Custodite perciò la luce della scienza, fatene uso e non fatene spreco, perché non avvenga che una pioggia di fuoco un giorno ci divori tutti quanti, si, tutti quanti.

(B. Brecht, Vita di Galileo, didascalia della scena XV)


... Non si può volare per aria su di un bastone, bisognerebbe che ci fosse dentro una macchina: ma una macchina così non esiste ancora e forse non esisterà mai: perché l'uomo è troppo pesante. Ma naturalmente, non si può dire. Ne sappiamo troppo poco, Giuseppe, troppo poco. Davvero: siamo appena al principio.

(B. Brecht, Vita di Galileo scena XV)


neurosciencesneurolaw     dna


396 documenti



Meredith Cusick
# Mens Rea and Methamphetamine: High Time for a Modern Doctrine Acknowledging the Neuroscience of Addiction
Fordham Law Review, Vol. 85, No. 2417, 2017
Neuroscience research reveals that drug addiction results in catastrophic damage to the brain resulting in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Methamphetamine addiction is of particular interest to criminal law because it causes extensive neural destruction and is associated with impulsive behavior, violent crime, and psychosis. Furthermore, research has revealed important distinctions between the effects of acute intoxication and addiction. These findings have implications for the broader doctrine of mens rea and, specifically, the intoxication doctrines. This Note argues for the adoption of an addiction doctrine that acknowledges the effect of addiction on mens rea that is distinct from doctrines of intoxication.


Giovanna Parmigiani, Gabriele Mandarelli, Gerben Meynen, Lorenzo Tarsitani, Massimo Biondi, Stefano Ferracuti
# Free will, neuroscience, and choice: towards a decisional capacity model for insanity defense evaluations Libero arbitrio, neuroscienze e scelta: verso un modello basato sulla capacità decisionale per la valutazione dell’imputabilità
Riv Psichiatr 2017; 52(1): 9-15
The theoretical debate on free will constitutes a topic of great interest for forensic psychiatrists as different views of free will could accordingly affect a defendant’s accountability in different ways. In this sense, the concept of free will is crucial in forensic psychiatry where at present evaluations rely mainly on notions such as sense of agency, capability to do otherwise and to act for an intelligible reason.


Melissa R. Arbuckle, Michael J. Travis, DavidA. Ross
# Integrating a Neuroscience Perspective Into Clinical Psychiatry Today
JAMA Psychiatry April 2017 Volume 74, Number 4
We focus on 5 core neuroscience themes relevant to a clinical case of apatientwith posttraumatic stress disorder. For each theme,we discuss its current and potential future relevance to clinical practice. We also discuss the relationship of each theme to psychological and social perspectives. Our ultimate aim is to capture something akin to “neuroscience literacy”: what do we hope a practicing psychiatrist would think about when sitting with a patient with posttraumatic stress disorder?Whatare the core concepts he or shemay call on? At what levelwouldwe hope that he or she could discuss these   findings with a patient or a family member?


Francis X. Shen
# Law and Neuroscience 2.0 2017
Neurolaw will succeed if it can do what other successful bodies of knowledge do: improve health, generate wealth, promote justice, and make the world a better place. The ingredients to do this are before us. We have rapidly developing and well-funded neuroscience. We have many pressing social and legal challenges to which that neuroscience might apply. And we have —thanks to the pioneers in the first waves of neurolaw— a strong foundation on which to build. But, as the quotes at the top of this Part suggest, we have to walk a tightrope. We need imagination, but not too much. We need excitement, but not over-exuberance. We need passion, but also patience...


Matthias Mahlmann
# Mind and Rights: Neuroscience, Philosophy and the Foundations of Legal Justice
in: M. Sellers (ed.), Law, Reason and Emotion, CUP, 2017

Human rights are not trivia. They are more than playthings to satisfy one’s intellectual ludic drive. Human rights are not means to solve all the world’s problems. But much depends on rights, including important goods of individuals, sometimes even their dignity and life. A decent level of civilization cannot be maintained without them. This is of great importance for those who suffer from human rights violations. It is of some significance as well for all those belonging to the perhaps not so small group of people who cannot breathe freely because of the continuing tragedy of human folly and pain and therefore long for the occasional relief of fresh air bestowed by some steps towards a culture of human decency.


Owen D. Jones
# Keynote: Law and the Brain – Past, Present, and Future
Arizona State Law Journal, Vol. 48, 2017

... Biology is the study of what happens when genes and environments interact, which is the only way brains—or any other physiological feature for that matter—get built. So the false dichotomization of genes and environment—as if they were alternatives rather than inevitable partners—was pernicious. In much the same way it would be if we were to argue about whether it is the length or alternatively the width of a rectangle that defines its area...


Laura Pignatel, Victor Genevès
# État de l'art "droit et neurosciences"

Mission de recherche – Droit & Justice, 2016
Le neurodroit quant à lui, qui est la traduction du néologisme anglais « neurolaw », désigne ce nouveau champ de recherche consacré à la rencontre entre le droit et les neurosciences. Le neurodroit reflète à lui seul la place croissante qu’occupent les neurosciences dans la société. Nouveau champ de recherches à la mode, le neurodroit a fait ses débuts aux Etats-Unis et désormais, la majorité des publications sur ce sujet sont anglo-saxonnes et émanent de l’université de Vanderbilt, située à Nashville dans le Tennessee  et du « Research network on Law and Neuroscience » financé par la célèbre Mac Arthur Foundation...


Brian T.M. Mammarella
# An Evidence-Based Objection to Retributive Justice
Yale Journal of Health Policy, Law, and Ethics, Vol. 16 | Issue 2016
Advancements in neuroscience and related fields are beginning to show, with increasing clarity, that certain human behaviors stem from uncontrolled, mechanistic causes. These discoveries beg the question: If a given behavior results from some combination of biological predispositions, neurological circumstances, and environmental influences, is that action unwilled and therefore absolved of all attributions of credit, blame, and responsibility? A number of scholars in law and neuroscience who answer "yes" have considered how the absence of free will should impact criminal law's willingness to justify punishments on the basis of retribution, with some arguing that criminal law ought to dispense with retributive justice because the concept of blameworthiness is out of touch with scientific reality. 


Francis X. Shen
# Law and Neuroscience 2.0 2016
Law and neuroscience is approaching an inflection point. It has been roughly ten years since the New York Times Magazine put neurolaw on its cover, since Stanford neuroscientist Robert Sapolsky wrote his seminal article, “The Frontal Cortex and the Criminal Justice System”; and since law professor Adam Kolber taught the first law and neuroscience course. The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience, which has been one of the epicenters of the field over this same period, will wind down its primary research projects soon.


Debra Austin, Rob Dur
# Emotion Regulation for Lawyers: A Mind Is a Challenging Thing to Tame
Wyoming Law Review, Vol. 16, 2016
With a knowledge of brain structure, autonomic nervous system function, how emotions arise in the brain, brain optimization, and the importance of emotion regulation, lawyers are empowered to improve how they work with each   other and how they serve clients. To enhance the neuro-capacity for emotion regulation, lawyers can embrace regular exercise and plan to get seven to eight hours of sleep each night. To increase focus, lawyers can learn and practice meditation. To minimize the stress response and improve awareness, lawyers can employ a mindfulness practice. Science shows that these recommendations can improve lawyer emotion regulation, wellbeing, and performance. 


Iris Vilares, Michael Wesley, Woo-Young Ahn, Richard J. Bonnie, Morris B. Hoffman, Owen D. Jones, Stephen J. Morse, Gideon Yaffe, Terry Lohrenz, Read Montague

# Predicting the Knowledge-Recklessness Distinction in the Human Brain, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

PNAS Early Edition, 2016
Criminal convictions require proof that a prohibited act was performed in a statutorily specified mental state. Different legal consequences, including greater punishments, are mandated for those who act in a state of knowledge, compared with a state of recklessness. Existing research, however, suggests people have trouble classifying defendants as knowing, rather than reckless, even when instructed on the relevant legal criteria. We used a machine-learning technique on brain imaging data to predict, with high accuracy, which mental state our participants were in. This predictive ability depended on both the magnitude of the risks and the amount of information about those risks possessed by the participants. Our results provide neural evidence of a detectable difference in the mental state of knowledge in contrast to recklessness and suggest, as a proof of principle, the possibility of inferring from brain data in which legally relevant category a person belongs.


Jason P. Kerkmans, Lyn M. Gaudet
# Daubert on the Brain: How New Mexico's Daubert Standard Should Inform Its Handling of Neuroimaging Evidence
New Mexico Review, vol. 46, n. 2, 2016
In their rejection of Frye and adoption of a Daubert approach, the New Mexico Supreme Court indicated that courts should favor current scientific understanding over jurisprudential recognitions of scientific understandings.The Court has also required the state’s trial courts to independently determine if reliability is sufficiently established. Similarly, there are federal level appellate courts that have favored admitting testimony based on conflicting science if support is shown for the general scientific theory or technique being proffered. 


Gwyneth Zai et al.
# Rapporteur summaries of plenary, symposia, and oral sessions from the XXIIIrd World Congress of Psychiatric
Genetics Meeting in Toronto, Canada, 16–20 October 2015
Psychiatric Genetics 2016, 26:229–257
The XXIIIrd World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics meeting, sponsored by the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics, was held in Toronto, ON, Canada, on 16–20 October 2015. Approximately 700 participants attended to discuss the latest state-of-the-art findings in this rapidly advancing and evolving field. The following report was written by trainee travel awardees. Each was assigned one session as a rapporteur. This manuscript represents the highlights and topics that were covered in the plenary sessions, symposia, and oral sessions during the conference, and contains major notable and new findings.


John B. Meixner, Jr.
# The use of neuroscience evidence in criminal proceedings
Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 1–6, 2016

This is a wonderful time for those interested in law and neuroscience because the field is so new, and significant basic work remains to be done. This set of papers provides one such critical early impact. The papers provide strong evidence that neuroscience has an important future in the law, and while there are undoubtedly limited uses of neuroscience evidence as the science currently stands, those limitations are likely to become smaller as technology and knowledge improve. Research on the courts’ use of neuroscience evidence, like these studies, will thus continue to be important as the field grows.


Matthew Ginther
# Neuroscience or neurospeculation? Peer commentary on four articles examining the prevalence of neuroscience n criminal cases around the world
Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 1–6, 2016
There is a certain allure to neuroscience. It is easy to understand why a field that seeks to understand the intricacies of the human mind has such wide appeal.The widespread use of neuro- as the ‘prefix du jour’ would suggest that there is also a general belief that neuroscientific approaches to  old problems hold the promise of new answers. Thelaw has not been exempt from this promise.Quite the opposite, the potential for neuroscience to provide new answers to the legal problems has generated substantial andwidespread excitement...


Manish A. Fozdar
# The Relevance of Modern Neuroscience to Forensic Psychiatry Practice
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 44:145–50, 2016
Neuroscience can contribute greatly to the forensic practice. Neuroscientists and clinicians should take a visible role in informing the legal community and the public of newly gained insights into brain functioning. They must speak out loudly against the misuse of neuroscience in the courtroom. Neuroscientific evidence alone should not be offered to assert the inability to form the requisite intent to commit the crime.


Stephen J. Morse
# Actions speak louder than images: the use of neuroscientific evidence in criminal cases
Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 1–7, 2016
The ultimate guide to wisdom about the proper use of neuroscientific evidence is a keen understanding of legal relevance, which in turn requires an equally keen understanding of the legal question at issue.The question in any case, then, is how, precisely, does neuroscience evidence help decide whether an act or mental state criterion was present at the relevant time. Past mental state questions include the act doctrine, mens rea, legal insanity, and sentencing based on culpability. Present mental state questions include various criminal competencies and sentencing based on prediction of future dangerousness...


Ed Johnston
# Brain Scanning and Lie Detectors: The Implications for Fundamental Defence Rights
European Journal of Current Legal Issues, vol. 22, n. 2 (2016)
This paper will examine how advancing neuroscientific technologies may impact on the fundamental human rights of the citizen accused. The paper takes an exploratory approach to analysis; the techniques explored throughout the paper are in their infancy and yet to permeate the criminal justice process of England and Wales. As such develops, other jurisdictions may start relying on the technology and they may be utilized more frequently in criminal trials in countries around the world; which may influence the techniques use in England and Wales. The paper will argue that adversarial criminal justice process of England and Wales should be concerned with both the domestic and international developments in "lie detection" technology...


Karolina Sörman, John F. Edens, Shannon Toney Smith, John W. Clark, Marianne Kristiansson, Olof Svensson
# Law and Human Behavior. Boldness and Its Relation to Psychopathic Personality: Prototypicality Analyses Among Forensic Mental Health, Criminal Justice, and Layperson Raters
American Psychological Association, 2016
Research on psychopathic personality has been dominated by a focus on criminality and social deviance, but some theoretical models argue that certain putatively adaptive features are important components of this construct. In 3 samples (forensic mental health practitioners, probation officers and a layperson community sample), we investigated adaptive traits as conceptualized in the Triarchic model of psychopathy, specifically the relevance of boldness to construals of psychopathic personality.


Jennifer S. Bard
# “Ah Yes, I Remember It Well”: Why the Inherent Unreliability of Human Memory Makes Brain Imaging
Technology a Poor Measure of Truth-Telling in the Courtroom
Oregon Law Review, vol. 94, n. 2, 2016

“After decades of concerted effort on the part of neuroscientists, psychologists, and philosophers, only one proposition about how the brain makes us conscious—how it gives rise to sensation, feeling, subjectivity—has emerged unchallenged: we don’t have a clue.”


Paul Catley
# The Future of Neurolaw
European Journal of Current Legal Issues, vol. 22, n. 2 (2016)
Neuroscience has already affected court decisions and will continue to do so. Neuroimaging evidence can be the difference between life and death for some convicted of capital offences in the United States. In courts around the world it is being introduced to provide evidence as to the cause and extent of injuries. Neuroscientific evidence is being introduced to provide evidence of the mental state of defendants. It cannot provide evidence as to what an accused was thinking or intending at the time that the offence was committed; but it can provide evidence to support or counter arguments about for example abnormality of mental functioning or fitness to plead. Neuroscientific evidence is not alone in being able to do this. Psychiatrists, psychologists and other medical practitioners have given evidence in the courtroom on these matters for many years...


Elizabeth Shaw
# Psychopathy, Moral Understanding and Criminal Responsibility
European Journal of Current Legal Issues, vol. 22, n. 2 (2016)
Although psychopaths make up less than 1% of the population, researchers in the United States have estimated that psychopaths may be responsible for up to 30% of violent crimes committed in the United States.  A number of theorists have argued that psychopaths should be excused from criminal responsibility on the basis that they lack the ability to empathise a capacity which these theorists regard as important to genuine moral understanding. This argument is of relevance to both English and Scottish law. In these jurisdictions, psychopathy cannot provide a basis for completely relieving an individual from criminal responsibility.


Lisa Claydon, Caroline Rödiger
# Fear, loss of control and cognitive neuroscience
European Journal of Current Legal Issues, vol. 22, n. 2 (2016)
The article considers how the fear of serious violence might be interpreted in the future by the English courts; and whether the jury will be able to appreciate the circumstances of an abused person when evaluating his or her actions. It will also consider how expert evidence may or may not help and what neuroscience tells us about the emotional states of anger and fear. Finally, it concludes by considering the question are these emotional states separable and, if they are not, will that pose a difficulty for jurors?


