depression of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, which was restored by slice perfusion with exogenous D-serine. Furthermore, in vivo administration of D-serine directly into the nucleus accumbens core blocked behavioural sensitization to cocaine. These results provide evidence for a critical role of D-serine signalling in synaptic plasticity relevant to cocaine addiction.

 

Karen D. Ersche, P. Simon Jones, Guy B. Williams, Dana G. Smith, Edward T. Bullmore, Trevor W. Robbins
# Distinctive Personality Traits and Neural Correlates Associated with Stimulant Drug Use Versus Familial Risk of Stimulant Dependence
Biol Psychiatry 2013;74:137–144
Stimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamine have a high abuse liability, but not everyone who uses them develops dependence. However, the risk for dependence is increased for individuals with a family history of addiction. We hypothesized that individuals without a family history of dependence who have been using cocaine recreationally for several years but have not made the transition to dependence will differ in terms of personality traits and brain structure from individuals who are either dependent on stimulants or at risk for dependence... We provide evidence for distinct neurobiological phenotypes that are either associated with familial vulnerability for dependence or with regular stimulant drug use. Our findings further suggest that some individuals with high sensation-seeking traits but no familial vulnerability for dependence are likely to use cocaine but may have relatively low risk for developing dependence...

 

John Howard Society of Brotish Columbia
# Harm Reduction in Prison and in the Community: Mitigating Risks and Improving Health
www.johnhowardbc.ca/ Fact Sheet March 2013

Drug-related harm reduction approaches include any program or policy designed to reduce harm without requiring the cessation of drug use. It involves strategies that focus on the immediate harm in a person’s life and seeks to create a realistic reduction in potential harm. Researchers, as well as John Howard Society staff across British Columbia, recognize the need for harm reduction initiatives in addition to traditional approaches to addiction. This is particularly true with people who are incarcerated, homeless or live in shelters, as well as those who have serious mental health issues or other major barriers. Such individuals show greater rates of infection than the general population and are more likely to engage in risky behaviours, such as unsafe tattooing or injecting drugs with unsterile equipment.

 

International Narcotics Control Board INCB

# Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2012 | www.incb.org/ UN 2013

# Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2011 | www.incb.org/ UN 2012

# Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2010 | www.incb.org/ UN 2011

# Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2009 | www.incb.org/ UN 2010

# Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2008 | www.incb.org/ UN 2009
# Report of the International Narcotics Control Board for 2007 | www.incb.org/ UN 2008

The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) is the independent and quasi-judicial monitoring body for the implementation of the United Nations international drug control conventions. It was established in 1968 in accordance with the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961. It had predecessors under the former drug control treaties as far back as the time of the League of Nations. Psychotropic Substances: The 1971 Convention was adopted to curtail the diversion and abuse of certain psychotropic substances, such as central nervous stimulants, sedative-hypnotics and hallucinogens, which had resulted in public health and social problems in some countries. By implementing the provisions of the Convention, parties to the 1971 Convention should comply with the dual aim of (i) limiting the use of psychotropic substances to medical and scientific purposes and (ii) ensuring their availability for those purposes. Currently one hundred sixteen psychotropic substances are controlled under the 1971 Convention. Governments must provide statistical returns on manufacture, imports and exports of psychotropic substances to INCB on the forms supplied for that purpose. In addition, they should provide complementary information on psychotropic substances, based on recommendations of the Economic and Social Council. The controls foreseen under the 1971 Convention together with the additional controls required by the Economic and Social Council have significantly reduced the diversion of psychotropic substances. INCB publishes each year information on the licit movement of psychotropic substances in a technical publication

 

Cory Molzahn, Octavio Rodriguez Ferreira, and David A. Shirk | Trans-Border Institute - Joan B. Kroc  School of Peace Studies - University of San Diego
# Drug Violence in Mexico. Data and Analysis Through 2012
Justice in Mexico Project, February 2013

As this report also shows, a large part of the recent increase in violence in Mexico is attributable to drug-trafficking and organized-crime groups. According to the independently compiled tallies cited in this report, as many as 45% to 60% of all intentional homicides in 2012 bore characteristics typical of organized-crime groups. However, there is a considerable variance across different sources monitoring these kinds of homicides, and the Mexican government could help to better inform the public by providing greater transparency and consistency in reporting on the particular kind of violence that is at the center of the country’s current security crisis.

 

State of Rhode Island in General Assembly | January Session, A. D. 2013 - H 5274
# An Act Relating to Food and Drugs -- Taxation and Regulation of Marijuana
This act would create the "Marijuana Regulation, Control and Taxation Act" which would legalize the possession of less than one ounce (1 oz.) or less of marijuana, marijuana paraphernalia, and a limited amount of marijuana plants. The act would create a regulatory process for the manufacture, sale and taxation of marijuana. This act would take effect on April 1, 2013.

 

Connie I. Carter, Donald MacPherson | Canadian Drug Policy Coalition | Coalition canadienne des politiques sur les drogues
# Getting to Tomorrow_a Report on Canadian Drug Policy
Vancouver 2013
The Canadian Drug Policy Coalition is a broad coalition of non-governmental organizations and individuals committed to working with Canadians to create an approach to drug problems that will take a radical new direction—a course that will put the protection of public health and safety, social justice and equity at the forefront of Canada’s response to drugs... This report highlights the failing role that current federal drug policies play in supporting safety and health and draws attention to the acute need for an improved system of supports for people who use drugs including harm reduction.

 

Australian National Council on Drugs ANCD | National Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Committee NIDAC
# Bridges and barriers. Addressing Indigenous Incarceration and Health
Australian National Council on Drugs 2009 - Revised Edition 2013
Indigenous Australians make up just over one-quarter (26 per cent) of Australia’s prison population (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011), despite the fact that Indigenous Australians comprise around 2.5 per cent of Australia’s entire adult population (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2011). Over the past 20 years, Indigenous Australians have continued to fill our country’s prisons at alarmingly disproportionate rates...

Data from the Drug Use Monitoring in Australia (DUMA) project2 in 2010 reveal that over 74 per cent of Indigenous police detainees tested positive to a range of drugs, and just over 60 per cent self-reported they had consumed alcohol within the 48 hours prior to their arrest...

The issues experienced by Indigenous offenders are significant and complex. The strong links between harmful substance use and Indigenous incarceration highlight an urgent need for government to address this disturbing problem... Indigenous offenders with an existing substance use, mental health, or physical health problem often have complex needs. Separation from family and culture, together with a previous history of an undiagnosed or untreated health condition, places an Indigenous offender at great risk while in the correctional system. There is the danger of these issues, if left unattended, exacerbating or causing other health problems while an offender is in detention or in prison.

 

Ole Rogeberg
# Correlations between cannabis use and IQ change in the Dunedin cohort are consistent with confounding from socioeconomic status
www.pnas.org/ March 12, 2013
Does cannabis use have substantial and permanent effects on neuropsychological functioning? Renewed and intense attention to the issue has followed recent research on the Dunedin cohort, which found a positive association between, on the one hand, adolescent-onset cannabis use and dependence and, on the other hand, a decline in IQ from childhood to adulthood

 

Lila
# Il Dipartimento di Serpelloni

www.lila.it | 25 Marzo 2013

Il Dipartimento rappresenta il governo ai summit dell'Onu (non solo quelli dedicati alla droga), stringe accordi internazionali, promuove convegni, apre siti web, organizza campagne di comunicazione e eventi spettacolari, edita pubblicazioni, fa sgomberare i rave... Giovanni Serpelloni può contare su cospicui finanziamenti... il Dipartimento ha infatti ricevuto in tre anni ben 43,5 milioni di euro: 26,5 milioni per il 2010 e 17 milioni per il biennio 2011/12... Giovanni Serpelloni è anche la firma che sta in calce agli articoli pubblicati dall'Italian Journal of Addiction, diretto da Giovanni Serpelloni, pubblicato e finanziato dal Dipartimento nazionale antidroga, di cui è capo appunto Giovanni Serpelloni. Insomma, il Dipartimento Antidroga, ovvero Giovanni Serpelloni, fa anche ricerca: se la commissiona, se la finanzia, se la giudica e se la pubblica...

 

Fuoriluogo
# Drugs, Prisons, and Human Rights: A Campaign for Change in Italy
Sul sito delle Open Society Foundations il lancio della campagna di raccolta firme sulle 3 leggi di iniziativa popolare su Tortura, Carceri e Droghe.

www.fuoriluogo.it | 22.03.2013
A three-point reform effort is underway to (i) improve prison conditions, (ii) introduce the crime of torture into the penal code and to (iii) decriminalize personal use of drugs. The law must also be reformed to distinguish between different illegal substances and to promote alternatives to incarceration for people who use drugs.

 

Le Collège des Médecins de Famille du Canada
# Énoncé de position du Collège des médecins de famille du Canada sur les modifications proposées par Santé Canada au règlement sur la marijuana thérapeutique
www.cfpc.ca/
Février 2013
Compte tenu des données contradictoires, et dans certains cas, de l’absence de données sur l’efficacité et l’innocuité de la marijuana utilisée à des fins médicales, le CMFC demande l’élaboration de recommandations sur les risques et les avantages de l’utilisation de la marijuana pour traiter des  conditions médicales précises fondées sur les meilleures données probantes possible, ainsi que de  ressources et d’outils permettant de répondre aux questions des médecins de famille. Les  recommandations devraient être élaborées par des cliniciens sans conflits d’intérêts en matière de promotion de la marijuana thérapeutique. Elles devraient être fondées sur des critères aussi rigoureux  que ceux traitant de tout autre produit thérapeutique légal.

 

Christopher M. Jones, Karin A. Mack, Leonard J. Paulozzi
# Pharmaceutical Overdose Deaths, United States, 2010
JAMA, February 20, 2013—Vol 309, No. 7
In 2010, there were 38 329 drug overdose deaths in the United States; most (22 134; 57.7%) involved pharmaceuticals; 9429 (24.6%) involved only unspecified drugs. Of the pharmaceutical-related overdose deaths, 16 451 (74.3%) were unintentional, 3780 (17.1%) were suicides, and 1868 (8.4%) were of undetermined intent. Opioids (16 651; 75.2%), benzodiazepines (6497; 29.4%), antidepressants (3889; 17.6%), and antiepileptic and antiparkinsonism drugs (1717; 7.8%) were the pharmaceuticals (alone or in combination with other drugs) most commonly involved in pharmaceutical overdose deaths...

 

NSW Parlamentary Research Service
# Medical Cannabis
www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/ Number 1 - February 2013
The main options being considered by the Carr Government for the design of the scheme were: • Decriminalising the growing of cannabis plants or the possession of personal use quantities by eligible patients. • Government regulating the supply and providing it to patients. The Government could buy the cannabis from an overseas jurisdiction such as Canada, or grow it under ‘very carefully supervised conditions’ in New South Wales. • Obtaining Commonwealth Government approval to import the cannabis spray being developed in the United Kingdom, if and when it becomes available.

 

Pter J. Boettke, Christopher J. Coyne, Abigail R. Hall
# Keep Off the Grass: The Economics of Prohibition and U.S. Drug Policy
Oregon Law Review, Vol. 91, 1069 / 2013
I
n 1906, the United States instituted its first drug laws. Over time, drug prohibition and criminalization have continued, becoming what is known today as the “War on Drugs.” This Article examines the political economy of the War on Drugs with particular emphasis on the unintended consequences of drug prohibition. This Article analyzes the effects of prohibition on violence, drug potency, and cartelization in the drug market. In addition, it examines how the drug policies of the U.S. government have led to a progressive militarization of domestic police forces, fostered an erosion of civil liberties, and contributed to the weakening of private property. The Article concludes that drug prohibition works against many of the stated goals of its advocates and offers an alternative to present drug policy.

 

Ivana Obradovic (OFDT) | Observatoire Francais des Drogues et des Toxicomanies
# Législations relatives à l’usage et à la détention de cannabis : définitions et état des lieux en Europe
Note n°2011-19 Saint-Denis, le 24 octobre 2011 (mise à jour le 17 janvier 2013)
Même s’ils sont régulièrement employés dans le débat public, les termes de libéralisation, légalisation, dépénalisation, décriminalisation, contraventionnalisation n’ont pas toujours de définition communément admise. Certaines notions couramment utilisées n’ont ni définition générale consacrée par les dictionnaires de langue française, ni valeur juridique, dès lors qu’elles décrivent des processus de décision politique. L’utilisation de ces termes est donc fluctuante et, souvent, équivoque.

 

Cassazione penale , sez. IV, sentenza 29.01.2013 n° 4560

# Droga: acquisto di gruppo sanzionabile solo in presenza di precisi parametri.

www.altalex.com/ 14 febbraio 2013. Nota di Carlo Alberto Zaina

La pronunzia 9 dicembre 2012 della Sezione Quarta della Cassazione (pubblicata il 29 gennaio 2013), pur ribadendo la proprio preferenza per la tesi più restrittiva (quella della sanzionabilità della condotta consortile) ha operato, in pura ipotesi – ed in relazione alla specifica fattispecie – un'apertura di carattere teorico, declinando il principio per cui il consumo di gruppo (ma sarebbe meglio dire l'acquisto di gruppo) potrebbe non formare oggetto di sanzione, solo in presenza di precisi parametri.

 

Carlo Renoldi

# Le Sezioni unite della Corte di cassazione sull'uso di gruppo di stupefacenti

Questione Giustizia | www.magistraturademocratica.it/ 08 febbraio 2013
Anche a voler prescindere da opzioni di schietta impostazione antiproibizionistica, di difficile percorribilità nell'attuale contesto politico-culturale, sono certamente possibili ed anzi appaiono ormai indifferibili alcuni interventi mirati, in grado di incidere su una situazione che vede nei reati in materia di stupefacenti le violazioni più frequentemente contestate nelle nostre aule di giustizie e, di riflesso, il principale titolo di detenzione nei nostri istituti penitenziari.

 

Ministero dellInterno | Dipartimento della Pubblica Sicurezza | Polizia di Stato
# Relazione annuale della Direzione Centrale Servizi Antidroga - 2012 | # english

www.poliziadistato.it/ 02/07/2013
La relazione annuale riferita all'anno 2012,riporta i dati complessivi concernenti le 22.000 operazioni antidroga, compiute dalla Polizia di Stato, dall'Arma dei Carabinieri e dalla Guardia di Finanza, che hanno portato alla denuncia di 35.000 persone e al sequestro di oltre 50 tonnellate di stupefacenti... L'Italia è un importante crocevia per il narcotraffico internazionale, specialmente per quanto riguarda le rotte marittime, i cui approdi registrano ben l'89% delle droghe sequestrate alle frontiere nel 2012, con un aumento di 8 punti. Tale tendenza è caratterizzata in modo particolare dai sequestri di hashish e marijuana, che presso le frontiere marittime rappresentano la quasi totalità, ma anche di cocaina, con un'incidenza dei sequestri del 70,48% mentre fino al 2008 gran parte di essa era sequestrata presso gli aeroporti internazionali. Nell'ultimo decennio, mentre l'andamento quantitativo dei sequestri sul territorio nazionale è altalenante (con una variazione che oscilla tra 41.172,07 kg del 2003 e 20.142,86 kg del 2010), quello presso le frontiere registra un trend di crescita in termini assoluti, con un aumento costante dal 2008 (5.177,56 kg) al 2012 (14.296,09 kg) pari a circa il 24 %...

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
EU Drug Markets Report | A Strategic Analysis
http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/ January 2013
In 2010, there were an estimated 26–36 million users of opioids worldwide, about 50 % of whom were thought to be using opiates, especially heroin. Most opioids users are thought to live in North America, Oceania, Eastern Europe, including Russia, and South-East Europe. Whereas prescription opioids (e.g. oxycodone) are now used more than heroin in North America and Oceania, heroin continues to be the most frequently used opioid product in Europe, although other opioids, such as fentanyl, are used there too.

 

Maurizio Vallone
Il "valore" del sommerso
Rassegna Economica, n. 1, 2013, pp. 49 sgg.
Dall'analisi fatta nel 2013 dall'Osservatorio Europeo sulle droghe e sulle tossicodipendenze, si rileva che i consumatori di stupefacenti in Italia sono all'incirca il 5 x 1000 della popolazione per quanto riguarda il consumo di eroina, il 4% per il consumo di cocaina, mentre il 20% della popolazione italiana ha provato almeno una volta una droga cosiddetta leggera...

 

Organization of American States OAS
# Scenarios for the drug problem in the Americas 2013 – 2025
www.oas.org/ 2012 Summit of the Americas in Cartagena de Indias -- ed. 20 january 2013

In all scenarios, we begin with the understanding that while the future is uncertain, we can be sure that in 2025, there will still be a substantial demand for psychoactive substances, including alcohol, pharmaceuticals and illicitly produced drugs; that a small percentage of those drug users will become drug-dependent, and some will die, while others will develop serious medical conditions or infections such as HIV and Hepatitis C; that there will be illegal activities wherever there is money to be made from such activities; and that there will be organized criminal groups operating throughout the region, profiting from a range of these illegal activities.

 

Andrea Natale
# A margine di Corte Costituzionale, sentenza n. 251 del 2012 (e a margine dell’ordinanza di rimessione)
www.magistraturademocratica.it/ 27 gennaio 2013
«È costituzionalmente illegittimo l’articolo 69,comma 4, c.p., come sostituito dall’art. 3 della legge 5 dicembre 2005, n. 251, nella parte in cui prevede il divieto di prevalenza della circostanza attenuante di cui all’art. 73, comma 5, D.P.R. n. 309/1990 sulla recidiva di cui all’art. 99, quarto comma, del codice penale» C. Cost. 251/2012

 

New York State - Commission of Correction
# Benzodiazepines withdrawal and treatment in the local correctional facilities
Chairman's Memorandum n. 13 January 16, 2013
C
onstant supervision shall be maintained with the prisoner until he/she can be transported to the hospital for intensive medicaI care. Prisoners with  late benzodiazepine withdrawal cannot be treated in a correctional facility. Any decision not to send an inmate to the hospital for treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal should be made by a physician after an examination. All correctional facilities shall have a benzodiazepine withdrawal policy and procedure in pIace developed by the facility medicaI director.

 

Dipartimento Amministrazione Penitenziaria DAP
# Stato delle tossicodipendenze ai sensi del d.p.r. 309/1990 - Dati nazionali - Anno 2012
www.giustizia.it/ 31 dicembre 2012

... A causa della persistente difficoltà di acquisizione dei dati presso alcuni uffici giudiziari, problema che di fatto comporta l'assegnazione di un valore pari a zero a tutte le variabili dell'ufficio inadempiente, si è ritenuto opportuno effettuare, per il periodo relativo agli anni 2005-2012, una stima dei dati mancanti, procedura che ha consentito di mitigare tale carenza...

 

Psychiatry on line
# La ricerca sui disturbi psichiatrici nei pazienti tossicodipendenti ed alcolisti
www.psychiatryonline.it/ 1 dicembre 2012

 

Fédération Addiction
# Addiction et milieu carcéral. Les articulations entre les professionnels de santé de l’intra-muros et de l’extra-muros. Rapport d'enquete Decembre 2012
www.federationaddiction.fr 2012

Une forte prévalence des conduites addictives en détention. Les études disponibles convergent vers le constat d’une forte prévalence des conduites addictives parmi la population incarcérée. On peut évaluer à un peu plus de la moitié la part des personnes poly-consommatrice en prison. La dernière estimation chiffrée datant de 20031 indique que 30% des entrants en prison ont une consommation excessive d’alcool, un tiers d’entre eux déclarent une utilisation prolongée et régulière de drogues illicites au cours des 12 derniers mois et un quart déclarent une consommation d’au moins 2 substances psychoactives.

 

Executive Office of the President of the United States
# National Drug Control Strategy 2013
www.whitehouse.gov - December 21, 2012

In recent years, the debate about drug policy has lurched between two extremes. One side of the debate suggests that drug legalization is the “silver bullet” solution to drug control. The other side maintains a law enforcement-only “War on Drugs” mentality.Neither of these approaches is humane, effective, or grounded in evidence. The Obama Administration supports a “third way” approach to drug control—one that is based on the results of considerable investment in research from some of the world’s preeminent scholars on the disease of addiction. The Administration is doing its part to further the Principles, both at home and abroad. We have rebalanced national drug control policy to reflect the complexity of drug use as both a public health and public safety issue, dedicating more than $10.5 billion to prevention and treatment, compared to $9.6 billion for domestic law enforcement...

 

House of Commons - Home Affairs Committee
# Drugs: Breaking the Cycle . Ninth Report of Session 2012–13
London 10 December 2012

We recommend that a target is added to the National Strategy explicitly aimed at harm reduction and public health, in addition to the Treatment objective. This target should be measured through two indicators: to reduce the number of overdoses (measureable through Accident and Emergency records) and to reduce the number of new infections through injecting of HIV and Hepatitis (measureable through medical records of drug users).

 

Brian Pettitt-Schieber
# DeEl “Amanecer Verde”: La legalización de la marihuana en Uruguay en el contexto del movimiento regional contra la prohibición
SIT Graduate Institute - December 5, 2012
As the evidence mounts demonstrating the failure of the decades-old War on Drugs to stop the consumption and trafficking of drugs, Latin American leaders at the highest level of the political world have recently started speaking out against the policy of criminalization of drug use. Following the example of Holland and the successes of decriminalization for personal consumption, Uruguayan head of state José Mujica has taken the boldest step in the region in his proposal to legalize marijuana for production and sale by the State in regulated amounts...

 

Cormac O’Keeffe
# Cutting jail benzo use reduces violence
www.irishexaminer.com/ December 03, 2012
Stopping the use of certain tranquillisers in prisons and hospitals reduces the levels of violence and self-harm and helps raise health standards, according to the country’s leading forensic psychiatrist. Harry Kennedy, head of the Central Mental Hospital, said that since they stopped prescribing the medication in their prison clinics, the suicide rates there had fallen.

 

Paul Eastwood | The Health and Social Care Information Centre, Lifestyles Statistics.
# Statistics on Drug Misuse: England, 2012
The Health and Social Care Information Centre - 29 November 2012
The impact of mandatory drug testing in prisons‘ publication summarises the key findings from a study on the extent and type of drug use in prisons, as part of the Mandatory Drug Testing (MDT)  programme. Included in the publication are results from a survey of prisoners which were carried out in a sample of prisons to gather information on episodes of drug use in prisons, prisoners' experience of drug use prevention measures in prison nd the impact of these on attitudes and behaviours in relation to drug use. In this survey, information was collected from prisoners on their drug use prior to coming to prison, at any time within prison, and drug use within the current prison, on each day in the past week, in the past month and at any time. In addition to information on self-reported use, some prisoners also provided biological samples (oral fluid (OF) and/or hair) for testing for cannabis and opiates

 

Liza Ten Velde | transnational institute TNI
# The northern Triangle’s drugs-violence nexus. The role of the drugs trade in criminal violence and policy responses in Guatemala, El Salvador and Honduras. Drugs and Democracy Programme
www.tni.org/ Drugs & Conflict, Debate Papers n. 19 November 2012
While 'Mexican focus' continues to be prevalent, it is actually Central America's Northern Triangle – consisting of Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador – which is currently experiencing much higher rates of violence and increasing DTO activity, thus providing an illustration of the 'balloon effect' previously experienced by Mexico itself after the implementation of Plan Colombia which was conceived at the end of the 90's...

 

Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga | Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri |  Giovanni Serpelloni, Franco Alessandrini, Giada Zoccatelli, Claudia Rimondo (eds), Nora Volkow (contr)
# Neuroscienze delle Dipendenze: il Neuroimaging. Manuale per gli operatori dei Dipartimenti delle Dipendenze 1^ parte | # 2^ parte
Terza edizione Novembre, 2012

 

L. Sordo, M. Chahua, M.J. Bravo, G. Barrio, M.T. Brugal, A. Domingo-Salvany, G. Molist, L. De la Fuente | ITINERE Project Group
# Depression among regular heroin users: The influence of gender
Addictive Behaviors 37 (2012) 148–152
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of recent (last 12 months) depression in regular young heroin users and to ascertain factors associated with depression in this population, broken down by gender. A
sample of 561 participants completed a cross-sectional survey. Eligibility criteria were: age 30 years or younger...  The prevalence of recent depression was 22.3% (35.2% among women and 17.3% among men, pb0.001). Among woman, the related variables were age 25 or less, cocaine dependence in the last 12 months, and alcohol consumption in that period.

 

Rossana Giove

# Alcol e Carceri nella ASL di Milano

Milano, 9 novembre 2012

Alla data del 01/11/2012 presso il Tribunale di Milano il SerT della ASL di Milano ha incontrato 420 utenti. Di questi 39 hanno un problema di alcol dipendenza come sostanza primaria. Molti dei pazienti con diagnosi primaria di dipendenza da cocaina sono anche abusatori di alcol.

 

Doriana Antonella Giorgi, Francesco Massoni, Vincenzo Mastronardi, Giulia Troili, Luca
Amendola, Serafino Ricci
# Hashish e principio attivo: considerazioni medico-legali su una casistica
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza – Vol. VI – N. 3 – Settembre-Dicembre 2012
L’hashish si ricava dalla resina estratta dalle foglie della pianta e contiene il THC in una percentuale che va dal 6 al 15%... Campioni analizzati presso il laboratorio ARPALazio: la quantità di principio attivo è tra il 6 e l’8% per il triennio 2007-2009. I casi in cui è stato superato il limite di 500 mg, fissato dal Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica del 9 ottobre 1990 n. 309 e relativo al possesso per uso personale depenalizzato, sono stati il 5,81%. Tale percentuale non conferma l’esistenza di grossi traffici internazionali, piuttosto di “piccoli spacciatori e/o consumatori”.

 

Corte di Cassazione, Sezioni Unite
# Sentenza 20 settembre 2012, n.36258
www.neldiritto.it/
- Ricognizione di Patrizia Trunfio
L'aggravante della ingente quantità, di cui al comma 2 dell'art. 80 d.P.R. 9 ottobre 1990, n. 309, non è di norma ravvisante quando la quantità sia inferiore a 2.000 volte il valore massimo in milligrammi (valore-soglia), determinato per ogni sostanza nella tabella allegata al d.m. 11 aprile 2006, ferma restando la discrezionale valutazione del giudice di merito, quando tale quantità sia superata.

 

Jennifer A. Gershman, Andrea D. Fass
# Synthetic Cathinones (‘Bath Salts’). Legal and Health Care Challenges
P&T, Vol. 37 No. 10 • October 2012
The abuse of synthetic stimulant drugs known as “bath salts” has become a major public health threat across the U.S. Unlike traditional cosmetic bath salts, which are made to be added to bath water, toxic bath salt products have no legitimate use for bathing and are produced specifically for recreational drug abusers as legal substitutes for cocaine, ecstasy (MDMA), and amphetamines...

 

Ari Rosmarin, Miamh Eastwood
# A Quiet Revolution: Drug Decriminalisation Policies in Practice Across the Globe | Release’s campaign ‘Drugs - It’s Time for Better Laws’
www.release.org.uk/ Release Publication 2012

Recognizing that drug laws have little impact on drug use, policy-makers must be willing to consider the broader – and more difficult – social factors that influence individuals’ relationships with drugs. Though more research is needed, socioeconomic characteristics such as income disparity and levels of social support appear to correlate more closely with drugs problems in a society than do drugs laws or policies. Preliminary research suggests that countries with higher levels of wealth inequality tend to have higher levels of problematic drug use. It would behove advocates and policy-makers interested in designing effective drug policies that reduce costs and harms to recognize that drug use is often a symptom of broader social and economic factors and not necessarily a cause of them.

 

Steve Rolles, Niamh Eastwood
# Drug Decriminalization Policies in Practice: A Global Summary
Release Publication 2012

Disproportionate sentencing for cases involving possession above the threshold or supply offences – it is critical that governments recognise the principle of proportionality in sentencing for drug offences. Too often those convicted of non-violent drug supply offences receive custodial periods which are much harsher than other violent offences, such as rape and even murder.

 

Joseph Murray, David P. Farrington, and Ivana Sekol
# Children’s Antisocial Behavior, Mental Health, Drug Use, and Educational Performance After Parental Incarceration: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Psychological Bulletin, 2012, Vol. 138, No. 2, 175–210
Children with incarcerated parents have been referred to as the “forgotten victims” of crime (Matthews, 1983), the “orphans of justice” (Shaw, 1992a) and the “unseen victims of the prison boom” (Petersilia, 2005, p. 34). They can experience multiple emotional and social difficulties during their parent’s incarceration, which may develop into a range of adjustment problems in the long term. This article describes key aspects of children’s experiences during parental incarceration and reports results from a systematic review and meta-analysis on the associations between parental incarceration and children’s later antisocial behavior, mental health problems, drug use, and low educational performance.