Hannah Wishart
# Young Minds, Old Legal Problems: Can Neuroscience fill the Void?
European Journal of Current Legal Issues, vol. 22, n. 2 (2016)
From 10 years of age the criminal law requires a person demonstrate a reasonable degree of normative competence. But what if a young person aged between 10-14 does not possess such mental capacities, cannot do anything about it, and is not capable of holding responsibility? Should the criminal law make allowances for him in these circumstances? I will argue that it should, because neuroscientific studies reveal young adolescents to be incapable of exercising normative competence. For evidence suggests that they are only capable of performing basic mental functions, for instance, selfdirected reasoning and appreciating shortterm consequences of their actions


Joshua W. Buckholtz, Valerie Reyna, Christopher Slobogin
# A Neuro-Legal Lingua Franca: Bridging Law and Neuroscience on the Issue of Self-Control
Vanderbilt University Law School - Public Law and Legal Theory - Working Paper Number 16-32
Neuroscientists are rapidly adding to our understanding of human behavior. This article argues that if the law wants the full benefits of neuro-scientific knowledge, it should attempt to develop a lingua franca—a method of communication understandable to both scientists and lawyers—based on neuro-scientific concepts. As a demonstration of such an attempt, we describe in a preliminary way how the criminal law’s concept of self-control might be operationalized using constructs, domains, processes and tasks familiar to neuroscientists....


Andrea Lavazza
# Criminali, questione di cervello. Intervista ad Adrian Raine 25 febbraio 2016

Ciò che oggi sappiamo con maggiore certezza riguarda il fatto che il crimine non è provocato soltanto da un ambiente sfavorevole, dove per ambiente si intende i genitori, l’abitazione, il vicinato... Il crimine è causato anche da un cattivo funzionamento del cervello a livello biologico. Si tratta di un’idea che è stata contrastata dagli scienziati sociali, ma non sembra vi siano più dubbi, almeno dal punto di vista scientifico, sul ruolo della biologia nella genesi del crimine. Siamo però all’inizio.

# Elisabetta Sirgiovanni, Le origini del cervello criminale, Il Sole 24 Ore, 28 febbraio 2016


Esther Lau
# Connectome: dancing through neuronal circuits January 19, 2016
“I am more than my genes! What am I? I am my connectome.” Such were the words of computational neuroscientist Sebastian Seung (Princeton Neuroscience Institute, Princeton, NJ, USA) in his TED Conference speech in 2010. He proposed that our connectome, the particular wiring of our brain, is what shapes our identity...


Nita A. Farahany
# Neuroscience and behavioral genetics in US criminal law: an empirical analysis
Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 2016
The goal of this study was to examine the growing use of neurological and behavioral genetic evidence by criminal defendants in US criminal law. Judicial opinions issued between 2005–12 that discussed the use of neuroscience or behavioral genetics by criminal defendants were identified, coded and analysed. Yet, criminal defendants are increasingly introducing such evidence to challenge defendants’ competency, the effectiveness of defense counsel at trial, and to mitigate punishment.


Nicholas Scurich, Paul Appelbaum
# The blunt-edged sword: genetic explanations of misbehavior neither mitigate nor aggravate punishment
Journal of Law and the Biosciences, December 2015
The most frequently discussed relationship between a genetic trait and socially disapproved behaviors involves the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene and antisocial behavior. A foundational study reported that the presence of a low- ctivity allele of MAOA in males markedly increased rates of antisocial behavior, but only when combined with a history of childhood maltreatment. Many studies attempting to confirm these findings followed, usually but not always successful; these studies were often based on secondary analyses of data collected for other purposes, using a variety of definitions of maltreatment and antisocial behavior. One recent meta-analysis, which included 20 studies involving over 5800 male participants—supported the association between MAOA and antisocial behavior by maltreated boys. However, another metaanalysis, which included an overlapping, but not identical set of studies, demonstrated a main effect of the low-activity allele, but no interaction with maltreatment. It seems clear that the exact nature of the relationship remains to be definitively determined


Simone Penasa
# Giudice “Ercole” o giudice “Sisifo”? Gli effetti del dato scientifico sull’esercizio della funzione giurisdizionale in casi scientificamente connotati 17 dicembre 2015
L’esempio più paradigmatico è senza dubbio rappresentato da quei casi, tendenti a valutare la responsabilità in ambito penale, nei quali applicazioni avanzate dell’analisi neuronale – le neuroscienze – e di quella genetica vengono utilizzate al fine della configurabilità di un elemento del reato (imputabilità). Nella sentenza sul caso conosciuto come Bayout, la Corte d’Assise d’Appello di Trieste ha basato la decisione di rivalutare la decisione operata dal G.U.P. in primo grado di non concedere la riduzione di pena di un terzo per difetto parziale di imputabilità sulle risultanze di indagini genetiche svolte sul DNA dell’imputato, le quali avevano riscontrato la presenza degli alleli (per il gene MAOA) che «in base a numerosi studi internazionali riportati sinora in letteratura, sono stati riscontrati conferire un significativo aumento del rischio di sviluppo di comportamento aggressivo, impulsivo (socialmente inaccettabile)».


Georgia Martha Gkotsi, Jacques Gasser
# Critique de l’utilisation des neurosciences dans les expertises psychiatriques : le cas de la responsabilité pénale
L’évolution psychiatrique, 2015


Luca Sammicheli, Giuseppe Sartori
# Accertamenti tecnici ed elemento soggettivo del reato 12 Novembre 2015
1. Neuroscienze tra mind reading e insanity defense. - 2. Considerazioni psicologico-forensi. - 3. La perizia/consulenza tecnica sull'elemento soggettivo del reato. - 3.1. L'individuazione del tema di indagine tecnica relativo all'elemento soggettivo. - 3.2. I possibili contributi teorici e tecnici delle scienze del comportamento. - 4. Casistica. - 5. Conclusioni.


Umberto Castiello, Raffaele Caterina, Mario De Caro, Luisella De Cataldo, Stefano Ferracuti, Antonio Forza, Natale Fusaro, Guglielmo Gulotta, Francesco Mauro Iacoviello, Cataldo Intrieri, Andrea Lavazza, Andrea Mascherin, Silvia Pellegrini, Pietro Pietrini, Rino Rumiati, Luca Sammicheli, Giuseppe Sartori, Giulio Squassoni, Andrea Stracciari
# Le capacità giuridiche alla luce delle neuroscienze. Memorandum Patavino
9 Ottobre 2015
Perché malvagio nessuno è di sua volontà, ma il malvagio diviene malvagio per qualche sua prava disposizione del corpo e per un allevamento senza educazione, e queste cose sono odiose a ciascuno e gli capitano contro sua voglia. Platone, (Timeo, 86 e)


Raz Yirmiya, Neta Rimmerman, Ronen Reshef
# Depression as a Microglial Disease
Trends in Neurosciences, October 2015, Vol. 38, No. 10
Early-life stress, trauma, and adversity are major risk factors for the development of depression. Early stress alters immune functioning at the time of exposure, but it can also change immune, endocrine, neural, and behavioral responsiveness to various stressful challenges later in life and contribute to various psychopathologies. Given the important role of microglia for brain and behavior development, early stress-induced alterations in microglia may be particularly important for conferring vulnerability to depression. 


Benedict Carey, # Head of Mental Health Institute Leaving for Google Life Sciences, Sept. 15, 2015

Antonio Regalado, # Why America’s Top Mental Health Researcher Joined Alphabet. Tom Insel explains why he’s ready to give Silicon Valley a try, MIT Technology Review, September 21, 2015

Heidi Ledford, # Director of US mental-health institute leaves for Google. Thomas Insel turned the institution's focus towards biological roots of psychiatric disorders, 15 September 2015

Alexei Oreskovic, # Google is doubling down on biotech, Aug. 21, 2015


Davide Rigoni, Luca Sammicheli, Giuseppe Sartori
# Looking for the right intention: can neuroscience benefit from the law? | Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, August 2015
Neuroscience is supposed to influence the law, not just by proposing a different anthropological model of a human being, but also by investigating, at the empirical level, the neural bases of human volition. The first attempt to tackle scientifically the problem of free will was conducted in the early ‘80s by Benjamin Libet and his colleagues... 


Diego Fernandez-Duque1, Jessica Evans1, Colton Christian2, and Sara D. Hodges2
# Superfluous Neuroscience Information Makes Explanations of Psychological Phenomena More Appealing
Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 27:5, pp. 926–944, 2015
Finally and most intriguingly, superfluous neuroscience information might increase the perceived scientific quality of explanations if people’s lay theories of the mind embrace the idea that the brain is the best explanans of mental phenomena (i.e., a brain-as-engine-of-mind hypothesis). If so, superfluous explanations should fool participants into seeing the explanations as informative, but giving the superfluous information a “neuro” flavor would be essential; this hypothesis predicts that other jargon or scientific cues would not work as effectively...


John Pyun
# When Neurogenetics Hurts: Examining the Use of Neuroscience and Genetic Evidence in Sentencing Decisions Through Implicit Bias
California Law Review, vol. 103, 2015
Courts increasingly use neuroscience and genetic evidence (“neurogenetic evidence”) to shed light on various aspects of a defendant’s mental state and behavior. The evidence is particularly prevalent in cases involving defendants with mental illnesses and is used to determine issues of mental capacity, personal responsibility, and treatability. However, using neurogenetic evidence risks framing mental illness through a narrow explanatory model—one relying solely on biological causes. Such evidence elicits both stigmareducing and stigma-enhancing implicit biases against mental illness, which can manifest themselves in beliefs that a person with mental illness is less blameworthy for his condition, but also more dangerous and less receptive to treatment. 


C.H. de Kogel, E.J.M.C. Westgeest
# Neuroscientific and behavioral genetic information in criminal cases in the Netherlands
Journal of Law and the Bioscience, 2015
Neuroscientific information and techniques have found their way into the courts of the Netherlands. Furthermore, following an Italian case in which a mentally ill offender received a penalty reduction in part because of a ‘genetic vulnerability for impulsive aggression’, the expectation was expressed that such ‘genetic defenses’ would appear in the Netherlands too. To assess how neuroscientific and behavioral genetic information are used in criminal justice practice in the Netherlands, we systematically collect Dutch criminal cases in which neuroscientific or behavioral genetic information is introduced...


Jean Decety, Jason M. Cowell
# Empathy, justice, and moral behavior
AJOB Neurosci. 2015 ; 6(3): 3–14
The purpose of this article is to examine the intersection of neuroscience and psychology on the study of empathy and moral decision-making. Substantial progress has been made in recent years towards a comprehensive understanding of the evolutionary processes that have favored the development of complex social behaviors in humans, along with the brain architecture that supports them. In particular, research in social neuroscience, relying on multi-level integrative analysis studies (from genes to social interactions) provides a mechanistic comprehension of empathy and caring for others...


Peter H. Venables, Adrian Raine
# The stability of schizotypy across time and instruments
Psychiatry Research 228 (2015) 585–590

Overall, findings on the multifactorial assessment of schizotypy provide a basis upon which further etiological and clinical work on schizotypy may build. The future clinical challenge lies in understanding what social and biological processes lead some individuals to remain stably schizotypal over time, while others change.


Thomas Insel
# Something Interesting is Happening June 5, 2015
Although the Precision Medicine Initiative at NIH is still under development, one consistent message has been that we will be creating not only a new cohort but a new culture for biomedical research. Research driven by patients, or maybe I should say “volunteers,” could create a research platform that might not look like academic research or private sector research. As people share their experiences with treatments that work or don’t work, they may see patterns that were never evident in randomized clinical trials. I don’t know where this will lead. But isn’t that exactly the potential of a new kind of clinical research – built by and for the people who have the most at stake? 


Robert B. McCaleb
# Rejustifying Retributive Punishment on Utilitarian Grounds in Light of Neuroscientific Discoveries more than Philosophical Calisthenics!
Cleveland State Law Review, 2015
Recent discoveries in neuroscience show that ancient and widely-held popular beliefs about free will, decision making, and voluntary action are deeply flawed, and that these concepts are potentially reducible to discrete, observable chemical events in the brain. The classical criminal law, however, presupposes the existence of practically unrestrained free will, and demands that it be exercised within certain boundaries and in (or not in) certain ways. Accordingly, viewed broadly, classical criminal law and materialist neuroscience rely on philosophically irreconcilable explanations of the sources and causes of volitional behavior...


Itiel E. Dror
# Cognitive neuroscience in forensic science: understanding and utilizing the human element
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 2015
A new view of a cognitively informed forensic science suggests a proactive approach. Rather than being reactive once crimes are committed, being proactive would take forensic steps before a crime is ever committed. A proactive forensic science goal is to ‘try to foresee trends in future crime and develop preventative measures ahead of time. In other words, they are trying to be one step ahead of the criminals, so that when the trend changes they will be ready’ .


The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues
# GRAY MATTERS. Topics at the Intersection of Neuroscience, Ethics, and Society March 2015
Enhancing justice by using neuroscience evidence is especially important because of the potentially severe and far-reaching consequences of legal and policy decisions. In the criminal context, punishment can involve deprivation of liberty by imprisonment or the death penalty in some jurisdictions. Such severe consequences warrant particular attention to improving the accuracy of conviction and sentencing.


Deborah W. Denno
# The Myth of the Double-Edged Sword: An Empirical Study of Neuroscience Evidence Criminal Cases, 56 B.C.L. Rev. 493 (2015)
This Article presents the results of my unique study of 800 criminal cases addressing neuroscience evidence over the past two decades (1992– 2012). Many legal scholars have theorized about the impact of neuroscience evidence on the criminal law, but this is the first empirical study of its kind to systematically investigate how courts assess the mitigating and aggravating strength of such evidence.


Brady Somers
# Neuroimaging Evidence: A Solution to the Problem of Proving Pain and Suffering?
Seattle University Law Review, Vol. 39:1391, 2015
In order to understand why neuroimages should not be admitted as evidence to prove pain and suffering at this stage, it is imperative to have a basic understanding of the technology itself. This Part first provides background information on structural and functional neuroimaging techniques. It then discusses the structural regions of the brain believed to be implicated in pain perception and explains how the current technology may be used to prove pain and suffering...


Thomas Levy
# Altering brain chemistry makes us more sensitive to inequality March 19, 2015


Nancy Gertner
# Law and Neuroscience (By Owen D. Jones, Jeffrey D. Schall, Francis X. Shen | Book Review)
Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 1–4, 2015
Law and Neuroscience raises the fascinating question—among many, many others: What if neuroscientists purported to be able to ‘read another person’s mind’ to some degree, or at the very least, to offer more direct data on a person’s mental state then jurors and judges have been able to  consider before?


Andrew S Kayser, Jennifer M Mitchell, Dawn Weinstein, Michael J Frank
# Dopamine, Locus of Control, and the Exploration-Exploitation Tradeoff
Neuropsychopharmacology (2015) 40, 454–462

...our findings suggest that tolcapone may modulate cognitive processes associated with the exploration- xploitation tradeoff in patients with suspected dopamine-related dysregulation, including patients with schizophrenia and substance-use disorders; and future work might therefore investigate whether this modulation has beneficial effects in selected patient groups.


Richard C. Wolf, Michael Koenigs
# Brain Imaging Research on Violence and Aggression: Pitfalls and Possibilities for Criminal Justice 2015
We have provided here a brief primer on brain imaging research on violence, aggression, and psychopathy as it relates to criminal justice. At present, there are a number of features of MRI research that appear to limit the applicability of this method in the courtroom; these limitations include a need for greater replication of results, unacceptably high measurement and statistical error rates, and the lack of causal inference.


Francis Shen, Dena Gromet
# Neuroscience is coming to the law. Can we keep politics out of it? February 25, 2015


Alessandra Griffa, Philipp Sebastian Baumann, Carina Ferrari, Kim Quang Do, Philippe Conus, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Patric Hagmann
# Characterizing the Connectome in Schizophrenia With Diffusion Spectrum Imaging
Human Brain Mapping 36:354–366 (2015)
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by disabling symptoms and cognitive deficit. Recent neuroimaging findings suggest that large parts of the brain are affected by the disease, and that the capacity of functional integration between brain areas is decreased...


Jesse Meijers, Joke M. Harte, Frank A. Jonker, Gerben Meynen
# Prison brain? Executive dysfunction in prisoners
Frontiers in Psychology, 30 january 2015
The reviewed studies suggest various executive dysfunctions in regular prisoners. This may be due to the higher chance of impairment in antisocial individuals, deterioration of executive functions caused by the prison environment, or a combination of both. Either way, we hypothesize that the impoverished prison environment, depriving its population of many normal stimuli, may lead to (further) deterioration of executive functions.


Mohita Shrivastava, Madhuri Behari
# Neuroethics: A Moral Approach Towards Neuroscience Research
Archives of Neuroscience. 2015 January
Neuroethics takes into account ethico-legal and socio-moral norms when performing basic science and clinical research in the field of neuroscience  Recent developments in modern neuro-imaging techniques such as Computerized Tomography scans (CT), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) allow us to examine the structure and function of brain (11, 12). The introduction of powerful neuro-imaging tools and techniques has redefined the diagnosis, definition and understanding of various disorders of consciousness such as the vegetative and minimally conscious states


Nina Koivula, Nina Ferreira, Petar Lozev, Franziska Böhlke, Birgit Thun, Janika Bockmeyer, Jan Smits
# Neurolaw
Maastricht University, 2014
Although neuroscientific methods seem to be promising for the rehabilitation of sexual offenders, one has to keep in mind that there are significant limitations to their application. Firstly, it has to be pointed out that early attempts to alter sexual interests have not been effective. Moreover, there is an overall lack of knowledge of how the brain works and how to use neuroscience accordingly. Hence it seems that neuroscience has still a long way to go before being able to reveal much more information on the brain.


Giovanni Maria Flick
# Neuroscienze (Diritto penale)
AIC Associazione Italiana dei Costituzionalisti, n. 4, 19 dicembre 2014
1. L’impatto del diritto penale con le neuroscienze: gli opposti estremismi. – 2. Cogito ergo sum o sum ergo cogito? – 3. Neuroscienze e libero arbitrio. – 4. Il contributo delle neuroscienze nell’accertamento della responsabilità e dell’imputabilità; – 5. (segue) …in quello della memoria e del fatto; – 6. (segue) …nel giudizio. – 7. Personalismo e pluralismo: le neuroscienze nel percorso dalla diversità all’eguaglianza attraverso la solidarietà.


Carlo Umiltà
# Che cosa possono dirci le neuroimmagini sulla mente?
Workshop Mente e cervello: la neuropsicologia tra neuromania e neurofobia, Un. Cattolica, Milano, 7 novembre 2014


Owen D. Jones, Joshua W. Buckholtz, Jeffrey D. Schall, Rene Marois
# Brain Imaging for Judges: An Introduction to Law and Neuroscience
American Judges Association - Court Review 50, 2014
It has become increasingly common for brain images to be proffered as evidence in civil and criminal litigation. This article offers some general guidelines to judges about how to understand brain-imaging studies--or at least avoid misunderstanding them.


Sarah Knapton
# Violence genes may be responsible for one in 10 serious crimes 28 Oct 2014
The majority of violent crime is committed by a small group of antisocial, repeat offenders, who seem incapable of rehabilitation. Now scientists believe they have found which genes are responsible for high levels of rage and violence. They believe that they could be responsible for up to 10 per cent of serious crime in Finland. The criminals who had committed the most serious crimes, such as murder, were found to have variants of two genes; monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and cadherin 13 (CDH13)


Alessandro Corda
# Neuroscienze forensi e giustizia penale tra diritto e prova (Disorientamenti giurisprudenziali e questioni aperte)
ArchivioPenale, n. 3, 2014
1. Introduzione. – 2. Scienza, neuroscienza e giustizia penale. – 3. Sapere neuroscientifico e neuroscienze forensi. – 4. Novel science  e prova penale. L’emblematico caso dell’irrompere delle neuroscienze nel dibattito sulla capacità di intendere e volere. – 5. La “rivoluzione promessa” dalle neuroscienze rispetto al diritto penale. – 6. La casistica giurisprudenziale. – 7. Prova scientifica “nuova” e ragionevole dubbio nella prospettiva dell’accusa e della difesa. – 8. Metodo scientifico tra ammissione e valutazione della prova. – 9. Cattiva scienza versus cattivo utilizzo processuale del sapere scientifico. – 10. L’esame del ricordo autobiografico e i limiti normativi espressi. – 11. Il (potenziale) conflitto di interessi tra produttori e portatori del sapere neuroscientifico all’interno del processo penale. – 12. Riflessioni conclusive.


Armando Freitas da Rocha, Eduardo Massad, Fabio Theoto Rocha, Marcelo Nascimento Burattini
# Brain and Law: An EEG Study of How We Decide or Not to Implement a Law
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science, 4, 2014
A total of 1136 people living in the Great São Paulo area were asked whether media propaganda would influence or not their vote decision in the Brazilian Firearm Commerce Referendum. In conclusion, it may be said that our results show that different neural circuits support YA and NA  analyses because these analyses enrolled neurons located at different cortical areas. YA analysis was associated with activation of cortical areas known to be involved in retrospective and episodic memory as well as with areas known to be involved in evaluating others’ intention. In contrast, NA analysis was associated with cortical areas that are proposed to be involved with self-interest evaluation. oreover, information about neural mechanism involved in voting decision-making obtained in this work helped to differentiate distinct ontological origins of YA and NA.


Gerardo Salvato, Roy Dings, Lucia Reuter
# Culture, neuroscience, and law
Front. Psychol., 22 October 2014
The cognitive diversity found across populations should be handled with some care as it might not be relevant to other fields of law (e.g., law enforcement official practice). Instead, when legal trials involve cultural diversity, a comprehensive neuroscientific procedure may contribute to more objective legal outcomes. In this case, neuroscience could assist law in decoding the significance of a range of culturally modulated social behaviors, which might have a strong impact on evidence examined in court.


Francis X. Shen
# Sentencing Enhancement and the Crime Victim’s Brain
Loyola University Chicago Law Journal, vol. 46, 2014
The Article argues that classification of “mental” harms as wholly distinct from “physical” harms is problematic in light of modern neuroscientific understanding of the relationship between mind and brain. There is no successful justification for treating mental injuries as categorically distinct from other physical injuries. To do so would be to perpetuate an archaic dualist view of the mind that few, if any, studying the brain would endorse...


Bruce N. Cuthbert
# The RDoC framework: facilitating transition from ICD/DSM to dimensional approaches that integrate neuroscience and psychopathology
World Psychiatry, 13, 2014
RDoC is intended to support research toward a new classification  system, but does not claim to be a completed system at the current time. To the contrary, RDoC represents a framework for conducting research on psychopathology in ways that diverge markedly from current standards. The ultimate goal is to build a research literature that reflects advances in genetics, other areas of neuroscience, and behavioral science to provide a foundation for precision diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders.


So Yeon Choe
# Misdiagnosing the Impact of Neuroimages in the Courtroom
UCLA L. Rev. 1502 (2014)
A number of criminal defendants have sought to introduce neuroscience evidence to support not only insanity defenses, but also claims of incompetency to stand trial and of mitigation during the sentencing phase.These defendants sought to introduce neuroscience evidence in one of two forms: general neuroscience evidence (which will refer to neuroscience evidence that draws its inferences and conclusions from the neuroimage, but does not use the actual neuroimage itself), or neuroimaging evidence (which will refer to neuroscience evidence with neuroimages).


Azim F. Shariff, Joshua D. Greene, Johan C. Karremans, Jamie B. Luguri, Cory J. Clark, Jonathan W. Schooler, Roy F. Baumeister, Kathleen D. Vohs
# Free Will and Punishment: A Mechanistic View of Human Nature Reduces Retribution
Psychological Science 1 –8 (2014)
If free-will beliefs support attributions of moral responsibility, then reducing these beliefs should make people less retributive in their attitudes about punishment. Four studies tested this prediction using both measured and manipulated free-will beliefs.


Nikolas Rose, Joelle Abi-Rached
# Governing through the Brain. Neuropolitics, Neuroscience and Subjectivity
Cambridge Anthropology 32(1), Spring 2014: 3–23
Are we driven by instincts and passions that must be trained and civilized by discipline and habits? Are we psychological persons, inhabited by a deep, interior psyche that is moulded by experience, symbols and signs, meaning and culture? Or is our nature as human beings shaped by the structure and unctions o our brains? Is it our brains that make us humans human?


Ceren Akdeniz, Heike Tost, Fabian Streit, Leila Haddad, Stefan Wüst, Axel Schäfer, Michael Schneider, Marcella Rietschel, Peter Kirsch, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg
# Neuroimaging Evidence for a Role of Neural Social Stress Processing in Ethnic Minority–Associated Environmental Risk
JAMA Psychiatry, April 2014
Epidemiologists proposed a causal role of social-evaluative stress, but the neural processes that could mediate this susceptibility effect were unknown. Our data demonstrate the potential of investigating associations from epidemiology with neuroimaging, suggest brain effects of social marginalization, and highlight a neural system in which environmental and genetic risk factors for mental illness may converge.


Thomas Douglas
# Criminal Rehabilitation Through Medical Intervention: Moral Liability and the Right to Bodily Integrity
J Ethics. 2014 June 1
Criminal offenders are sometimes required, by the institutions of criminal justice, to undergo medical interventions intended to promote rehabilitation. Ethical debate regarding this practice has largely proceeded on the assumption that medical interventions may only permissibly be administered to criminal offenders with their consent. In this article I challenge this assumption by suggesting that committing a crime might render one morally liable to certain forms of medical intervention. I then consider whether it is possible to respond persuasively to this challenge by invoking the right to bodily integrity. I argue that it is not.


Hannah Maslen, Nadira Faulmüller,Julian Savulescu4
# Pharmacological cognitive enhancement—how neuroscientific research could advance ethical debate
Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, June 2014 | Volume 8 | Article 107
This paper presents the six principal ethical issues raised in relation to pharmacological cognitive enhancers (PCEs)— ssues such as whether: (1) the medical safety-profile of PCEs justifies restricting or permitting their elective or required   use; (2) the enhanced mind can be an “authentic” mind; (3) individuals might be coerced into using PCEs; (4), there is a meaningful distinction to be made between the treatment vs. enhancement effect of the same PCE; (5) unequal access to PCEs would have implications for distributive justice; and (6) PCE use constitutes cheating in competitive contexts.


Rebecca Roache
# Can Brain Scans Prove Criminals Unaccountable?
AJOB Neuroscience, 5(2), 2014
Leonard Berlin (2014) reports that neuroscientific data have been presented in court by lawyers wishing to argue that their clients have reduced or absent moral responsibility for their behaviour because their brain function is impaired. Berlin cites evidence showing that such neuroscientific data can influence judges to pass more lenient sentences, and he anticipates that advances in “the neurology of criminal behavior”may lead courts to view certain criminals as having reduced accountability for their actions...


Vincent D. Costa, Valery L. Tran, Janita Turchi, Bruno B. Averbeck
# Behavioral Neuroscience. Dopamine Modulates Novelty Seeking Behavior During Decision Making
Behavioral Neuroscience , June 9, 2014.
These findings demonstrate that increases in extracellular dopamine levels underlie the positive valuation of novel stimuli to promote exploratory behavior. They also suggest that alterations in dopamine reuptake may contribute to excessive novelty seeking and impulsivity


G.A. Capra, B. Forresi, E. Caffo
# Current scientific research on paedophilia: a review
Journal of Psychopathology 2014;20:17-26
Current neuroimaging research, for example, suggests that structural and functional changes in paedophilia appear for the most part in brain regions involved in sexual functions. A few studies, usually referring single cases of patients with paedophilia, reported the activation in the left calcarine fissure, left insula, anterior cingulated cortex and left cerebellar vermis or in the right amygdala and the adjacent parahippocampal gyrus in response to erotic pictures of children...


Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues
# Gray Matters. Integrative Approaches for Neuroscience, Ethics, and Society - Vol. 1 Washington, D.C. May 2014
This report provides practical, conceptual, and methodological tools that can be applied directly in neuroscience research by funders, scientists, and other stakeholders. It calls for adequate resources to be allotted for successful integration of science and ethics. It also provides analysis and recommendations to guide institutions in developing necessary infrastructure for early integration of ethics into neuroscience research.


Ekaterina Pivovarova, Judith G. Edersheim, Justin Baker, Bruce H. Price
# A Polygraph Primer: What Litigators Need to Know V. 26, May 2014

... The search for a perfect lie detector continues. Although our technological advances have been unprecedented in the last century, the legal perspective on allowing experts and machines to decipher lying from truth telling has remained unchanged...


Kimberly R. Urban, Wen-Jun Gao
# Performance enhancement at the cost of potential brain plasticity: neural ramifications of nootropic drugs in the healthy developing brain frontiers in systems neurosciences, 13 may 2014
Cognitive enhancement, and the ethical considerations that go along with it, is one of the hottest current topics in the neuroscience community. There are many comprehensive reviews and articles published on the ethical concerns of cognitive enhancement; however, literature on the safety of consuming these drugs in youth is starkly lacking despite the significant increase in teen misuse and abuse of stimulants reported in a recent national study


David Wasserman, Josephine Johnston
# Seeing Responsibility: Can Neuroimaging Teach Us Anything about Moral and Legal Responsibility?
Hastings Center Report, March-April 2014
Reorienting our ideas about moral and legal responsibility to focus more on changing behavior to prevent future harm and less on exacting retribution could help reduce incarceration rates and improve mental health and well-being. If neuroimaging can help make that goal vivid, so much the better.


Owen D. Jones, Richard J. Bonnie, B. J. Casey, Andre Davis, David L. Faigman, Morris Hoffman, Read Montague, Stephen J. Morse, Marcus E. Raichle, Jennifer A. Richeson, Elizabeth Scott, Laurence Steinberg, Kim Taylor- Thompson, Anthony Wagner, Gideon Yaffe
# Law and neuroscience: recommendations submitted to the President’s Bioethics Commission
Journal of Law and the Biosciences, March 2014
omments of The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Law and Neuroscience to The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues of the Department of Health and Human Services Comments on the Ethical Considerations of Neuroscience Research and the Application of Neuroscience Research Findings March 31, 2014


Amanda C. Pustilnik
# Painful Disparities, Painful Realities
U of Maryland Legal Studies Research Paper No. 2014-18 | March 10, 2014
Legal doctrines and decisional norms treat chronic claims pain differently than other kinds of disability or damages claims because of bias and confusion about whether chronic pain is real. This is law’s painful disparity. Now, breakthrough neuroimaging can make pain visible, shedding light on these mysterious ills. Neuroimaging shows these conditions are, as sufferers have known all along, painfully real. This Article is about where law ought to change because of innovations in structural and functional imaging of the brain in pain. It describes cutting-edge scientific developments and the impact they should make on evidence law and disability law, and, eventually the law’s norms about pain. It suggests that pain neuroimaging will solve current legal problems and also open the door to reconsiderations of law’s treatment of other subjective phenomena like mental states and emotions, going to the theoretical heart of legal doctrines about body and mind.