 

Dipartimento Politiche Antidroga - Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri
# Il gioco d'azzardo patologico in Italia
Italian Journal on Addiction, Volume 2, Numero 3-4, 2012

 

UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

# World Drug Report 2012

United Nations New York 2012

Globally, UNODC estimates that there were between 99,000 and 253,000 deaths in 2010 as a result of illicit drug use, or between 22.0 and 55.9 deaths per million population aged 15-64 (see table 1). This is based on the reporting of numbers of drug-related deaths covering a substantial percentage of the population aged 15-64 in North America (100 per cent), Europe (100 per cent), South America (71 per cent) and Oceania (62 per cent), and to a much lesser extent in Asia (8 per cent) and Africa (less than 1 per cent). Indeed, data reported to UNODC by countries in Africa represented such a small percentage of the population that an alternative source of estimates for aggregated drug-related deaths has been used in those countries.28 The UNODC estimate of drug-related deaths is consistent with previously published estimates prepared by the  World Health Organization (WHO), the latest of which refers to 2004 when the number of drug-related deaths from illicit drug use worldwide was estimated at 245,000,29 a total that includes AIDS-related deaths and deaths caused by hepatitis B and hepatitis C resulting from illicit drug use, whereas UNODC estimates are based on country reports that, for the most part, report only deaths caused by drug overdose and trauma related to drug abuse....

 

Iñaki Markez y Cristina Iñigo (Coords.) | Grupo de trabajo sobre Salud Mental en Prisión (GSMP): Sociedad Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria (SESP) Asociación Española de Neuropsiquiatría (AEN)
# Guía. Atención y tratamientos en prisión por el uso de drogas

http://sesp.es/ GSMP: SampAEN y SESP 2012

Según datos de Instituciones Penitenciarias a 31 de diciembre de 2010, en España estaban encarceladas 63.403 personas de las cuales 5.041 eran mujeres (8%) (1). La prevalencia de la enfermedad mental ronda el 25-40%. De este porcentaje, entre el 4 y 6%, presenta un trastorno mental grave y entre un 30-50% de ellos tendría un trastorno relacionado con el consumo de drogas. Un 17,6% de los presos presenta antecedentes psiquiátricos previos a su ingreso en prisión; Entre ellos: un 2,6% padece trastornos de tipo psicótico; el 6,9% tiene antecedentes de un trastorno afectivo y un porcentaje igual padece algún trastorno de la personalidad. A estos datos hay que añadir el 9,6% de los internos de las prisiones tiene antecedentes de patología dual al coexistir en un mismo paciente un problema de abuso o dependencia de sustancias psicoactivas unido a cualquier otro trastorno psiquiátrico.

 

Rusty Reeves
# Guideline, Education, and Peer Comparison to Reduce Prescriptions of Benzodiazepines and Low-Dose Quetiapine in Prison
Journal of Correctional Health Care, 18(1) 45-52 | 2012
Benzodiazepines (antianxiety medications) and quetiapine (an antipsychotic medication) are subject to abuse in prison. Quetiapine is also expensive and has serious side effects. The prescription of these medications in prison for anxiety and insomnia is not the preferred choice. In order to reduce these prescriptions, the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey–University Correctional HealthCare (UCHC), working within the New Jersey Department of Corrections, provided its psychiatrists with a guideline to the treatment of insomnia in prison...

 

Government of South Australia | Emma Zierch, Jayne Marshall
# The South Australia Drug Court: a Recidivism Study
www.ocsar.sa.gov.au/ Attorney-General's Department May 2012
One of the primary aims of the South Australian Drug Courts is to cease oe reduce criminal activity amongst indivuduals whode offending is related to drug abuse. The Court seeks to achieve this through a comprehensive program of intensive supervision, regular druf testing, sanctions, and therapy and support services. This evaluation examines and commpares the offending behaviour of persons who partecipated in the Drug Court between 2004 and 2008 with a sample of prisoners who did not take part in the Drug Court program, with the aim of determining the impact of the Drug Court on re-offending.

 

European Union (Resolutions, recommendations and opinions)
# EU Drugs Strategy (2013-20)
Official Journal of the European Union 29.12.2012

In order to prevent crime, avoid recidivism and enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the criminal justice system while ensuring proportionality, the EU shall encourage, where appropriate, the use, monitoring and effective implementation of drug policies and programmes including arrest referral and appropriate alternatives to coercive sanctions (such as education, treatment, rehabilitation, aftercare and social reintegration) for drug-using offenders.
Develop and expand integrated models of care, covering needs related to mental and/or physical health-related problems, rehabilitation and social support in order to improve and increase the health and social situation, social reintegration and recovery of problem and dependent drug users, including those affected by co-morbidity.

 

Phillip Smith

# US Has 330,000 Drug Offenders in Prison
stopthedrugwar.org/ 
December 17, 2012

 

D. Mark Anderson, Benjamin Hansen, Daniel I. Rees
# Medical Marijuana Laws, Traffic Fatalities, and Alcohol Consumption
http://dmarkanderson.com/ October 2012
To date, 17 states have passed medical marijuana laws, yet very little is known about their effects. The current study examines the relationship between the legalization of medical marijuana and traffic fatalities, the leading cause of death among Americans ages 5 through 34. The first full year after coming into effect, legalization is associated with an 8 to 11 percent decrease in traffic fatalities. The impact of legalization on traffic fatalities involving alcohol is larger and estimated with more precision than its impact on traffic fatalities that do not involve alcohol. Legalization is also associated with sharp decreases in the price of marijuana and alcohol consumption, suggesting that marijuana and alcohol are substitutes. Because alternative mechanisms cannot be ruled out, the negative relationship between legalization and alcohol-related traffic fatalities does not  necessarily imply that driving under the influence of marijuana is safer than driving under the influence of alcohol.

 

D. Mark Anderson, Daniel I. Rees

# Medical Marijuana Laws, Traffic Fatalities, and Alcohol Consumption
IZA DP No. 6112 November 2011

 

The Centre for Public Health | Charlotte Davies, Layla English, Claire Stewart, Mark Edginton, Jim McVeigh, Mark A. Bellis (eds)
# United Kingdom drug situation: annual report to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) 2012
www.cph.org.uk/ 31 October 2012
The number of arrests for drug offences in England and Wales continued to increase in 2010/11 with a three per cent increase on the previous year There were around 125,000 arrests for drug offences in 2010/11, constituting nine per cent of all arrests and up to 14% in some regions. Drug offences accounted for six per cent of all arrests in 2006/07, since when arrests for drug offences have increased by 40%. Although recorded drug crime has also risen during this time, the increase has been smaller at around 20% for both possession and trafficking offences. This may suggest the greater use of arrest when dealing with drug offenders. Of those arrested for drug offences, 12% were under the age of 18 with 28% under the age of 21 years old.

 

London School of Economics and Political Science LSE
# Governing the Global Drug Wars
www.lse.ac.uk/ Special Reports October 2012

Re-examining the Drug Problem Through a Fresh Lens | Juan Manuel Santos, President of the Republic of Colombia | Executive Summary | The International Drug Control System | Reflections On a Century of International Drug Control  William B. McAllister | Why We Make War on Some Drugs but not on Others David T. Courtwright | Science, Diplomacy and Cannabis James H. Mills | Appraising the Consequences of Policy Joseph F. Spillane | Latin America Paul Gootenberg | Switzerland Diane Steber Buechli and Ruth Dreifuss | The United Nations David R. Bewley-Taylor | Towards a Human Rights Framework Damon Barrett | Overhauling Oversightt: Human Rights at the INCB 63 Joanne Csete

 

Federazione Italiana degli Operatori dei Dipartimenti e dei Servizi delle Dipendenze
# Il prezzo della solitudine. Le nuove forme della dipendenza tra cocaina, alcol, gioco d'azzrdo patologico e internet addiction
FederSerd informa, n. 18, ottobre 2012

 

A. S. McKnight, J. C. Fell J. C., A. Auld-Owens
# Transdermal alcohol monitoring: Case studies
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, August 2012
The Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) device produced by Alcohol Monitoring Systems (AMS) and the Transdermal Alcohol Detection (TAD) system developed by BI Incorporated (BI) are two transdermal alcohol- monitoring devices that are increasingly being used across the country on alcohol-related criminal offenders. Both devices use ankle bracelets that sample perspiration to detect ethanol vapor and can automatically transfer the information stored on the ankle bracelet via modem to a secure Web server.

 


Madeline H. Meier, Avshalom Caspi, Antony Ambler, HonaLee Harrington, Renate Houts, Richard S. E. Keefe, Kay McDonald, Aimee Ward, Richie Poulton, and Terrie E. Moffitt
# Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife
www.pnas.org/ August 27, 2012
Recent reports show that fewer adolescents believe that regular cannabis use is harmful to health. Concomitantly, adolescents are initiating cannabis use at younger ages, and more adolescents are using cannabis on a daily basis. The purpose of the present study was to test the association between persistent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline and determine whether decline is concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users. Participants were  members of the Dunedin Study...

 

Arpana Agrawal, Alan J. Budney, Michael T. Lynskey
# The Co-occurring Use and Misuse of Cannabis and Tobacco: A Review
Addiction, 2012 July ; 107(7): 1221–1233
Cannabis and tobacco use and misuse frequently co-occur. This review examines the epidemiological evidence supporting the lifetime co-ccurrence of cannabis and tobacco use and outlines the mechanisms that link these drugs to each other. Mechanisms include (a) shared genetic factors; (b) shared environmental influences, including (c) route of administration (via smoking), (d) co-administration and (e) models of co-use. We also discuss respiratory harms associated with co-use of cannabis and tobacco, overlapping withdrawal syndromes and outline treatment implications for cooccurring use.

 

Paolo Ugolini, Mara Tognett, Francesco Maisto, Leonardo Montecchi, Gianpaolo Proni, Alba Fabbri, Roberto Lugli, Emanuela Frisoni Roberto Sghedoni, Primo Pellegrini, Mara Verderi, Annalisa Valeri, Daniele Donati, Daniele Righini
# Immigrazione e droghe. Culture, consumi e ... offerta di Servizi
Sestante, n. 35, luglio 2012

 

M. Coppola, R. Mondola
# Synthetic cathinones: Chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of a new class of designer drugs of abuse marketed as “bath salts” or “plant food”.
Toxicology Letters 2012
In 2000s, many synthetic cathinones have received a renewed popularity as designer drugs of abuse, particularly among young people. Despite being marketed as “bath salts” or “plant food” and labeled “not for human consumption”, people utilize these substances for their amphetamine or cocaine like effects. Since the time of their appearance in the recreational drug market, in several countries have been signaled numerous confirmed cases of abuse, dependence, severe intoxication and deaths related to the consumption of synthetic cathinones. The aim of this paper is to summarize the clinical, pharmacological and toxicological information about this new class of designer drugs of abuse.

 

Harold Kalant, Amy J. Porath-Waller
# Clearing the Smoke on Cannabis. Medical Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids
www.ccsa.ca/ Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse 2012
In summary, research supports the medical use of cannabis to relieve nausea, vomiting and chronic pain, but the  research is still emerging in its application to disease conditions. Future development is likely to be focused on improving the specificity of synthetic cannabinoids and their delivery by safer methods than smoking.

 

Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy

# The War on Drugs and HIV/AIDS. How the Criminalization of Drug Use Fuels the Global Pandemic

© 2012 The Global Commission on Drug Policy - June 2012

 

The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University | The CASA Columbia National Advisory Commission on Addiction Treatment
# Addiction Medicine: Closing the Gap between Science and Practice
http://www.casacolumbia.org/ June2012
A large and growing body of scientific research has demonstrated clearly that addiction involving nicotine, alcohol, illicit drugs and controlled prescription drugs is a complex brain disease. It affects 15.9 percent of the United States population ages 12 and older (40.3 million) -- more than the share of the population with heart disease, diabetes or cancer. Another 31.7 percent of the population (80.4 million), while not addicted, engages in risky use of addictive substances in ways that threaten health and safety...

 

Ernesto Zedillo, Haynie Wheeler (eds)
# Rethinking the “War on Drugs” Through the US-Mexico Prism
Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, 2012
Over the 25-year period from 1980 to 2005, the number of people incarcerated for drug offences in local jails and state and federal prisons increased by a factor of 10, and this figure does not include those incarcerated for so-called drug-related crimes, such as robbery to get the money to buy the drugs. During this period of massively increased intensity in enforcement, the price of heroin and cocaine fell around 70%.

 

Wouter Vanderplasschen, Jessica De Maeyer, Kathy Colpaert, Serge Cogels, Andrea Rea, Geert Dom, Bernard Sabbe, Eric Broekaert
# Poly substance use and mental health among individuals presenting for substance abuse treatment
Academy Press 2012

Poly substance use is the rule rather than the exception. At least 64% of the clients currently in treatment for substance use problems report poly substance use during the last 30 days before treatment entry. One can assume that this number is an underestimation of the reality, since numerous individuals included in the study were living in a controlled environment (e.g. hospital, prison) the last 30 days before entering treatment...

 

Canadian Association of Drug Treatment Court Professionals (CADTCP)
# Impaired Judgement – Correcting Misconceptions about Drug Treatment Courts
www.cadtc.org/ June 25, 2012
Recidivism • In a recent address, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder said: ....Fully three quarters of drug court
graduates nationwide are able to avoid re-arrest for at least two years after the program. Studies
suggest drug courts can reduce crime as much as 45 percent more than any other sentencing options.
The most recent, comprehensive published meta-analysis, based on 154 independent studies, concluded that DTC participation reduced recidivism by 12%, on average... Costs • In the same address Holder also remarked: …and for every dollar spent, three tax dollars are saved. Even more critically, you’re illustrating that they can reunite families, help communities feel safer and more secure - and make lives whole again

 

Sophie Fantoni-Quinton
# Addictions et travail : aspects juridiques
32e Congrès national de médecine et santé au travail - Clermont-Ferrand, 7 juin 2012
La responsabilité de chacun des acteurs en entreprise est engagée dans la prise en compte et la gestion des addictions au travail. Pour autant, quels sont les moyens des services de santé au travail ? Quelles responsabilités des pouvoirs publics ? Ce qui est sûr, le droit condamne avant tout la négligence.

 

D. Mark Anderson, Benjamin Hansen, Daniel I. Rees
# Medical Marijuana Laws and Teen Marijuana Use
IZA DP No. 6592 - May 2012
While at least a dozen state legislatures are considering bills to allow the consumption of  marijuana for medicinal purposes, the federal government has recently intensified its efforts  to close medical marijuana dispensaries. Federal officials contend that the legalization of  medical marijuana encourages teenagers to use marijuana and have targeted dispensaries  operating within 1,000 feet of schools, parks and playgrounds. Using data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 and the Treatment Episode Data Set, we estimate the relationship between medical marijuana laws and marijuana use. Our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that legalization leads to increased use of marijuana by teenagers.

 

Peter H. Addy, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Jose A. Cortes, Deepak Cyril D’Souza
# Comorbid Alcohol, Cannabis, and Cocaine Use Disorders in Schizophrenia: Epidemiology, Consequences, Mechanisms, and Treatment
The Journal of Lifelong Learning in Psychiatry, spring 2012
Alcohol, cannabis and cocaine are among the most frequently abused substances in patients with schizophrenia. Substance abuse can negatively affect the expression and course of schizophrenia, for example by leading to a lower global level of functioning, increased hospitalizations, increased service utilization, and lower compliance with medication. Several models have been proposed to explain the high rates of comorbid substance use disorder in patients with schizophrenia including the self-medication and reward dysfunction hypotheses. There is little evidence to support the self-medication hypothesis. The reward dysfunction hypothesis is gaining support. The high rates and negative consequences warrant a thorough assessment of comorbid substance use disorders when treating patients with schizophrenia.

 

United Nations | WHO
# Joint Statement. Compulsory drug detention and rehabilitation centres
http://www.who.int/ March 2012
United Nations entities call on States to close compulsory drug detention and rehabilitation centres and implement voluntary, evidence-informed  and rights-based health and social services in the community. The continued existence of compulsory drug detention and rehabilitation centres, where people who are suspected of using drugs or being dependent on drugs, people who have engaged in sex work, or children who have been victims of sexual exploitation are detained without due process in the name of “treatment” or “rehabilitation”, is a serious concern.

 

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
# Detecting and responding to outbreaks of HIV among people who inject drugs: best practices in HIV prevention and control
Tallinn, 29–30 March 2012
Meeting Report, Tallinn, 29–30 March 2012

A joint meeting organised by ECDC and the European Monitoring Centre on Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) was held in Tallinn, Estonia on 29–30 March 2012 to share best practice experiences on monitoring, and responding to the risk of HIV among people who inject drugs. The main objective of the meeting was to provide a platform for information exchange between countries to support the response to the ongoing HIV outbreaks in Greece and Romania. Participants included national HIV and drug focal points from Finland, Portugal, Spain (Catalonia), United Kingdom, United States and representatives from the EU civil society forum on HIV. Priority areas identified included, monitoring the ongoing situation of HIV cases, HIV and HCV prevalence and injection risk behaviour; and improving collaboration between sectors.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) | Institute on Drugs and Drug Addiction (IDT, I.P.) | Ana Sofia Santos, Óscar Duarte, Elsa Maia
# 2012 Natiuonal Report (2011 data) to the EMCDDA by the Reitox National Focal Point. “PORTUGAL”. New Developments, Trends and in-depth information on selected issues
http://www.idt.pt/ 2012
Prison data indicates that, on the 31st of December 2011, 2 075 individuals (+6% than in 2010 with 1 950) were in prison for crimes against the Drug Law, representing an increase of 6% in relation to 2010. It is noted in the last four years a stability in the number of inmates convicted under the Drug Law, although with lower values than those registered in previous years. Once more was reinforced the trend initiated in 2000, of the decrease weight of these prisoners in the universe of the convicted prisoner population, representing on the 31st of December 2011 near 20% of these population. The majority of these individuals where convicted for traffic (90%), 9% for minor traffic and 1% for traffic-use, percentages that falling within the pattern of last years....

 

ESPAD-Italia (European School Survey on Alcohol and other Drugs)
# Ricerca sul consumo di alcol e altre sostanze nella popolazione scolastica
Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche di Pisa | Istituto di Fisiologia Clinica | Reparto di Epidemiologia e Ricerca sui Servizi Sanitari 2012
L’alcol è da sempre la sostanza psicotropa maggiormente sperimentata e consumata dagli adolescenti nonostante il suo uso sia vietato o limitato ai 16 anni in molti paesi dell’Unione Europea. I risultati dello studio Espad Europeo indicano l’Italia nella Top Ten con una presenza di “bevitori” (ultimi 30 giorni) pari al 63% contro una media europea del 57%. A conferma di una differente cultura del bere, gli studenti italiani che riferiscono binge drinking (cinque o più bevute di seguito in un’unica occasione) sono al di sotto della media europea (il 35% contro il 39% di media).

 

Mary W. Kuria, David M. Ndetei, Isodore S. Obot, Lincoln I. Khasakhala, Betty M. Bagaka, Margaret N. Mbugua, Judy Kamau
# The Association between Alcohol Dependence and Depression before and after Treatment for Alcohol Dependence
International Scholarly Research Network ISRN Psychiatry Volume 2012
The presence of depression in alcohol-dependent persons is likely to influence treatment process and outcomes. Identification of depression is important though not every depressed alcohol-dependent person requires treatment with antidepressants. Understanding the association between depression and alcohol dependence is essential for proper management of alcohol dependence. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of depression among alcohol-dependent persons before and after alcohol detoxification and rehabilitation. Design. Clinical trial with pre- /postmeasurements. Method. The CIDI andWHO-ASSIST were administered to 188 alcohol-dependent persons at intake and after six months. A researcher-designed sociodemographic questionnaire was also administered at intake. Results. The prevalence of depression among alcohol- ependent persons is high (63.8%) with a significant association between depression and the mean AUDIT score. At posttest, depressed participants had a statistically significant craving for alcohol. Conclusion. Alcohol dependence is associated with major depression.

 

Itai Danovitch
# Sorting Through the Science on Marijuana: Facts, Fallacies, and Implications for Legalization
McGeorge Law Review / Vol. 43, 2012
The “War on Drugs” has many critics, but nowhere is there greater consensus about its limitations than with marijuana. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. In the United States, nearly one-third of the population has used marijuana at least once, and among users of illicit substances, seventy-four percent report using marijuana. Data on marijuana related arrests and incarceration is inconsistent, but many experts suggest that the adverse consequences of criminal sanctions are greater than the adverse consequences of marijuana. The wide-spread  perception that marijuana punishments exceed marijuana’s harms has fuelled popular advocacy for liberalization of marijuana policy...

 

David R. Spiegel, Neeta Kumari, Justin D. Petri
# Safer use of benzodiazepines for alcohol detoxification
Current Psychiatry October 2012
Continuing to administer escalating doses of benzodiazepines is counterintuitive for benzodiazepineinduced disinhibition. In a study of alcohol withdrawal in rats, antipsychotics evaluated had some beneficial effects on alcohol withdrawal signs. In this study, the comparative effectiveness of atypical antipsychotics was as follows: risperidone = quetiapine > ziprasidone > clozapine > olanzapine...

 

National Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Committee nidac

# An economic analysis for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offenders. Prison vs residential treatment
ANCD research paper 24 - August 2012
A re-evaluation of the New South Wales Drug Court program by Weatherburn et al. found that the re-offending rate for those individuals who have successfully completed the Drug Court program (i.e. treatment group) was lower compared with those who were balloted onto the program but removed from it due to either conviction of a violent offence or the fact that they resided ‘out of area’ (i.e. comparison group). Based on the findings from the survival analysis conducted by Weatherburn et al, (2008), it was estimated that the reoffending rates, a year after treatment, for the treatment and comparison groups were around 40 and 58 per cent respectively, with most re-offending occurring within the first two years.

 

S. K. Aggarwal, G. T. Carter, M. D. Sullivan, C. Zumbrunnen, R. Morrill, J. D. Mayer
# Prospectively Surveying Health-Related Quality of Life and Symptom Relief in a Lot-Based Sample of Medical Cannabis-Using Patients in Urban Washington State Reveals Managed Chronic Illness and Debility
American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine, 2012
In states with active medical cannabis programs, health care practitioners are familiarizing themselves with the wide safety margins and broad clinical efficacies of cannabinoid botanicals by authorizing their use and receiving feedback from patients. This health care phenomenon is driven by rising awareness of accumulated knowledge in the field of cannabinoid medicine or cannabinopathic medicine, a term coined by pioneer Dr Lester Grinspoon, which has arisen out of clinical experience and modern research on the mechanisms of action of cannabis’ effects in the body, in part via the endogenous cannabinoid signaling system

 

Susan Boyd
# Drugpeace
Contemporary Justice Review, 1-9, 2012

 

Sam Harper, Erin C. Strumpf, Jay S. Kaufman
# Do Medical Marijuana Laws Increase Marijuana Use? Replication Study and Extension
AEP Vol. 22, No. 3 March 2012
The potential impact of legalizing medical marijuana on both medical and recreational marijuana use has received much popular and legislative attention, but little empirical study. In a recent issue of theAnnals, Wall et al. contributed to this literature by analyzing the prevalence of marijuana use among adolescents in US states that have and have not passed a law legalizing marijuana for medical purposes. They reported evidence that rates of marijuana use were higher in states  that had passed medical marijuana laws (MMLs) compared with states that had not passed laws, but concluded that the causal mechanism could not be determined. In this paper, we replicate the analyses of Wall et al. and, using the same data, we estimate the causal effect of passing MMLs on measures of marijuana use.

 

Stacy Salomonsen-Sautel, Joseph T. Sakai, Christian Thurstone, Robin Corley, Christian Hopfer
# Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012 July
Medical marijuana use among adolescent patients in substance abuse treatment is very common, implying substantial diversion from registered users. These results support the need for policy changes that protect against diversion of medical marijuana and reduce adolescent access to diverted medical marijuana. Future studies should examine patterns of medical marijuana diversion and use in general population adolescents...

 

Erin L. Karschner , David M. Schwope , Eugene W. Schwilke , Robert S. Goodwin , Deanna L. Kelly, David A. Gorelick, Marilyn A. Huestis
# Predictive model accuracy in estimating last ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from plasma and whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in chronic, daily cannabis smokers administered subchronic oral THC
Drug and Alcohol Dependence 125 (2012) 313–319

Predictive models estimating time since last cannabis intake from whole blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were inaccurate during abstinence, but highly accurate during active THC dosing. THC redistribution from large cannabinoid body stores and high circulating THCCOOH concentrations create different pharmacokinetic profiles than those in less than daily cannabis smokers that were used to derive the models. Thus, the models do not accurately predict time of last THC intake in individuals consuming THC daily.

 

M. Madruga Garrido, C. Disdier Vicente, B. Besteiro Grandio, M. Sanchez
# Inhalación de benzodiacepinas: un nuevo inhalante
Med. Intensiva [online]. 2012, vol.36, n.8, pp. 592-594

... Realizamos de nuevo la historia al paciente quien admite haber inhalado 4 cápsulas de Sedotime® (ketazolam) de 15 mg el mismo día que comenzó con la clínica de insuficiencia respiratoria. Refiere haber realizado este tipo de inhalaciones en varias ocasiones y siempre sin repercusión respiratoria. Vacía las cápsulas sobre papel de aluminio y quema el contenido con un mechero mientras inhala el humo obtenido. En esta ocasión, a los pocos minutos comenzó con tos y dificultad respiratoria, motivo por el que acudió al médico del centro.

 

Yie-Chu Foo, Cai-Lian Tam
# Impacts of Drug Use on Memory
Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 6(10): 72-75, 2012
Chronic drug use indeed impacts negatively on human’s cognitive functions, especially in terms of attention, learning, and memory. With increasing amount of certain drug use, the degree of impairments also increases. It is unsure if the memory deficits that result from drug abuse persist forever as study examining memory impairments after more than a month’s abstinence of drug use is not found. Conclusion: Therefore, it is incorrect to say that drug users or ex-drug users are incapable of learning; instead, as a result of neurological changes in the brain caused by chronic drug use, learning may take more time and effort for them as compared to non-drug users.

 

Jolene R. Bostwick, Michael I. Casher, Shinji Yasugi
# Benzodiazepines: A versatile clinical tool. Evidence supports their use for alcohol withdrawal, insomnia, anxiety disorders, and other conditions
Current Psychiatry Vol. 11, No. 4, April 2012
For most indications, benzodiazepine therapy should be short-term.35 Use exceeding 2 to 4 weeks increases the risk for dependence and withdrawal. Tell patients to avoid alcohol while taking a benzodiazepine because this combination is potentially lethal. Benzodiazepines are commonly abused and abuse can lead to unintentional drug overdose. Benzodiazepines accounted for 37% of unintentional drug overdose deaths in West Virginia in 2006; in 46% of these cases, benzodiazepines were used for nonmedical purposes.

 

Canadian Drug Policy Coalition
# Drug Policy Is AIDS Policy
Canadian Drug Policy Coalition (CDPC) | Simon Fraser University SFU - Vancouver 2012

Approaches which explicitly reject an evidence-based public health approach, but instead focus on incarceration and criminalisation of addicts, continue to utterly fail, at enormous 6nancial and human cost. $e Global Commission on Drugs Policy have just published a new evidence-rich report, well worth reading, which focuses on the e"ect of di"erent approaches to drug users on the hiv/aids pandemic. $e spread of disease cannot be considered a wholly natural, biological phenomenon, it is also social, economic and very political... Moreover criminalisation produces many perverse consequences that actually increase the harms of drugs and costs to society. Criminal networks coalesce around drug supply; America in the era of alcohol prohibition was the heyday of organised crime. $e lack of quality control in illegal drug markets leads to wholly unnecessary harms like deadly outbreaks of anthrax in heroin injectors.

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse
# Marijuana Abuse
NIH Publication Number 12-3859 | Printed October 2002, Revised July 2012.
Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug (17.4 million past-month users) according to the 2010 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). That year, marijuana was used by 76.8 percent of current illicit drug users (defined as having used the drug at some time in the 30 days before the survey) and was the only drug used by 60.1 percent of them. Marijuana use is widespread among adolescents and young adults...

 

National Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Committee NIDAC
# An economic analysis for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander offenders. Prison vs residential treatment
A report prepared for the National Indigenous Drug and Alcohol Committee, Australian National Council on Drugs
ANCD research paper 24 - August 2012

Indigenous Australians are over-represented in Australian prisons. At 30 June 2011, there were 29 106 prisoners in Australian prisons, of which 7656 (26%) were Indigenous (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011a). By comparison, 2.5 per cent of the total population was Indigenous in 2011 (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011b). In 2010–11, the imprisonment rate for Indigenous adults (aged 18 years or over) was 1746.51 per 100 000 compared with a corresponding rate of 125.4 for non-Indigenous people — a ratio of Indigenous to non-Indigenous imprisonment rates of 13.9

 

Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze (OEDT)
# Evoluzione del fenomeno della droga in Europa. Relazione annuale 2012
Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze, 2012

Nonostante il crescente interesse a creare «alternative al carcere», le prigioni europee continuano a essere frequentate ogni anno da molte persone con problemi di tossicodipendenza. I dati dello studio dimostrano, infatti, che i problemi associati alla droga sono molto più diffusi tra i detenuti che nel resto della popolazione. Alcuni detenuti smettono di far uso di droghe quando entrano in carcere, ma la disponibilità di droghe in alcune prigioni significa che altri, invece, possono cominciare a consumarle o ad adottare comportamenti più dannosi proprio all’interno degli istituti di pena... Il sovraffollamento, la scarsa igiene e la mancanza di assistenza sanitaria sono problemi che affliggono molte carceri e aggravano le già precarie condizioni sanitarie generali che sono state riscontrate tra la popolazione carceraria. Sotto questo profilo, i detenuti con problemi di tossicodipendenza possono essere doppiamente svantaggiati e anche particolarmente vulnerabili a problemi di salute sia mentale che fisica durante la permanenza in carcere — con particolari timori per l’elevato rischio di autolesionismo e suicidio.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
# Prisons and Drugs in Europe: the Problems and Responses. Selected Issue 2012
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2012

Over the last decade, Europe has seen an increase in the size of its prison population. As of 1 September 2010, there were an estimated 635 000 inmates in prison in EU Member States (Aebi and Del Grande, 2012; Walmsley, 2012). Most of those in Europe’s prisons are from poor communities and vulnerable social groups (WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2007), with the proportion of inmates who are immigrants or from minority ethnic backgrounds on the increase. Drug users form a large part of the overall prison population, with studies showing that a majority of prisoners have used illicit drugs at some  point in their life and many have chronic and problematic drug use patterns. Because of the illegality of the drugs market and high cost of drug use, which is often funded by criminal activity, the more problematic forms of drug use are accompanied by an increased risk of imprisonment.

 

Wayne State University School of Social Work & School of Medicine.
# SEMCA regional needs assessment for substance abuse: A final report 2012.
Detroit, MI: School of Social Work. 2012
T
he criminal justice system in the U.S. is comprised of various systems (e.g., courts, jails, prisons, probation, parole) that are organized by jurisdiction (federal, state, county and municipal). Jurisdiction level  is determined by the location and severity of the offense. At each level there are several major subsystems,  including police and/or other law enforcement agencies, the court system, prosecution and public defender  offices, the department of corrections (e.g., operating probation/parole), and jails and prisons...

 

Doug Campos-Outcalt, Patricia Hamilton, William Thiagarajan, Martín Celaya, Cecilia Rosales
# Medical Marijuana for the Treatment of Depression: An Evidence Review
www.azdhs.gov/ The University of Arizona - Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health 2012
T
here is insufficient evidence to answer any of the key questions. There is no credible evidence regarding the effectiveness, or harms of marijuana for the treatment of depression. There may be an association between marijuana use and depression but it is not know if one causes the other or if both are linked to some unknown third factor. The one clinical trial found was so poorly designed that it provides no useful information. No other studies addressed the use of marijuana to treat depression. There appears to be a correlation between marijuana use and depression although the strength of this association is low to modest and it is not possible to tell if one causes the other if both are related to other variables.

 

Beau Kilmer, Jonathan P. Caulkins, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Peter H. Reuter

# The U.S. Drug Policy Landscape. Insights and Opportunities for Improving the View
www.rand.org/ RAND Drug Policy Research Center 2012

We close by naming four forces that may set the stage for significant changes in U.S. drug policy in the foreseeable future. First, there is growing intolerance for marijuana prohibition... Second, there is the emerging Latin American consensus that U.S. drug policies hurt their nations severely... Third, mass incarceration is of growing concern, particularly as state governments continue to experience fiscal trouble. Drug offenses account for about 20 percent of the total in jails and prisons, and to many their offenses seem less serious than those of other inmates... Fourth, the passage of the MHPAEA in conjunction with the 2010 ACA creates the real possibility that access to drug treatment will be expanded and that attention to the need for and utilization of these services will be integrated into mainstream medical care...

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
# Cannabis: A Short Review
www.unodc.org/ March 2012
Recent data on smoking cannabis clearly shows that it is unhealthy and dangerous. Cannabis use is linked to addiction, cognitive impairment, motor skills deficiency, respiratory, cardiovascular and mental health problems, and it has been shown to be particularly damaging to maturing brains. The international experience with increased emergency room admissions and treatment entrants represent the dangerousness of today’s highly potent cannabis, and its potential to greatly threaten both the public health and public safety...

 

Mercedes Lovrecic and Barbara Lovrecic
# The state of the art regarding heroin addicts in prisons in Slovenia during the period from 1990 to 2008
Heroin Addict Relat Clin Probl 2012; 14(1): 59-64
T
he percentage of illicit drug users among prisoners in Slovenia in the period from 1995 to 2008 rose, globally and steadily, from a minimum in 1995 (3.3%) to a maximum in 2005 (28%). The data show that from the mid-1990s to 2001 the proportion of illicit drug users (mostly taking heroin) increased from 3.3% to nearly 10.8% of all prisoners, but then rapidly increased again, reaching a maximum of 28% in 2005, whereas, in the last three years reviewed, it has been around one-quarter of all prisoners.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EMCDDA -  European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ECDC

# HIV in injecting drug users in the EU/EEA, following a reported increase of cases in Greece and Romania

© European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2012 Cais do Sodré, 1249-289 Lisbon, Portugal - emcdda.europa.eu
© European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2012 Tomtebodavägen 11a, Solna, Sweden - ecdc.europa.eu

 

European Monitoring Centre For Drugs and Drug Addiction | Observatoire Francais des Drogues et des Toxicomanies
# Rapport national 2012 (données 2011) à l’OEDT par le point focal français du réseau Reito.France. Nouveaux développements, tendances et information détaillée sur des thèmes spécifiques
www.ofdt.fr/
La moitié des services hospitaliers interrogés déclarent une part de patients sous méthadone supérieure à 50 %. C’est le cas d’un tiers seulement des services médicaux intervenant en milieu pénitentiaire (hors CSST). Les niveaux moyens de prescription initiale en milieu fermé se rapprochent en outre de ceux observés en milieu libre, ce qui semble traduire une certaine homogénéité dans l'application des indications thérapeutiques. Il reste des progrès à réaliser pour une généralisation effective de l'accès à la méthadone dans l'ensemble des établissements de santé prenant en charge des patients incarcérés et pour celui d'un relais de prise en charge plus efficace (en particulier à la sortie de prison).

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EMCDDA | John Strang, Teodora Groshkova, Nicola Metrebian
# EMCDDA Insights. New heroin-assisted treatment. Recent evidence and current practices of supervised
injectable heroin treatment in Europe and beyond

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2012

Supervised injectable heroin (SIH) treatment has emerged over the last 15 years as a potentially important intensive second-line treatment for entrenched heroin addicts for whom previous orthodox treatments (i.e. oral methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or residential rehabilitation) have produced little benefit. This treatment, by its very nature, attracts attention and controversy... The higher cost of SIH compared with optimised oral methadone (OOM) treatment provision was compensated for by the significant savings to society. In particular, a greater reduction in the costs of criminal procedures and imprisonment as a result of associated criminal behaviour was seen with SIH than with OOM treatment. It should be noted that the provision of a more standard treatment to a patient who derives little benefit cannot be cost-effective, no matter how cheaply it may be delivered

 

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services | Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SAMHSA | Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality
# Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of National Findings
www.samhsa.gov/ September 2012
In 2011, an estimated 1.7 million adults aged 18 or older were on parole or other supervised release from prison at some time during the past year. More than one quarter of these (26.5 percent) were current illicit drug users, with 20.4 percent reporting current use of marijuana and 9.1 percent reporting current nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs. These rates were higher than those reported by adults aged 18 or older who were not on parole or supervised release during the past year (8.4 percent for illicit drug use, 6.8 percent for  marijuana use, and 2.3 percent for nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs).

 

Dossier di Fuoriluogo.it, ed. 2012 su dati 2011, a cura di Antigone, CNCA, Forum Droghe, La società della ragione, Magistratura Democratica, Unione Camere Penali

# Terzo Libro Bianco sulla legge Fini-Giovanardi

I detenuti per violazione della legge sulla droga sono passati dai 15.000 del 2006 ai 28.000 del 2011... Dietro il linguaggio tecnico burocratico [dell'Unodc, l’agenzia delle Nazioni Unite sulla droga e il crimine], emerge il fuorviante messaggio: per combattere lo Hiv, non c’è bisogno di distribuire siringhe pulite, né di offrire ai consumatori di droghe programmi con metadone. La “risposta razionale” sarebbe invece l’estensione di trattamenti finalizzati all’astinenza. Invece di promuovere una strategia integrata, di terapie e di interventi di riduzione del danno (scambio siringhe e trattamenti sostitutivi, in particolare), si ritorna indietro di oltre venti anni: l’affrancamento dalla droga (attraverso la terapia) è presentato come “la soluzione” (unica) contro la minaccia del virus Hiv...
Venti anni fa, l’Europa imparò un’amara lezione: le politiche “dure” orientate alla punizione dei consumatori con un’offerta unica di trattamenti mirati all’astinenza non furono capaci né di prevenire né di bloccare l’epidemia di Aids.

 

Mario Centorrino, Pietro David
# L’economia illegale: un'opportunità per i conti dello Stato?
www.nelmerito.com/ 13 luglio 2012
Un recente studio della Banca d'Italia stima che l'economia "non osservata" in Italia abbia rappresentato nel 2008 il 31,1% del Pil, crescendo di 6,4 punti percentuali in soli tre anni (dal 2006 al 2008).

 

FAMM Families Against Mandatory Minimums

# Federal Mandatory Minimums. Statute & U.S. Sentencing Guidelines Provision
http://famm.org/ 2012
This list includes all federal (not state) sentencing laws that require the judge to give the offender a mandatory minimum prison term. Laws that require the judge to impose only a minimum fine or period of supervised release are not included in this list. The crimes charged most frequentl y today (i.e., drug crimes, gun offenses) are presented first, followed by statutes that are us ed less frequently. This list includes only the laws in effect  as of August 6, 2012.

 

LILA Milano

# Smantellamento progetti di riduzione del danno in Lombardia

Fuoriluogo giugno 2012

La Regione Lombardia sembra dimenticare che registra un terzo delle infezioni Hiv in Italia e che già assiste 45.000 persone con Hiv con un costo annuo di 300 milioni di euro. La spesa globale dei sette progetti di Rdd finora attivi in regione, che distribuivano annualmente 500.000 siringhe, non raggiunge un milione di euro: è la spesa equivalente alla cura di dieci persone con Hiv per 10 anni o -secondo altri autorevoli studi- ai costi sanitari e sociali per il resto della vita di sole due persone che contrarranno l’Hiv.

 

Giulia Casamonti, Maria Stagnitta, Grazia Zuffa (eds)
# Carcere e droghe in tempi di politiche securitarie
I dossier di Fuoriluogo 2012

Scritti di: Gianni Macchioni, Cecco Bellosi, Roberto Camarlinghi, Francesco D'angella, Ralf Jurgens, Andrew Ball, Annette Verster, Heino Stöver, Caren Weilandt, Giovanni Jocteau, Leopoldo Grosso, Giovanni Torrente, Claudio Sarzotti, Simone Spensieri, Gianluca Seimandi, Francesco Nappi

 

ITARDD Rete Italiana Riduzione del Danno
# La visione di ITARDD
www.itardd.net/ 2012
La RDD è parte integrante delle politiche comunitarie della UE (Politica “dei 4 pilastri”), e delle linee guida politiche e operative emesse dai diversi ambiti istituzionali comunitari preposti (Parlamento europeo, Commissione, Consiglio, EMCDDA). Ciò nonostante, in Italia il dibattito sulla policy in materia di droghe, e in specifico sulla RDD, permane fortemente segnato da un approccio ideologico, minando sia la diffusione, la stabilità e l’efficacia del sistema di servizi RDD pure ad oggi attivati, sia ponendo pesanti limiti all’ innovazione e allo sviluppo di una più comprensiva strategia sul piano  della salute pubblica, della qualità sociale e  di un positivo rapporto costi/benefici negli  interventi.

 

Jane M. Prosser, Lewis S. Nelson
# The Toxicology of Bath Salts: A Review of Synthetic Cathinones
J. Med. Toxicol. (2012) 8:33–42

Exposure to and use of synthetic cathinones are becoming increasingly popular despite a lack of scientific research and understanding of  the potential harms of these substances. The clinical similarities to amphetamines and MDMA specifically are predictable based on the chemical structure of this class of agents. More work is necessary to understand the mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, metabolism, clinical and psychological effects as well as the potential for addiction and withdrawal of these agents.

 

Douglas B. Marlowe, Shannon M. Carey | National Association of Drug Court Professionale NADCP
# Research Update on Family Drug Courts
www.nadcp.org/ May 2012

Between 60% and 80% of substantiated child abuse and neglect cases involve substance abuse by a custodial parent or guardian. Continued substance abuse by a custodial parent is associated with longer out-of-home placements for dependent children and higher rates of child revictimization and terminations of parental rights (TPR). Parents who complete substance abuse treatment are significantly more likely to be reunified with their children, and their children spend considerably fewer days in out-of-home foster care. Unfortunately, more than 60% of parents in dependency cases do not comply adequately with substance abuse treatment conditions and more than 80% fail to complete treatment.

 

Nicolas Christin

# Traveling the Silk Road: A measurement analysis of a large anonymous online marketplace
CyLab Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh July 30, 2012 (Revised November 28, 2012)
We perform a comprehensive measurement analysis of Silk Road, an anonymous, international online marketplace that operates as a Tor hidden service and uses Bitcoin as its exchange currency. We gather and analyze data over eight months between the end of 2011 and 2012, including daily crawls of the marketplace for nearly six months in 2012. We obtain a detailed picture of the type of goods being sold on Silk Road, and of the  revenues made both by sellers and Silk Road operators. Through examining over 24,400 separate items sold on the site, we show that Silk Road is overwhelmingly used as a market for controlled substances and narcotics, and that most items sold are available for less than three weeks. The majority of sellers disappears within roughly three months of their arrival, but a core of 112 sellers has been present throughout our measurement interval. We evaluate the total revenue made by all sellers, from public listings, to slightly over USD 1.2 million per month; this corresponds to about USD 92,000 per month in commissions for the Silk Road operators. We further show that the marketplace has been operating steadily, with daily sales and number of sellers overall increasing over our measurement interval. We discuss economic and policy implications of our analysis and results, including ethical considerations for future research in this area.

 

Andrews JY, Kinner
# Understanding drug-related mortality in released prisoners: A review of national coronial records
BMC Public Health 12, 270, 2012
Drug-related deaths are common among ex-prisoners and often occur in a home (vs. public) setting. They are often associated with use of multiple substances at or around the time of death, risky drug-use patterns, and even among this markedly disadvantaged group, extreme social disadvantage. These findings reflect the complex challenges facing prisoners upon release from custody and indicate a need to consider drug overdose within the wider framework of ex-prisoner experiences, so that preventive programmes can be appropriately structured and targeted.

 

Observatoire Francais des Drogues et des Toxicomanies OFDT
# Drogues, chiffres clés
www.ofdt.fr janvier 2012

Les statistiques judiciaires ne détaillent pas les condamnations par produit. Néanmoins, le cannabis étant en cause dans plus de 90 % des interpellations, les infractions à la législation sur les stupéfiants (ILS) sanctionnées par les juridictions comprennent vraisemblablement une part significative de procédures qui sont liées au cannabis. Les condamnations prononcées pour ILS représentent 8,6% de l’ensemble des condamnations prononcées pour un délit, soit 50 100 condamnations . Ces délits se répartissent ainsi : usage illicite (28 146, soit un peu plus de 56 %), détention, acquisition (10 831, soit plus de 21 %), commerce-transport (7 023, soit 14 %), import-export (1 710, soit plus de 3 %), offre et cession (2 237, soit plus de 4 %), aide à l’usage par autrui qui peut comprendre la provocation à l’usage et la facilitation de l’usage et autres. Les peines d’emprisonnement ferme ou avec sursis partiel concernent 12,6 % des condamnations pour usage illicite.

 

Alain Origer | Centre de Recherche Public - Santé
# National drug report “Grand Duchy of Luxembourg”. New developments, trends and in-depth information “on selected issues”
CRP - Santé Edition 2012
Le nombre d’UPD [Le terme ’UPD’ sera utilisé pour désigner des ‘Usagers problématiques de drogues d’acquisition illicite’ tout au long du présent
rapport] indexés par les institutions nationales en 2011 équivalait à 5.2093 personnes (2002: 4.701). A titre comparatif, on retiendra qu’en 2002, 2.383 personnes furent recensées par les institutions de réduction de la demande et 2.318 par les instances de réduction de l’offre. En 2011, ces mêmes instances ont recensé respectivement 2.806 et 2.403 personnes. Sommairement, le nombre de personnes entrées en contact avec des instances sanitaires et répressives a augmenté de façon discontinue jusqu’en 2010 pour afficher les premiers signes d’une baisse en 2011. Cette dernière doit cependant être avant tout attribuée à une diminution du nombre de contacts avec les forces de l’ordre. A noter également la première baisse au niveau du nombre de contacts enregistrés par les services de bas seuil et de réduction des risques depuis le début du siècle.

 

Olivier Sannier, Florent Verfaillie, Dorothée Lavielle
# Réduction des risques et usages de drogues en détention: une stratégie sanitaire déficitaire et inefficiente
Presse Médicale 2012
La population carcérale est usagère de drogues. Les débats récent autour de la mise à disposition de dispositifs de réduction des risques liés à l'usage de drogues (programmes d'échange de seringue et kits sniff) nous amènent à questionner les pratiques locales de la population détenue.

 

Jonathan P. Caulkins, Anna Kasunic, Michael A. C. Lee
# Marijuana Legalization: Lessons from the 2012 State Proposals
Carnegie Mellon University Heinz College (forthcoming in World Medical & Health Policy) 2012
A comparison of seventeen legalization proposals actively dis-cussed in various U.S. states in 2012 reveals differences that would have important consequences for price, availability, arrest-risk, use, and, hence, health. This paper divides the proposals into three broad categories and assesses their political feasibility. It then addresses the implications of state-level legalization, and possible federal responses to it, for retail price, tax revenues, and spillover effects in other states where marijuana would remain illegal.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction

# EMCDDA trend report for the evaluation of the 2005–12 EU drugs strategy
EMCDDA, Lisbon, April 2012 | Ad hoc publication

 

Jessica Y Andrews, Stuart A Kinner
# Understanding drug-related mortality in released prisoners: a review of national coronial records
www.biomedcentral.com | BMC Public Health 2012
Drug-related deaths are common among ex-prisoners and often occur in a home (vs. public). setting. They are often associated with use of multiple substances at or around the time of death, risky drug-use patterns, and even among this markedly disadvantaged group, extreme social disadvantage. These findings reflect the complex challenges facing prisoners upon release from custody and indicate a need to consider drug overdose within the wider framework of ex-prisoner experiences, so that preventive programmes can be appropriately structured and targeted.

 

European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) | The Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and other Drugs (CAN) | The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) | Council of Europe, Co-operation Group to Combat Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking in Drugs (Pompidou Group) | Björn Hibell, Ulf Guttormsson, Salme Ahlström, Olga Balakireva, Thoroddur Bjarnason, Anna Kokkevi, Ludwig Kraus (eds)

#  The 2011 ESPAD Report | Substance Use Among Students in 36 European Countries

Released May 31, 2012

Nel 2011, in Europa, i consumatori di alcolici e sostanze psicotrope tra i 16enni rimangono costanti, crescono invece i fumatori e gli assuntori di sostanze inalanti, come solventi e colle. I giovani italiani registrano consumi sopra la media europea per quasi tutte le sostanze. Questo, in sintesi, è quanto emerge dalla ricerca europea Espad che indaga sui comportamenti degli adolescenti e che lo scorso anno ha coinvolto 36 Paesi europei. In Italia, l'indagine è condotta dall'Istituto di fisiologia clinica del Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche (Ifc-Cnr) di Pisa.
L'alcol è da sempre la sostanza psicotropa maggiormente sperimentata e consumata dai sedicenni... La survey Espad si ripete in Europa ogni quattro anni dal 1995 e nel tempo sono aumentati i paesi partecipanti e le sostanze indagate, tra cui ora rientrano anche tranquillanti e sedativi assunti senza prescrizione medica.

 

Thomas Clark, John Eadie, Peter Kreiner, Gail Strickler | The Prescription Drug Monitoring Program
Center of Excellence | Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University
# Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs: An Assessment of the Evidence for Best Practices | Prepared for The Pew Charitable Trusts
www.pewhealth.org/ September 20, 2012

The role of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) in facilitating appropriate prescribing  of controlled prescription drugs and helping to address the prescription drug abuse epidemic has been highlighted in recent studies and in the 2011 White House Office of National Drug Control Policy’s Prescription Drug Abuse Prevention Plan. A special concern for PDMPs is the diversion of opioid pain relievers into nonmedical use and abuse.  A PDMP is a statewide electronic database that gathers information from pharmacies on dispensed  prescriptions for controlled substances (most states that permit practitioners to dispense also require them to submit prescription information to the PDMP).

 

Steve Anderson
# European Drug Policy: The Cases of Portugal, Germany, and The Netherlands
EIU Political Science Review - Spring 2012
Drug abuse is a problem that reaches all corners of the globe. In Europe, the case is no different. The author examines how the incorporation of different drug policy methods affects illicit drug use in Portugal, Germany and The Netherlands.

 

UK Drug Policy Commission UKDPC | L. A. King, D. Nutt, N. Singleton, R. Howard,
# Analogue controls: an imperfect law
UKDPC 19th June 2012
The challenge posed to established drug control measures by new psychoactive substances, so-called ‘legal highs’, that are emerging with increasing rapidity and being distributed through new channels, such as the internet, has become the focus of increasing attention in the United Kingdom. In response to this increasing concern, in late 2011, the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs produced a report examining these novel substances. One of its recommendations was that the government should “explore the possibility of new legislation similar to the Analogue Act (1986) used in the USA and similar laws in other countries, in conjunction with generic definitions of chemical scope” (Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs, 2011, p. 44). Superficially the proposal seems attractive, especially for politicians who have come under intense media and public pressure to do something to prevent such substances becoming widely available. However, the experience of drug controls in general and analogue controls in particular raise serious doubts about the efficacy of adopting analogue controls in the UK as suggested by ACMD.

 

Douglas B. Marlowe,Shannon M. Carey NADCP
Research Update on Family Drug Courts
www.nadcp.org/ May 2012
Family Drug Courts (FDCs)1 were created to address the poor outcomes derived from traditional family reunification programs for substance-abusing parents. The first FDC was established in 1995 in Reno, Nevada; now well over 300 programs operate throughout the United States. These specialized civil dockets were adapted from the adult criminal Drug Court model (adult Drug Courts). As in adult Drug Courts, substance abuse treatment and case management services form the core of the intervention; however, FDCs emphasize coordinating these functions with those of child protective services. In addition, participants must attend frequent status hearings in court during which the judge reviews their progress and may administer gradually escalating sanctions for infractions and rewards for accomplishments.

 

En Riahn
# Addictions - Milieu Carcéral. Les addictions prennent une part importante dans la population carcérale…
www.riahn.fr/ En Riahn, n. 17, Mars 2012
Une grande proportion des personnes incarcérées présente une addiction à une ou plusieurs substances licites ou non, et particulièrement le tabac, l’alcool, le cannabis, l’héroïne, les benzodiazépines et à un moindre degré la cocaïne. La consommation d’alcool, quelle que soit son niveau, est à l’origine de nombreux délits ou crimes. Ainsi nous rencontrons aussi bien des buveurs occasionnels responsables de conduites sous l’emprise d’alcool, que des consommateurs à risque ou des alcoolo-dépendants. La consommation de cannabis est également très importante dans la population carcérale, estimée à 60 à 80 % d’après les intéressés. On constate depuis quelques années à une augmentation des poly- consommateurs en particulier d’alcool et de cannabis responsables d’actes de violence (dégradation, coups et blessures, violence conjugale). La plupart des consommateurs d’héroïne bénéficie d’un traitement de substitution (buprénorphine ou méthadone) qui est reconduit durant leur incarcération.

 

Valérie Le Gall
# Prise en Charge des Addictions en Milieu Carceral, a la Reunion
Mémoire en vue de l'obtention du diplôme universitaire d'addictologie
Université de la Réunion Année 2012
A la Réunion, l'accès aux drogues dites « dures », est difficile et l'effet des produits que recherchent les jeunes réunionnais est différent. En effet, la Réunion, de part sa situation géographique, est en quelque sorte protégée de l'arrivée de nouvelles substances psychoactives. De plus, le service des douanes et les autorités judiciaires sont très vigilants à ce sujet. La culture de « s'injecter » ne fait pas partie des pratiques de consommation réunnionaises...

 

Alex Stevens
# The ethics and effectiveness of coerced treatment of people who use drugs
Human Rights and Drugs, Volume 2, No. 1, 2012
In the context of international debates about ways to reduce the harms related to the use of illicit drugs and their control, this article explores the specific issue of coerced treatment of people who use drugs. It uses established standards of human rights and medical ethics to judge whether it is ethical to apply either of two types of coerced treatment (compulsory treatment and quasi-compulsory treatment, or QCT) to any of three groups of drug users (non- problematic users, dependent drug users and drug dependent offenders). It argues that compulsory treatment is not ethical for any group, as it breaches the standard of informed consent.

 

Josh Sweeney, Jason Payne
# Drug use monitoring in Australia: 2009–10 report on drug use among police detainees
www.aic.gov.au/ Australian Institute of Criminology 2012
The Australian and state/territory governments remain concerned about methamphetamine use and its related problems. While it was encouraging to note that in 2009–10 methamphetamine use among detainees was at its lowest level since DUMA’s inception in 1999, it is of some concern that further analysis of data collected in the first three quarters of 2011 showed a spike in the use of methamphetamine...

 

Olivier Sannier, Florent Vwerfaillie, Dorothée Lavielle
# Réduction des risques et usages de drogues en détention : une stratégie sanitaire déficitaire et inefficiente
PressMed (2012)
Enquête sur la consommation de drogue dans le Centre Pénitentiaire de Liancourt. La consommation de drogues illicites est plus élevée dans la prison que dans la population générale, puisque respectivement 38%, 7,1% et 8,1% des répondants déclarent avoir consommés du cannabis, de la cocaïne et de l’héroïne pendant l’incarcération. De plus, l’alcool, normalement interdit en prison a été consommé par 18,9% des répondants pendant leur incarcération. Mais paradoxalement les moyens sanitaires disponibles sont considérablement inférieurs à ceux disponibles en milieu libre. Dans le centre pénitentiaire de Liancourt, il n’est par exemple pas prévu de poste d’addictologue, les temps sanitaires disponibles ne permettent pas la mise en place d’un cadre thérapeutique, ou encore, à peine plus de la moitié des usagers de drogue en sniff ou en injection durant leur incarcération connaissait leur statut VIH, et moins de la moitié connaissaient leur statut VHC et VHB.

 

Sannier Olivier | UCSA Centre Pénitentiaire de Liancourt
# Réduction des Risques et Usages de Drogues en détention. Etude auprès de la population détenue au Centre Pénitentiaire de Liancourt - 2011
Congès UCSA Lille 2011

 

Roberto Escobar
#  La logica dell'antiproibizionista
ilSole24ore - Domenica | 27.05.2012

In un libro acuto e coraggioso Persio Tincani [Perché l'antiproibizionismo è logico (e morale), Sironi ed. 2012] discute alla base diverse errate convinzioni sull'uso delle droghe. Ribaltando molti luoghi comuni

 

Ojmarrh Mitchell, David B. Wilson, Amy Eggers, Doris L. MacKenzie
# Drug Courts’ Effects on Criminal Offending for Juveniles and Adults
Campbell Systematic Reviews 2012:4 (02 February, 2012)
Drug courts are specialized courts in which court actors collaboratively use the legal and moral authority of the court to monitor drug-involved offenders’ abstinence from drug use via frequent drug testing and compliance with individualized drug treatment programs. The objective of this review was to systematically review quasi-experimental and experimental evaluations of the effectiveness of drug courts in reducing future offending and drug use. The systematic search identified 154 independent, eligible evaluations, 92 evaluations of adult drug courts, 34 of juvenile drug courts, and 28 of drunk-driving (DWI) drug courts. The findings most strongly support the effectiveness of adult drug courts, as even the most rigorous evaluations consistently find reductions in recidivism and these effects generally persist for at least three years. The magnitude of this effect is analogous to a drop in general and drug-related recidivism from 50% for non-participants to approximately 38% for participants. The evidence also suggests that DWI drug courts are effective in reducing recidivism and their effect on recidivism is very similar in magnitude to that of adult drug courts (i.e., a reduction in recidivism of approximately 12 percentage points); yet, some caution is warranted, as the few available experimental evaluations of DWI drug courts do not uniformly support their effectiveness. For juvenile drug courts we find considerably smaller effects on recidivism. The mean effect size for these courts is analogous to a drop in recidivism from 50% for non-participants to roughly 43.5% for participants

 

Alex Stevens
# The ethics and effectiveness of coerced treatment of people who use drugs
www.humanrightsanddrugs.org/ Human Rights and Drugs - Volume 2, No. 1, 2012
There are two ethical limits to the severity of penal sanctions: (1) they should be no more severe than is justified by the harm caused by the offence, and (2) they should be no more severe than is necessary to achieve their intended purpose. In the case of the offence of drug possession, any harm that is caused is primarily harm to the individual in possession, so it is disproportionate to impose a harmful penal sanction on him or her.