Nina Koivula, Nina Ferreira, Petar Lozev, Franziska Böhlke, Birgit Thun, Janika Bockmeyer, Jan Smits
# Neurolaw
Maastricht Research Based Learning Project (MaRBLe) - Maastricht University, 2014

Rehabilitation of sexual offenders: clearing the stage forneuroscience? | In how far are neurological rehabilitation methods for criminal offenders compatible with the concept of human dignity? | Probation and effective rehabilitation – an alternative to incarceration? Using neuroscience to facilitate rehabilitation methods |  A neuroscientific perspective on cognitive and volitional impairment in criminal irresponsibility assessments: a case for a capacity-based approach |  To what extent is the taking and use of neuroscientific evidence compatible with the rights enshrined in the European Convention of Human Rights? | Violation of Article 19 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child: An analysis from a neurobiological point of view with regard to criminal behaviour


Sara Reardon
# NIH rethinks psychiatry trials. Mental-health division will no longer fund research aiming to relieve symptoms without probing underlying causes
Nature, 20 March 2014
The NIMH, based in Bethesda, Maryland, has decided to stop funding clinical trials that aim merely to ease patients’ symptoms. “Future trials will follow an experimental medicine approach in which interventions serve not only as potential treatments, but as probes to generate information about the mechanisms underlying a disorder”...


Adam B. Shniderman
# No Such Thing As A Sure Thing: Neuroscience, The Insanity Defense, and Sentencing Mitigation, February 2014 - Volume 26, Issue 1
Much has been made of recent neuroscientific discoveries and their relevance for the criminal justice system. Some have touted neuroscience as the system’s savior – a means for finally handling criminals effectively and appropriately. Neuroscientific expert evidence may provide a more effective means of representing clients by framing mental illness in terms of organic illness and providing jurors with objective indicia of a defendant’s claims.


Lora M.Cope, Gina M.Vincent, Justin L.Jobelius, Prashanth K.Nyalakanti, Vince D.Calhoun, Kent A.Kiehl
# Psychopathic traits modulate brain responses to drug cues in incarcerated offenders
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, February 2014
Recent neuroscientific evidence indicates that psychopathy is associated with abnormal function and structure in limbic and paralimbic areas. Psychopathy and substance use disorders are highly comorbid, but clinicale xperience suggests that psychopaths abuse drugs for different reasons than non-psychopaths, and that psychopaths do not typically experience with drawal and craving upon becoming incarcerated.


Ashley Bridwell, MacDonald Ross
# Trauma Brain Injury in the Criminal Justice Population
Council of State Governments Justice Center, New York, NY, February 11, 2014

A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. Not all blows or jolts to the head result in a TBI. The severity of a TBI may range from “mild,” i.e., a brief change in mental status or consciousness to “severe,” i.e., an extended period of unconsciousness or amnesia after the injury, Among male prisoners, history of TBI is strongly associated with perpetration of violence and other kinds of violence. Women inmates who are convicted of a violent crime are more likely to have sustained a pre crime TBI and/or some other form of physical abuse.


Femke T.A. Buisman-Pijlman, Nicole M. Sumracki, Jake J. Gordon, Philip R. Hull, C. Sue Carter, Mattie Tops
# Individual differences underlying susceptibility to addiction: Role for the endogenous oxytocin system
Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 119 (2014)
Existing research has mainly focussed on the role of neurotransmitter systems in drug effects and the development of addiction. Different drugs acton different neurotransmitter systems, but nearly all drugs of abuse eventually result in an increase in dopamine in the mesolimbic dopamine system reward pathway. Neurotransmitter systems that are key to drug effects are the dopamine system (for example, stimulants and MDMA), opioid system (heroin, codeine and alcohol), serotonin (for example,MDMAand hallucinogens), GABA and glutamate (for example, alcohol and benzodiazepines), and the cannabinoid system (cannabis). Beyond their role in direct drug effects, many of these systems seem to be involved in susceptibility to the development of addictions.


Benedict Carey
# Blazing Trails in Brain Science Feb. 3, 2014
“My philosophy is really based on humility,” he said. “I don’t think we know enough to fix either diagnostics or therapeutics. The future of psychiatry is clinical neuroscience, based on a much deeper understanding of the brain.”


Nicole A Vincent
# Neurolaw and Direct Brain Interventions
Crim Law and Philos (2014) 8:43–50
This issue of Criminal Law and Philosophy contains three papers on a topic of increasing importance within the field of ‘‘neurolaw’’—namely, the implications for criminal law of direct brain intervention based mind altering techniques (DBI’s). To locate these papers’ topic within a broader context, I begin with an overview of some prominent topics in the field of neurolaw, where possible providing some references to relevant literature. The specific questions asked by the three authors, as well as their answers and central claims, are then sketched out, and I end with a brief comment to explain why this particular topic can be expected to gain more prominence in coming years.


Nicole A Vincent
# Restoring Responsibility: Promoting Justice, Therapy and Reform Through Direct Brain Interventions
Crim Law and Philos (2014) 8:21–42
Direct brain intervention based mental capacity restoration techniques—for instance, psycho-active drugs—are sometimes used in criminal cases to promote the aims of justice. For instance, they might be used to restore a person’s competence to stand trial in order to assess the degree of their responsibility for what they did, or to restore their competence for punishment so that we can hold them responsible for it. Some also suggest that such interventions might be used for therapy or reform in criminal legal contexts—i.e. to make non-responsible and irresponsible people more responsible.


M. Casellato, D. La Muscatella, S. Lionetti
# Tra prassi e teoria. La responsabilità colpevole tra libero arbitrio e neodeterminismo biologico. Profili psicologici e forensi dei nuovi strumenti delle neuroscienze
Il vaso di Pandora. Dialoghi in psichiatria e scienze umane - Vol. XXII, N. 1, 2014
Lo psicologo, psichiatra o neuroscienziato che afferma di lavorare sulla  “mente”, è a tutti gli effetti figlio di una tradizione cartesiana che sottintende una differenziazione fra la res cogitans e la res extensa (fra la mente e il corpo, appunto). Il costo dell’eredità cartesiana, dell’impostazione filosofica basata sul dualismo mente/corpo, è  evidente tutt’oggi nell’attività clinica e forense, dove è di prassi diagnosticare problemi di carattere organico distinguendoli da quelli psicologici.


David W. Opderbeck
# The Problem with Neurolaw
Saint Louis University Law Journal, vol 58, 2014
This Article describes and critiques the increasingly popular program of reductive neuroLaw. Law has irrevocably entered the age of neuroscience. Various institutes and conferences are devoted to questions about the relation between neuroscience and legal procedures and doctrines. Most of the new “neuroLaw” scholarship focuses on evidentiary and related issues, and is important and beneficial. But some versions of reductive neuroLaw are frightening. Although they claim to liberate us from false conceptions of ourselves and to open new spaces for more scientific applications of the law, they end up stripping away all notions of “selves” and of “law.” This Article argues that a revitalized sense of transcendence is required to avoid the violent metaphysics of reductive neuroLaw and to maintain the integrity of both “law” and “science.”


Paul S. Appelbaum, Nicholas Scurich
# Impact of Behavioral Genetic Evidence on the Adjudication of Criminal Behavior
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 42:91–100, 2014
Recent advances in behavioral genetics suggest a modest relationship among certain gene variants, early childhood experiences, and criminal behavior. Although scientific research examining this link is still at an early stage, genetic data are already being introduced in criminal trials. However, the extent to which such evidence is likely to affect jurors’ decisions has not been explored.


Alessia Farano
# Ripensare la responsabilità. La ricerca del giurista tra questioni filosofiche e sfide della tecnoscienza
Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II", 2014

Le neuroscienze per la responsabilità cambiano tutto o niente? La categoria dell’imputabilità, unitamente alla responsabilità, verrà dunque ad essere investita del ruolo di testimone di un cambiamento, da alcuni annunciato nella sua perentorietà, da altri negato, che le neuroscienze avrebbero innescato nell’incontro col fenomeno giuridico... Neuroscience, for the Law, changes nothing and everything affermavano nel 2004 Greene e  Cohen, sostenendo la irrilevanza nel breve termine delle neuroscienze per il diritto e tuttavia presagendo una significativa modificazione delle intuizioni morali (rectius di psicologia ingenua) poste a fondamento degli istituti giuridici in futuro da riformare.


Jason Michael Chin
# Psychological Science's Replicability Crisis and What It Means for Science in the Courtroom
Journal of Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, Forthcoming, March 22, 2014
Lessons learned from the replicability crisis suggest that the Daubert standard is better equipped than Frye to ensure that good science reaches decision makers. As mentioned, the replicability crisis was made possible by deeply entrenched generally accepted practices that did not track with best practices. Frye, in probing general acceptance, does not easily get at best practices when such divergences exist.


Andrea L. Glenn, Adrian Raine
# Neurocriminology: implications for the punishment, prediction and prevention of criminal behaviour Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15, 54–63 (2014)
Criminal behaviour and violence are increasingly viewed as worldwide public health problems. A growing body of knowledge shows that criminal behaviour has a neurobiological basis, and this has intensified judicial interest in the potential application of neuroscience to criminal law. It also gives rise to important questions. What are the implications of such application for predicting future criminal behaviour and protecting society? Can it be used to prevent violence? And what are the implications for the way offenders are punished?


Claudio Sarra
# Questioni pregiudiziali: una prospettiva epistemologica sui rapporti tra neuroscienze e diritto
Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics, XVI, 2014, 2, pp. 64-100

Di tutte le possibili intersezioni tra neuroscienze e diritto, ve n’è una ritenuta epocale data dalla finalmente dischiusa possibilità di consentire l’accesso dell’osservazione scientifica a tutte le funzionalità del cervello, vera “stanza dei bottoni” di ogni funzione umana. In effetti, la possibilità di “tracciare” ed osservare in azione le dinamiche neuronali di un soggetto agente, alza notevolmente il grado empirico delle conoscenze sui meccanismi del comportamento umano, prima solo indirettamente e più incertamente inferibili.


Alberto Gaiani
# Riduzionismo e neuroscienze: il dibattito filosofico recente
Etica & Politica / Ethics & Politics, XVI, 2014, 2, pp. 47-63
... Si tratta di mettere alla prova temi che storicamente sono stati appannaggio della riflessione filosofica: coscienza, decisione, libertà, percezione, arte, responsabilità, educazione, empatia, credenza, immaginazione, emozione,  volontà, intenzionalità, autocoscienza... Alla luce dei risultati ottenuti attraverso le tecniche di neuroimaging le concezioni che storicamente sono state proposte vengono interrogate, messe in questione, sollecitate. E qui non si tratta semplicemente di sostituire idee confuse con visioni perspicue, fondate su dati osservazionali inattaccabili. Non è in questione un passaggio di scettro, la sostituzione di un sovrano con un altro...


McLellan AT, Starrels JL, Tai B, Gordon AJ, Brown R, Ghitza U, Gourevitch M, Stein J, Oros M, Horton T, Lindblad R, Jennifer McNeely J.
# Can substance use disorders be managed using the chronic care model? Review and recommendations from a NIDA consensus group.
Public Health Reviews, January 2014
The chronic illness management approach is still new in the field of addiction and research is limited. However comparative findings suggest that most proactive, team treatment-oriented clinical management practices now used in diabetes management are applicable to the substance use disorders; capable of being implemented by primary care teams; and should offer comparable potential benefits in the treatment of substance use disorders. Such care should also improve the quality of care for many illnesses now negatively affected by unaddressed substance abuse.


James Gorman
# The Brain, in Exquisite Detail Jan. 6, 2014
Everyone knows the object of study is the brain. The difficulty of comprehending the brain may be more aptly compared to a poem by Wallace Stevens, “13 Ways of Looking at a Blackbird.” Each way of looking, not looking, or just being in the presence of the blackbird reveals something about it, but only something. Each way of looking at the brain reveals ever more astonishing secrets, but the full and complete picture of the human brain is still out of reach. 


John Rumbold
# Neurolaw and the Future
Kaleidoscope. The interdisciplinary postgraduate journal of the Institute of Advanced Study, Durham University, November 2013
The difficulties with neurolaw illustrate two main points: the benefits of genuine interdisciplinary research, and the pitfalls of simply applying research from one discipline to another. Simply discovering and describing the activity of the brain does not and probably will never provide a definitive answer to whether or not someone should be held criminally responsible. For this reason alone, neuroscience must be used with caution in the courts.


Owen D. Jones, Rene´ Marois, Martha J. Farah, Henry T. Greely
# Law and Neuroscience
The Journal of Neuroscience, November 6, 2013•33(45)
Most of the scholarly discussion about law and neuroscience has revolved around questions of responsibility. If neuroscience can help us connect physical states of the brain with subjective mental states, that should indeed prove useful. However, neuroscience seems poised to offer law much more. For example, neuroscience should improve our predictions of future mental states and consequent behavior...


Lorenzo Simonetti, Marco Mendola, Francesco Salamone
Prova scientifica, vulnerabilità genetica e processo penale. La prospettiva offerta dalle Neuroscienze forensi
Psicologia e Giustizia, Anno 14, numero 2, Luglio-Dicembre 2013

Tramite l’espressione “prova scientifica”, tradizionalmente, si fa riferimento o alla cd. “prova esperta” (su tutte, la perizia) ovvero al cd. “metodo scientifico”, inteso quest’ultimo come un modus procedendi sulla cui base è possibile pervenire ad un giudizio non solo giuridicamente plausibile ma anche fattualmente accettabile...


Giovanni Barroccu
La prova scientifica nel processo penale
Diritto@Storia, n. 11, 2013
Nell’analizzare gli strumenti per mezzo dei quali la prova scientifica penetra all’interno del tessuto processuale, pur riconoscendone i meriti e l’indubbia portata innovatrice, occorre adottare le dovute cautele: vale a dire seguire un approccio di “critica consapevolezza” nei confronti di qualsiasi mezzo di prova e, a fortiori, nei confronti di quegli strumenti che possono creare certezze illusorie in merito all’accertamento.


Manuela Fumagalli, Alberto Priori
# Il cervello morale e il comportamento criminale
Psicologia e Giustizia, Anno 14, numero 2, Luglio-Dicembre 2013
Comprendere il cervello morale ha importanti potenziali implicazioni cliniche, forensi e legali. Da un punto di vista clinico, la diagnosi precoce di disturbi neurologici che possono generare alterazioni del comportamento morale o violento consentirebbe la migliore gestione di tali patologie e la possibilità di prevenirne le conseguenze sociali e familiari. Conoscere meglio tali disturbi permetterebbe di promuovere lo sviluppo di trattamenti specifici, dai farmaci alla neuromodulazione alla psicoterapia, per favorire la neuroplasticità cerebrale che potrebbe ripristinare un corretto funzionamento del circuito cerebrale morale.


Daniel J. Smith, Barbara I. Nicholl, Breda Cullen, Daniel Martin, Zia Ul-Haq, Jonathan Evans, Jason M. R. Gill, Beverly Roberts, John Gallacher, Daniel Mackay, Matthew Hotopf, Ian Deary, Nick Craddock, Jill P. Pell
# Prevalence and Characteristics of Probable Major Depression and Bipolar Disorder within UK Biobank: Cross-Sectional Study of 172,751 Participants November 2013

UK Biobank is a landmark cohort of over 500,000 participants which will be used to investigate genetic and nongenetic risk factors for a wide range of adverse health outcomes. This is the first study to systematically assess the prevalence and validity of proposed criteria for probable mood disorders within the cohort (major depression and bipolar disorder). Methods: This was a descriptive epidemiological study of 172,751 individuals assessed for a lifetime history of mood disorder in relation to a range of demographic, social, lifestyle, personality and health-related factors...


Stefano Lionetti, Marco Casellato, Donato La Muscatella
# La responsabilità colpevole tra libero arbitrio e neodeterminismo biologico. Profili psicologici e forensi dei nuovi strumenti delle neuroscienze
Brainfactor 11 ottobre 2013
I nuovi strumenti delle Neuroscienze hanno acquisito, negli ultimi anni, una posizione di sempre maggior rilievo nel campo delle Scienze Forensi, modificando entità e natura del loro contributo al Sistema Giustizia, che si trova così di fronte alla riproposizione di interrogativi riguardanti l’oggetto, i mezzi ed i criteri di conduzione dell’indagine sullo stato mentale del reo. Gli autori, da prospettive in costante relazione, tentano di rispondere a queste domande, approfondendo il rapporto tra libero arbitrio e responsabilità colpevole, anche alla luce delle più recenti innovazioni della clinica.


Phoebe Beth Harrop
# Minority Report or Majority Safety? fMRI, Predictinf Dangerousness and a Pre-Crime Future
University of Otago, 11th October 2013
I argue that in New Zealand, existing rights protection will prove ineffective in the face of legislation that is driven by public risk aversion, a particular fear of child sex offenders, and overarching precautionary policy. New Zealand’s weak separation of powers and lack of entrenched constitution means that there is a risk of (perceived) majority safety being protected at the expense of individual civil liberties. A Minority Report future may not be just science fiction.


Owen D. Jones, Anthony D. Wagner, David L. Faigman, Marcus E. Raichle
# Neuroscientists in court | October 2013
Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being offered in court cases. Consequently, the legal system needs neuroscientists to act as expert witnesses who can explain the limitations and interpretations of neuroscientific findings so that judges and jurors can make informed and appropriate inferences. The growing role of neuroscientists in court means that neuroscientists should be aware of important differences between the scientific and legal fields, and, especially, how scientific facts can be easily misunderstood by non-scientists, including judges and jurors.


Giulia Volpatti
# Imputabilità e neuroscienze: problematiche e prospettive
Università degli studi di Trieste, 2013
Nei confronti delle neuroscienze l’opinione dominante serba un atteggiamento diffidente ed alle volte anche di totale rigetto di queste nuove tecnologie. La motivazione risiede nella paura che le nuove scoperte, se amplificate e portate agli estremi, possano cancellare il principio del libero arbitrio dell’uomo, possano portare all’assurdo di considerare gli uomini come tutti inimputabili perché dominati dal cervello ed incapaci, quindi, di autodeterminarsi nel mondo esterno...  Nessuna rivoluzione copernicana, l’uomo resta sempre l’essere libero e capace di muoversi tra motivi antagonistici operando delle scelte consapevoli, senza essere dominato dal suo sistema nervoso...


Eric Kandel
# The New Science of Mind and the Future of Knowledge
Neuron 80, October 30, 2013
Aggression, like social behavior and fear, has been with us since the dawn of time. It is highly conserved in evolution—nearly every animal is capable of violence—yet we understand much less about the anatomy of aggression than the anatomy of fear. Darwin believed it was possible to study aggression in animals, and in 1928 Walter Hess proved him right. Hess found that by electrically stimulating certain areas in the hypothalamus of cats, he could elicit attack behavior.


Luca Casartelli, Cristiano Chiamulera
# Which future for neuroscience in forensic psychiatry: theoretical hurdles and empirical chances
Frontiers in Psychiatry, July 2013
We suggest that the preliminary condition to introduce neuroscience data in FPE (forensic psychiatric examination) is the assumption of a new perspective overcoming classical dualist models. Such new perspective permits to rule out misleading assumptions (i.e., the deterministic link between “mental defect” and specific behavior). Noteworthy, it is a  necessary but not sufficient condition to introduce neuroscience data in FPE, given that such data has to be evaluated case by case.


Robert P. Granacher, Jr
# Forensic Issues in the Structural or Functional Neuroimaging of Traumatic Brain Injury 2013
As a general rule, a physician examining a TBI patient where it is known that the patient is in a legal context, should avoid issues of malingering, ratable disability impairment, whether or not the patient is telling the truth, and other factors that will have special importance in a legal forum. If the treating physician ventures into these areas, it puts at risk the doctor-patient relationship, and this should never be allowed to happen.


Francis X. Shen
# Legislating Neuroscience: The Case of Juvenile Justice
Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 985 (2013)
Using the illustrative case of juvenile justice and focusing on state legislatures, this Article begins to explore how neuroscience is being used in the statehouse. I find that juvenile justice policy discussion in state legislatures includes mention of adolescent brain science. It is unclear what effect this science has on policymaking, but brain science is being presented at legislative hearings, cited by legislators, and integrated into some new laws...


Bernice B. Donald
# Probing the Mind: Neuroscience, the Rules of Evidence, and the Constitution
57th UIA (Union Internationale des Avocats) Congress, 2013
It is still too early to determine whether the law-and-neuroscience trend will fall flat, or conversely, inspire the next great legal debate. But as neuroscience technology becomes more widely available and reliable, it becomes increasingly likely that evidence derived from such technology will raise the questions introduced in this report. As a legal community, we must take proactive steps to confront such challenges and develop well-prepared and well-reasoned responses to address them.


Peggy Larrieu, Bernard Roullet, Colin Gavaghan (eds)
# Neurolex sed ... dura lex? L’impact des neurosciences sur les disciplines juridiques et les autres sciences humaines: études comparées
Comparative Law Journal of the Pacific, New Zealand 2013
La rencontre du droit et des neurosciences: une contradiction? Sans apporter de réponse précise et immédiate, ce qui n'est d'ailleurs jamais de
bon augure pour la discipline juridique qui par définition a besoin de temps, le regard comparé sur la question de l'utilisation des neurosciences par le droit a le mérite de susciter des interrogations d'ordre épistémologique. Elle permet aussi et surtout, dans une démarche réflexive, de revisiter les bases de notre culture juridique dont on a bien souvent plus conscience.


Benedikt Habermeyer, Fabrizio Esposito, Nadja Händel, Patrick Lemoine, Markus Klarhöfer, Ralph Mager, lker Dittmann, Erich Seifritz, Marc Graf
# Immediate processing of erotic stimuli in paedophilia and controls: a case control study
BMC Psychiatry 2013, 13:88
Our event related study design confirmed that erotic pictures activate some of the brain regions already known to be involved in the processing of erotic pictures when these are presented in blocks. In addition, it revealed that erotic pictures of prepubescent children activate brain regions critical for choosing response strategies in both groups, and that erotically salient stimuli selectively activate a brain region in paedophilic subjects that had previously been attributed to reward and punishment, and that had been shown to be implicated in the suppression of erotic response and deception


Jean Decety, Chenyi Chen, Carla Harenski, Kent A. Kiehl
# An fMRI study of affective perspective taking in individuals with psychopathy: imagining another in pain does not evoke empathy
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, September 2013
There is general consensus among theorists that the ability to adopt and entertain the psychological perspective of others has a number of important consequences, including empathic concern. Adopting the perspective of another is a powerful way to place one self in the situation or emotional state of that person. Our results demonstrate that while individuals with psychopathy exhibited a strong response in pain-affective brain regions when taking an imagine-self perspective, they failed to recruit the neural circuits that are were activated in controls during an imagine-other perspective, and that may contribute to lack of empathic concern.


Joyce W. Lacy, Craig E. L. Stark
# The neuroscience of memory: implications for the courtroom Nature | Neurosciences | Vol 14, September 2013
Findings from basic psychological research and neuroscience studies indicate that memory is a reconstructive process that is susceptible to distortion. In the courtroom, even minor memory distortions can have severe consequences that are partly driven by common misunderstandings about memory — for example, that memory is more veridical than it may actually be.


D. A. Baker, N. J. Schweitzer, Evan F. Risko, Jillian M. Ware
# Visual Attention and the Neuroimage Bias Volume 8 | 1 September 2013
The influence of neuroimages on recidivism judgments can potentially be attributed to differences between the types of evidence that might be considered when making judgments related to what a person has done in the past versus what a person might do in the future.


Maia Pujara, Julian C. Motzkin, Joseph P. Newman, Kent A. Kiehl, Michael Koenigs
# Neural correlates of reward and loss sensitivity in psychopathy SCAN Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci (2013)

Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with callous and impulsive behavior and criminal recidivism. It has long been theorized that psychopaths have deficits in processing reward and punishment. Here, we use structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the neural correlates of reward and loss sensitivity in a group of criminal psychopaths. Forty-one adult male prison inmates (n = 18 psychopaths and n = 23 non-psychopaths) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task involving the gain or loss of money.


Robert B. Michael, Eryn J. Newman, Matti Vuorre, Geoff Cumming, Maryanne Garry
# On the (non)persuasive power of a brain image
Psychon Bull Rev. 2013 Aug
The persuasive power of brain images has captivated scholars in many disciplines. Like others, we too were intrigued by the finding that a brain image makes accompanying information more credible. But when our attempts to build on this effect failed, we instead ran a series of systematic replications of the original study-comprising 10 experiments and nearly 2,000 subjects. When we combined the original data with ours in a meta-analysis, we arrived at a more precise estimate of the effect, determining that a brain image exerted little to no influence. The persistent meme of the influential brain image should be viewed with a critical eye.


Jaak Panksepp, Jules B. Panksepp
# Toward a cross-species understanding of empathy
Trends Neurosci. 2013 August ; 36(8)
Although signs of empathy have now been well documented in non-human primates, only during the past few years have systematic observations suggested that a primal form of empathy exists in rodents. Thus, the study of empathy in animals has started in earnest. Here we review recent studies indicating that rodents are able to share states of fear, and highlight how affective neuroscience approaches to the study of primary-process emotional systems can help to delineate how primal empathy is constituted in mammalian brains. Cross-species evolutionary approaches to understanding the neural circuitry of emotional ‘contagion’ or ‘resonance’ between nearby animals, together with the underlying neurochemistries, may help to clarify the origins of human empathy.


Alessia Farano
# Percorsi della responsabilità: le neuroscienze cambiano tutto o niente? Giugno 2013, numero 18

Il discorso delle neuroscienze, cioè, afferisce all'uomo inteso come idem, dunque a ciò che nell'uomo non muta, il suo corpo, ma anche la sua indole, le predisposizioni genetiche, laddove la responsabililtà rileva dell'identità intesa come ipseità, cioè quella permanenza di sé che tiene insieme in una cornice narrativa coerente le azione passate, di cui ci riconosciamo autori, e le azioni future verso le quali ci impegniamo. La neuroscienza allora cambia tutto e niente, a patto di restituirla alla sua funzione descrittiva, preservando così una nozione di responsabilità radicata nell'ipseità.


Lene Bomann-Larsen
# Voluntary Rehabilitation? On Neurotechnological Behavioural Treatment, Valid Consent and (In)appropriate Offers
Neuroethics (2013) 6:65–77
Criminal offenders may be offered to participate in voluntary rehabilitation programs aiming at correcting undesirable behaviour, as a condition of early release. Behavioural treatment may include direct intervention into the central nervous system (CNS). This article discusses under which circumstances voluntary rehabilitation by CNS intervention is justified. It is argued that although the context of voluntary rehabilitation is a coercive circumstance, consent may still  be effective, in the sense that it can meet formal criteria for informed consent.


Mertins, Vanessa; Schote, Andrea B.; Meyer, Jobst
# Variants of the Monoamine Oxidase A Gene (MAOA) predict free-riding behavior in women in a strategic public goods experiment IAAEU Discussion Paper Series in Economics, No. 02/2013
The aim of this study is to uncover genetic variations that influence differences in cooperative behavior. For this reason, we identify types of players within  a strategic public goods experiment. We explicitly test for an association between individual  variance in strategy choice and the functional promoter-region repeat of the monoamine oxidase A  gene (MAOA). Our experimental findings suggest a link between MAOA and the occurrence of  free-riding in females. Females with MAOA-L are less likely to behave like weak free-riders than  MAOA-H carriers, whereas among males, our results did not support a significant relation between  genotype and player type. Furthermore, MAOA-L female carriers contribute more than MAOA-   subjects to the public good if they know that others contribute nothing, and they showed slightly  lower scores on the Machiavellianism scale. This is the first piece of evidence that genotype might predict player type within a public goods setting.


Bruce N Cuthbert, Thomas R Insel
# Toward the future of psychiatric diagnosis: the seven pillars of RDoC BMC Medicine 2013
The National Institute of Mental Health began the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project in 2009 to develop a research classification system for mental disorders based upon dimensions of neurobiology and observable behavior. RDoC supports research to explicate fundamental biobehavioral dimensions that cut across current heterogeneous disorder categories. We summarize the rationale, status and long-term goals of RDoC, outline challenges in developing a research classification system (such as construct validity and a suitable process for updating the framework) and discuss seven distinct differences in conception and emphasis from current psychiatric nosologies

# Thomas Insel, Transforming Diagnosis, on April 29, 2013


Eyal Aharoni, Gina M. Vincent, Carla L. Harenski, Vince D. Calhoun, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Michael S. Gazzaniga, Kent A. Kiehl
# Neuroprediction of future rearrest
PNAS | April 9, 2013 | vol. 110 | no. 15
Identification of factors that predict recurrent antisocial behavior is integral to the social sciences, criminal justice procedures, and the effective treatment of high-risk individuals. Here we show that error-related brain activity elicited during performance of an inhibitory task prospectively predicted subsequent rearrest among adult offenders within 4 y of release (N = 96). The odds that an offender with relatively low anterior cingulate activity would be rearrested were approximately double that of an offender with high activity in this region, holding constant other observed risk factors. These results suggest a potential neurocognitive biomarker for persistent antisocial behavior.


Jan-Christoph Bublitz
# My Mind is Mine!? Cognitive Liberty as a Legal Concept Draft version - Original in Elisabeth Hildt & Andreas Francke (eds.), Cognitive Enhancement. Springer 2013, Chapter 19)
This chapter explores some of the legal issues raised by mind-interventions outside of therapeutic contexts. It is argued that the law will have to recognize a basic human right: cognitive liberty or mental self-determination which guarantees  an individual’s sovereignty over her mind and entails the permission to both use and refuse neuroenhancements. Not only proponents but also critics of enhancements should embrace this right as they often ground their cases against enhancement on precisely the interests it protects, even though critics do not always seem to be aware of this. The contours and limits of cognitive liberty are sketched, indicating which reasons are good (or bad) grounds for political regulations of neurotechnologies.


Justin M. Carré, Luke W. Hyde, Craig S. Neumann, Essi Viding, Ahmad R. Hariri
# The neural signatures of distinct psychopathic traits
Social Neuroscience, 2013, 8:2
Recent studies suggest that psychopathy may be associated with dysfunction in the neural circuitry supporting both threat- and reward-related processes. However, these studies have involved small samples and often focused on extreme groups. Thus, it is unclear to what extent current findings may generalize to psychopathic traits in the general population. Furthermore, no studies have systematically and simultaneously assessed associations between distinct psychopathy facets and both threat- and reward-related brain function in the same sample of participants. Here, we examined the relationship between threat-related amygdala reactivity and reward-related ventral striatum (VS) reactivity and variation in four facets of self-reported psychopathy in a sample of 200 young adults.