 

Ojmarrh Mitchell, David B. Wilson, Amy Eggers, Doris L. MacKenzie
# Assessing the effectiveness of drug courts on recidivism: A meta-analytic review of traditional and non-traditional drug courts
Journal of Criminal Justice 40 (2012) 60–71
The objective of this research was to systematically review quasi-experimental and experimental evaluations of the effectiveness of drug courts in reducing offending. Methods: Our search identified 154 independent evaluations: 92 evaluations of adult drug courts, 34 of juvenile drug courts, and 28 of DWI drug courts. The findings of these studies were synthesized using metaanalysis. Results: The vast majority of adult drug court evaluations, even the most rigorous evaluations, find that participants have lower recidivism than non-participants. The average effect of participation is analogous to a drop in recidivism from 50% to 38%; and, these effects last up to three years. Evaluations of DWI drug courts find effects similar in magnitude to those of adult drug courts, but the most rigorous evaluations do not uniformly find reductions in recidivism. Juvenile drug courts have substantially smaller effects on recidivism. Larger reductions in recidivism were found in adult drug courts that had high graduation rates, and those that accepted only non-violent offenders. Conclusions: These findings support the effectiveness of adult drug courts in reducing recidivism. The evidence assessing DWI courts' effectiveness is very promising but more experimental evaluations are needed. Juvenile drug courts typically produce small reductions in recidivism.

 

Inserm Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale
# Médicaments psychotropes : consommations et pharmacodépendances [Rapport complet, 586 p.]

www.inserm.fr/ Paris, le 25 octobre 2012

# Médicaments psychotropes : consommations et pharmacodépendances [Synthèse et recommandations, 98 p..]

Les médicaments psychotropes, du fait de leurs propriétés psychoactives, peuvent entrainer un risque d’abus et de dépendance. Malgré des règles strictes de prescription et de délivrance, leur consommation s’effectue parfois hors prescription médicale ou sans respect des indications ou des consignes de prescription. Ces mésusages peuvent être associés à une obtention illégale du médicament. Sollicité par la Mission interministérielle de lutte contre la drogue et la toxicomanie (Mildt), cette expertise collective fait le point sur la consommation de médicaments psychotropes en France et analyse les diverses formes de mésusage selon les populations et les contextes. L’expertise fait également le point sur la dépendance à ces médicaments, sur les règlementations et les dispositifs de surveillance de l’abus et de la dépendance, en France et au plan international.

Inserm Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale


# Médicaments psychotropes : consommations et pharmacodépendances [Dossier de presse]
www.inserm.fr/ Paris, le 25 octobre 2012
Près de 30 % des usagers de drogues déclarent avoir consommé des médicaments psychotropes (hors traitements de substitution aux opiacés - TSO) au cours du dernier mois ; La consommation de médicaments psychotropes prescrits s’accompagne souvent de mésusage et la consommation de médicaments psychotropes non prescrits est élevée. Les prévalences de mésusage de médicaments psychotropes varient selon les populations d’usagers de drogues enquêtés et le type de médicaments. Par exemple, environ 30 % des usagers suivis en centres de soins déclarent avoir obtenu illégalement du clonazépam (benzodiazépine). Le mésusage de médicaments psychotropes s’intensifie dans un contexte de polyconsommation ou de mode d’administration par injection ; En France, 130 000 personnes sont sous traitement de substitution aux opiacés, avec une nette prédominance de la buprénorphine haut dosage (BHD) (80 %) devant la méthadone. Environ 15 % des usagers en traitement font une utilisation détournée de BHD par injection3. Parmi les usagers de BHD et de méthadone interrogés, la proportion d’usagers ayant obtenu le médicament par le marché de rue est respectivement de 35 % et 20 % ; Les mésusages de médicaments de substitution aux opiacés sont moins fréquents chez les usagers de drogues régulièrement suivis dans les structures de soins et en médecine générale... En France, la prévalence de la dépendance aux médicaments psychotropes est inconnue

 

Stanislas Spilka, Olivier Le Nézet, Marie-Line Tovar | Observatoire français des drogues et des toxicomanies OFDT
# Les drogues à 17 ans: premiers résultats de l’enquête ESCAPAD 2011
www.Ofdt.fr n. 79 Février 2012
L’Observatoire français des drogues et des toxicomanies a interrogé en mars 2011, 27 402 jeunes métropolitains âgés de 17 ans sur leurs consommations de substances psychoactives licites et illicites. Avec ce septième exercice d’ESCAPAD, c’est désormais plus d’une  décennie d’observation des usages de drogues qui est proposé.  Ces premiers résultats montrent qu’entre 2008 et 2011 les expérimentations de tabac et
d’alcool ont poursuivi leur diminution, alors que celle du cannabis s’est stabilisée. De même, l’expérimentation des autres drogues illicites, dont la cocaïne, l’ecstasy et l’héroïne, est globalement orientée à la baisse avec des niveaux de consommation qui restent faibles. Dans le même temps, les usages réguliers de tabac et d’alcool ont progressé.

 

Marta Pelazza
# Rimessa alle Sezioni Unite la questione circa l'interpretazione del concetto di “ingente quantità” di sostanza stupefacente, di cui all'aggravante ex art. 80 co. 2 T.U. Stupefacenti | Nota a Cass. sez. IV, ord. 11.10.2011 (dep. 25.10.2011), # n. 38748, Pres. Marzano, Rel. Marinelli
www.penalecontemporaneo.it 11 Gennaio 2012

 

Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety
# New Strategic Direction for Alcohol and Drugs. Phase 2. 2011-2016
A Framework for Reducing Alcohol and Drug Related Harm in Northern Ireland
December 2011

As the link between the misuse of alcohol with serious violent crime and instances of anti-social behaviour is well established, the PSNI, and others, have developed regional and local alcohol initiatives. They have been contributing to prevention efforts through education and support to local communities in an effort to address both of these issues. The Probation Board for Northern Ireland (PBNI) and the Northern Ireland Prison Service (NIPS) also play a major role in both prevention and support and the issue of 'at risk’ and vulnerable groups is one which the Youth Justice Agency has also given a high priority to.

 

Bahadır KÜÇÜKUYSAL
# Drug Legalization Debate
http://sablon.sdu.edu.tr/ Journal of Social Sciences, December 2011, No:24, pp.215-224.
This paper aims to make an analysis of drug legalization debate in the United States, where in recent years comprehensive studies and researches have been conducted on this issue. Though the problem has not yet been in Turkey’s agenda currently, the author believes that this issue has a significant potential to be a major problem in Turkey’s agenda in the near future. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to analyze and evaluate in advance the experiences and policy applications of other countries.

 

Shelli B. Rossman, John K. Roman, Janine M. Zweig, Michael Rempel, Christine H. Lindquist (eds)
# The Multi-Site Adult Drug Court Evaluation: The Impact of Drug Courts
Urban Institute, November 2011
There is a direct effect of drug court participation on desistance from drug use and criminality; after controlling for all significant individual risk factors, court practices, and theoretical mediators, there remains an independent effect of drug court on improved behavior. Drug courts participants reported fewer subsequent days of drug use and crimes committed per month, on average across all courts, 18 months later, and, they expressed more positive attitudes toward the judge at their 6-month interview, which in turn was associated with lower levels of drug use and crime at their 18-month interview, on average across all courts.

 

Suzanne Nielsen, Raimondo Bruno, Matthew Frei, Dan I Lubman
# Benzodiazepines. Their role in aggression and why GPS should prescribe with caution
Australian Family Phisician, Vol. 40, no. 11, november 2011
Benzodiazepines are widely prescribed in Australia, despite concerns about their potential for abuse and dependence. Paradoxical reactions, disinhibition and amnesia are all associated with benzodiazepine use, misuse and intoxication. While violent and aggressive behaviour may be a consequence of such disinhibition, there is  limited information available regarding the links between  benzodiazepine use and violence.

 

Jan C. van Ours
# The long and winding road to cannabis legalization
http://arno.uvt.nl/ Tilburg University - Discussion Paper 126 November 29, 2011
In almost all countries supply, distribution and use of cannabis is prohibited. Nevertheless, cannabis is the most popular illicit drug. Prohibition does not seem to work. The debate on legalization of cannabis is often emotional with strong views of both proponents and opponents but ignorance prevails. There are supposedly detrimental health e ects of cannabis use but researchers debate whether they are causal or mere associations. As long as nowhere in the world cannabis is legalized it is di cult to get a clear idea about the e ects of legalization. Rather than muddling through for several decades it would be wise to start moving on the long and winding road to cannabis legalization.

 

America Civil Liberties Union ACLU
# Smart Reform is possible. States Reducing Incarceration Rates and Costs While Protecting Communities
August 2011

The racial disparities resulting from this system have been staggering. Black individuals are imprisoned at nearly six times the rate of their white counterparts—and Latinos are locked up at nearly double the white rate. Most of this racial disparity is a result of the War on Drugs. While these groups engage in drug use, possession, and sales at rates comparable to their representation in the general population, the system disparately impacts people of color. For example, black individuals comprise 13% of the U.S. population and 14% of drug users, yet they are 37% of the people arrested for drug offenses and 56% of those incarcerated for drug crimes.

 

Bruno Bertelli
# L’influenza delle norme e delle sanzioni sui fenomeni di consumo e dipendenza da droga
Rivista di Criminologia, Vittimologia e Sicurezza – Vol. V – N. 2 – Maggio-Agosto 2011
La propensione alla trasgressione (e anche al consumo di sostanze illegali) dipende direttamente dai valori morali interiorizzati: quanto più l’interiorizzazione è forte quanto meno si pensa a trasgredire e quanto più è fallimentare e inadeguato il processo che conduce a interiorizzare i valori morali, vale a dire quanto più carente è il processo di socializzazione e di crescita morale, cognitiva ed emotiva della persona, tanto più facile sarà per quella persona mettere in atto condotte devianti.

 

William H. Fisher, Lorna Simon, Kristen Roy-Bujnowski, Albert Grudzinskas, Nancy Wolff, Emily Crockett, Steven Banks
# Risk of Arrest Among Public Mental Health Services Recipients and the General Public
Psychiatric Services 62:67–72, 2011
The offenses for which persons with serious mental illness are at greatest risk of arrest are many of those targeted by current diversion programs. These findings suggest the need for additional research addressing the ways in which individual psychopathology and socioenvironmental factors affect risk of offending in this population.

 

Greg Berman, Michael Rempel
# Judges Matter: How Courts Reduce Crime and Save Money
New York Law Journal, Wednesday, August 24, 2011
The research shows that investing in judges can not only reduce drug use and crime but help save money by reducing victimization and the use of prison as well.

 

Stephen Rolles, Fiona Measham
# Questioning the method and utility of ranking drug harms in drug policy
International Journal of Drug Policy 2011
In a 2010 Lancet paper Nutt et al. propose a model for evaluating and ranking drug harms, building on earlier work by incorporating multi criteria decision analysis. It is argued that problems arise in modelling drug harms using rankable single figure indices when determinants of harm reflect pharmacology translated through a complex prism of social, and behavioural variables, in turn influenced by a range of policy environments. The delphic methodolgy used is highly vulnerable to subjective judgements and even the more robust measures, such as drug related death and dependence, can be understood as socially constructed. The failure of the model to dissaggregate drug use harms from those related to the policy environment is also highlighted. Beyond these methodological challenges the utility of single figure index harm rankings is questioned, specifically their role in increasingly redundant legal frameworks utilising a harm- ased hierarchy of punitive sanctions. If analysis is to include the capacity to capture the complexity relating to drug using behaviours and environments; specific personal and social risks for particular using populations; and the broader socio-cultural context to contemporary intoxication, there will need to be acceptance that analysis of the various harm vectors must remain separate – the complexity of such analysis is not something that can or should be over generalised to suit political discourse or outdated legal frameworks.

 

Alice Berti, Cristina Orsini, Fabio Voller | Osservatorio di Epidemiologia – ARS Toscana
# I consumi delle sostanze psicotrope e le tossicodipedenze in cifre
www.ars.toscana.it/ luglio 2011
Il consumo di sostanze illegali rappresenta, come già anticipato, un comportamento diffuso nella fascia giovanile della popolazione e spesso viene associato ad altri comportamenti a rischio (consumo di alcol, di sigarette, guida pericolosa, ecc.), con un conseguente aumento della probabilità di provocare danni alla salute. Il Settore epidemiologia dei servizi sociali integrati ha indagato tali comportamenti a rischio attraverso la realizzazione dello studio EDIT (Epidemiologia dei Determinanti degli Incidenti Stradali in Toscana) che nasce dalla necessità di migliorare le conoscenze sui possibili determinanti dell’infortunistica stradale, nelle fasce giovanili della popolazione.

 

Lisa K. Brents, Emily E. Reichard, Sarah M. Zimmerman, Jeffery H. Moran, William E. Fantegrossi, Paul L. Prather

# Phase I Hydroxylated Metabolites of the K2 Synthetic Cannabinoid JWH-018 Retain In Vitro and In Vivo Cannabinoid 1 Receptor Affinity and Activity
www.plosone.org/ July 2011
The present study investigates some previously unknown actions of oxidized products of JWH-018 produced by using the relatively new and increasingly common drug of abuse, K2. Although JWH- 018 is a predominant component of K2, it is unfortunately only one of a whole host of cannabimimetic compounds found in varying, unregulated concentrations from brand-to-brand and, even within brands, batch-to-batch of K2. This reality presents a challenge to researchers and clinicians in their attempts to better understand and predict the biological consequences of K2 use and thus accurately warn the general public about its risks, as well as advise legislators, who are currently working to determine the appropriate legal status of K2...

 

Michael Odenwald, Axel Klein, Nasir Warfa | emcdda.europa.eu | Objectif Drogues
# Consommation de khat en Europe: conséquences sur la politique européenne
Observatoire européen des drogues et destoxicomanies, 2011
Au sein de l’Union, la consommation de khat est limitée aux immigrés originaires des pays de la Corne de l’Afrique. S’il est parfois possible de se procurer la plante sous forme de «herbal highs» grâce au commerce par l’internet, en pleine expansion, la diffusion de l’usage en dehors des communautés d’immigrés reste très restreinte. Le Danemark, l’Allemagne, l’Espagne, l’Italie, la Suède, le Royaume-Uni et la Norvège ont réalisé des études sur la consommation de khat, qui décrivent avec force détails la consommation au sein des communautés somaliennes et yéménites du Royaume-Uni. Les études européennes ne constituent pas une base assez solide pour déterminer les taux de prévalence mais fournissent un aperçu des profils de consommation...

 

Susan Stuart
# War as Metaphor and the Rule of Law in Crisis: the Lessons We Should Have Learned from the War on Drugs
Southern Illinois University Law Journal  [Vol. 36 2011]

Politicians and pundits have become immune to the ethics of war rhetoric. The rhetoric itself is violent, and it breeds violence. The forty years of the War on Drugs has demonstrated the success of militarized rhetoric to move this nation to action. It does not suggest the success of the war itself, but it demonstrated the power of the marketing tool. It allows pundits and politicians to avoid responsibility by saying: “Everybody does it.” The War on Drugs has damaged the American culture and it has damaged its democratic genius, the rule of law. But ultimately, it has made acceptable the idea of being at war with each other.

 

UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

# World Drug Report 2011

United Nations Publication 2011

Based on information compiled by UNODC, the global average prevalence of HIV among injecting drug users is estimated at 17.9%, or equivalently, 2.8 million people who inject drugs are living with HIV. This is consistent with the estimate of 3.0 million (range 0.8-6.6 million) presented by the Reference Group to the UN on HIV and injecting drug use. High levels of HIV infections are, in general, found among marginalized populations of drug users as well as among those in prison settings.

As with HIV, higher levels of HCV infections are found among marginalized populations of drug users and those in prison settings.

 

Urban Institute | Shelli B. Rossman, John K. Roman, Janine M. Zweig, Michael Rempel, Christine H. Lindquist 
# The Multi-Site Adult Drug Court Evaluation: Executive Summary
www.urban.org/ Urban Institute 2011
Drug courts emerged spontaneously during the late 1980s and early 1990s in response to burgeoning drug offender arrests and prosecutions that overwhelmed the capacity of numerous courts to expeditiously process such cases. In 2002, the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) commissioned the first adult drug court evaluation that would select multiple sites from across the country. In 2003, researchers from the Urban Institute’s Justice Policy Center (UI-JPC), RTI International (RTI), and the Center for Court Innovation (CCI) teamed to conduct NIJ’s Multi- Site Adult Drug Court Evaluation (MADCE). Despite the centrality of reducing drug use, most prior drug court evaluations relied on recidivism as the sole measure of impact. The MADCE, however, was planned to measure multiple outcomes (crime, drug use, socioeconomic outcomes, family functioning, and mental health) and to capture the intervening role of court policies and practices, offender perceptions, and interim compliance with program requirements..

 

United States Department of Justice, National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC).
# The Economic Impact of Illicit Drug Use on American Society 2011
Washington D.C.: United States Department of Justice 2011
In 2007, the cost of illicit drug use totaled more than $193 billion.1 Direct and indirect costs attributable to illicit drug use are estimated in three principal areas: crime, health, and productivity... Crime includes three components: criminal justice system costs ($56,373,254), crime victim costs ($1,455,555), and other crime costs ($3,547,885). These subtotal $61,376,694. • Health includes five components: specialty treatment costs ($3,723,338), hospital and emergency department costs for nonhomicide cases ($5,684,248), hospital and emergency department costs for homicide cases ($12,938), insurance administration costs ($544), and other health costs ($1,995,164). These subtotal $11,416,232.

 

Illicit Drug Market
# Il contributo economico delle (auspicabili) leggi sulla droga riduzione dei costi pubblici e sviluppo allo stesso tempo
www.illicitdrugmarket.net/ Ottobre 2011
Una stima molto prudenziale dice che gli utilizzatori di cannabis sono circa 6 milioni di italiani (quasi 3 milioni di consumatori regolari e assidui e altri 3 milioni di consumatori occasionali: 1 o 2 volte al mese). Le quantità annualmente consumate sono circa 1.000 tonnellate (di cui solo 72 a carico dei consumatori occasionali), per un giro di affari pari a 9,5 miliardi di Euro...

 

Melanie M. Wall, Ernest Poh, Magdalena Cerdá, Katherine M Keyes, Sandro Galea, Deborah S. Hasin
# Adolescent marijuana use from 2002 to 2008: higher in states with medical marijuana laws, cause still unclear
Ann Epidemiol. 2011 September
Purpose—Since 1996, 16 states have legalized marijuana use for medical purposes. The current study provides a scientific assessment of the association of medical marijuana laws (MML) and adolescent marijuana use using national data. Method—State representative survey data on approximately 23,000 12–17 year olds was collected by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health annually from 2002–2008... In the eight states that passed MML since 2004, in the years prior to MML passage, there was already a higher prevalence of use and lower perceptions of risk in those states compared to states that have not passed MML. Conclusions—While the most likely of several possible explanations for higher adolescent marijuana use and lower perceptions of risk in MML states cannot be determined from the current study, results clearly suggest the need for more empirically-based research on this topic.

 

U.S. Department of Justice | National Drug Intelligence Center
# National Drug Threat Assessment 2011
www.justice.gov/ndic August 2011
The abuse of several major illicit drugs, including heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine, appears to be increasing, especially among the young. The abuse of controlled prescription drugs (CPDs)b is also generating a mounting array of negative consequences... An estimated 8.7 percent of Americans aged 12 or older—or 21.8 million individuals— were current illicit drug users in 2009, a statistically significant increase from 8.0 percent in 2008. Young adults, aged 18 to 25, represent the largest age group of current abusers, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH).

 

Grazia Zuffa
# Come definire il consumo personale nella legislazione sulla droga. La questione della “soglia” alla luce dell’esperienza italiana
www.tni.org/ Series on Legislative Reform of Drug Policies Nr. 15 August 2011
 La notevole crescita in Italia delle sanzioni per uso personale e il drammatico calo dei programmi terapeutici per i consumatori soggetti a sanzioni dimostrano gli scarsi risultati e i danni collaterali dell’ approccio punitivo.  Per risolvere definitivamente nella legislazione la distinzione fra spaccio e consumo, è necessario cambiare l’impianto stesso della legge, stabilendo come reato la detenzione di droghe solo quando è finalizzata alla vendita.  Il sistema della “soglia” quantitativa per distinguere lo spaccio dall’uso personale presenta molti inconvenienti. E’ preferibile il sistema “discrezionale”, anche se non affronta completamente il problema.  Il principale inconveniente del modello “soglia” è la presunzione di colpevolezza del reato di spaccio per i consumatori trovati in possesso di quantità di droga al di sopra della soglia, con la conseguente ingiusta criminalizzazione degli stessi. 

 

Australian Government
# 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey report
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Canberra July 2011
Actions for those found in possession of illicit drugs: For all people aged 14 years or older, support for actions taken against people found in possession of illicit drugs for personal use differed according to drug type. In 2010: • for all drugs except cannabis, most support was for referral to treatment or an education program, while for cannabis the most popular action was a caution, warning or no action (38.0%) • support for fines had the least variation across illicit drugs, ranging from 16.2% for heroin to 24.8% for ecstasy • support for prison sentences was lowest for cannabis (6.1%) and highest for heroin (25.7%) and meth/amphetamines (20.1%) • teenagers aged 12–17 years were most likely to support fines than other measures compared with adults aged 18 years or older • those aged 60 years or older were more likely to support referral to treatment or education program than other age groups.

 

Timna Naftali, Lihi Bar Lev, Doron Yablekovitz, Elisabeth Half, Fred M. Konikoff
# Treatment of crohn’s disease with cannabis an Observational study
IMAJ • VOL 13 • August 2011
This is the first report of cannabis use in Crohn’s disease in humans. The results indicate that cannabis may have a positive effect on disease activity, as reflected by reduction in disease activity index and in the need for other drugs and surgery. Prospective placebo-controlled studies are warranted to fully evaluate the efficacy and side effects .of cannabis in CD...

 

Legal Assistance Center (Namibia) AIDS Law Unit | University of Wyoming College of Law
# Struggle to Survive: A report on HIV/AIDS and prisoners' rights In Namibia
http://zunia.org/ 2011
The Namibian Government reports that at least twelve percent of the prison population is infected with HIV/AIDS, although the percentage may be much higher due to underreporting. A combination of lengthy pre-trial detentions, substandard nutrition and sanitation, violence, rape, consensual unprotected sex and inadequate staffing in prisons contribute to HIV transmission. The criminalization of sodomy has resulted in a prohibition on the distribution of condoms in prisons. Lack of access to adequate testing, medical care and counseling further exacerbates the transmission of HIV/AIDS among prisoners.

 

Sam Himelstein
# Mindfulness-Based Substance Abuse Treatment for Incarcerated Youth: A Mixed Method Pilot Study
International Journal of Transpersonal Studies, 30(1-2), 2011
One population that may benefit from the increased self-management abilities acquired through mindfulness practice (Baer, 2003) is incarcerated  adolescents who struggle with issues of substance use. In 2008, there were over 340,000 juvenile arrests for drug abuse violations, violation of liquor laws, drunkenness, and driving under the influence in the United States... A final intention in publishing this pilot study is to contribute to the field of transformative justice-based transpersonal psychology

 

Report of the Global Commission on Drug Policy

# War on Drugs -- June 2011

The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world. Fifty years after the initiation of the UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, and 40 years after President Nixon launched the US government’s war on drugs, fundamental reforms in national and global drug control policies are urgently needed.

 

# Guerra a las Drogas | #  Guerra alla droga

 

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)
# TEDS Report - Substance Abuse Treatment Admissions for Abuse of Benzodiazepines
http://www.samhsa.gov/ June 2, 2011
The number of benzodiazepine admissions nearly tripled between 1998 and 2008, while overall treatment admissions increased only 11 percent | The majority of benzodiazepine admissions were male, between the ages of 18 and 34, or non-Hispanic White | Almost all benzodiazepine admissions (95 percent) reported abuse of another substance in addition to abuse of benzodiazepines: 82.1 percent reported primary abuse of another substance with secondary abuse of benzodiazepines, and 12.9 percent reported primary abuse of benzodiazepines with secondary abuse of another substance.

 

Ministère des Affaires sociales et de la Santé (Bureau des pratiques addictives et Bureau
de la Santé des populations)
# Guide des traitements de substitution aux opiaces en milieu carcéral
Guide 2011

Les établissements pénitentiaires concentrent une population présentant plus fréquemment qu’au dehors des conduites addictives, mais aussi des troubles psychiatriques ou des difficultés sociales parfois majeures. Un grand nombre de personnes détenues entrent pour la première fois en contact avec le système de soins spécialisé, en addictologie mais aussi en psychiatrie, lors d’une incarcération. Si la prison n’est pas, et ne devrait pas être, un lieu de soin, elle est bien souvent un lieu d’initiation des soins, notamment pour les personnes les plus vulnérables... Les établissements pénitentiaires concentrent une population présentant plus fréquemment qu’au dehors des conduites addictives, mais aussi des troubles psychiatriques ou des difficultés sociales parfois majeures. Un grand nombre de personnes détenues entrent pour la première fois en contact  avec le système de soins spécialisé, en addictologie mais aussi en psychiatrie, lors d’une incarcération. Si la prison n’est pas, et ne devrait pas être, un lieu de soin, elle est bien souvent un lieu d’initiation des soins, notamment pour les personnes les plus vulnérables...

 

# Corte di Cassazione, sez. VI Penale - Sentenza 5 maggio 2011, n. 17305

Per riconoscere l'infermità mentale non basta la "crisi d'astinenza"

 

Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze OEDT

# Evoluzione del fenomeno della droga in Europa

Relazione annuale 2011

L’offerta di informazioni tempestive e obiettive sulle nuove droghe e sulle tendenze emergenti assume sempre più importanza, data la natura sempre più dinamica e in rapido mutamento del problema delle droghe in Europa. Il mercato delle nuove droghe è caratterizzato dalla velocità a cui i fornitori rispondono all’imposizione di misure di controllo offrendo nuove alternative ai prodotti controllati. Una serie di fonti di informazioni e indicatori innovativi, tra cui il monitoraggio via internet e l’analisi delle acque di scarico, può aiutare a fornire un quadro migliore delle tendenze relative alle droghe emergenti in Europa

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA)
# The State of the Drugs Problem in Europe
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2011

 

UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
# The non-medical use of prescription drugs: policy direction issues
United Nations, September 2011
The growing non-medical use of prescription drugs is a global health concern. Such usage can be defined as the taking of prescription drugs, whether obtained by prescription or otherwise, other than in the manner or for the reasons or time period prescribed, or by a person for whom the drug was not prescribed. The real scale of the problem is unknown, due partly to lack of data on the non-medical use of prescription drugs, and partly to the existence of many gaps in the monitoring of their legal use for medical purposes as prescribed by health-care professionals.

 

Giorgio Bignami
# Scienza e droga, le forzature medico patologiche. La ricerca su cannabis e schizofrenia del BMJ
il Manifesto, 27 aprile 2011

 

Carla Rossi, Guido Mario Rey, Alberto Zuliani
# Il mercato delle droghe: dimensione, protagonisti, politiche
www.consiglioscienzesociali.org/ Consiglio Italiano per le Scienze Sociali 2011
E’ ormai abbastanza accettato che la semplice repressione non da i risultati ipotizzati. Bisogna considerare il consumatore come una persona da curare e da reinserire nel circuito lavorativo-sociale e agire conseguentemente. Devono essere considerate con attenzione e senza pregiudizi le esperienze degli altri paesi, valutandone gli effetti per proporre politiche evidence based. In questa direzione è stata lanciata una risoluzione, la “Prague declaration”, in occasione di un recente importante convegno che si è svolto in quella città...