Isabella Merzagora
# Colpevoli si nasce? Criminologia, determinismo, neuroscienze. Autorelazione sul volume 19 Giugno 2013

Il modello offerto dalle neuroscienze ha natura "descrittiva" non esplicativa[11], e trovare un'anomalia nel cervello di una persona non basta a spiegare il delitto. Questo lo si ricava anche dalla fondamentale sentenza delle Sezioni Unite della Corte di Cassazione 9163/2005. Afferma infatti la Corte: "è inoltre necessario che tra il disturbo mentale e il fatto reato sussista un nesso eziologico, che consenta di ritenere il secondo casualmente determinato dal primo". L'affermazione non è inedita per la prassi e la dottrina psichiatrico forensi che sono sempre state univoche nel rapportare l'esistenza dell'incapacità di intendere e di volere non solo ad un criterio cronologico, ma anche ad un criterio di relazione col fatto specifico, di criminogenesi e criminodinamica...


Elisa Marcheselli
# Case Study: Dalla menzogna alla verità che svela gli errori delle perizie
Fondazione Guglielmo Gulotta di Psicologia forense e della Comunicazione, Gennaio - Giugno 2013

L’influenza che le credenze dei vari professionisti, possono avere sull’oggetto osservato è un argomento noto alla psicologia sociale (effetto Hawthorne). È stato ampiamente dimostrando come le convinzioni degli sperimentatori e dei soggetti sperimentali possano influenzare la realtà e dare origine ad una “profezia che si autodetermina” (effetto Rosenthal). Che dire: l’uomo è limitato dalle sue stesse caratteristiche mentali ovvero è abituato ad attribuire significati sulla realtà che lo circonda, ma può ovviare a questo eccesso di ricerca di significati trasformando il limite nella risorsa: conoscendo la possibilità di incorrere in errore per la natura intrinseca della mente umana e contemplare la possibilità di non poter oggettivare in assoluto i dati della realtà.


Francis X. Shen
# Mind, Body, and the Criminal Law
Minnesota Law Review, 97, 2013
When the United States Congress passed a new mental health parity law in 2008, then Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi announced that henceforth, “illness of the brain must be treated just like illness anywhere else in the body.”1 Such sen-timent is becoming more common, as policymakers and the public increasingly recognize the biological basis for, and the gravity of, “mental” and “emotional” disabilities...


Jean Decety, Laurie R. Skelly, Kent A. Kiehl
# Brain Response to Empathy-Eliciting Scenarios Involving Pain in Incarcerated Individuals With Psychopathy
JAMA Psychiatry, April 24, 2013
Participants in the psychopathy group exhibited significantly less activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, and periaqueductal gray relative to controls but showed greater activation in the insula, which was positively correlated with scores on both PCL-R factors 1 and 2. Conclusions and Relevance: In response to pain and distress cues expressed by others, individuals with psychopathy exhibit deficits in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex regardless of stimulus type and display selective impairment in processing facial cues of distress in regions associated with cognitive mentalizing.  A better understanding of the neural responses to empathy-eliciting stimuli in psychopathy is necessary to inform intervention programs.


Matthew J. Schreiner, Maria T. Lazaro, Maria Jalbrzikowski, Carrie E. Bearden
# Converging levels of analysis on a genomic hotspot for psychosis: Insights from 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome
Neuropharmacology, 2013 May ; 68: 157–173
Schizophrenia is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder that, despite extensive research, still poses a considerable challenge to attempts to unravel its heterogeneity, and the complex biochemical mechanisms by which it arises. While the majority of cases are of unknown etiology, accumulating evidence suggests that rare genetic mutations, such as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22qDS), can play a significant role in predisposition to the illness. Up to 25% of individuals with 22qDS eventually develop schizophrenia...


Adina L. Roskies, N.J. Schweitzer, Michael J. Saks
# Neuroimages in court: less biasing than feared
Trends in Cognitive Sciences March 2013, Vol. 17, No. 3
For many, neuroscience offers the prospect of allowing us to categorize brain dysfunction in a more fine-grained fashion and potentially to revise current ways of viewing mental dysfunction, perhaps making the law more just. To do this, neuroscience will have to engage more directly with questions of how neuroevidence is relevant to legal criteria for culpability and perhaps ultimately to reshape those criteria.


Kent A. Kiehl
# Can Neuroscience Help Understand Risk For Homicide? 2013


Valentina Zuech
# Neuroscienze e diritto. Possibilità e limiti di un'esperienza neuro-giuridica
Università degli Studi di Padova, 2013
La crisi della psichiatria e la sua incapacità di fornire una definizione unitaria di anomalia psichica hanno aperto un varco per l'introduzione nelle aule di tribunale, mediante la perizia o la consulenza tecnica di parte, del contributo delle neuroscienze nell'individuazione della capacità conoscitiva e volitiva dell'imputato. In particolare, attraverso l'utilizzo di strumenti con i quali è possibile osservare il funzionamento in atto delle sinapsi. Il riferimento al solo sapere neuroscientifico potrebbe condurre verso un rischio duplice: da un lato, deresponsabilizzare l'autore del reato, individuando nella struttura cerebrale il vero colpevole del delitto; dall'altro, sostituire il dialogo tra imputato e perito/consulente tecnico con l'imaging cerebrale, togliendo spazio alla narrazione soggettiva degli stati mentali, sostituita da una “fotografia” funzionale dell'encefalo.


Comitato Nazionale per la Bioetica
# Neuroscienze e potenziamento cognitivo farmacologico: profili bioetici 13 marzo 2013
Negli ultimi vent’anni il tema dell’‘enhancement’ è stato al centro di un intenso dibattito che è stato stimolato inizialmente dall’incontro fra ingegneria genetica e medicina riproduttiva e, successivamente, dall’imporsi all’attenzione delle c.d. tecnologie convergenti (Converging Technologies: Nano-Bio-Info-Cogno), intrecciandosi con i temi dell’uomo bionico, del postumano e del transumano, si è sviluppato soprattutto in vista di possibili scenari futuri prefiguranti una ‘rivoluzione’ antropologica di portata tale da ridisegnare l’identità umana e gli stessi meccanismi di evoluzione della specie.


Robert M. Sapolsky, John A. Gunn, Cynthia Fry Gunn, Allan Siegel, lordan Grafman, Pamela Blake, Peter K. Hatemi, Rose McDermott, Anthony C. Lopez, Paul J. Zak, James Giordano, Roland Benedikter, Robert E. Schmidle |  Diane DiEuliis, Hriar Cabayan (eds)
# Topics in the Neurobiology of Aggression: Implications to Deterrence February 2013
Neuroscientific studies of human behavior suggest aggression is a useful but costly strategy and people have a tendency to cooperate in many situations. This has been shown to be chemically regulated, and cooperative behaviors are just as "natural" as aggressive ones. The “Golden Rule” exists in every culture and reveals our essential social nature; this is naturally threatened in situations of threat or high stress.


Bob Roozenbeek, Andrew I. R. Maas, David K. Menon
# Changing patterns in the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury
Nat. Rev. Neurol. 9, 231–236 (2013)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health and socio-economic  problem throughout the world. Reliable quantification of the burden caused by TBI is difficult owing to inadequate standardization and incomplete capture of data on the  incidence and outcome of brain injury, with variability in the definition of TBI being partly to blame. Reports show changes in epidemiological patterns of TBI: the median age of individuals who experience TBI is increasing, and falls have now surpassed road traffic incidents as the leading cause of this injury.


Kevin M. Beaver, John Paul Wright, Brian B. Boutwell, J.C. Barnes, Matt DeLisi, Michael G. Vaughn
# Exploring the association between the 2-repeat allele of the MAOA gene promoter polymorphism and psychopathic personality traits, arrests, incarceration, and lifetime antisocial behavior
Personality and Individual Differences 54 (2013) 164–168
A line of research has revealed that a polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAOA gene is related to antisocial phenotypes. Most of these studies examine the effects of low MAOA activity alleles against the effects of high MAOA activity alleles, with research indicating that the low MAOA activity alleles confer an increased risk to antisocial phenotypes. Analyses revealed that African-American males who carried the 2-repeat allele were, in comparison with other African-American male genotypes, significantly more likely to be arrested and incarcerated.


Adrian Raine
# The Criminal Mind. Advances in genetics and neuroscience are revolutionizing our understanding of violent behavior—as well as ideas about how to prevent and punish crime
The Wall Street Journal, April 26, 2013
The field of neurocriminology—using neuroscience to understand and prevent crime—is revolutionizing our understanding of what drives "bad" behavior. More than 100 studies of twins and adopted children have confirmed that about half of the variance in aggressive and antisocial behavior can be attributed to genetics. Other research has begun to pinpoint which specific genes promote such behavior. Brain-imaging techniques are identifying physical deformations and functional abnormalities that predispose some individuals to violence. In one recent study, brain scans correctly predicted which inmates in a New Mexico prison were most likely to commit another crime after release. Nor is the story exclusively genetic: A poor environment can change the early brain and make for antisocial behavior later in life.


Amedeo Santosuosso, Barbara Bottalico
# Neuroscienze e genetica comportamentale nel processo penale italiano. Casi e prospettive
Rassegna Italiana di Criminologia, n. 1, 2013
a) Da un punto di vista procedurale, quale può essere la via d’ingresso nel processo penale per la prova neuroscientifica e di genetica comportamentale? b) Una volta presentate a un giudice o a una giuria, cosa possono aggiungere  la neuroscienza e la genetica comportamentale alla spiegazione del comportamento umano rispetto a quanto offerto fino a oggi dalla psichiatria e dalle altre scienze forensi? c) Possono le neuro-tecniche essere di aiuto nella fase di esecuzione della pena, e come mai fino a ora non si ha notizia di casi in cui ciò sia avvenuto? Il presente contributo si propone, attraverso l’analisi della casistica italiana e alcuni cenni comparatistici con il sistema e la casistica statunitense, di approfondire le questioni alla base di queste domande e di porre le basi per alcune prime risposte.


Marco Mendola
# Aspetti informatici delle prove biometriche. Il problema dei “Falsi positivi”
Psicologia e Giustizia, Anno 14, numero 1, Gennaio - Giugno 2013


Adina L. Roskies, N.J. Schweitzer, Michael J. Saks
# Neuroimages in court: less biasing than feared
Trends in Cognitive Sciences March 2013, Vol. 17, No. 3
Neuroscience is increasingly poised to play a role in legal proceedings. One persistent concern, however, is the intuition that brain images may bias, mislead, or confuse jurors. Initially, empirical research seemed to support this intuition. New findings contradict those expectations, prompting a rethinking of the ‘threat’ of neuroscience in the courtroom.


Marcel Brass, Margaret T. Lynn, Jelle Demanet, Davide Rigoni
# Imaging volition: what the brain can tell us about the will
Exp Brain Res 2013
A host of studies indicate that the medial prefrontal cortex plays a crucial role in voluntary action. Accordingly, we postulate that social psychological concepts of volition can be investigated using neuroimaging techniques, and propose that by developing a social cognitive neuroscience of human volition, we may gain a deeper understanding of this fascinating and complex aspect of the human mind.


Marta Bertolino

# Prove neuro-psicologiche di verità penale 8 Gennaio 2013
1. Ragionamento giudiziario e sapere neuroscientifico: questioni di evidences e di proofs. 2. Errori cognitivi del ragionamento probatorio: pensiero formale versus pensiero spontaneo. 3. Prove di verità tra massime d'esperienza e dimostrazioni neuroscientifiche. 4. Prove di verità neuroscientifiche di imputabilità e di pericolosità. 5. (segue) Prove di verità neuroscientifiche di falsità. 5.1. Questioni di dolo eventuale. 6. Il giudice tra diritto penale e processo


Ilina Singh
# Brain talk: power and negotiation in children’s discourse about self, brain and behaviour
Sociology of Health & Illness Vol. 35 No. 6 2013
Despite their contact with psychiatric explanations and psychotropic drugs for their behaviour, children's discursive engagements with the brain show significant evidence of agency and negotiated responsibility. These engagements suggest the limitations of current concepts that describe a collapse of the self into the brain in an age of neurocentrism.


Timm B. Poeppl, Joachim Nitschke, Pekka Santtila, Martin Schecklmann, Berthold Langguth, Mark W. Greenlee, Michael Osterheider, Andreas Mokros
# Association between brain structure and phenotypic characteristics in pedophilia
Journal of Psychiatric Research 47 (2013)
When compared to non-sexual offenders instead of community controls, pedophiles revealed deficiencies in white matter only. The present study sought to test the hypotheses of structurally compromised prefrontal and limbic networks and whether structural brain abnormalities are related to phenotypic characteristics in pedophiles...


Peggy L. St. Jacques, Daniel L. Schacter
# Modifying Memory: Selectively Enhancing and Updating Personal Memories for a Museum Tour by Reactivating Them
Psychological Science 24(4) 537–543, 2013
Memory can be modified when reactivated, but little is known about how the properties and extent of reactivation can selectively affect subsequent memory. We developed a novel museum paradigm to directly investigate reactivation-induced plasticity for personal memories. Participants reactivated memories triggered by photos taken from a camera they wore during a museum tour and made relatedness judgments on novel photos taken from a different tour of the same museum....


Daniel L Schacter, Elizabeth F Loftus
# Memory and law: what can cognitive neuroscience contribute?
Nature Neuroscience, v. 16 | number 2 | February 2013
A recent decision in the United States by the New Jersey Supreme Court has led to improved jury instructions that incorporate psychological research showing that memory does not operate like a video recording. Here we consider how cognitive neuroscience could contribute to addressing memory in the courtroom. We discuss conditions in which neuroimaging can distinguish true and false memories in the laboratory and note reasons to be skeptical about its use in courtroom cases. We also discuss neuroscience research concerning false and imagined memories, misinformation effects and reconsolidation phenomena that may enhance understanding of why memory does not operate like a video recording...


Jeffrey M. Perkel
# This Is Your Brain: Mapping the Connectome
Science 18 Jan 2013 - Vol. 339, Issue 6117, pp. 350-352
It's been 20 years since Francis Crick and Edward Jones, in the midst of the so-called Decade of the Brain, lamented science's lack of even a basic understanding of human neuroanatomy. "Clearly what is needed for a modern human brain anatomy is the introduction of some radically new techniques," the pair wrote in 1993. Clearly, researchers were listening. Today, they are using novel technologies and automation to map neural circuitry with unparalleled resolution and completeness. The NIH has dedicated nearly $40 million to chart the wiring of the human brain, and the Allen Brain Institute has poured in millions more to map the mouse brain. The data will take years to compile, and even longer to understand. But the results may reveal nothing less than the nature of human individuality. As MIT neuroscientist Sebastian Seung writes, "You are more than your genes. You are your connectome."


Nikolas Rose
# European Neuroscience and Society Network (ENSN) Final Report January 2013
Recent discoveries about the human brain are beginning to influence our legal system, increasing our understanding of actions that our laws regulate and of attitudes that our laws reflect. The way that we apply neuroscientific discoveries will have a major impact on the future of our legal system. With informed and cautious reform, our legal system could have more accurate predictions, more effective interventions, and less bias. Society could have less crime and fewer people in prisons. This colloquium explored developments in the field of Law and Neuroscience.