 

Fabrizio Barca

# Droga: un mondo falso, un mercato opaco

www.consiglioscienzesociali.org/ Consiglio Italiano per le Scienze Sociali 2011

 

Alex Ingrassia
# Assunzione di stupefacenti al termine dell’affidamento terapeutico: automatico l’esito negativo della misura?

Commento a ord., 23 febbraio 2011 del Tribunale di Sorveglianza di Torino - Pres. Est. Vignera - Ric. B.

Va escluso l’esito positivo dell’affidamento in prova per fini terapeutici se il condannato tossicodipendente abbia ripreso sistematicamente e continuativamente ad assumere sostanze stupefacenti in epoca immediatamente successiva alla cessazione della misura e prima della formulazione del giudizio sul relativo esito.

 

Valeria Centorame
# Carcere lager: sedazione istituzionale di massa?
http://notizie.radicali.it/ 28-05-2012
Gocce di EN, TRANQUIRIT, TAVOR, LEXOTAN, LIBRIUM, MINIAS, RIVOTRIL, e tutta una miriade di “sostanze psicotrope legali” sono dunque somministrate massicciamente ai detenuti. Ma quanti sono i detenuti nelle carceri e gli "ospiti" dei Cie trattati con tali sostanze? E quali sono gli effetti indesiderati?... Da una ricerca condotta invece dal Collettivo antipsichiatrico Antonin Artaud contro gli usi ed abusi della psichiatria, possiamo rilevare quanto segue: “Basta un anno di carcere a base di benzodiazepine per assicurarsi i seguenti effetti indesiderati che saranno per sempre: riduzione dell’attenzione (tale da rendere pericolosa la guida), confusione ed affaticamento, cefalea, vertigini e debolezza muscolare, visione doppia, disturbi gastrointestinali ed epatici, cambiamenti nella libido fino all’ impotenza sessuale, amnesia, irrequietezza, ottundimento delle emozioni, allucinazioni e addirittura tendenze suicide. Inoltre questi farmaci sviluppano una dipendenza fisica, e la sospensione della terapia può provocare fenomeni di rimbalzo e di astinenza.”... le leggi spesso riconoscono il danno che può essere provocato dalla psicofarmacologizzazione forzata ed esistono dei diritti che prescrivono di usare i trattamenti meno intrusivi e meno nocivi. Queste raccomandazioni, tuttavia, sono raramente seguite del tutto...

 

Wilson M. Compton, Redonna K. Chandler
# Addressing Addiction and High Risk Behaviors Using the Integrated Public Health and Public Safety Approach
Mental Health in Public Health, Un. Pr. New York, May 2011

The number of persons under justice supervision in the United States has increased markedly over the past 30 years, driven especially by an increase in use of justice sanctions to address crimes related to drug abuse and addiction. Such a shift has led the justice system to serve as a de facto partial quarantine system. While this situation may reflect broad trends to criminalize addiction-related behavior and may also reflect deterioration of our health care system and its inability to deal with the most vulnerable in our standard facilities, it also provides an opportunity for public health strategies that reach populations which are otherwise hidden...

 

Fact Sheet | Office of National Drug Control Police | Executive Office of the President
# Drug Courts. A Smart Approach to Criminal Justice
www.whitehouse.gov/ May 2011

The drug court movement continues to grow. Since 1989, drug courts have been established or are being planned in all 50 States,the District of Columbia,the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico,Guam, and in nearly 90 Tribal locations. ♦ There aremore than 2,500 drug court programs throughout the United States. ♦ Approximately 47 percent of counties in the United States are served by drug courts. ♦ A review of five independent meta-analyses concluded that drug courts significantly reduce crime by an average of 8 to 26 percentage points; well-administered drug courts were found to reduce crime rates by as much as 35 percent, compared to traditional case dispositions. ♦ The success of drug courts hasled to development of Tribal Wellness, Veterans Treatment, Mentally Ill Offender, Community, and Family Treatment courts.

 

Paul Kurdyak, Tara Gomes, Zhan Yao, Muhammad M. Mamdani, Chelsea Hellings, Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm, Ahmed M. Bayoumi, David N. Juurlink
# Use of other opioids during methadone therapy: a population-based study
Addiction, 107, 776–780 (2011)
Many patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy in Ontario receive overlapping prescriptions for other opioids, often for extended periods. The associated prescribing patterns suggest that many such prescriptions may be duplicitous. The prescribing and dispensing of non-methadone opioids to patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy is likely to be observed in jurisdictions outside Ontario, Canada.

 

Mascha Nuijten, Peter Blanken, Wim van den Brink, Vincent Hendriks
# Cocaine Addiction Treatments to improve Control and reduce Harm (CATCH): New Pharmacological Treatment Options for Crack-Cocaine Dependence in the Netherlands
BMC Psychiatry 2011, 11:135

To date, the CATCH-study is the first study in the Netherlands that explores new treatment options for crack-cocaine dependence focusing on both abstinence and harm minimisation. It is expected that the study will contribute to the development of new treatments for one of the most problematic substance use disorders.

 

Secretaría General de Instituciones Penitenciarias

# Estudio sobre mortalidad por reacción aguda a sustancias psicoactivas en el mediopenitenciario. Años 2007-2009
Madrid, Abril 2011
El presente trabajo tiene propósito de anaslizar las muertes por reacción aguda a sustancias psicoactivas en las prisiones españolas con el propósito de encontrar nuevas actuaciones capaces de disminuirsu incidencia... El grupo mayoritario, que supone el 83,2% de los internos fallecidos por sobredosis, al ingreso en prision erano consumadores de cocaina y/o heroina. Un porcentaje significativo de esta personas consumian tambien benzodiacepinas y/o alcohol.

 

Peter Chalk
# The Latin American Drug Trade Scope, Dimensions, Impact, and Response
RAND Project AIR FORCE (PAF) | Published 2011 by the RAND Corporation
Between 60 and 65 percent of all Latin American cocaine is trafficked to the United States, the bulk of which is smuggled via the eastern Pacific/Central American corridor. The remainder is sent through the Caribbean island chain, with the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, and Haiti acting as the main transshipment hubs. In both cases, Mexico serves as the main point of entry to mainland America, presently accounting for the vast majority of all illicit drug imports to the United States.

 

ihra International Harm Reduction Association

# HIV and Injecting Drug Use: A Global Call for Action. The Official Declaration of the 2011. International Harm Reduction Conference

Of the 33.3 million people living with HIV globally, an estimated three million are people who inject drugs. They account for 30% of HIV infections outside of sub-Saharan Africa, and up to 80% of infections in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

 

Brian K Ahmedani, Sheryl Pimlott Kubiak, Carlos F Rios-Bedoya, Maureen Mickus,
and James C Anthony
# Willingness to treat drug dependence and depression: comparisons of future health professionals
Subst Abuse Rehabil, 2011 March
Stigma-related feelings, including degree of enthusiasm and willingness to work with alcohol, drug, and mental disorder (ADM) patients, as well as anticipated success in such work, will be required for the United States to be successful in its new initiatives for ADM screening, brief intervention, and effective referral to treatment and rehabilitation services (SBIRT). This study investigates students of medicine and social work with respect to their stigma-related feelings and degree of enthusiasm or willingness to treat patients affected by alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, or major depression. Inference is strengthened by an anonymous online survey approach, with use of randomized reinforcers to gain at least partial experimental control of nonparticipation biases that otherwise are present in student survey data.


 Drug Policy Alliance
# Drug Courts Are Not the Answer: Toward a Health-Centered Approach to Drug Use
www.drugpolicy.org/ March 2011
Drug courts have not demonstrated cost savings, reduced incarceration, orimproved public safety. Drug courtsleave many peopleworse off for trying. Drug courts have made the criminal justice system more punitive toward addiction – not less. Most drug courts have  done a poor job of  addressing  participants’ health needs according to health principles, and have not significantly reduced participants’ chances of incarceration. They have also absorbed scarce resources that could have been better spent to treat and supervise those with more serious offenses or to bolster demonstrated health approaches, such as community-based treatment.

 

CountTheCost. 50 Years of the War on Drugs
# The War on Drugs: Creating crime, enriching criminals
Count the Cost Report 2011
The criminal justice-led approach to drugs has fuelled a huge expansion of prison populations over the last 50 years While significant numbers are incarcerated for possession/ use alone, far more are imprisoned for “drug-related”  offending, overloading the criminal justice systems of  countries all over the globe...


Ty A. Ridenour, Sonia Minnes, Mildred M. Maldonado-Molina, Maureen D. Reynolds, Ralph E. Tarter, Duncan B. Clark
# Psychometrics and Cross-Cultural Comparisons of the Illustration-Based Assessment of Liability and Exposure to Substance Use and Antisocial Behavior© for Children
Open Fam Stud J. 2011 ; 4(Suppl 1-M2): 17–26
Elementary school-age child report instruments that do not require reading or interviews are lacking. In four samples, psychometric estimates for 5- to 9-year-olds were obtained for the Assessment of Liability and Exposure to Substance use and Antisocial behavior© (ALEXSA©), a child-report instrument that can be completed even by illiterate children. Invariance between minority groups vs Caucasians also was tested...

 

Tomi Petteri Lintonen, Heikki Vartiainen, Jorma Aarnio, Sirpa Hakamaki, Paivi Viitanen, Terhi Wuolijoki, Matti Joukamaa
# Drug Use Among Prisoners: By Any Definition, It’s a Big Problem
Substance Use & Misuse, 46:440–451, 2011
The material consisted of 610 Finnish prisoners in 2006 and represents all Finnish prisoners. The subjects participated in a comprehensive field study including a standardized psychiatric interview (SCID-I). Alcohol abuse/dependence was diagnosed in 68% (SCID-I) and 72% (ICD-10) among men and 70% (both SCID-I and ICD-10) among women. Drug abuse/dependence was diagnosed in 62% (SCIDI) and 69% (ICD-10) among men and 64% (SCID-I) and 70% (ICD-10) among women prisoners. Interview data revealed that the majority had at least tried most substances. Both alcohol and drug abuse/dependence were vastly more common among Finnish prisoners than reported elsewhere.

 

West Huddleston, Douglas B. Marlowe
# Painting the Current Picture: A National Report on Drug Courts and Other Problem-Solving Court Programs in the United States
www.ndci.org/ National Drug Court Institute July 2011
A Drug Court is a special docket or calendar within the court system that is designed to treat addicted individuals and give them the tools they need to change their lives. The Drug Court judge serves as the leader of an inter-disciplinary team of professionals, which often includes a court coordinator, prosecuting attorney, defense attorney, treatment providers, case managers, probation officers and representatives from law enforcement.  Eligible participants for the program are drug and/or alcohol dependent and commonly charged with drug-related offenses such as possession of a controlled substance, or other offenses which are determined to have been caused or influenced by their addiction such as theft, burglary or forgery...

 

Gregory T. Bogart, Carol A. Ott
# Abuse of second-generation antipsychotics: What prescribers need to know
Current Psychiatry, May 2011
Residents of jails and prisons misuse quetiapine for reasons similar to those cited by outpatients: sedation, relief of anxiety, and hallucinogenic effects or “getting high.” Clinicians must differentiate inmates who have legitimate psychiatric symptoms that require antipsychotic treatment from those who are malingering to obtain the drug.

 

Jonathan P. Caulkins, Beau Kilmer, Robert J. MacCoun, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Peter Reuter
# Design considerations for legalizing cannabis: lessons inspired by analysis of California’s Proposition 19
Addiction, 107, 2011
T
he legal production costs of cannabis will be dramatically below current wholesale prices, enough so that taxes and regulation will be insufficient to raise retail price to prohibition levels. We expect legalization will increase consumption substantially, but the size of the increase is uncertain since it depends on design choices and the unknown shape of the cannabis demand curve.

 

Joana Carvalho, Paula Frango, Mário Martins
# Prevenção das toxicodependências em grupos vulneráveis: Os resultados do Programa de Intervenção Focalizada – PIF
Revista Toxicodependência, n. 2, 2011, pp. 53-66
O Programa de Intervenção Focalizada – PIF – foi um programa de prevenção selectiva desenvolvido pelo IDT, IP, para famílias, crianças e jovens vulneráveis e indivíduos com padrões de consumo de substâncias psicoactivas em contextos recreativos. O PIF decorreu entre Julho de 2007 e Setembro de 2009 e traduziu-se na implementação de 23 projectos, desenvolvidos por entidades não governamentais sem fins lucrativos. O programa assenta em quatro componentes: selecção, monitorização, financiamento e avaliação. Globalmente, a intervenção desenvolvida foi multicomponente, compreensiva, focalizada num grupo específico, de intensidade regular, baseada num quadro conceptual e metodológico, desenvolvida por equipas multidisciplinares de técnicos com formação e experiência específica na área, contemplando ainda a avaliação como princípio estruturante. Os resultados do programa permitiram verificar que as intervenções desenvolvidas contribuíram para o desenvolvimento de competências nos grupos alvo para lidar com o uso de SPA e para o conhecimento sobre os seus efeitos. Com o PIF foi possível identificar dimensões fundamentais para a definição e implementação de programas ao nível da prevenção selectiva das toxicodependências, testar novas metodologias e práticas, avaliá-las, mas também reflectir sobre os seus resultados de modo a que se constituam como contributos orientadores para a intervenção preventiva futura.

 

Pien Metaal, Coletta Youngers (eds)
# Systems Overload - Drug laws and prisons in Latin America
www.wola.org/ Amsterdam / Washington, March 2011
The so-called “war on drugs” waged in the last four decades has had an enormous impact on the workings of national justice and prison systems in Latin America. In order to identify these impacts more specifically, the Transnational Institute (TNI) and the Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA) brought together a group of experts from eight Latin American countries to examine the human costs of current drug laws, identifying who is behind bars and the repercussions of incarceration for them, their families, and their communities. 

 

Osservatorio Epidemiologico Dipendenze Patologiche
# Consumo Problematico e dipendenze patologiche - Rapporto 2010
www.ausl.fe.it/ Marzo 2011
La popolazione arruolata nello studio è costituita da tutti i nuovi utenti presi in carico dai SerT della provincia di Ferrara nel periodo 01/01/2000 - 31/12/2009, che presentavano una diagnosi primaria di dipendenza, abuso o consumo problematico classificata con il sistema internazionale ICD-10, con un programma terapeutico concluso. Sono stati inclusi nello studio anche i consumatori di cocaina inviati ai servizi su segnalazione della Prefettura, i soggetti inviati dal Carcere, i pazienti in Comunità Terapeutica e i non residenti.

 

Joana Carvalho e Paula Frango
# Intervenção Preventiva com Grupos Vulneráveis – A experiência do Programa de Intervenção Focalizada Lisboa: IDT, 2011

Instituto da Droga e da Toxicodependência, I.P Lisboa 2011
O Programa de Intervenção Focalizada – PIF, promovido pelo IDT, I.P., constituiu-se como uma experiência na área da Prevenção das Toxicodependências para grupos vulneráveis, assente num sistema de selecção, financiamento, monitorização e avaliação estruturados, com o qual se pretendeu promover o aumento da qualidade da intervenção preventiva e o retorno eficiente dos meios afectos. O programa é o resultado de um compromisso que iniciámos em 2005/2006, no âmbito do Plano Nacional contra a Droga e as Toxicodependências – Horizonte 2012, tendo tido por base as aprendizagens de intervenção anteriores; aquilo que a avaliação da Estratégia Nacional de Luta Contra a Droga 2000/2004 apontava como o caminho a percorrer, e o que a literatura científica da área fornecia como enquadramento teórico e metodológico. Aspirámos a ensaiar, num espaço de inovação em matéria de prevenção do consumo de Substâncias Psicoactivas, experiências de intervenção baseadas na evidência científica, num diálogo aberto de compromisso e colaboração entre o Estado, representado pelo IDT, I.P. e as entidades da Sociedade Civil.

 

Department for Education | Research Report DFE-RR087
# Specialist drug and alcohol services for young people – a cost benefit analysis Frontier
www.gov.uk/ February 2011

There were approximately 24,000 young people who received specialist drug and alcohol treatment in the UK in 2008-09. This is defined as “a care planned medical, psychosocial or specialist harm reduction intervention”. As set out in the Drug Strategy 2010 such treatment is aimed at preventing escalation of use or harm and should “respond incrementally to the risks in terms of drug use, vulnerability and, particularly, age.” Most of these young people were treated primarily for alcohol (37%) or cannabis (53%) misuse, with the remaining 10% misusing Class A drugs, including heroin and crack. Apart from using drugs and alcohol, these young people had experienced a range of other problems, including involvement in crime (shoplifting, theft, assault); being NEET (not in education, employment or training); or housing problems...

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC
# Prescription Drug Overdoses: An American Epidemic
www.cdc.gov/ February 17, 2011
Opioid Analgesics: Nonmedical users 5.3 million - Medical users 9.0 million  Overall, the evidence for long-term analgesic efficacy is weak  Putative mechanisms for failed opioid analgesia may  be related to rampant tolerance  The premise that tolerance can always be overcome  by dose escalation is now questioned  100% of patients on opioids chronically develop dependence

 

T.N.I -  I.D.T  -  Marie Nougier (Rapporteur)
# Informal Drug Policy Dialogue. Lisbon 21-22 January 2011 - Report
www.tni.org/ February 2011

Overall, much scepticism was raised about the ability for the current drug control system to evolve and adapt to recent developments, brought forward by the positive results of the Portuguese decriminalisation model, proposals for cannabis reform in various regions of the world, or the most recent Bolivian request to remove the international ban on coca chewing. So far, the current system has remained resistant to any form of evolution. Yet, there is room for action, both at this year’s CND, with the holding of various advocacy events and private meetings with national and international policy makers; and in the future, with a number of global initiatives that will hopefully lead to a more balanced drug control strategy.

 

Randall T. Brown, Paul A. Allison, F. Javier Nieto
# Impact of jail sanctions during drug court participation upon substance abuse treatment completion
Addiction. 2011 January ; 106(1): 135–142
A drug treatment court (DTC) is present in over 1800 county, tribal, and territorial jurisdictions in the United States, as an alternative to incarceration for drug dependent offenders. While specific program components vary between jurisdictions, treatment contracts typically involve: participation in community-based substance abuse treatment, individual case management; regular urine drug screening; sanctions and rewards to motivate continued drug treatment and compliance; regularly scheduled contact with the Drug Court Judge for assessment of progress; imposition of sanctions; and regular assessment of eligibility for graduation.

 

Douglas B. Marlowe | National Association of Drug Court Professionale NADCP
# Research Update on Adult Drug Courts
www.nadcp.org/ December 2010
The scientific evidence is overwhelming that adult Drug Courts reduce crime, reduce substance abuse, improve family relationships, and increase earning potential. In the process, they return net dollar savings back to their communities that are at least two to three times the initial investments. The optimal target population for Drug Courts has been identified, and fidelity to several key ingredients of the Drug Court model has been demonstrated to be necessary for favorable results...

 

Douglas B. Marlowe | National Association of Drug Court Professionale NADCP

# Research Update on Juvenile Drug Treatment Courts

www.nadcp.org/ December 2010

Prior to 2006, meta-analytic studies concluded that JDTCs (Juvenile Drug Treatment Courts) reduced delinquency by an average of only about 3 to 5 percent greater than comparison programs, such as juvenile probation. Although marginally statistically significant, this difference is small in magnitude. Fortunately, newer findings are more encouraging, which suggests the programs may be getting better at their operations with increasing experience. A recent large-scale study in Utah found that participants in four  JDTCs (n = 622) recidivated at a significantly lower rate than a matched comparison sample of juvenile drug-involved probationers (n = 596). At 30 months post-entry, 34% of the JDTC participants had been re-arrested for a new juvenile or adult offense, as compared to 48% of the probationers (p < .05)...

 

RISE - Reentry Independence through Sustainable Efforts
# Drug Court Program - District of Utah
www.utd.uscourts.gov/ Revised November 2010
The RISE Drug Court Program is structured with the 10 Key Components of drug court models identified by the National Drug Court Institute.
Key Components include: 1) integrating treatment services with justice system case processing; 2) using a non-adversarial approach; 3) facilitating early identification and prompt placement; 4) providing a continuum of treatment and rehabilitation services; 5) using frequent alcohol/drug testing; 6) employing a coordinated strategy that governs responses to compliance; 7) ensuring ongoing judicial interaction with participants; 8) monitoring and evaluation of program process and goals; 9) including interdisciplinary education for staff; and 10) forging partnerships in the community...

 

National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA
# Dipendenza patologica e funzioni cognitive. Addiction and Cognition
Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 4, December 2010
Le regioni cerebrali e i processi neuronali che sono alla base della patologica dipendenza dalle droghe si sovrappongo largamente con quelle che sostengono i processi cognitivi, quali l'apprendimento, la memoria e il ragionamento. L'attività delle droghe in queste regioni e i processi che avvengono già durante le prime fasi dell'esperienza d'abuso favoriscono la costruzione di forti associazioni maladattive tra l'uso di queste sostanze e gli stimoli ambientali. Questi ultimi possono avviare, successivamente, un irresistibile desiderio e comportamenti di ricerca e consumo della droga; con l'uso continuo, i deficit cognitivi che si instaurano aggravano le difficoltà di sostenere una prolungata astinenza dalla sostanza.

 

EMCDDA–Europol joint publications
# Cocaine. A European Union perspective in the global context
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2010
Cocaine use and cocaine-related problems in Europe have increased markedly since the mid-1990s. Surveys have shown that in many EU countries — and in Europe overall — cocaine is now the second most commonly used illicit substance among the general population, after cannabis. Three million, or 2.2 %, of young adults aged 15–34 are reported to have used cocaine in the previous year. In addition, targeted studies have observed high levels of cocaine use in some recreational settings (clubs, parties). In a few EU Member States, the demand for treatment for cocaine use has also increased in recent years. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of opioid users in treatment report cocaine as their secondary drug, which may be contributing to their problems and complicating their care. Cocaine is also reported in the toxicological analysis of a high proportion of drug-related deaths in some countries, generally in combination with opioids and other substances.

 

Department of Health
# The Patel report: Reducing drug-related crime and rehabilitating offenders
www.gov.uk/ 28 September 2010

We recognise that the continuity of care of drug treatment for people entering prisons, moving between prisons and on release is a complicated issue due to the nature of the prison environment – a rising prison population resulting in a strain on limited staffing resources, disrupted regimes and some prisoners being placed further from home. However, there is now a strong call amongst drug users and carers for greater continuity of drug treatment both within and between prisons. And there is a very clearly articulated need for much greater support and help on release especially with  respect to appropriate housing, having enough money, having something meaningful  to do and greater integration and coordination with community services.

 

British Columbia Center for Excellence in HIV/AIDS -- ICSDP -- International AIDS Society -- AIDS 2010

# The Vienna Declaration, 28 june 2010

# Dichiarazione di Vienna, 28 giugno 2010

... La criminalizzazione dei consumatori di droga alimenta l’epidemia da HIV, con spaventose ripercussioni sul piano socio-sanitario. È pertanto necessario un completo riorientamento delle politiche attuali.

 

Sarah Boseley

# Alcohol 'more harmful than heroin or crack'. Sacked government drugs adviser David Nutt publishes investigation in Lancet reopening debate on classification
The Guardian, Monday 1 November 2010

 

David J Nutt, Leslie A King, Lawrence D Phillips
# Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis
Lancet 2010; 376: 1558–65
We have used MCDA (multicriteria decision analysis) to analyse the harms of a range of drugs in relation to the UK. Our findings lend support to previous work in the UK and the Netherlands, confirming that the present drug classification systems have little relation to the evidence of harm. They also accord with the conclusions of previous expert reports that aggressively targeting alcohol harms is a valid and necessary public health strategy. MCDA modelling showed that heroin, crack cocaine, and metamfetamine were the most harmful drugs to individuals (part scores 34, 37, and 32, respectively), whereas alcohol, heroin, and crack cocaine were the most harmful to others (46, 21, and 17, respectively). Overall, alcohol was the most harmful drug (overall harm score 72), with heroin (55) and crack cocaine (54) in second and third places.

 

Elizabeth L. C. Merrall, Azar Kariminia, Ingrid A. Binswanger, Michael S. Hobbs, Michael Farrell, John Marsden, Sharon J. Hutchinson, Sheila M. Bird
# Meta-analysis of drug-related deaths soon after release from prison
Addiction, 105, 1545–1554, 2010
These studies contributed a total of 69 093 person-years and 1033 deaths in the first 12 weeks after release, of which 612 were drug-related. A three- to eightfold increased risk of drug-related death was found when comparing weeks 1 + 2 with weeks 3–12, with notable heterogeneity between countries: United Kingdom, 7.5 (95% CI: 5.7–9.9); Australia, 4.0 (95% CI: 3.4–4.8); Washington State, USA, 8.4 (95% CI: 5.0–14.2) and New Mexico State, USA, 3.1 (95% CI: 1.3–7.1). Comparing weeks 3 + 4 with weeks 5–12, the pooled relative risk was: 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3–2.2). Conclusions These findings confirm that there is an increased risk of drug-related death during the first 2 weeks after release from prison and that the risk remains elevated up to at least the fourth week.

 

Mariagrazia Fasoli, Alessandra Ramera, Patrizia Furba, Fulvio Fantozzi
# La prescrizione di oppiacei nella terapia delle tossicomanie: aspetti medico-legali
www.sdrogabrescia.org/ 2004 - 2010
... Tra i farmaci spesso prescritti per trattare la eventuale sindrome d’astinenza, le benzodiazepine sono generalmente controindicate perché all’origine di tossicodipendenze iatrogene e la clonidina non ha tale indicazione sulla scheda tecnica e può quindi essere legittimamente prescritta solo nel caso che altre terapie siano controindicate e con l’acquisizione del consenso informato del paziente. Il mancato rispetto di queste regole, particolarmente per quanto riguarda il consenso scritto, potrebbe contribuire a costituire il reato in caso di danno da effetto collaterale o reazione avversa (sentenza Cassazione Penale, Sezione IV, n.30057 del 12-9-2006). La terapia d’elezione rimane quindi la disassuefazione con metadone o buprenorfina e ogni paziente con le corrette indicazioni cliniche ha diritto ad ottenerla.

 

Vanessa Pellegrino
# L'imputabilità e la pericolosità del soggetto tossicodipendente
Université Européenne Jean Monnet A.I.S.B.L. Bruxelles, Octobre 2010

 

Urban Drug Policies in the Globalised World
# Prague declaration (On the Principles of Effective Local Drug Policies)
www.praguedeclaration.com/ September 30th – October 2nd, 2010

Realism is the key: A drug-free world – or a drug-free city – is an unrealistic idea and a harmful concept if set as an ultimate goal, just like other utopias that have been set as aims in history. Substances with psychotropic effects are older than mankind and are here to stay, with all their negative as well as positive aspects. However, it is beneficial and realistic to aim to diminish the harms related to drug trafficking and use as much as possible – inter alia by reducing the non-medical consumption of drugs and thus the total volume of related risks by means of prevention, treatment, and regulation.

 

Pamela L. Owens, Ryan Mutter, Carol Stocks |  H CUP Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project | AHRQ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
# Mental Health and Substance Abuse-Related Emergency Department Visits among Adults, 2007
www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/ Statistical Brief 92,  July 2010

An estimated one in three individuals has suffered from a mental health or substance abuse condition within the last 12 months, yet the community treatment system to support services for these individuals is regarded as ineffective. This is particularly evident in emergency department (ED) utilization. The number of patients with mental health and substance abuse (MHSA) conditions treated in EDs has been on the rise for more than a decade...

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC
# Unintentional Drug Poisoning in the United States
www.cdc.gov/ July 2010
The increase in drug overdose death rates is largely because of prescription opioid painkillers. Among deaths attributed to drugs, the most common drug categories are cocaine, heroin, and a type of prescription drug called opioid painkillers. • “Opioids” are synthetic versions of opium. They have the ability to reduce pain but can also suppress breathing to a fatal degree when taken in excess. Examples of opioids are oxycodone (OxyContin®), hydrocodone(Vicodin®), and methadone.

 

Heino Stöver, Ingo Ilja Michels
# Drug use and opioid substitution treatment for prisoners
Harm Reduction Journal 2010
Drug use is prevalent throughout prison populations, and, despite advances in drug treatment programmes for inmates, access to and the quality of these programmes remain substantially poorer than those available for nonincarcerated drug users. Because prisoners may be at greater risk for some of the harms associated with drug use, they deserve therapeutic modalities and attitudes that are at least equal to those available for drug users outside prison. This article discusses drug use by inmates and its associated harms. In addition, this article provides a survey of studies conducted in prisons of opioid substitution therapy (OST), a clinically effective and cost-effective drug treatment strategy. The findings from this overview indicate why treatment efforts for drug users in prison are often poorer than those available for drug users in the non-prison community and demonstrate how the implementation of OST programmes benefits not only prisoners but also prison staff and the community at large. Finally, the article outlines strategies that have been found effective for implementing OST in prisons and offers suggestions for applying these strategies more broadly.