Ivannia Delgado Calderón
# “El dilema del derecho penal y las neurociencias: ¿libre albedrío o determinismo? 2012
La responsabilidad penal y la imposición de penas se fundamentan en el principio de culpabilidad, y este, en el libre arbitrio de la persona. Las neurociencias, por su parte, refutan la tesis de que el ser humano actúa libremente y afirman que su actuación se encuentra determinada. El ensayo versa sobre esta polémica, en cuanto a las repercusiones que las investigaciones realizadas en el ámbito de las neurociencias podrían tener en la definición de responsabilidad penal.


Alain Claeys, Jean-Sébastien Vialatte | Office Parlamentaire d'évaluation des choix scientifiques et technologiques
# L'impact et les enjeux des nouvelles technologies d'exploration et de thérapie du cerveau 2012


Paolo Marchetti
# Il cervello a giudizio. Le lontane origini di due recenti sentenze italiane
Psicologia e Giustizia, Anno 13, numero 2, Giugno-Dicembre 2012
Gli interrogativi suscitati dall’uso delle neuroscienze nell’ambito del processo penale hanno un contenuto di assoluta novità? Prendendo spunto da due recenti sentenze italiane e da una cause célèbre di inizio Novecento (il processo al brigante Musolino), in questo articolo si cercherà di mettere in evidenza come, nel complesso rapporto che ha da sempre legato il diritto alla psichiatria, alcuni punti di frizione tra i due saperi sembrano ripresentarsi con assoluta costanza. Dall’“antropologia criminale”, fondata da Cesare Lombroso, alle attuali neuroscienze, i nodi problematici attorno a cui si addensano dubbi, perplessità e critiche non appaiono essere poi cambiati di molto. Mettere a confronto le due epoche, da questo punto di vista, può rappresentare un prezioso contributo all’analisi di questioni che solo un deficit di memoria storica può considerare come assolutamente originali.


Gabriele Catania
# Newtown, cosa accade se il colpevole è il cervello? | Intervista a Luca Samicheli 20 dicembre 2012
Se si sposa il riduzionismo cerebrale, il libero arbitrio va a farsi benedire. Ciò forse non crea grandi problemi nelle facoltà di psicologia, dove magari si può accettare la scomparsa del libero arbitrio in nome delle neuroscienze. Nei tribunali, invece, il riduzionismo cerebrale crea un problema pratico: se diciamo che il libero arbitrio non esiste, dobbiamo riscrivere gran parte dei diritti penali occidentali; essi trovano il fondamento della giustificazione della pena, perlomeno di quella retributiva, nel libero arbitrio.


Cliodhna O’Connor, Geraint Rees, Helene Joffe
# Neuroscience in the Public Sphere
Neuron 74, April 26, 2012
Neuroscience does not take place in a vacuum, and it is important to maintain sensitivity to the social implications, whether positive or negative, it may have as it manifests in real-world social contexts. It appears that the brain has been instantiated as a benchmark in public dialogue, and reference to brain research is now a powerful rhetorical tool. The key questions to be addressed in the coming years revolve around how this tool is employed and the effects this may have on society’s conceptual, behavioral, and institutional repertoires.


Alissa Quart
# Neuroscience: Under Attack
The New York Times : November 23, 2012
A number of the neuro doubters are also humanities scholars who question the way that neuroscience has seeped into their disciplines, creating phenomena like neuro law, which, in part, uses the evidence of damaged brains as the basis for legal defense of people accused of heinous crimes, or neuroaesthetics, a trendy blend of art history and neuroscience.


Jane Kaye, Liam Curren, Nick Anderson, Kelly Edwards, Stephanie M. Fullerton, Nadja Kanellopoulou, David Lund, Daniel G. MacArthur, Deborah Mascalzoni, James Shepherd, Patrick Taylor, Sharon F. Terry, Stefan F. Winter

# From patients to partners: participant-centric initiatives in biomedical research
Nat Rev Genet 2012; 13:371–376
Advances in computing technology and bioinformatics mean that medical research is increasingly characterized by large international consortia of researchers that are reliant on large data sets and biobanks. These trends raise a number of challenges for obtaining consent, protecting participant privacy concerns and maintaining public trust. Participant-centred initiatives (PCIs) use social media technologies to address these immediate concerns, but they also provide the basis for longterm interactive partnerships. Here, we give an overview of this rapidly moving field by providing an analysis of the different PCI approaches, as well as the benefits and challenges of implementing PCIs.


Daniel L. Schacter
# Adaptive Constructive Processes and the Future of Memory
American Psychologist, November 2012
Memory serves critical functions in everyday life but is also prone to error. This article examines adaptive constructive processes, which play a functional role in memory and cognition but can also produce distortions, errors, and illusions. The article describes several types of memory errors that are produced by adaptive constructive processes and focuses in particular on the process of imagining or simulating events that might occur in one’s personal future. Simulating future events relies on many of the same cognitive and neural processes as remembering past events, which may help to explain why imagination and memory can be easily confused.


Daniel L. Schacter, Donna Rose Addis, Demis Hassabis, Victoria C. Martin, R. Nathan Spreng, Karl K. Szpunar
# The Future of Memory: Remembering, Imagining, and the Brain
Neuron 76, November 21, 2012
During the past few years, there has been a dramatic increase in research examining the role of memory in imagination and future thinking. This work has revealed striking similarities between remembering the past and imagining or simulating the future, including the finding that a common brain network underlies both memory and imagination.


Martina Ly, B.S., Julian C. Motzkin, Carissa L. Philippi, Gregory R. Kirk, Joseph P. Newman, Kent A. Kiehl, Michael Koenigs
# Cortical Thinningin Psychopathy
Am J Psychiatry 2012
Psychopathy, characterized by callous and impulsive antisocial behavior, is present in roughly a quarter of adult prison inmates and is associated with a disproportionately high incidence of violent crime and recidivism. The identification of neural correlates of the disorder could thus have profound implications for the clinical and legal management of psychopathic criminals as well as for our basic understanding of the biological  substrates underlying human social behavior.


Cornelia I. Bargmann
# Beyond the connectome: How neuromodulators shape neural circuits Bioessays 34: 458–465, 2012
Defining the connectome is like sequencing the genome: once the genome  was available, it was impossible to imagine life without it. Yet both for the genome and for the connectome, structure does not solve function. What the structure provides is a better overview, a glimpse of the limits of the roblem, a set of plausible hypotheses, and a framework to test those hypotheses with greater precision and power


Jamil Zaki, Kevin Ochsner
# The neuroscience of empathy: progress, pitfalls and promise nature neuroscience  Vol. 15 | n. 5 | May 2012
Abnormal engagement of empathy-related neural systems also characterizes psychiatric conditions involving social deficits. For example, individuals with autism spectrum disorders exhibit reduced  engagement of brain areas associated with mentalizing and experience sharing,  which correlates with deficits in clinical measures of social impairments; similar patterns emerge in other disorders such as schizophrenia and psychopathy. Together, these data bolster the argument that neural systems associated with empathic subprocesses support human social abilities.


Robert Kumsta, Markus Heinrichs
# Oxytocin, stress and social behavior: neurogenetics of the human oxytocin system
Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2012, 23:1–6
Research in the social neurosciences has made considerable progress in identifying the neurobiological underpinnings of complex social behavior. Investigations across species have shown that the neuropeptide oxytocin, together with arginine vasopressin, plays a key role in encoding information relevant to social interactions and is critically involved in the regulation of complex social cognition and behavior, including attachment, social recognition, social exploration, as well as anxiety and fear-related behaviors.


Michael Koenigs
# The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy Rev. Neurosci., Vol. 23(3): 253–262, 2012
A growing body of evidence associates psychopathy with structural and functional abnormalities in ventromedial PFC and anterior cingulate cortex. Although this burgeoning field still faces a number of methodological challenges and outstanding questions that will need to be resolved by future studies, the research to date has established a link between psychopathy and PFC (prefrontal cortex).


S Kapur, AG Phillips, TR Insel
# Why has it taken so long for biological psychiatry to develop clinical tests and what to do about it?
Molecular Psychiatry (2012)
Biological psychiatry and the related neurosciences have changed mankind’s view of itself and of mental illness, but have yet to provide biomedical tests for routine clinical practice. The delay is understandable given the later start than the rest of medicine, the complexity of the brain, the nascence of neuroscientific techniques and the evolving nature of psychiatric nosology. On the other hand, the opportunity afforded by the progress in genomics and imaging combined with the computational abilities is unprecedented and could deliver useful clinical tests. These tests will identify homogenous populations for whom one could develop targeted new therapeutics thus realising a vision of a new stratified psychiatry that cuts across the traditional diagnostic boundaries while simultaneously transforming them.


Elsa Ermer, Lora M. Cope, Prashanth K. Nyalakanti, Vince D. Calhoun, Kent A. Kiehl
# Aberrant Paralimbic Gray Matter in Criminal Psychopathy
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2012, Vol. 121, No. 3, 649 – 658
The societal cost of psychopathy, including fiscal and emotional components, rivals those of other major mental illnesses of similar prevalence (1% general population).  Psychopaths are known to commit a disproportionate amount of violent crime, and they constitute upward of 25% of prison populations. Psychopathy is an important predictor of recidivism, especially violent recidivism, and its assessment is crucial for predicting treatment progress and outcome. Thus, psychopathy is a critical factor in the effective management of the incarcerated populations.


David M. Eagleman, Sarah Isgur Flores
# Defining A Neurocompatibility Index for Criminal Justice Systems: A Framework to Align Social Policy with Modern Brain Science
Law of the Future Series No. 1 (2012)
We here define a neurocompatibility index: seven criteria to measure the degree to which a system of criminal justice is compatible with the lessons of modern science. These include: (1) understanding of mental illness, (2) methods of rehabilitation, (3) individualised sentencing based on risk assessment, (4) eyewitness identification standards, (5) specialised court systems, (6) incentive structuring based on psychology, and (7) a minimum standard of science education for policy-makers.


Thomas Nadelhoffer, Stephanos Bibas, Scott Grafton, Kent A. Kiehl, Andrew Mansfield, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Michael Gazzaniga
# Neuroprediction, Violence, and the Law: Setting the Stage
Neuroethics, 2012 April 1; 5(1): 67–99
Neuroprediction of violence is controversial and potentially problematic but still promising. Opponents raise various objections, but none seems conclusive. Neuroprediction of violence does not conflict with current practices, since other forms of violence prediction are already used in other legal arenas, including capital sentencing, civil commitment, and post-punishment detention of some sexually violent predators. Violence predictions can do tremendous harm when mistaken, but all that shows is that the legal system should use the best possible methods when it relies on these predictions. As we saw, clinical predictions are usually less reliable than actuarial predictions, and there is some reason to hope that neuroscience might improve the accuracy of actuarial predictions.


Jean Macchiaroli Eggen, Eric J. Laury
# Toward a neuroscience model of tort law_how functional neuroimaging will transform tort doctrine
Columbia Science and Technology Law Review, vol. XIII, Spring 2012
Developments in neuroscience through the use of functional neuroimaging and other recent technologies have set the stage for a new era in tort law, one in which evidence of brain activity may eventually transform our comprehension of the underlying doctrinal rules. Neuroscience studies that explain many mental processes may soon deepen our understanding of such frequently used tort-doctrine terms as “reasonable person,” “intent,” and “mental disability.” Although the neuroscience developments are fascinating, they face cautious interest in the courtroom and frequent exclusion.


Julien Delezie, Stéphanie Dumont, Hugues Dardente, Hugues Oudart, Aline Gréchez-Cassiau, Paul Klosen, Michèle Teboul, Franck Delaunay, Paul Pévet, Etienne Challet
# The nuclear receptor REV-ERB is required for the daily balance of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
Mutations of clock genes can lead to diabetes and obesity... Altered circadian rhythmicity is a newly identified determinant of metabolic disorders in humans. Most aspects of behavior and metabolism display daily rhythms, including sleep-wake and feeding-nonfeeding cycles. These daily variations are controlled by a circadian timing system made of interconnected clocks and oscillators.


Ciro Santoriello
# Modesti prolegomeni per buon e prudente utilizzo della conoscenza scientifica nel processo penale
Archivio Penale Fascicolo n. 3, Settembre-Dicembre 2011


Barbara Bottalico

# La libertà personale e le neuroscienze cognitive
Università degli Studi di Trento, 2011-2012
Nella casistica statunitense vi sono già stati svariati tentativi di ammettere la prova neuroscientifica nel procedimento penale e i giudici hanno fronteggiato la questione con un approccio – finora – di sospetto e di chiusura,  soprattutto con riferimento alla lie detection da effettuarsi attraverso l’uso di fMRI.  Il timore che vengano violati i diritti dell’imputato, tra cui in primis quelli protetti dal  Quarto e dal Quinto Emendamento, ha un ruolo importante...


George Symington
# Neurolaw: de la defensa judicial hacia un derecho penal del enemigo
Univ. Estud. Bogotá (Colombia) N° 9: 67-99, enero-diciembre 2012
El Derecho Penal vigente se basa en teorías libertarias de la libertad humana, lo cual implica que las evidencias neurocientíficas actualmente sean un medio de defensa para el implicado. Se pregunta: ¿Qué pasaría si se cambia a un paradigma penal que no tiene como eje el libre albedrío? La respuesta plantea que seguramente se pasaría a un modelo punitivo diferente, al igual que se advierte sobre la amenaza de la creación de un nuevo modelo de Derecho Penal del Enemigo.


Olivier Oullier (coord)
# Le cerveau et la loi: analyse de l’émergence du neurodroit N°2012-07, septembre 2012
La loi de bioéthique de 2011 fait de la France le premier pays à admettre, par un texte législatif, le recours à l’imagerie cérébrale dans le cadre de l’expertise judiciaire. Dans ce contexte, le Centre d’analyse stratégique publie un document de travail sur les enjeux du “neurodroit”, néologisme qui désigne le champ de recherche s’intéressant aux applications juridiques des neurosciences. Deux grands domaines d’intérêt sont identifiés : d’une part l’utilisation de l’imagerie cérébrale comme preuve dans un procès, d’autre part la compréhension des conduites et des mécanismes délibératifs des acteurs du procès grâce aux sciences comportementales. La possibilité à terme d’une meilleure administration de la justice – par une compréhension accrue des comportements délictueux – ne doit pas masquer les limites encore importantes de l’utilisation de la neuroimagerie fonctionnelle dans les prétoires.


Yarimar Ruiz Orozco
# FDP: “Forensic DNA Phenotyping”. Aplicaciones de marcadores genéticos en la inferencia de características visibles externas y origen ancestral con fines forenses
Universidad Santiago de Compostela, Junio 2012


Georgia Martha Gkotsi, Lazare Benaroyo
# Neuroscience and the Treatment of Mentally Ill Criminal Offenders: Some Ethical Issues
Journal of Ethics in Mental Health, 6, 2012
As punishment and treatment are combined in most justice systems, the challenge for the future is to use neuroscience to the real benefit of mentally ill off enders, as a therapeutic tool, which would replace punishment. To do that, efficient, safe and tested neuroscientific interventions should be employed with the purpose of treating a well-defined, existing psychiatric disorder and not as a means of experimentation or further punishment, under the pretext of treatment and rehabilitation


Giuseppe Amoroso
# Giudizio di imputabilità e neuroscienze
Diritto e scienza 2012/6
Una giurisdizione più matura già oggi può avvalersi delle neuroscienze, non sostituendole alla valutazione comportamentale e clinica di un soggetto, nell’ambito dell’accertamento sulla sua capacità di intendere e di volere, ma integrandola, accrescendone il grado di affidabilità come prova scientifica nel processo penale. Il nocciolo della questione, infatti, concerne esattamente la ricerca di parametri oggettivi...