 

Inserm Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale
# Réduction des risques infectieux Chez les usagers de drogues
Les éditions Inserm, 2010

La réduction des risques s’est développée depuis un peu plus d’une vingtaine d’années dans de nombreux pays d’Europe, en Amérique du Nord et en Australie. Le message anglo-saxon pragmatique de la réduction des risques est le suivant « Si vous le pouvez, ne vous droguez pas. Sinon, essayez de sniffer au lieu d’injecter. Sinon, utilisez une seringue propre. Sinon, réutilisez la vôtre. Au pire, si vous partagez une seringue, nettoyez la à l’eau de Javel ». La politique de réduction des risques se caractérise par quelques fondamentaux du point de vue de la démarche. Elle s’inscrit dans le mouvement de la « nouvelle santé publique » des années 1970-80 qui valorise la capacité des individus à se prendre en charge et la nécessité des politiques de santé prenant en compte les besoins des individus concernés. Ce courant de la nouvelle santé publique s’associe à un mouvement de reconfiguration du système social, politique et économique qui place l’individu au centre du dispositif. La réduction des risques consisterait ainsi à être plus attentif aux modes de vie et aux comportements des usagers de drogues afin de leur proposer des mesures de santé publique adaptées à leurs besoins, et non pas imposées de l’extérieur.

 

Louisa Degenhardt, Bradley Mathers, Mauro Guarinieri, Samiran Panda, Benjamin Phillips, Steffanie A. Strathdee, Mark Tyndall, Lucas Wiessing, Alex Wodak, John Howard
# Meth/amphetamine use and associated HIV: Implications for global policy and public health
International Journal of Drug Policy 21, 2010

Amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) have become the focus of increasing attention worldwide. There are understandable concerns over potential harms including the transmission of HIV.  A  comprehensive search of the international peer-reviewed and grey literature was undertaken. Multiple electronic databases were searched and documents and datasets were provided by UN agencies and key experts from around the world in response to requests for information on the epidemiology of use. Amphetamine or methamphetamine (meth/amphetamine, M/A) use was documented in 110 countries, and injection in 60 of those...

 

Laura Amato, Silvia Minozzi, Simona Vecchi, Marina Davoli
# Benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal
Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group 2010
Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a serious health problem worldwide with social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Benzodiazepines have been widely used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Moreover it is unknown whether different benzodiazepines and different regimens of administration may have the same merits.

 

Amadeo Pesce, Cameron West, Murray Rosenthal, Robert West, Bridgit Crews, Charles Mikel, Perla Almazan, Sergey Latyshev, Paul S. Horn
# Marijuana Correlates with Use of Other Illicit Drugs in a Pain Patient Population
Pain Physician 2010; 13:283-287
Pain physicians should be aware that this relationship exists and marijuana-using patients are at greater risk for use of other illicit drugs although no causal relationship is implied. Increased monitoring of these patients may help minimize potential morbidity due to drug interactions as well as identify patients who may be diverting prescriptions in order to pay for illicit drugs.

 

Nathan C. Lowe, Matthew DeMichele
# Methamphetamine-Using Offenders into the Community: Identifying Key Strategies and Best Practices for Community Corrections
Council of State Governments/American Probation and Parole Association | October 2010

Substance abuse increases the obstacles facing returning offenders to communities. Offenders with substance abuse problems have an uphill battle to find employment, meet familial and childcare responsibilities, and actively participate in treatment. Unfortunately, the treatment services offered to criminal justice populations are inadequate to address the substance abuse problems facing individuals under community supervision (Belenko & Peugh, 2005). According to SAMHSA (2009), from 1992 to 2007, admissions to treatment referred by the criminal justice system increased significantly for primary MA abuse (from 37% to 57%), which was the largest increase among all primary substances abused. Such an increase over a 15-year period signifies not only the heightened prevalence of MA abuse among offenders in the criminal justice system, but also the important role that treatment providers have assumed in dealing with this population.

 

Alfred Uhl, Richard Ives and Members of the Pompidou Group Prevention Platform

# Evaluation of the drug prevention activities: theory and practice
Council of Europe, September 2010

A highly controversial issue related to SAP (substance abuse prevention) is whether we should focus on reducing the number of psychoactive substance users (abstinence perspective, population approach) or on reducing the amount of problems arising due to psychoactive substance use (problem reduction perspective). Some persons are determined in favour of an uncompromising fight to reduce any psychoactive substance use in society, regardless if this fight enhances related problems, and others prefer to reduce substance related problems regardless if some of these approaches mean explicitly tolerating certain forms of unwanted psychoactive substance use. Related to this issue is the question whether all psychoactive substance use is perceived as fundamentally wrong and morally unacceptable (puritan perspective) or if some forms of substance use may be seen as contributing positively to quality of life (hedonistic perspective).

 

Marie Jauffret-Roustide, Yann Le Strata

# Conception, échantillonnage, organisation du terrain d’une enquête TLS et nouveaux développements : Coquelicot, une enquête auprès d’usagers de drogues

Methodological Innovations Online (2010) 5(2) 26-37
...Concernant l’enquête en milieu pénitentiaire, il est difficile de transposer les méthodes d’enquête utilisées sur des terrains « classiques ». Au-delà des aspects d’adaptation méthodologique, un travail préalable de négociation autour de la nécessité de conditions optimales de réalisation de l’enquête devra être effectué avec l’administration pénitentiaire, les surveillants et le personnel médical. En particulier, des demandes d’autorisations pour être en contact avec les détenus dans des lieux « neutres » favorisant la prise de parole devront être négociées. Une réflexion sera également mise en oeuvre autour de la stratégie d’échantillonnage des détenus, à la fois concernant le premier degré d’échantillonnage (sélection des établissements pénitentiaires), et le deuxième degré d’échantillonnage (sélection des détenus) pour lequel il conviendra d’être particulièrement attentif aux risques de stigmatisation des détenus..

 

The Pew Research Center
# Modest Rise in Percentage Favoring General Legalization | Broad Public Support for Legalizing Medical Marijuana
www.people-press.org/ Thursday April 1, 2010
With a growing number of states moving to legalize medical marijuana, nearly threequarters of Americans (73%) say they favor their state allowing the sale and use of marijuana for medical purposes if it is prescribed by a doctor, while 23% are opposed. Support for legalizing medical marijuana spans all major political and demographic groups, and is equally high in states that have and have not already passed laws on this issue.

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EMCDDA | Tim Rhodes, Dagmar Hedrich (eds)
# Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges
Publications Office of the European Union, 2010

Since the mid-1980s, harm reduction has transformed from a peer-driven, grass-roots approach to an official policy of the United Nations, with Europe playing a leading role. European countries were among the ‘earlier adopters’ of harm reduction, facilitating its diffusion throughout Europe and beyond. Countries in Europe remain among the forerunners of innovations in harm reduction practice and technology...

 

The National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse
# Commissioning for recovery Drug treatment, reintegration and recovery in the community and prisons: a guide for drug partnerships
www.nta.nhs.uk - january 2010

This document draws significantly on the 11 competences required of commissioners under the World Class Commissioning approach which is compatible with the commissioning principles that apply to drug partnerships  whether administered in a health or a local authority setting. This approach recognises the need for a broad outcomes perspective. This document supports the development of a modern, evidence and recovery-based drug treatment system covering community and prison settings that needs to be delivered in the context of mainstream health reforms which are in keeping with the personalisation agenda and the vision set out in ‘High Quality Care for All’.

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Vienna
# From coercion to cohesion: Treating drug dependence through health care, not punishment. Discussion paper based on a scientific workshop UNODC, Vienna October 28-30, 2009
UNITED NATIONS New York, 2010

The conventions encourage the adoption of a health-oriented approach to both illicit drug use and drug dependence rather than relying solely upon a sanction-oriented approach. In the case of nondependent drug users, a health-oriented approach may involve: providing education, reliable information, brief motivational and behavioural counselling, and measures to facilitate social reintegration and reduce isolation and social exclusion. In the case of drug dependent individuals it may also involve more comprehensive social support and specific pharmacological and psychosocial treatment, and aftercare.. Following the provisions of the international drug control Conventions, treatment, rehabilitation, social reintegration and aftercare should be considered as an alternative to criminal justice sanctions. People suffering from substance use disorders who have committed drug-related offences may be encouraged to enter treatment as an alternative to criminal justice sanctions.

 

World Health Organization Europe

#  Prevention of acute drug-related mortality in prison populations during the immediate post-release period

© World Health Organization 2010

Prison health is a part of public health – and for the public health system it is a challenge to give equal service to those who are hardest to reach. In general, prisoners represent a group of people with multiple health problems including drug use disorders. During incarceration they are reachable – the challenge is to make use of this unfortunate situation to the benefit of the prisoners and society ...

 

Judge Kevin S. Burke
# Just What Made Drug Courts Successful?
New England Journal on Criminal and Civil Confinement, winter 2010
I
n response to the influx of drug cases, New York City created specialized "narcotics courts" to help manage the growing caseload. New  York City's narcotics courts became known as "N Parts" and functioned as "specialized case management courts designed to handle a high volume of drug cases in a traditional manner."

 

Organization of American States | Caroline S. Cooper, Brent Franklin, Tiffany Mease | Justice Programs Office, School of Public Affairs, American University
Establishing Drug Treatment Courts: Strategies, Experiences and Preliminary Outcomes

# Vol One: Overview and Survey Results

# Vol Two: Appendix of Additional Supporting Materials

Prepared for the Drugs Summit: European, Latin American and Caribbean Mayors and Cities | April 21 -23, Lugo, Spain 2010 - November 2010 (Rev.)
After decades of an approach that favored repression as its main component and that prevailed in many countries, it has become clear that it is an oversimplification. Even if it did not totally disregard the public health aspects of drug dependence, it emphasized the criminal aspect of drug use, resulting in the incarceration of hundreds of thousands of non-violent people all over the world; and, worse, with no indication whatsoever of any improvement in chemically- and psychologically dependent people, and no evidence that the roots of the phenomenon were being addressed. In addition, in those countries in which the prison system has been partially privatized, there may be a strong economic motive behind sending people to jail. Drug courts, or drug treatment courts, the first practice of which started in Florida over 20 years ago, represent thus an alternative to incarceration with advantages in critical aspects... Although the experience is fairly recent, it seems clear that the results achieved are strong enough to recommend that it should be adopted more or less universally. Statistics vary from country to country, but certain features are common: many prison systems are bordering on bankruptcy; a vast majority of those in jail come from groups that are economically and socially vulnerable; a large portion of all those incarcerated are in prison for non-violent drug-related crimes.

 

New Jersey Courts
# A model for success. A Report on New Jersey's Adult Drug Court
www.njcourts.com | october 2010
T
his report tells the dramatic story of the accomplishments of Adult Drug Courts in the State of  new Jersey over the past ten years. Drug Courts have transformed the lives of thousands of drug-addicted  offenders by providing them with treatment rather than incarceration, intensive supervision, incentives to remake their lives rather than punishment that drives them into even darker lives of crime. Drug Courts have measurably enhanced public safety in new Jersey, because the data show that an offender who goes through Drug Court is far less likely to offend again than one who goes to prison. Additionally, Drug Courts have saved new Jersey taxpayers millions of dollars, because it is far cheaper to keep a person in Drug Court than to keep in prison

 

IHRA International Harm Reduction Association

# The Global State of Harm Reduction 2010. Key issues for broadening the response

This report was produced by the Public Health, Research and Policy Programme of the International Harm Reduction Association.

Harm reduction in prisons The availability of NSPs, OST and other harm reduction services within prisons and other places of detention remains poor. Many countries that have adopted harm reduction in their responses to drug-related harms outside prisons fail to do so in prisons and other places of detention.

 

Gerry Jager, Robert I. Block, Maartje Luijten, Nick F. Ramsey
# Cannabis use and memory brain function in adolescent boys: a cross-sectional multicenter fMRI study
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010 June ; 49(6): 561–572
In adolescent cannabis users the WM system was overactive during a novel task, suggesting functional compensation. Inefficient WM recruitment was not related to a failure in automatization, but became evident when processing continuously changing information. The results seem to confirm the vulnerability of still developing frontal lobe functioning for early-onset cannabis use... Future neuroimaging studies should attempt to understand the structural and neurochemical correlates that underlie the observed alterations in brain activation in cannabis users during a cognitive challenge, because the clinical significance of these alterations is far from clear.

 

Suzi Lyons, Simone Walsh, Ena Lynn, Jean Long
# Drug-Related Deaths Among Recently Released Prisoners in Ireland, 1998 to 2005
International Journal of Prisoner Healt IJPH, Volume 6 Number 1, June 2010
The aim of this study was to investigate deaths following release from prison among individuals recorded on the National Drug-Related Deaths Index (NDRDI). A descriptive analysis of individuals with a history of imprisonment in the NDRDI from 1998 to 2005 was undertaken. Between 1998 and 2005, 130 (5.3%) of the recorded cases had a documented history of imprisonment, 105 of whom were not in prison at the time of their death. Of these 105, 89% were male, 62% were aged between 20 and 29 years, 84% were unemployed, and 10% were homeless. Almost two thirds (61%) had a history of injecting drug use, and 34% were reported to be injecting at the time of their death. Almost one third (28.1%) of the deaths occurred within the first week of release from prison, with a further 18% in the first month. Opiates were implicated in 89% of all poisonings in the first month after release from prison. Additionally, 62% of these poisonings involved polysubstance use. The study highlights the need for more intensive prevention measures in the period immediately following release from Irish prisons, including the development of a national overdose prevention strategy.

 

IHRA International Harm Reduction Association

# La Posizione dell’Associazione Internazionale di Riduzione del Danno (IHRA)

Aprile 2010

Molte politiche e pratiche intenzionalmente o anche non intenzionalmente creano ed esasperano i rischi e i danni per i consumatori di droga. Queste includono: la criminalizzazione dell’uso di droga, la discriminazione, pratiche di abuso e di corruzione, leggi e politiche restrittive e punitive, la negazione di cure mediche salva-vita e dei servizi di riduzione del danno, ingiustizie sociali. Le politiche e le pratiche di riduzione del danno devono supportare gli individui nel cambiamento del loro comportamento. Ma è anche essenziale sfidare le leggi e le politiche nazionali ed internazionali che creano ambienti a rischio per chi usa droga e contribuiscono a provocare danni correlati all’uso di droga.

 

Persio Tincani
# Perché puniamo i drogati? Politica della repressione e dell’imposizione moralistica
A- rivista anarchica, a. 40, n. 352, aprile 2010
Sebbene il consumo in sé sia un’attività che, sul piano teorico, ciascuno può compiere senza commettere alcun reato, dal punto di vista pratico è spesso pressoché impossibile compierla senza commettere reati... Se è permesso piantare chiodi con un martello ma è proibito sia comprare, che costruire, che detenere chiodi e martelli, chiunque pianti un chiodo è, giocoforza, colpevole o di commercio, o di fabbricazione, o di detenzione di chiodi e di martelli.

 

Osservatorio europeo delle droghe e delle tossicodipendenze

# Evoluzione del fenomeno della droga in Europa

Relazione annuale 2010

Cfr in part. capitolo 7 Malattie infettive e decessi correlati alla droga... Gli studi indicano che il rischio di decesso indotto dalla sostanza stupefacente nella fase di ricaduta dopo il trattamento o nelle settimane successive al rilascio dal carcere è sostanzialmente elevato. Ciò ha condotto alla pubblicazione delle raccomandazioni dell’OMS-Europa per quanto riguarda la prevenzione dell’overdose in carcere e la migliore continuità dell’assistenza dopo il rilascio (OMS, 2010)...

 

Celinda Franco | Congressional Research Service CRS
# Drug Courts: Background, Effectiveness, and Policy Issues for Congress
www.crs.gov | October 12, 2010
Participation in these programs is voluntary. Eligible defendants must agree to the program’s requirements and successfully complete the program in exchange for avoiding incarceration, having their criminal charges reduced or dismissed, or having their sentences reduced. Drug courts encourage participants’ compliance and impose sanctions on those who fail to comply with the program’s requirements. Drug courts are widely considered an important strategy for reducing incarceration, providing drug treatment, and reducing drug use and recidivism (reoffending) among nonviolent offenders...

 

Julian Elliott Thomas | National Justice Mental Health Initiative Working Group
# Diversion and support of offenders with a mental illness. Guidelines for best practice
www.justice.vic.gov.au/ State of Victoria, Department of Justice, August 2010
The Mental Health Diversion List (MHDL) which commenced as a pilot program in the Hobart registry of the Magistrates Court of Tasmania in 2007 has a strong basis in the therapeutic jurisprudence approach. The MHDL seeks to provide defendants who have a mental illness linked to their offending behaviour with an opportunity to address their mental health issues through court mandated treatment programs or interventions. This approach aims to reducing re-offending and improve community safety. The MHDL is available to adults with a mental illness who are charged with either a summary offence or a minor indictable offence (triable summarily) where the offence is linked to their mental illness.

 

Caitlin Elizabeth Hughes, Alex Stevens
# What Can We Learn from the Portuguese Decriminalization of Illicit Drugs?
BRIT. J. CRIMINOL. (2010) 50, 999–1022

The issue of decriminalizing illicit drugs is hotly debated, but is rarely subject to evidence-based analysis. This paper examines the case of Portugal, a nation that decriminalized the use and possession of all illicit drugs on 1 July 2001. Drawing upon independent evaluations and interviews conducted with 13 key stakeholders in 2007 and 2009, it critically analyses the criminal justice and health impacts against trends from neighbouring Spain and Italy. It concludes that contrary to predictions, the Portuguese decriminalization did not lead to major increases in drug use. Indeed, evidence indicates reductions in problematic use, drug-related harms and criminal justice overcrowding. The article discusses these developments in the context of drug law debates and criminological discussions on late modern governance.

 

Caitlin Hughes, Alex Stevens
#  Decriminalising illicit drug use in Portugal: A dangerous experiment?
ANEX 2010 Australian Drugs Conference

 

Emilee Mooney Scott - OLR Research Report
# Marijuana Decriminalization
www.cga.ct.gov/ May 5, 2010
When a state reduces the penalty for possessing a small amount of marijuana to a fine rather than imprisonment, it is said to have decriminalized marijuana. This is distinct from the legalization of medical marijuana, which allows patients with certain conditions to legally use marijuana to relieve their symptoms. Thirty-one states have laws on the medical use of marijuana, but they vary widely in how much protection they provide. In states that have decriminalized marijuana, possession for personal use is still illegal but is not punished as severely as it is in other states.

 

Martijn Adriaan Boermans
# An Economic Perspective on the Legalisation Debate: The Dutch Case
http://ojs.ubvu.vu.nl/ Amsterdam Law Forum 2010
In legalized markets, producers lose the possibility of profits and prices drop to a competitive level. In order to balance the possible rise in consumption, government can apply a Pigouvian tax system to raise prices, lower consumption and obtain income transferred from consumption; yet, only up to the point where externalities from consumption can be paid back for.  Hence, under legalisation the government earns some income and saves in costs typically put towards enforcement, while compared to prohibition, consumers are better off and producers cannot profit.

 

International Centre for Science in Drug Policy | Dan Werb, Greg Rowell, Gordon Guyatt, Thomas Kerr, Julio Montaner, Evan Wood
# Effect of Drug Law Enforcement on Drug-Related Violence: Evidence from a Scientific Review
www.icsdp.org/ 2010
In terms of additional unintended consequences, in the United States, mandatory minimum sentencing policies for drug offenders have resulted in a massive growth in the prison population and place an enormous burden on the US taxpayer.47, 48 Figure 3 illustrates the dramatic rise in incarceration rates following the implementation of mandatory sentencing policies by many American states beginning in the 1980s. Most notably, the incarceration of drug offenders in the United States has generated substantial racial disparities in incarceration rates. For instance, one in nine African-American males between the ages of 20 and 34 is incarcerated on any given day in the United States...

 

Mark A. Ware, Tongtong Wang, Stan Shapiro, Ann Robinson, Thierry Ducruet, Thao Huynh, Ann Gamsa, Gary J. Bennett, Jean-Paul Collet
# Smoked cannabis for chronic neuropathic pain: a randomized controlled trial
www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ CMAJ • October 5, 2010
Participants receiving 9.4% tetrahydrocannabinol reported improved ability to fall asleep (easier, p = 0.001; faster, p < 0.001; more drowsy, p = 0.003) and improved quality of sleep (less wakefulness, p = 0.01) relative to 0% tetrahydrocannabinol. We found no differences in mood or quality of life. The most common drug-related adverse events during the period when participants received 9.4% tetrahydrocannabinol were headache, dry eyes, burning sensation in areas of neuropathic pain, dizziness, numbness and cough. Conclusion: A single inhalation of 25 mg of 9.4% tetrahydrocannabinol herbal cannabis three times daily for five days reduced the intensity of pain, improved sleep and was well tolerated. Further long-term safety and efficacy studies are indicated.

 

Jeffrey A. Miron, Katherine Waldock
# The Budgetary Impact of Ending Drug Prohibition
Cato Institute 2010

State and federal governments in the United States face massive looming fiscal deficits. One policy change that can reduce deficits is ending the drug war. Legalization means reduced expenditure on enforcement and an increase in tax revenue from legalized sales. This report estimates that legalizing drugs would save roughly $41.3 billion per year in government expenditure on enforcement of prohibition. Of these savings, $25.7 billion would accrue to state and local governments, while $15.6 billion would accrue to the federal government. Approximately $8.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana and $32.6 billion from legalization of other drugs. The report also estimates that drug legalization would yield tax revenue of $46.7 billion annually, assuming legal drugs were taxed at rates comparable to those on alcohol and tobacco. Approximately $8.7 billion of this revenue would result from legalization of marijuana and $38.0 billion from  legalization of other drugs.

 

Grant Duwe
# Prison-Based Chemical Dependency Treatment in Minnesota_ An Outcome Evaluation
www.doc.state.mn.us/ March 2010
Although this study suggests that prison-based CD treatment and, more narrowly, short-term programs can be effective, more evaluations of prison- ased programs are needed. Due to the many variations among state and federal correctional populations, it is unlikely that a single study— egardless of how rigorous the design—can conclusively determine whether prison-based treatment works. Rather, by quantitatively reviewing evaluations from  multiple jurisdictions, meta-analyses could help better identify what works best for whom under which circumstances.

 

Beau Kilmer, Jonathan P. Caulkins, Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Robert J. MacCoun, Peter H. Reuter
# Altered State? Assessing How Marijuana Legalization in California Could Influence Marijuana Consumption and Public Budgets
RAND Drug Policy Research Center 2010

California has always been on the cutting edge of marijuana policy reform. It was one of the first states to prohibit marijuana in 1913, predating the federal Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 by nearly 25 years. In 1975, California was one of the first tates to reduce the maximum sentence for possessing less than an ounce from incarceration to a small fine ($100). In 1996, California was the first state to allow marijuana to be grown and consumed for medicinal purposes. And, in November 2010, California will become the third state to vote on whether marijuana should be legalized and taxed—and potentially the first to pass such legislation.

 

Kimberly Y.W. Holst
# A Good Score?: Examining Twenty Years of Drug Courts in the United States and Abroad
Valparaiso University Law Review, Vol. 45, No. 1 [2010]
After twenty years, the score is not completely settled with respect to drug courts in the United States. While they have continually grown in number and efforts have been undertaken to help in the effective operation, there are significant changes that will improve the effectiveness of drug courts in the United States...

 

Renske Penning, Janet L. Veldstra, Anne P. Daamen, Berend Olivier, Joris C. Verster
# Drugs of Abuse, Driving and Traffic Safety
Current Drug Abuse Reviews, 2010, 3, 23-32
Roadside studies show that drivers most frequently test positive for the use of alcohol and/or cannabis. These two drugs affect driving ability in a dose-dependent matter and result in poor vehicle control, especially when used in combination. Drivers on cocaine, ecstasy and amphetamine show no impairment on basic driving skills, but often overestimate their driving skills. In combination with impaired decision making, this increases risk taking during driving. Only few studies looked at the effects on driving of other drugs of abuse, such as ketamine, inhalants and anabolic steroids, but suggest a negative effect on driving performance.

 

National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University
# Behind Bars II: Substance Abuse and America’s Prison Population
www.centeronaddiction.org/ February 2010
Governments’ continued failure to prevent and treat addiction actually increases crime and results in a staggering misuse of government funds; in 2005, federal, state and local governments spent $74 billion in court, probation, parole and incarceration costs of adult and juvenile substance-involved offenders. In comparison, federal and state governments spent only $632 million on prevention and treatment for them.

 

Beau Kilmer, Jonathan P. Caulkins, Brittany M. Bond, Peter H. ReuterReducing Drug Trafficking
# Revenues and Violence in Mexico. Would Legalizing Marijuana in California Help?
RAND International Programs 2010

The recent surge in violence in Mexico has been dramatic. While the per capita murder rate fell by roughly 25 percent between 2000 and 2007, it jumped 50 percent between 2007 and 2009. The violence associated with the illicit drug trade is largely responsible for this reversal. The estimated annual total for drug-related homicides in Mexico increased from 1,776 in 2005 to 6,587 in 2009, and, in 2010, the total was already 5,775 by July. In 2009, the murder rate for drug-related homicides alone in Mexico exceeded the rate for all murders and nonnegligent manslaughters in the United States (6.1 versus 5.1 per 100,000; Shirk, 2010; FBI, 2010)... This violence in Mexico has security implications for the United States.

 

Jonathan P. Caulkins
# Estimated Cost of Production for Legalized Cannabis
RAND, Drug Policy Research Center 2010
This paper tries to estimate post-legalization production costs for indoor and outdoor cannabis cultivation as well as parallel estimates for processing costs. Commercial production for general use is not legal anywhere. Hence, this is an exercise in inference based on imperfect analogs supplemented by spare and unsatisfactory data of uncertain provenance. While some parameters are well grounded, many come from the gray literature and/or conversations with others making similar estimates, marijuana growers, and farmers of conventional goods. Hence, this exerciseshould be taken with more than a few grains of salt. Nevertheless, to the extent that the results are even approximately  correct, they suggest that wholesale prices after legalization could be dramatically lower than they are today, quite possibly a full order of magnitude lower than are current prices

 

Dennis Gray, Edward Wilkes
# Reducing alcohol and other drug related harm
www.aihw.gov.au/ December 2010
This resource sheet provides an overview of approaches to reducing alcohol and other drug related harm amongst Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Included is information on what is currently known about these approaches and what information needs to be developed in this area. This resource sheet was produced as part of a series by the Closing the gap clearinghouse to disseminate information which could be used to help develop solutions to 'close the gap'.

 

Martin Jelsma, Transnational Institute
# Trends in drug law reform in Europe and Latin America
http://www.tni.org/ Presentation at the Thai Office of the Narcotics Control Board - ONCB Bangkok, 26 January 2010
This presentation gives a short overview of legislative reforms in Europe and Latin America that provide lessons learned in practice about less punitive approaches intended to reduce drug-related harm to the individual and society. Evidence suggests that fears that softening drug laws and their enforcement would lead to sharp increases in drug use, have proven untrue.

 

Observatorio Vasco de drogodependencias | Xabier Arana
# El cumplimiento de las medidas alternativas a la pena privativa de libertad en personas drogodependientes
www.ehu.es/ Servicio Central de Publicaciones del Gobierno Vasco, Vitoria-Gasteiz, 2009
Estudio cualitativo sobre la aplicación de la suspensión de la pena de prisión para drogodependientes del artículo 87 del Código penal: Entrevistas en profundidad | Estudio cuantitativo sobre la aplicación de la suspensión de la pena de prisión para drogodependientes del artículo 87 del Código penal: Datos de los juzgados (César san Juan, Isabel Germán, Laura Vozmediano)

 

J.G.C. van Amsterdam, A. Opperhuizen, M.W.J. Koeter, L.A.G.J.M. van Aerts, W. van den Brink
# Ranking van drugs. Een vergelijking van de schadelijkheid van drugs
'Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM), 2009 [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)]
The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has performed a risk assessment on the harmful effects of 17 drugs plus that of tobacco and alcohol. These 19 items were ranked according to their degree of harm. The assessment was performed by a panel of 19 experts who based their judgement on their own scientific expertise and information derived from the literature. The assessment focussed on the following three categories: (1) toxicity (acute toxicity and chronic toxicity), (2) potential for dependency, and (3) social harm at individual and population levels.  The most important conclusions drawn from the assessment are as follows. Firstly, alcohol, tobacco, heroin and crack scored relatively high on the scale for Total harm...

 

Peter Reuter (RAND) and Franz Trautmann (Trimbos Institute)
# A report on Global Illicit Drugs Markets 1998-2007
European Communities, 2009
... Enforcement of drug prohibitions has caused substantial unintended harms; many were predictable...
A nation’s drug problem is not simply measured by the share of the population that uses some illicit drugs. It is also a function of the harms resulting, which differ among drugs and use patterns. Unfortunately very limited data were available on such major harms as the number of drug related deaths (DRDs), HIV/AIDS and drug-related crime...

 

Peter H. Reuter
# The unintended consequences of drug policies
www.rand.org/ 2009
The unintended consequences of drug policies, particularly of enforcement, have an important role in political debates about what are the appropriate ways of dealing with illicit drugs. They are large in number, diverse in type, generated by varied mechanisms and incurred by many different parties. Those critical of the current approach emphasise these consequences and often, with considerable justice, point out that we are more certain about the unintended negative effects of these policies, particularly enforcement related, than that these policies contribute much to their intended goals.

 

Erin L. Karschner, Eugene W. Schwilke, Ross H. Lowe, W. David Darwin, Harrison G. Pope Jr, Ronald Herning, Jean Lud Cadet, Marilyn A. Huestis
# Do Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Concentrations Indicate Recent Use in Chronic Cannabis Users?
Addiction. 2009 December ; 104(12): 2041–2048.

Substantial whole blood THC concentrations persist multiple days after drug discontinuation in heavy chronic cannabis users. It is currently unknown whether neurocognitive impairment occurs with low blood THC concentrations, and whether return to normal performance, as previously documented following extended cannabis abstinence, is accompanied by removal of residual THC in brain. These findings also may impact the implementation of per se limits in driving under the influence of drugs legislation.

 

Franco Corleone, Alessandro Margara (eds)
# Lotta alla droga. I danni collaterali. L’impatto sul carcere e sulla giustizia della legge contro gli stupefacenti in Toscana
Polistampa 2009
La ricerca, svolta da Forum Droghe con la collaborazione della Fondazione Michelucci e sostenuta dalla Regione Toscana (Assessorato per il Diritto alla Salute), valuta l'impatto della recente normativa penale antidroga sull'insieme delle attività delle forze dell'ordine, degli apparati giudiziari e sul carcere. Considerato che nella politica delle droghe la valutazione ha finora trovato poco spazio, soprattutto per l'aspetto penale, il lavoro è nuovo e importante quantomeno dal punto di vista metodologico. Non solo perché si parte dal "basso", dal territorio della Toscana: il che permette di raccogliere dati più affidabili per la vicinanza delle fonti e di valorizzare il punto di vista degli attori coinvolti. Inoltre, rispetto ai dati nazionali, lo studio inizia a lavorare il terreno per una vera valutazione dell'azione antidroga: interpretando i pochi dati disponibili ma soprattutto indicando le incongruenze fra i dati provenienti da diverse amministrazioni ed evidenziando quelli che mancano: prefigurando insomma una griglia di valutazione dell'impatto delle politiche penali in materia di droga. La raccolta dati negli istituti penitenziari di Prato, Pisa, Livorno, Arezzo.

 

Dave Bewley-Taylor, Chris Hallam, Rob Allen | Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme BFDPP
# Incarceration of drug offenders: An Overview
International Centre for Prison Studies 2009

The terms ‘drug offences’ or ‘drug related offences’ cover a variety of activities. The data presented in the table below uses the term to include both offences related on the one hand to the possession, use or consumption of drugs and, on the other, to offences related to the supply, trafficking or production of drugs. This approach is driven by national approaches to the classification of drug offenders, with most countries grouping the two categories together within official statistics. In addition to these groups, most prison systems contain often-large numbers of offenders remanded or sentenced for acquisitive or violent offences arising from drug addiction or trafficking, but reliable data about this is also not available. Nor is it known how many prisoners have committed offences while under the influence of drugs. According to the Corrections Minister in New Zealand, up to 60 per cent of prisoners in that country were affected by alcohol or other drugs at the time of offending but systematic data is not available and therefore this group is not included in the table below

 

Mats Hallgren, Pi Högberg, Sven Andréasson
# Alcohol consumption among elderly European Union citizens. Health effects, consumption trends and related issues
http://www.fondazioneania.it/ Expert Conference on Alcohol and Health | 21–22 September 2009 Stockholm, Sweden
Most Europeans drink alcohol, which is estimated to be responsible for about ten per cent of the total disease and injury burden in Europe and associated with more than sixty medical disorders. Harmful alcohol use is also linked to serious social problems, including violence, crime and work absenteeism, and, in the case of the elderly, traffic accidents, falls and other health complications.

 

Redonna K. Chandler, Bennett W. Fletcher, Nora D. Volkow
# Treating Drug Abuse and Addiction in the Criminal Justice System. Improving Public Health and Safety
JAMA American Medical Association 2009;301(2):183-190
Despite increasing evidence that addiction is a treatable disease of the brain, most individuals do not receive treatment. Involvement in the criminal justice system often results from illegal drug-seeking behavior and participation in illegal activities that reflect, in part, disrupted behavior ensuing from brain changes triggered by repeated drug use. Treating drug-involved offenders provides a unique opportunity to decrease substance abuse and reduce associated criminal behavior. Emerging neuroscience has the potential to transform traditional sanction-oriented public safety approaches by providing new therapeutic strategies against addiction that could be used in the criminal justice system. We summarize relevant neuroscientific findings and evidence-based principles of addiction treatment that, if implemented in the criminal justice system, could help improve public health and reduce criminal behavior.

 

Glenn Greenwald
# Drug decriminalization in Portugal. Lessons for creating fair and successful drug policies
CATO Institute - Washington 2009

On July 1, 2001, a nationwide law in Portugal took effect that decriminalized all drugs, including cocaine and heroin. Under the new legal framework, all drugs were “decriminalized,” not “legalized.” Thus, drug possession for personal use and drug usage itself are still legally prohibited, but violations of those prohibitions are deemed to be exclusively administrative violations and are removed completely from the criminal realm. Drug trafficking continues to be prosecuted as a criminal offense. .. Although postdecriminalization usage rates have remained roughly the same or even decreased slightly when compared with other EU states, drug-related pathologies—such as sexually transmitted diseases and deaths due to drug usage—have decreased dramatically... In almost every category of drug, and for drug usage overall, the lifetime prevalence rates in the predecriminalization era of the 1990s were higher than the postdecriminalization rates.... The number of newly reported cases of HIV and AIDS among drug addicts has declined substantially every year since 2001.

 

Martin Jelsma, Transnational Institute
# Legislative Innovation in Drug Policy. Latin American Initiative on Drugs and Democracy
www.ungassondrugs.org/ october 2009
A more rational listing of psychoactive substances according to their health risks, a better understanding of the variety of drug submarkets and the difference between recreational use and more problematic patterns of abuse should be the cornerstones for developing more adequate policy response. Two recent attempts have been undertaken by scientific panels to develop a rational scale to assess the harmfulness of drugs, looking at the toxicity (acute or chronic physical harm), the potential for dependency and the social harm at individual, family and society levels.

 

David Nutt
# Estimating drug harms: a risky business?
http://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/ Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, Briefing 10, October 2009
In the last 40 years we in the UK have developed a way of regulating drugs using a complex legislative framework. There are two major acts of parliament regulating drugs. First, there is the Medicines Act 1968, which is essentially monitored and acted upon by the Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency (MHRA), and second, there is the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, which comes under the remit of the Home Office (see Figure 1). Thus, recreationalpsychoactive substances are controlled by Home Offi ce legislation. There are a number of other substances that are popularly used and cause harm whose risks fall outside these two control mechanisms. For example, alcohol and tobacco are essentially regulated foods or commodities...

 

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction EMCDDA, 2009
# Addiction neurobiology: Ethical and social implications
EMCDDA, 2009
Richard Muscat, Adrian Carter, Paul Griffiths, Dominique Lopez and Wayne Hall, General introduction |  Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall and Benjamin Capps, What is addiction? | Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall and David Nutt, The neurobiology of addiction |  Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall and David Nut, The treatment of addiction | Benjamin Capps and Richard Ashcroft, Human rights, ethical values and the implications of current addiction research | Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Benjamin Capps and Ruud ter Meulen, New developments in the treatment of addiction | Benjamin Capps, Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, David Nutt, Richard Ashcroft and Ruud ter Meulen, Conclusions and possible implications of advances in addiction neurobiology for future drug policies.

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
# World Drug Report 2009
United Nations 2009
UNODC has highlighted some negative, obviously unintended effects of drug control, foreshadowing a needed debate about the ways and means to deal with them. Of late, there has been a limited but growing chorus among politicians, the press, and even in public opinion saying: drug control is not working. The broadcasting volume is still rising and the message spreading...

 

David Nutt
# Government vs science over drug and alcohol policy
www.thelancet.com Vol 374 November 21, 2009
My statement in October that alcohol was more dangerous than many illegal drugs, including cannabis, ecstasy, and LSD... I have repeatedly stated the drug is not safe, but that the idea that you can reduce use through raising the classifi cation in the Misuse of Drugs Act from class C to class B—where it had previously been placed, but thus now increasing the maximum penalty for possession for personal use to 5 years in prison—is implausible...

 

Rosalie Liccardo Pacula
# Legalizing Marijuana. Issues to Consider Before Reforming California State Law
http://www.rand.org/ October 2009
According to the DEA, low quality marijuana in California sells on the black market from anywhere between $300 - $350 per pound... Prohibition raises the cost of production by at least 400%  because of information problems it creates in the market as well as imposing risk on producers/sellers. Legalizing marijuana would cause the price of marijuana to fall considerably, more than just the 50% that has been incorporated into current revenue estimates.

 

Wayne Hall, Louisa Degenhardt
# Adverse health effects of non-medical cannabis use
Lancet 2009; 374: 1383–91
For over two decades, cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, has been the most widely used illicit drug by young people in high-income countries, and has recently become popular on a global scale. Epidemiological research during the past 10 years suggests that regular use of cannabis during adolescence and into adulthood can have adverse effects. Epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory studies have established an association between cannabis use and adverse outcomes. We focus on adverse health effects of greatest potential public health interest—that is, those that are most likely to occur and to affect a large number of cannabis users. The most probable adverse effects include a dependence syndrome, increased risk of motor vehicle crashes, impaired respiratory function, cardiovascular disease, and adverse effects of regular use on adolescent psychosocial development and mental health.

 

Amanda Reiman
# Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs
Harm Reduction Journal 2009, 6:35
The substitution of one psychoactive substance for another with the goal of reducing negative outcomes can be included within the framework of harm reduction. Medical cannabis patients have been engaging in substitution by using cannabis as an alternative to alcohol, prescription and illicit drugs.

 

World Health Organization WHO
# Guidelines for the Psychosocially Assisted Pharmacological Treatment of Opioid Dependence [# IT]
www.who.int/ 2009
The benefits of opioid agonist maintenance in prisons include less injecting drug use while in prison, increase in uptake of treatment on leaving prison, and reduction of rates of return to prison. Potential harms include diversion of medication, and spread of HIV through injection of diverted medication using contaminated injecting equipment. Because of these potential harms, unsupervised doses are generally not appropriate in prison settings. Rates of diversion of methadone are low, even in prison settings, and can be reduced further by diluting the methadone and by keeping methadone patients separate from other prisoners for 30 minutes after dosing.

 

Mental Health Network | Primary Care Trust Network | The NHS Confederation
# Seeing double: meeting the challenge of dual diagnosis
www.nhsconfed.org/ september 2009
Dual diagnosis is the term used to describe people who have concurrent mental health and substance misuse or alcohol problems. It affects a third of mental health service users, half of substance misuse service users and 70 per cent of prisoners... The nature of the relationship between mental health conditions  and substance misuse or alcohol problems is complex, though possible mechanisms include: • a primary psychiatric illness recipitating or leading to substance misuse • substance misuse worsening or altering the course of a psychiatric illness • intoxication and/or substance dependence leading to psychological symptoms • substance misuse and/or withdrawal leading to psychiatric symptoms or illnesses. Historically, the provision of mental health and drug and alcohol services has evolved separately. This presents providers and commissioners with some challenges when it comes to providing appropriate and effective services for this group of people. While there are examples of innovative and joined-up services in this area, good practice needs to be spread widely across the NHS.

 

Mark Deady | Network of Alcohol & other Drug Agencies (NADA)
# A Review of Screening, Assessment and Outcome Measures for Drug and Alcohol Settings
www.drugsandalcohol.ie/ 2009
Standardised tools cover a range of areas which may be relevant to Drug and Alcohol (D&A) services. This review provides an overview of some useful standardised tools that can be used to measure  treatment outcomes and to screen and assess for mental health symptoms and conditions, drug and alcohol use and disorders and general functioning. Focus has been given to tools that require limited training to use and are freely available.

 

Marco Rossi
# Il costo fiscale del proibizionismo: una simulazione contabile
Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza” - Settembre 2009.
Recenti contributi teorici sostengono la superiorità degli strumenti fiscali nel contenere il consumo di droghe rispetto all’applicazione di una normativa proibizionista. In Italia il consumo di tabacchi ed alcolici è appunto scoraggiato tramite l’imposizione di una elevata tassazione. Questo lavoro stima quale sarebbe stata l’implicazione fiscale per l’erario nazionale se nel periodo 2000-05 il mercato delle droghe fosse stato regolato come quello dei tabacchi. Le nostre stime suggeriscono un beneficio fiscale annuale di quasi 10 miliardi euro (quasi 60 in totale). In particolare, l’erario risparmierebbe circa 2 miliardi all’anno di spese per l’applicazione della normativa proibizionista (polizia, magistratura, carceri), ed incasserebbe circa 8 miliardi all’anno dalle imposte sulle vendite (5,5 dalla sola cannabis).

 

Massimo Clerici
# La comorbilità per disturbi mentali e uso di sostanze: evidenze dalla realtà italiana (PADDI - Psychiatric and Addictive Dual Diagnosis in Italy – Study)
5° Conferenza Nazionale sulle Politiche Antidroga - Roma, 15.09.2009
Ipotesi eziologiche • GENETIC MODEL: due separati rischi genetici nello stesso individuo • SECONDARY PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER MODEL: interazioni  reciproche tra uso di sostanze e SMI (esordio, decorso, gravità, caratteristiche cliniche) • SELF-MEDICATION MODEL: l’uso di sostanze come strategia di coping  utilizzata da individui con SMI, con preferenza di una sostanze sulla base di specificità psicofarmacologica • CONTESTO SOCIALE: disponibilità di sostanze, fattori demografici e locali culturali

 

Pauline Kenny, Amy Swan, Lynda Berends, Linda Jenner, Barbara Hunter, Janette Mugavin | Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Center
# Alcohol and Other Drug Withdrawal: Practice Guidelines
A Victorian Government Project 2009

...Chapter 12: Benzodiazepine Withdrawl... In some settings, such as hospitals, psychiatric facilities, prisons and police watch-houses, individuals may experience an unplanned benzodiazepine withdrawal... The withdrawal syndrome for mono-dependent benzodiazepine users can vary from relatively mild to extremely uncomfortable or painful, however it is rarely life threatening. .. Withdrawal typically occurs within two days of ceasing short- cting benzodiazepines (e.g. oxazepam), and between two and ten days after ceasing long-acting benzodiazepines (e.g. diazepam). However, the onset of benzodiazepine withdrawal may be as late as three weeks after cessation of drugs with a long half-life. Withdrawal from benzodiazepines with a short half-life tends to be more severe than from benzodiazepines with a long half-life. Withdrawal is often protracted and may extend over a number of weeks or months.

 

Mark Deady | Network of Alcohol & other Drug Agencies (NADA)
# A Review of Screening, Assessment and Outcome Measures for Drug and Alcohol Settings
www.ntcoss.org.au/ 2009
The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) is one of the most commonly used standardized assessment (rather than basic screening) instruments in the field of substance use disorders. The ASI is a 155-item multidimensional structured interview for assessing alcohol and drug dependence. It assesses frequency of drug and alcohol use as well as other psychosocial areas affected by substance use (e.g., a psychiatric subscale is included). The ASI consists of 7 sub-scales assessing past 30 day and lifetime alcohol use, drug use, medical problems, psychiatric problems, family/social problems, employment and legal problems.

 

John Howard Society of Ontario
# Harm Reduction and Prisoners: Mitigating Risk and Improving Health
www.johnhoward.on.ca/ Issue 25 2009
Prison harm reduction initiatives can include one or more services that reduce the harm of certain risky behaviours. For instance, providing educational information about safer sex or safer injection drug use, are often considered harm reduction initiatives.
However, harm reduction can also take the form of basic medical care, such as testing for and treating HIV and HCV, or providing vaccines; services which are not always available in the prison environment. Some prisoners engage in sexual activity and may thereby place themselves at risk not only for institutional charges but also for Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Unprotected sex can lead to the transmission of HIV and other STIs. Therefore, condoms and lubricants are distributed in some prisons as another form of harm reduction. Other activities, such as tattooing and injection drug use are also illegal in prison yet occur regularly .

 

Brad Lundahl, Brian L. Burke
# The Effectiveness and Applicability of Motivational Interviewing: A Practice-Friendly Review of Four Meta-Analyses
J of Clinical Psychology: In Session, Vol. 65(11), 1232--1245 (2009)
Motivational interviewing MI is significantly (10–20%) more effective than no treatment and generally equal to other viable treatments for a wide  variety of problems ranging from substance use (alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, and other drugs) to reducing risky behaviors and increasing client engagement in treatment.

 

Wayne Hall
# The adverse health effects of cannabis use: What are they, and what are their implications for policy?
International Journal of Drug Policy 20 (2009) 458–466
Cannabis adversely affects some users, especially adolescents who initiate use and young adults who become regular users. This pattern of use probably increases risks of motor vehicle crashes, cannabis dependence, adverse effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, psychosis, and poorer educational outcomes and increased likelihood of using other illicit drugs in adolescence. This evidence tends to support the policy status quo because the policy debate has been simplified to a choice between the views that either cannabis use is harmless and so should be legalised or cannabis use is harmful and so should be prohibited. The conservative trend in cannabis policy in countries with hitherto more liberal cannabis policies, such as Australia, is likely to be reinforced by the popular interpretation of research on neurobiology of cannabinoids and by increasingly restrictive policies towards the other widely smoked drug, tobacco.

 

Federal Bureau of Prisons | Clinical Practice Guidelines
# Detoxification of Chemically Dependent Inmates
www.bop.gov/ August 2009

Substance use disorders pose a significant and expensive public health problem. Substance abuse affects not only the substance abusers and their families, but also society as a whole— through increases in crime, domestic violence, highway fatalities, incarceration, and health care costs. Any substance that alters perception, mood, or cognition can be abused. Commonly identified substances of abuse include illicit drugs, alcohol, and certain prescription drugs—which act through their hallucinogenic, stimulant, sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, or narcotic effects. Other less commonly recognized substances of abuse include medications with anticholinergic, antihistaminic, or stimulant effects, e.g., tricyclic antidepressants, antiparkinsonian agents, low potency antipsychotics, anti-emetics, and cold and allergy preparations. The development of dependency is related to the nature of the substance used, its route of use, the amount and frequency of use, the presence of co-morbid psychiatric  disorders, and other biopsychosocial factors, as well as genetic and environmental factors. Approximately 15% of all regular users of substances develop substance dependence.

 

Amanda Atkinson, Zara Anderson, Karen Hughes, Mark A Bellis, Harry Sumnall and Qutub Syed
# Interpersonal violence and illicit drugs
www.who.int/ Centre for Public Health | Liverpool John Moores University, June 2009
The effects of some drugs, including crack/cocaine, amphetamines and benzodiazepines have been found to increase aggressive and violent behaviour. Whilst cannabis and heroin use can reduce the likelihood of violence during intoxication, some studies suggest that withdrawal from longterm. Individuals under the influence of benzodiazepines have been found to be more likely to act aggressively than non-intoxicated individuals.

 

Riccardo C. Gatti
# Milano e le droghe. Analisi del fenomeno e nodi problematici
Dipartimento Dipendenze A.S.L. Milano, 10.03.2009

 

Fabrizio Leonardi
# Tossicodipendenza e alternative alla detenzione: il rischio di recidiva tra gli affidati in prova al servizio sociale
Rassegna penitenziaria e criminologica, Numero 1, 2009

Una recente indagine sulla recidiva degli affidati in prova al servizio sociale ha dimostrato gli effetti positivi di quella misura alternativa alla detenzione in termini di maggiore possibilità di reinserimento. La ricerca mirava a verificare l’efficacia dell’affidamento rispetto alla pena detentiva, con riferimento al reinserimento sociale dei condannati. Oggetto dello studio era rilevare quante persone, tra coloro che avevano terminato nel 1998 l’affidamento in prova al servizio sociale, avevano subito una condanna per un reato commesso successivamente, anche senza che fosse stata contestata loro la recidiva ai sensi dell’articolo 99 del codice penale. La percentuale di recidivi tra coloro che avevano beneficiato
dell’affidamento in prova al servizio sociale (19%) è risultata notevolmente inferiore rispetto a quelli che erano usciti dal carcere alla scadenza della pena (68%).

 

Jan Copeland, Amie Frewen, Kathryn Elkins
# Management of cannabis use disorder and related issues. A clinician’s guide
National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2009
In 2007, of 17.2 million Australians aged 14 years or older, one in three (33.5%, about 5.8 million) had used cannabis at some point in their lives; almost one in ten (9.1%, 1.6 million) had used cannabis in the previous 12 months; and more than 600,000 (3.5%) had used it in the week before the survey (AIHW, 2008a). Higher rates are noted in particular subgroups. Amongst indigenous populations, for example, rates of weekly cannabis use of up to forty-five per cent have been reported. Higher rates are noted amongst young people also and amongst those with mental health diagnoses...

 

Donald J. Farole Jr
# Problem Solving and the American Bench: a National Survey of Trial Court Judges
The Justice System Journal, Vol. 30, n. 1 (2009)
This article presents the results of a nationwide survey of more than 1,000 trial court judges concerning the potential to apply specialized “problem- solving court” practices more broadly in conventional court settings. Specifically, we examine judges’ practices and perceptions related to problem solving in the courts. The survey results demonstrate broad support for problem-solving methods among trial court judges throughout the country— the vast majority holds attitudes consistent with key principles of problem-solving justice and expresses a willingness to employ problem-solving methods in various cases and court settings. Judges also identified a number of potential obstacles to the more widespread use of problem-solving methods. The survey results have implications for how judicial training and education efforts might proceed.

 

R. Andrew Sewell, James Poling, Mehmet Sofuoglu
# The Effect of Cannabis Compared with Alcohol on Driving
Am J Addict. 2009 ; 18(3): 185–193
Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

 

Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall, Ben Capps, Mark Daglish | Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy – Cost Shared Funding Model project
# Neurobiological Research on Addiction. A Review of the Scientific, Public Health and Social Policy Implications for Australia
www.nationaldrugstrategy.gov.au/  30th January 2009
In Australia, as in most other developed countries, a significant proportion of the population are addicted to drugs. This includes: 17% of Australians who are dependent on tobacco; 8% of Australians who are dependent on alcohol; and 4-6% who are dependent on illicit drugs (such as cannabis, amphetamines and heroin). Given the enormous health, economic and social burden arising from alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use in Australia, there is an urgent need for more effective social policies to reduce the burden of drug use and to develop more effective treatments for persons who abuse drugs or develop addictions. Neuroscience and genetic research on addiction has the potential to contribute to both goals and to thereby significantly reduce the burden of drug use and addiction.

 

National Partnership on Alcohol Misuse and Crime
# South Dakota 24/7 Sobriety Project. Changing Approaches and Achieving Results
www.alcoholandcrime.org/ January 2009
South Dakota’s 24/7 Sobriety Project is one of the most progressive in the country. Conceived of and administered by Attorney General Larry Long, this award-winning program has reduced recidivism, cut jail and prison populations, and saved tax dollars by combining enhanced monitoring with real accountability...

 

Sheldon Silver
# Breaking New York’s Addiction to Prison: Reforming New York’s Rockefeller Drug Laws
http://assembly.state.ny.us/ January 22, 2009
In 1973 New York enacted, what were considered at the time, the harshest drug laws in the nation. The so-called Rockefeller Era Drug Laws eliminated judges’ sentencing discretion and required them to impose harsh mandatory minimum prison sentences on drug offenders. New York spends millions of dollars per year  incarcerating drug offenders. More than 35 years after they were enacted, it is clear that the  Rockefeller laws have effectively failed to combat drug abuse or  impact the incidence of violent crime in New York State.

 

Richard Muscat et des membres de la plate-forme Recherche du Groupe Pompidou
# D’une politique sur les drogues illicites à une politique sur les substances psychoactives
Editions du Conseil de l’Europe, décembre 2008
L’épidémiologie des drogues a permis à de nombreux pays de recueillir des informations grâce aux cinq indicateurs clés en matière de drogues, et donc d’obtenir des estimations de la prévalence de la consommation de drogues dans la population générale et chez les enfants en milieu scolaire. Sur ce plan, elle semble être mieux placée que la neuroscience. Ces résultats peuvent être attribués au Groupe d’experts en épidémiologie du Groupe Pompidou, qui existait à la fin des années 1980 mais a été abandonné suite à la mise en place des relais nationaux au sein de l’UE. Ce groupe était chargé de développer des indicateurs de la consommation de drogues dans différentes villes d’Europe, ainsi que l’indicateur de demande de traitement et l’enquête ESPAD...

 

Ihra International Harm Reduction Association | Catherine Cook and Natalya Kanae

# The Global State of Harm Reduction 2008. Mapping the response to drug-related HIV and hepatitis C epidemics
This report was produced by HR2, the Human Rights Monitoring and Policy Analysis Programme of the International Harm Reduction Association.

 

Pål Gjerden, Jørgen G. Bramness, Lars Slørdal
# The use and potential abuse of anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs in Norway: a pharmacoepidemiological study
Br J Clin Pharmacol / 2008/ 67:2 / 228–233
Anticholinergic antiparkinson drugs were prescribed to 4.5% of all outpatients who used antipsychotic drugs. This outnumbered sales to patients with Parkinson’s disease by >20 to 1.We found indications of abuse of benzodiazepine tranquillizers among patients using antipsychotics, but there were no clear indications of abuse of anticholinergics, even among patients who were strongly suspected of abuse of benzodiazepines.   

 

Emmanuel Brillet
# Les conduites addictives et leur prise en charge au miroirde l’expérience carcérale : un éclairage au féminin
Direction de l’administration pénitentiaire | Cahiers d’études pénitentiaires et criminologiques - octobre 2008 - no 26
L’un des axes prioritaires du plan gouvernemental de lutte contre les drogues illicites, le tabac et l’alcool (2004-2008) est de développer des programmes de prévention en milieu carcéral. Pour élaborer de tels programmes, le plan stipule qu’« il est fortement recommandé de partir des besoins exprimés en ce domaine par la population pénale ». En s’appuyant sur un matériel empirique récent collecté dans deux maisons d’arrêt pour femmes1, cet article s’attache précisément à saisir dans quelle mesure la prison, comme cadre signifiant, oriente les représentations et les comportements des femmes toxicomanes aussi bien que des personnels en charge de les accompagner. Pourquoi et comment certaines femmes poursuivent-elles, s’initient-elles ou stoppent-elles l’usage de substances psychoactives en prison ? Et qu’en est-il - au-delà d’une simple visée de neutralisation des symptômes de manque - des dispositifs de prévention, de suivi et de traitement (notamment en termes d’adaptation et de prise en compte du temps long de la trajectoire de dépendance) ?

 

Dominique Duprez | Assessing Deviance, Crime and Prevention in Europe. Projet CRIMPREV
# L'évolution des usage de drogues et des politique. De l'Europe aux Amériques
Crimprev info n° 12 - 01 juillet 2008
C’est seulement après la Deuxième Guerre mondiale que la logique de la prohibition, telle qu’on la connaît mieux aujourd’hui, s’impose tout à fait. Des objectifs déclarés de santé publique vont alors trouver place aux côtés des enjeux commerciaux concernant les marchés et un modèle d’abstinence va progressivement se déployer dans diverses directions. Au niveau psychologique et médical, tout d’abord, se développe l’idée que l’on va « guérir » les usagers de drogues et envisager le soin et la thérapie sous cet angle. Cette ambition va s’ancrer différemment dans chaque pays, selon les considérations, les influences et les perspectives locales...

 

Marijuana Policy Project
# State-by-State Medical Marijuana Laws. How Remove the Threat of Arrest
www.marijuanapolicy.org/ 2008

 

Sharon Rödner Sznitman, Börje Olsson, Robin Room (eds) | European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction  EMCDDA   

# A cannabis reader: global issues and local experiences

www.emcdda.europa.eu/ Monograph series 8, Volume 1, Lisbon 2008

Little wonder that cannabis has become a controversial cultural and commercial phenomenon. Today,cannabis has a unique ability to divide opinion among policymakers, scientists, law enforcers, drugs professionals and consumers. This EMCDDA cannabis monograph addresses one basic question. How can I find quality information on cannabis, amid all the bias and opinion? During the editing of this monograph it soon became clear that the EMCDDA was entering an area crowded with general guides, even competing cannabis monographs. This is where the idea of a cannabis ‘reader’ emerged. Our audience — researchers, parliamentarians, drugs professionals, students, European citizens — is currently faced with an overload of professional publications. Added to this is the daily flood of information on the Internet, often crusading in nature, and sometimes misleading. This threatens to obscure the genuine progress made in cannabis research during the past two decades.

 

Christine A. Saum, Matthew L. Hiller

# Should Violent Offenders Be Excluded From Drug Court Participation? An Examination of the Recidivism of Violent and Nonviolent Drug Court Participants
Criminal Justice Review, Volume 33 Number 3 September 2008 291-307
Policy often stipulates drug court funding cannot be used for offenders with violent criminal histories, although it has been argued that increasing funding to community programs for these individuals represents an important means for controlling crime. Because little research has examined whether a violent offense history is related to recidivism following drug court participation, predrug court criminal history and postdrug court arrest and charge data have been collected for 452 offenders in a postplea drug court program. Bivariate analyses show violent offenders have higher rates of recidivism following drug court discharge. However, multivariate analyses controlling for age, ethnicity, drug of choice, time at risk, and discharge status show the extent of criminal history, not violent history, is significantly related to recidivism. Results suggest that violent offenders should not be systematically excluded from the opportunity to participate in the unique combination of treatment and supervision offered in drug court programs.

 

Jessica De Maeyer, Wouter Vanderplasschen, Eric Broekaert
# Exploratory Study on Drug Users’ Perspectives on Quality of Life: More than Health-Related Quality of Life?
www.reachout.be/ Soc Indic Res 2008
The most common themes that drug users related to a good QoL were personal relationships and social inclusion. Also people with psychological problems mention the positive influence of social support on their QoL. However, both groups frequently lack this kind of support. Isolation and social stigma may contribute to the fact that social inclusion is often difficult to achieve...

 

Suprema Corte di Cassazione - Sezione VI Penale
# Sentenza 5 maggio 2008, n. 17899
seguono: Cassazione - Sezione Quarta - Sentenza 5 giugno 2008, n. 22643 - Detenzione, le prove da acquisire (p. 3)
| Corte di Cassazione Presidente Ambrosiani – Relatore De Roberto - Sentenza n.17983/2007 - Non punibile la "coltivazione domestica" di marijuana per uso personale (p. 9) | Corte di Cassazione - Sezioni Unite Penali - Sentenza - 10 luglio 2008, n. 28605 - La coltivazione in casa è reato (p. 30) | Corte di Cassazione - Sezione Sesta Penale - Sentenza - 10 Luglio 2008, n. 28720 - Al Rasta consentita una maggiore quantità per uso personale (p. 43)

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime UNODC | World Health Organization WHO
# Principles of Drug Dependence Treatment
Discussione Paper March 2008

Drug dependence is a preventable and treatable disease, and effective prevention and treatment interventions are available. The best results are achieved when a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach which includes diversified pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is available to respond to different needs. Even taking into account the requirements for the delivery of evidence–based treatment, its costs are much lower than the indirect costs caused by untreated drug dependence (prisons, unemployment, law enforcement, health consequences).

 

Icro Maremmani (ed) | Europad
# Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems
www.europad.org/ Vol. 10 • N. 1 • March 2008
Sexual Behaviour of Heroin Addicts in Treatment > Igna Brajević-Gizdić and Magda Pletikosa | First Experience of Opioid Therapy with Buprenorphine in Ukraine - Sergey Dvoryak and Irina Grishayeva | Administration of Nalbuphine to Heroin Addicts. Feasibility and Short-Term Effects > Michael Voronkov, Daria Ocheret, Svetlana Bondarenko, Yuriy Ivanov Yu, Sergey Koren | Evidence of Reliability and Validity of the Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale (ODAS) in a Sample of Methadone Maintenance Patients > Francisco González-Saiz, Oscar Lozano Rojas, Rosario Ballesta Gómez, Izaskun Bilbao Acedos, Javier Galiana Martínez, Mª Angeles García Collantes, Antonio López Fernández, Serum Methadone Levels Study Group | Improvement in the Quality of Live in Heroin Addicts: Differences Between Methadone and Buprenorphine Treatment > Icro Maremmani, Pier Paolo Pani, Dina Popovic, Matteo Pacini,Joseph Deltito, Giulio Perugi | Methadone: A Fast and Powerful Anti-anxiety, Anti-depressant and Anti-psychotic Treatment > Jean-Jacques Déglon, Eva Wark | Explaining Agonist Treatment Through Movie Language: The Interesting Allegory of ‘Videodrome’ > Matteo Pacini

 

Sandro Libianchi
# Carcere e tossicodipendenza: caratteristiche e complessità
Bollettino sulle dipedenze, XXXI - n. 4/2008
Non è mai stato un segreto per nessuno che all’interno delle carceri la droga entra e si consuma, anche se certamente il traffico è più complesso e costoso che non all’esterno. Questo fatto è testimoniato da numerosi indicatori diretti ed indiretti... Dati europei (EMCCDA, 2008) riportano come la percentuale di detenuti che riferisce di aver utilizzato droga in carcere almeno una volta, varia dal 30 all’84%...

 

Glenn D. Walters
# The Latent Structure of Alcohol Use Disorders: a Taxometric Analysis of Structured Interview Data Obtained from Male Federal Prison Inmates
Alcohol & Alcoholism Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 326–333, 2008

Archival data from structured interviews of 1193 male prison inmates were subjected to taxometric analysis to determine the latent structure of the alcohol use disorder construct. Methods: Analyses were performed using three taxometric procedures. The outcomes were based on three indicators: (1) DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria 1 and 2 (tolerance/withdrawal), (2) DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria 3, 4, and 5 and DSM-IV alcohol abuse criterion 3 (loss of control), and (3) DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria 6 and 7 and DSM-IV alcohol abuse criteria 1, 2, and 4 (negative social/psychological consequences). There may be a taxonic boundary separating those who do and do not qualify for a diagnosis of alcohol dependence or abuse with important implications for diagnosis and treatment.

 

Carrie Oser, Jennifer Havens, Michele Staton-Tindall, Conrad Wong, Carl Leukefeld, Michael Prendergast
# HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Ketamine and Non-Ketamine Using Criminal Offenders Prior to Prison Entry
Addict Res Theory. 2008 ; 16(3): 289–302
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between illicit ketamine use and engagement in high-risk sexual behaviors prior to incarceration among a sample of drug users undergoing prison-based drug abuse treatment in the United States. Drug using criminal offenders whose repertoire includes having ever used ketamine at least once in their lifetime will be defined as ‘ketamine users.’ It should be noted that while the extent and context of ketamine use is unknown, this study is a first step in understanding the association between ketamine use and unprotected sexual behaviors in a criminal offending population.

 

Marita Broadstock, David Brinson, Adele Weston
# The effectiveness of compulsory, residential treatment of chronic alcohol or drug addiction in non-offenders
www.healthsac.net/ HSAC Report 2008; 1(1).
Compulsory treatment has not been demonstrated to be superior to voluntary treatment in terms of reductions in criminal behaviour or substance misuse. However, in a review primarily of offender studies, note the consistent correlation between dependent drug use and criminal behaviour and conclude that compulsory treatment can sometimes be effective in reducing drug use and crime in some people, but the evidence base is weak.

 

Peter D. Friedmann, Gerald Melnick, Lan Jiang, Zachary Hamilton

# Violent and Disruptive Behavior among Drug-Involved Prisoners: Relationship with Psychiatric Symptoms
Behav Sci Law. 2008 ; 26(4): 389–401

This study examines the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and violent/disruptive behavior among 192 inmates who participated in prison-based substance abuse treatment. Participants came from two sites able to provide narrative reports of disciplinary actions in the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies’ Co-Occurring Disorders Screening Instrument study. In multivariate logistic models, a lifetime history of thought  insertion/control ideation, antisocial personality disorder, and disciplinary action related to possession of controlled substances or contraband were associated with increased risk for violent or disruptive  behavior while in prison, whereas lifetime phobic symptoms and high school graduation were associated with a decreased risk of violence and disruptive behavior in general. We conclude that, among inmates in substance abuse treatment, symptoms that increase risk for violence or disruptive behavior include thought control/insertion ideation and disciplinary infractions related to controlled substances, contraband, or failure to participate in assigned programs, as well a history of antisocial personality disorder.

 

RKC Group Roger Przybylski
# What Works. Effective Recidivism Reduction and Risk-Focused Prevention Programs. A Compendium of Evidence-Based Options for Preventing New and Persistent Criminal Behavior
http://dcj.state.co.us/ February 2008
Researchers have noted that the number of crimes averted is linked to the type of crime. A careful analysis by Cohen and Canela-Cacho found that incarcerating violent offenders  was associated with crime reduction, but imprisoning drug offenders had no effect on crime. Incarcerated  drug offenders seem to be “replaced” in the community, confounding the ability to estimate the effect of incarceration on overall crime.

 

Don Weatherburn, Craig Jones, Lucy Snowball, Jiuzhao Hua
# The NSW Drug Court: A re-evaluation of its effectiveness
www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/ Crime and Justice Bulletin September 2008
Since its establishment in 1999, the NSW Drug Court has undergone significant change. Amongst other things, sanctions for non-compliance with program conditions have been made more flexible, participants are now given formal warnings if they fail to progress, police have a greater role in screening for eligibility and the threshold for program termination has been reduced. This report details the results of a study designed to compare reconviction rates amongst participants in the Drug Court program with reconviction rates amongst a (statistically matched) comparison group deemed eligible for the Drug Court Program but  excluded either because they reside out of area or because they had been convicted of a violent offence.  The results of the study confirm earlier research in showing that, controlling for other factors, participants in  the NSW Drug Court were less likely to be reconvicted than offenders given conventional sanctions (mostly imprisonment). Compared with those in the Comparison Group, Drug Court participants in the present study were 17 per cent less likely to be reconvicted for any offence, 30 per cent less likely to be reconvicted for  a violent offence and 38 per cent less likely to be reconvicted for a drug offence at any point during the follow-up period.

 

Sven Todts, Philippe Glibert, Sara Van Malderen, Catherine Van Huyck, Vinciane Saliez, Michaël Hogge
# Usage de drogues dans les prisons belges: monitoring des risques sanitaires - 2008
Service des Soins de Santé Prisons | Direction Générale des Etablissements Pénitentiaires
Les prisons belges se composent d’environ 95% de détenus de sexe masculin. Plus de la moitié sont condamnés, 1 sur 3 est détenu préventivement et est donc en attente d’un jugement, près de 10% sont internés. La majorité des détenus ont déjà subi une détention. Dans un tiers des cas, il s’agit d’une première incarcération. Néanmoins, la composition de la population carcérale belge semble être stable à travers les années, même si il est ici question d’un public varié. Cela signifie que la politique en matière de drogues ainsi que les initiatives qui sont prises doivent cibler ces différents groupes qui composent la population carcérale. Aussi bien les hommes que les femmes, les prévenus, les condamnés et les internés, ceux qui ont ou qui n’ont pas encore de passé carcéral peuvent être confrontés aux drogues ou même avoir un problème de drogue.

 

Vanessa Pellegrino |  Istituto MEME associato a Université Européenne Jean Monnet A.I.S.B.L. Bruxelles
# La differenziazione trattamentale per ragioni terapeutiche
www.istituto-meme.it/ Anno Accademico 2007-2008 | Modena 08.06.2008

 

Cittadinanzattiva – Tribunale per i diritti del malato
# Raccomandazione civica sulle tossicodipendenze
www.cittadinanzattiva.it/ 2008

 

Gian Luigi Fontana
# Il nuovo testo dell’art. 73 D.P.R. 309/1990. Spunti di riflessione e applicazioni pratiche
Camera Penale di Monza, Relazione 14 marzo 2008
Nel dibattito è stata riproposta la questione se, in base alla nuova normativa, possa ritenersi raggiunta la prova della sussistenza del reato di cui all’art. 73, comma 1, o di cui all’art. 73, comma 1 bis, sulla base di semplici intercettazioni telefoniche. Non ritengo vi siano elementi per superare la giurisprudenza costante sul punto: Sez. 4, Sentenza n. 46299 del 28/10/2005 Cc. (dep. 20/12/2005 ) Rv. 232826 Presidente:  Marzano F. Estensore: Piccialli P. Relatore: Piccialli P. Imputato: Secchi. P.M. Iannelli M. (Conf.) (Dichiara inammissibile, Trib. lib. Catania, 6 Maggio 2005) In tema di stupefacenti, il reato di detenzione a fini di spaccio o quello di spaccio non sono condizionati, sotto il profilo probatorio, al sequestro o al rinvenimento di sostanze stupefacenti, poiché la consumazione di tali reati può essere dimostrata attraverso le risultanze di altre fonti probatorie (quali, come nella specie, il contenuto delle intercettazioni).

 

H. Stöver, C. Weilandt, H. Zurhold, C. Hartwig, K. Thane
# Final Report on Prevention, Treatment, and Harm Reduction Services in Prison, on Reintegration Services on Release from Prison and Methods to Monitor/Analyse Drug use among Prisoners
http://ec.europa.eu/ april 2008
In this report, the term “prison” is used for all places of detention, no matter if the person is in police detention, pre-trial/remand prisons, or is already sentenced. 2.2.2. Drugs This report is focusing on illicit drug use and especially “problematic drug use use” (see next chapter) in prisons. 2.2.3. Problematic Drug Use Problematic drug use (PDU) is defined as “injecting drug use or long duration/regular use of heroin/cocaine and/or amphetamines” (EMCDDA 2006a). This definition can also include other opioids such as methadone. Furthermore, drug consumption is deemed to be problematic, if this behaviour is joined with other risk behaviour, causes damage to other persons or produces negative socials consequences (EMCDDA 2005)

 

DrugScope
# Substance misuse, mental health and diversion from prison
www.drugscope.org.uk/ 2008
Most prisoners with mental health problems have drug and/or alcohol problems. Co-morbidity is a barrier to diversion, when it should be the core business for diversion services (for example, where people with mental health problems are not accepted for DTTOs or Drug Rehabilitation Requirements and people with drug problems are not taken on by court diversion services). What is needed is a gestalt switch in our approach to diversion that clearly and explicitly recognises co-morbidity as the norm not the exception, and structures services and designs law and policy accordingly...

 

Beau Kilmer
# The Future of DIRECT Surveillance: Drug and alcohol use Information from REmote and Continuous Testing
Journal of Drug Policy Analysis,vol. 1, 2008
It is now possible for probation officers to detect probationer alcohol use remotely and continuously. This essay describes three devices intended to collect Drug and alcohol use Information from REmote and Continuous Testing, or what I call DIRECT surveillance. It also highlights some of the major questions associated with the implementation, consequences, and future of DIRECT surveillance. While most of the focus is on alcohol use among probationers and parolees, the essay does discuss the use of these technologies in other settings, and for other drugs. It also addresses issues related to other types of electronic monitoring which can be used separately or in conjunction with DIRECT surveillance (e.g., GPS).

 

Robyn Robertson, Ward Vanlaar, Herb Simpson | The Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIRF)
# Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring: A Primer for Criminal Justice Professionals
www.tirf.ca/ December 2007
In the past decade, alcohol testing technology has evolved, giving rise to a new generation of testing devices. To date, the most promising commercially available technology is Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM). This device uses transdermal alcohol monitoring and allows for continuous monitoring of offenders 24 hours a day, seven days a week for the duration of the supervision period.

 

Kenneth S. Kendler, John Myers, Carol A. Prescott
# Specificity of Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Symptoms of Cannabis, Cocaine, Alcohol, Caffeine, and Nicotine Dependence
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(11):1313-1320
The pattern of genetic and environmental risk factors for psychoactive substance dependence was similar in males and females. Genetic risk factors for dependence on common psychoactive substances cannot be explained by a single factor. Rather, 2 genetic factors— one predisposing largely to illicit drug dependence, the other primarily to licit drug dependence—are needed. Furthermore, a large proportion of the genetic influences on nicotine and particularly caffeine dependence appear to be specific to those substances

 

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime - Vienna
# Handbook of basic principles and promising practices on Alternatives to Imprisonment
United Nations publication 2007

The overall use of imprisonment is rising throughout the world, while there is little evidence that its increasing use is improving public safety. There are now more than nine million prisoners worldwide and that number is growing. The reality is that the growing numbers of prisoners are leading to often severe overcrowding in prisons. This is resulting in prison conditions that breach United Nations and other standards that require that all prisoners be treated with the respect due to their inherent dignity and value as human beings. There are several important reasons for the primary focus to be upon alternatives that reduce the number of people in prison and for imprisonment to be used only as a last resort...

 

Peter Reuter, Alex Stevens
# An Analysis of UK Drug Policy A Monograph Prepared for the UK Drug Policy Commission
http://kar.kent.ac.uk/ UK Drug Policy Commission, April 2007
The use of custodial sentences for drug offenders increased substantially between 1994 and 2005. The annual number of people imprisoned rose by 111% and the average length of their sentences increased by 29%. Taking into account the rise in the average sentence length (37 months for drug dealing in 2004), the courts handed out nearly three times as much prison time in 2004 as they did 10 years earlier.

 

Anke Stallwitz, Heino Stover

# The impact of substitution treatment in prisons — A literature review
International Journal of Drug Policy 18 (2007) 4
Substitution treatment (ST) in its different forms has established itself as a widely accepted harm reduction and treatment measure for opioid dependent individuals in the community in many countries (Council of Europe, 2001). The effectiveness of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is now widely acknowledged. Effectiveness refers to a reduction or cessation of opiate use reduced HIV risk behaviours, especially needle use and consequently reduced HIV and viral hepatitis transmission rates as well as a decrease in criminal involvement and redundancy...

 

Franco Corleone

# Droghe, legge penale e carcere

Numero speciale della rivista La Nuova Città, 2007

Giovanni Maria Flick, vicepresidente della Corte costituzionale e già ministro della Giustizia, in un testo del 1978 (“Droga e legge penale”, Giuffré Editore) poneva uno stringente interrogativo: «Vale veramente la pena di mobilitare un complesso apparato repressivo, aprendo ed esasperando problemi di non agevole soluzione, per affrontare situazioni di dubbio recupero [….]?». A distanza di trent’anni possiamo continuare a rispondere in modo negativo: la macchina repressiva, con le ingenti risorse a essa destinate, ha dimostrato per intero il proprio fallimento. Nonostante ciò, l’investimento per la lotta al narcotraffico, per quella war on drugs che in verità è più spesso una guerra ai consumatori, si è ingigantito.

 

Luigi Papi
# Le droghe del sabato sera. Nuove tendenze d'abuso
www.aracneeditrice.it/ marzo 2007

 

Alejandro A. Bevaqua
# Benzodiazepinas y delito. Flunitrazepam: mal uso de una droga legal desde la perspectiva médico pericial
Revista de la Asociacion Médica de Bahia Blanca, vol. 17, n. 2, Abril-Junio 2007
El (mal) uso de las benzodiazepinas por parte de algunos sujetos, concepto distinto al de abuso, es una situación frecuente en el ámbito carcelario. Esta genera especiales y gravísimos conflictos que pueden, y deben, ser minimizados por la simple restricción de la prescripción farmacológica si esta se ajusta a la evidencia científica (prescripción basada en la evidencia) y no a las demandas, muchas veces (in)justificadas de los mismos pacientes-reclusos. La búsqueda y obtención -por parte de ciertos sujetos portadores de una personalidad predisponente- de los efectos paradojales de las benzodiazepinas, particularmente flunitrazepam y clonazepam, constituye un dato de la realidad que no puede ser desconocido ni minimizado por el médico asistencial ni por el experto en Medicina Legal, precisamente por las implicancias éticas, morales, sociales y, sobre todo, jurídicas que este supone, ni debe ser desoída la palabra profesional por los máximos responsables de la institución penitenciaria...

 

Mark Thornton
# Prohibition versus Legalization. Do Economists Reach a Conclusion on Drug Policy?
The Independent Review, v. XI, n. 3, Winter 2007
The policy of prohibiting the sale and consumption of cocaine, heroin, and marijuana is of great public interest, with much debate about the effectiveness of the “war on drugs” and alternative policies such as legalization, decriminalization, drug treatment, and medical marijuana. Economists have been at the forefront of the debate, criticizing the effectiveness of the war on drugs, drawing attention to its “unintended consequences,” such as violent crime and the corruption of police and public officials, and proposing alternative policies, such as drug legalization and decriminalization.

 

Zach Walsh, Lindsay C. Allen, David S. Kosson
# Beyond Social Deviance: Substance Use Disorders and the Dimensions of Psychopathy
Journal of Personality Disorders: Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 273-288, 2007
High rates of comorbidity between psychopathy and substance use disorders (SUD) have long been recognized. However, the extent to which relationships between SUD and psychopathy extends beyond shared relationship with general antisociality remains undetermined. We examined zero-order and unique relationships between the elements of psychopathy and four categories of SUD; alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and opioid dependence.

 

Thomas Kerr,Nadia Fairbairn, Mark Tyndall, David Marsh, Kathy Li, Julio Montanera, Evan Wood
# Predictors of non-fatal overdose among a cohort of polysubstance-using injection drug users

Drug and Alcohol Dependence 87 (2007) 39–45

We found that non-fatal overdose was common among local IDU. Non-fatal overdose was associated with several factors that may be amenable to intervention, including opiate and stimulant use, and the characteristic of requiring help with injecting. These findings indicate the need for the ongoing development of structural interventions to address this common cause of morbidity among IDU.

 

David Nutt, Leslie A King, William Saulsbury, Colin Blakemore
# Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse
Lancet 2007; 369: 1047–53
Drug misuse and abuse are major health problems. Harmful drugs are regulated according to classification systems that purport to relate to the harms and risks of each drug. However, the methodology and processes underlying classification systems are generally neither specified nor transparent, which reduces confidence in their accuracy and undermines health education messages. We developed and explored the feasibility of the use of a nine-category matrix of harm, with an expert delphic procedure, to assess the harms of a range of illicit drugs in an evidence-based fashion. We also included five legal drugs of misuse (alcohol, khat, solvents, alkylnitrites, and tobacco) and one that has since been classified (ketamine) for reference. The process proved practicable, and yielded roughly similar scores and rankings of drug harm when used by two separate groups of experts. The ranking of drugs produced by our assessment of harm differed from those used by current regulatory systems. Our methodology offers a systematic framework and process that could be used by national and international regulatory bodies to assess the harm of current and future drugs of abuse.

 

Michael Farrell, John Marsden
# Acute risk of drug-related death among newly released prisoners in England and Wales
Addiction, 103, 2007
The prison population is characterized by high levels of psychoactive substance use, particularly illicit heroin dependence [1]. Overdose is a significant health risk for heroin users. Dependent users at liberty are partially protected from overdose through neuroadaptive tolerance. If tolerance is attenuated or lost during incarceration, the administration of a dose at previous levels can prove fatal. In this accidental overdose scenario, respiratory depression with hypoxia is the primary mechanism of death...

 

Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, Beau Kilmer, Michael Grossman, Frank J. Chaloupka | National Bureau of Economic Research
# Risks and Prices: the Role of User Sanctions in Marijuana Markets
www.nber.org/ Working Paper 13415 September 2007 |
User sanctions influence the legal risk for participants in illegal drug markets. A change in user sanctions may change retail drug prices, depending on how it changes the legal risk to users, how it changes the legal risk to dealers, and the slope of the supply curve. Using a novel dataset with rich transaction-level information, this paper evaluates the impact of recent changes in user sanctions for marijuana on marijuana prices. The results suggest that lower legal risks for users are associated with higher marijuana prices in the short-run, which ceteris paribus, implies higher profits for drug dealers. Additionally, the findings have important implications for thinking about the slope of the supply curve and interpreting previous research on the effect of drug laws on demand for marijuana.

 

Adrian Carter, Wayne Hall
# The Ethical Use of Psychosocially Assisted Pharmacological Treatments for Opioid Dependence
www.who.int/ September 2007
The form of legal coercion that has become increasingly popular within the criminal justice system is the use of diversionary programs that offer opioid dependent persons treatment as an alternative to imprisonment at various stages in the criminal justice process. In the first instance, treatment may be offered as an alternative to being prosecuted with an offence prior to being charged by police. This is not an ideal method of coercion as it falls outside judicial oversight. It is possible that relying on the discretion of police may open the way for individuals being coerced into treatment for reasons other than criminal behaviour, such as odd or unconventional behaviour or being a member of an ethnic minority.

 

Marilyn A. Huestis
# Human Cannabinoid Pharmacokinetics
Chem Biodivers. 2007 August

Cannabis is one of the oldest and most commonly abused drugs in the world, and its use is associated with pathological and behavioral toxicity. Thus, it is important to understand cannabinoid pharmacokinetics and the disposition of cannabinoids into biological fluids and tissues. Understanding the pharmacokinetics of a drug is essential to understanding the onset, magnitude, and duration of its pharmacodynamic effects, maximizing therapeutic and minimizing negative side effects...

 

Joanne Ross (ed)
# Illicit drug use in Australia: Epidemiology, use patterns and associated harm.
National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre 2007
The prevalence of ASPD (Anti-Social Personality Disorder) among methadone maintenance patients has been specifically examined by Darke and colleagues who reported a prevalence of ASPD of 61%. In a comparative study of prison and community patients, the rates were 44% for community MM patients, and 65% among prison patients. It should not be assumed that because a heroin user meets the criteria for ASPD that they are “psychopathic”...

 

Alan Travis
# Skunk strength has doubled, studies suggest | · Claims that super-strength variety dominant rejected · Cannabis researchers analysed seized samples
The Guardian, Monday 17 September 2007

20 Claims that a new 'super' skunk is 20 times stronger are demolished | 30% Most skunk on sale had been said to contain more than 30% THC | 550 The number of seized samples of skunk analysed in the two studies | 14% Average THC content in samples | 4% Only 4% of skunk seized had THC of over 20%, one study showed.

 

Christopher P. Krebs, Christine H. Lindquist, Willem Koetse, Pamela K. Lattimore
# Assessing the Long-Term Impact of Drug Court Participation on Recidivism with Generalized Estimating Equations
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2007 November 2; 91(1): 57–68
Drug courts are one of the most common strategies for dealing with the large proportion of criminal offenders who are drug-involved, yet methodological limitations limit the conclusions that can be drawn from many existing evaluations of their effectiveness. The current study examined the longterm impact of drug court participation compared to regular probation on the recidivism of 475 druginvolved offenders under supervision in Hillsborough County, Florida.The results indicate that participation in drug court was associated with a significant decrease in the likelihood of being arrested in the 12 to 18 months post-baseline time period.

 

Suprema Corte di Cassazione - Sezione VI Penale
# Sentenza 18 gennaio - 10 maggio 2007, n. 17983 (Presidente Ambrosiani - Relatore De Roberto)
La coltivazione di qualche piantina di marijuana non è “coltivazione” ai sensi degli artt. 26 - 27  e 28 del testo unico sugli stupefacenti, in quanto tale norma fa riferimento ad una concezione tecnico-agraria ovvero imprenditoriale, relativa alla preparazione, semina e governo dello sviluppo delle piante; la coltivazione c.d. domestica può rientrare nella nozione di detenzione.

 

Michael W. Finigan, Shannon M. Carey, Anton Cox
# Impact of a Mature Drug Court Over 10 Years of Operation: Recidivism and Costs (Final Report)
NPC Research Portland, OR | April 2007

Overall, for the entire population of eligible offenders, the Drug Court significantly reduced the incidence and frequency of criminal recidivism for participants compared to offenders who did not participate. Including all offenders who were eligible for the Drug Court during the total 10year period, over 5 years from the Drug Court petition hearing, the incidence of re-arrest was reduced by nearly 30%. The Drug Court reduces the incidence of drug crimes substantially for up to 14 years after the petition hearing.

 

Dean G. Kilpatrick, Heidi S. Resnick, Kenneth J. Ruggiero, Lauren M. Conoscenti, Jenna McCauley
# Drug-facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape: A National Study
Medical University of South Carolina MUSC - 1 february 2007

This study provides important information regarding the lifetime prevalence, past year prevalence, characteristics, and mental health impact of rape among adult women residing in United States households as well as among United States female college students. In addition to providing comparison data about the extent to which the prevalence, characteristics, and impact of forcible rape have changed among adult women in the U.S. population, the study also provides the first and most comprehensive national data on the prevalence, charac