Laura Capraro
# Primi casi “clinici” in tema di prova neuroscientifica
Processo Penale e Giustizia, N° 3 (2012)
Il ricorso alle neuroscienze per valutare l’imputabilità, cui inora il contributo di tale sapere si è limitato, è ritenuto sostanzialmente legittimo, pur persistendo il dubbio sulle modalità più opportune da seguire per immettere il mezzo istruttorio nel circuito processuale. Invece, le diverse finalità che si intendano affidare alla prova neuroscientifica - come, ad esempio, l’indagine sull’attendibilità del dichiarante - sollevano maggiori riserve, a causa del possibile ridimensionamento
del contraddittorio per la prova e delle ricadute sulla libertà morale della persona.


Maurizio Stupiggia
# From Hopeless Solitude to the Sense of Being-With: Functions and Dysfunctions of Mirror Neurons in Post Traumatic Syndromes
International Body Psychotherapy Journal, 2012
In the last few years we have discovered that some mirror neurons may respond to sounds that correspond to certain actions– these have been termed ‘‘audio-visual’’ mirror neurons. This suggests that hybrid therapies that employ both visual and auditory stimulation would maximize clinical efficacy. Furthermore, virtual reality may create such an environment. Recent neuroimaging studies indicate that music, like language, involves an intimate coupling between the perception and production of hierarchically organized sequential information, which links meaning to emotion via the mirror neuron. We believe that music could be a potent component in mirror neuron-based therapies, as recent findings in the domain of stroke rehabilitation have shown


Adam Lamparello

# Neuroscience, Brain Damage, and the Criminal Defendant: Who Does It Help and Where in the Criminal Proceeding Is It Most Relevant?
Rutgers Law Record, Vol. 39, 2012

Violent offenders with frontal lobe disorder, namely those with damage to the prefrontal cortex which consists of the lateral and medial areas along with the orbitofrontal cortex, are less blameworthy than other offenders and warrant different treatment in our criminal justice system. The critical question facing criminal law jurisprudence is no longer whether we should treat these offenders differently, but how, and at what stages, such differential treatment should be applied.


Giulia Volpatti
# Imputabilità e neuroscienze: problematiche e prospettive
Università degli studi di Trieste (tesi dott.), Anno Accademico 2011-2012
Nuove metodologie hanno permesso ai neurologi di giungere ascoperte che, da alcuni punti di vista non possono non dirsi davvero interessanti (e per certi versi anche sensazionali): si pensi alla correlazione tra comportamento aggressivo e geni o alla possibilità di prevedere le scelte che il paziente farà grazie all’osservazione del funzionamento dei suoi neuroni. Non con altrettanto entusiasmo, però, i giuristi hanno accolto le neuroscienze come nuove alleate nella risoluzione delle difficoltà interpretative legate al concetto di vizio di mente e, quindi, di imputabilità. Tutt’altro...


Liane Young, Michael Koenigs, Michael Kruepke, Joseph P. Newman
# Psychopathy Increases Perceived Moral Permissibility of Accidents Journal of Abnormal Psychology 2012
Psychopaths are notorious for their antisocial and immoral behavior, yet experimental studies have typically failed to identify deficits in their capacities for explicit moral judgment. We tested 20 criminal psychopaths and 25 criminal nonpsychopaths on a moral judgment task featuring hypothetical scenarios that systematically varied an actor’s intention and the action’s outcome...


James M. Bjork, Gang Chen, and Daniel W. Hommer
# Psychopathic tendencies and mesolimbic recruitment by cues for instrumental and passively-obtained rewards
Biol Psychol. 2012 February ; 89(2): 408–415
Psychopathy is a constellation of self-serving attitudes and antisocial behaviors with little regard to cost to self and others. Might this symptomatology arise in part from an exaggerated response of brain motivational circuitry to prospective rewards? We examined whether psychopathic tendencies are associated with increased recruitment of incentive neurocircuitry during anticipation of instrumental and conditioned rewards. 


Maribel Narváez Mora
# El impacto de la nurociencia sobre el derecho: el caso de la responsabilidad subjetiva
Revista Telemática de Filosofía del Derecho, nº 15, 2012, pp. 195-230
Analizando el supuesto de la responsabilidad subjetiva, y la relación entre ciencia y filosofía, el texto propone que el impacto de la Neurociencia tendrá el alcance que le confiramos, ya sea consciente o inconscientemente, a resultas de acciones deliberadas o como consecuencia no prevista de un agregado de acciones individuales. Los conceptos científicos disponibles nos pueden ayudar si son verdaderos los juicios que con ellos formamos; los conceptos normativos, que rigen el trato que nos dispensamos unos a otros, tienen otro funcionamiento.


Rose McDermott, Chris Dawes, Elizabeth Prom-Wormley, Lindon Eaves, Peter K. Hatemi
# MAOA and Aggression: A Gene–Environment Interaction in Two Populations 
Journal of Conflict Resolution- 25 November 2012


Manuela Fumagalli, Alberto Priori
# Functional and clinical neuroanatomy of morality
Brain. A Journal of Neurology, 2012
Understanding the dysfunctional brain structures underlying abnormal moral behaviour can lead to specific treatments nowadays using deep brain stimulation or other new non-invasive neuromodulation techniques. For instance, apart from treating aggression, deep brain stimulation might be used in other forms of pathological antisocial behaviour or violence (including sexual assaulters and paedophiles) when education and rehabilitation programmes or other treatments fail.


Leanne Houston, Amy Vierboom
# Neuroscience and Law: Australia 2012
The Australian legal system has not been receptive to new neuroscientific technology. Current case law and legislative provisions demonstrate the hurdles imposed by the rigorous admissibility standards


Dominique J. Church
# Neuroscience in the Courtroom: An International Concern
William and Mary Law Review, v. 53, 2012
This Note, therefore, suggests that although the legality of neuroscientific evidence should be viewed with an eye toward a country’s specific laws, such an analysis does not, nor should it, preclude a more all-inclusive analysis from a human rights perspective. Assuming that proponents of this technology are correct in believing that it has the ability to revolutionize the legal field, a limited analysis commits a disservice to the rights at stake. Ultimately, although intriguing and possibly even beneficial to improving the ways in which individuals understand the human mind, neuroscience should be viewed as just that—science, not magic.


Marta Bertolino
# L'imputabilità penale fra cervello e mente
Rivista Italiana di Medicina Legale, n. 3, 922-939, 2012
E' sempre più indispensabile «formare magistrati capaci di collegare differenti competenze, anche di professionalità diverse». In altre parole, è necessario l’affermarsi, così è stato definito, di «un nuovo paradigma pedagogico» per affinare la sensibilità del magistrato e prepararlo ai nuovi e diversi saperi che contribuiscono  all’accertamento della verità nel processo. Una sensibilità oggi più che mai indispensabile, affinché il giudice possa esercitare il suo potere discrezionale in modo tale da «accostare la norma alla vita» e non debba sperimentare una solitudine decisionale che è la peggior nemica della discrezionalità giudiziale.


Andrea L. Glenn, Yaling Yang
# The Potential Role of the Striatum in Antisocial. Behavior and Psychopathy
Biol Psychiatry 2012;72:817– 822
Across many subtypes of antisocial individuals, several features appear to be consistent: impulsivity, novelty seeking, reward seeking, and poor decision making. Many studies examining the neural correlates of antisocial behavior have focused on the prefrontal cortex because of its demonstrated importance for inhibition, behavioral control, and decision making...


Eyal Aharoni, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Kent A. Kiehl
# Can Psychopathic Offenders Discern Moral Wrongs? A New Look at the Moral/Conventional Distinction
J Abnorm Psychol. 2012 May ; 121(2)
A prominent view of psychopathic moral reasoning suggests that psychopathic individuals cannotproperly distinguish between moral wrongs and other types of wrongs. The present study evaluated this view by examining the extent to which 109 incarcerated offenders with varying degrees of psychopathy could distinguish between moral and conventional transgressions relative to each other and to non-incarcerated healthy controls... The authors conclude that, contrary to earlier claims, insufficient data exist to infer that psychopathic individuals cannot know what is morally wrong.


Paul J. Frick
# Developmental Pathways to Conduct Disorder: Implications for Future Directions in Research, Assessment, and Treatment
Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 41:3, 2012

Conduct disorder (CD) is defined as a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or in which major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. The symptoms of the disorder fall into four main categories: (a) aggression to people and animals, (b) destruction of property, (c) deceitfulness or theft, and (d) serious violations of rules (e.g., truancy, running away from home). CD is an important psychiatric disorder for a number a reasons. Specifically, it often involves aggression; it is highly related to criminal behavior.


Catherine Tuvblada, Yu Gao, Pan Wanga, Adrian Rainec, Theodore Botwick, Laura A. Baker
# The genetic and environmental etiology of decision-making: A longitudinal twin study
Journal of Adolescence (2012)

The present study examined the genetic and environmental etiology of decision-making, in a sample of twins at ages 11–13, 14–15, and 16–18 years. The variance across five 20-trial blocks could be explained by a latent “decision- aking’’ factor within each of the three times of IGT administration. This latent factor was modestly influenced by genetic factors, explaining 35%, 20% and 46% of the variance within each of the three times of IGT administration. The remaining variance was explained by the non-shared environment (65%, 80% and 54%, respectively).


Nikolaos Koutsouleris, Stefan Borgwardt, Eva M. Meisenzahl, Ronald Bottlender, Hans-Jürgen Möller, Anita Riecher-Rössler
# Disease Prediction in the At-Risk Mental State for Psychosis Using Neuroanatomical Biomarkers: Results From the FePsy Study
Schizophrenia Bulletin vol. 38 no. 6 pp. 1234–1246, 2012

Our findings suggest that the early prediction of psychosis may be reliably enhanced using neuroanatomical pattern recognition operating at the single-subject level. These MRI-based biomarkers may have the potential to identify individuals at the highest risk of developing psychosis, and thus may promote informed clinical strategies aiming at preventing the full manifestation of the disease.


Amanda C. Pustilnik
# Pain as Fact and Heuristic: How Pain Neuroimaging Illuminates Moral Dimensions of Law
Cornell Law Review, Vol. 97, No. 4, 2012
Introducing the theory of “embodied morality,” the Article describes how moral conceptions of rights and duties are informed by human physicality and constrained by the limits of empathic identification. Pain neuroimaging helps reveal this dual factual and heuristic nature of pain in the law, and thus itself points to the translational work required for neuroimaging to influence, much less transform, legal practice and doctrine.


Olivier Oullier.
# Clear up this fuzzy thinking on brain scans Nature, vol 483, 7, 1 March 2012
Neuroimaging has been confined mostly to a supporting role in court: in sentence mitigation, for instance. But there have been misguided and dangerous attempts in India, Italy and the United States to use brain scans as key and decisive evidence of guilt or innocence..


Baer Arts, Claudia J.P. Simons, Jim van Os
# Evidence for the impact of the CACNA1C risk allele rs1006737 on 2-year cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder
Psychiatric Genetics 2013, 23:41–42
Patients with bipolar disorder showed a negative effect of the CACNA1C risk allele rs1006737 on a composite cognitive measure, only apparent in the group homozygous for this allele, fitting a recessive model. This finding could not be replicated in a group of first-degree relatives or in healthy controls, indicating interactions with background genetic factors associated with bipolar disorder.


Steve Sussman (Ed.)
# Substance and Behavioral Addictions: Co-Occurrence and Specificity 2012
There may be a common neurocircuitry and neurobiology for multiple addictions and for a number of psychiatric disorders. Due to specific genetic antecedents and environmental influences, a deficiency of the D2 receptors may predispose individuals to a high risk for multiple addictive, impulsive, and compulsive behaviors. It is well known that alcohol and other drugs of abuse, as well as most positive reinforce rs (e.g., sex, food, gambling, aggressive thrills) cause activation and  neuronal release ofbrain DA, which in turn can decrease negative feelings and satisfy abnormal cravings for  alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and nicotine, and which are linked to low DA function 


Yadin Dudai
# The Restless Engram: Consolidations Never End
Annual Review of Neuroscience 2012
Memory consolidation is the hypothetical process in which an item in memory is transformed into a long-term form. It is commonly addressed at two complementary levels of description and analysis: the cellular/synaptic level (synaptic consolidation) and the brain systems level (systems consolidation). This article focuses on selected recent advances in consolidation research, including the reconsolidation of long-term memory items, the brain mechanisms of transformation of the content and of cue-dependency of memory items over time, as well as the role of rest and sleep in  consolidating and shaping memories.


Maria Teresa Collica
# Il riconoscimento del ruolo delle neuroscienze nel giudizio di imputabilità. Nota a G.i.p. Como, 20.5.2011, Est. Lo Gatto (primo riconoscimento della validità delle neuroscienze per l'accertamento dell'imputabilità) 15 Febbraio 2012
1. La vicenda giudiziaria. – 2. I punti controversi della questione giuridica. – 3. La diagnosi dell’infermità mentale. – 4. Le possibili ricadute delle neuroscienze sull’ordinamento giuridico. – 5. La portata delle acquisizioni delle neuroscienze nel giudizio di imputabilità. – 6. Il ruolo dell’esperto e quello del giudice nel giudizio di imputabilità – 7. I criteri di decisione adottati nella sentenza Albertani. – 8. Osservazioni conclusive


Alessandro Corda
# Riflessioni sul rapporto tra neuroscienze e imputabilità nel prisma della dimensione processuale
Criminalia 2012

0. Ambientamento. Visioni futuribili e contaminazioni. – 1. L’intuizione ‘antica’ delle neuroscienze. – 2. Neuroscienze e diritto penale: contesto, limiti e potenzialità. – 3. L’apporto delle neuroscienze cognitive e della genetica comportamentale al giudizio di imputabilità. - 3.1 La sentenza di Trieste. - 3.2. La sentenza di Como. - 3.3. Uno sguardo d’insieme. – 4. L’ingresso della prova scientiica nel processo penale. Alla ricerca di criteri-guida nella Post-Daubert Era. - 4.1. Prova scientiica “nuova” e regime di ammissibilità. - 4.2. Quali criteri per l’ammissione della prova neuroscientiica? – 5. L’utilizzo ‘di parte’ del sapere neuroscientiico. Il problema della responsabilità penale del consulente tecnico. – 6. Un caveat conclusivo.


Stefano Fuselli
# Le emozioni nell’esperienza giuridica: l’impatto delle neuroscienze
Neuroscienze e diritto, Roma 25 gennaio 2012
La carica emotiva della retorica ha una vera e propria funzione ‘informativa’ per l’uditorio, in quanto apporta elementi indispensabili per il formarsi in esso di quel tipo di conoscenza che sorregge razionalmente la decisione. Essa ‘informa’ anzitutto nel senso che attualizza e rende apprezzabile una differenza (entelecheia chorizein, dice Aristotele), in virtù di cui alcunché si staglia, positivamente o negativamente, da ‘tutto il resto’. Ma essa ‘informa’ anche perché organizza attorno ad un centro di attenzione la convergenza delle attività e delle facoltà di tipo noetico e oressico altrettanto necessarie per la deliberazione e la decisione. Infine ‘informa’ proprio in quanto rende comune all’uditorio quella ‘marcatura emotiva’ grazie alla quale qualsiasi dato o elemento entra nei processi di apprensione, memorizzazione ed elaborazione di cui si nutre l’intelligenza pratica e dà forma ad un orizzonte valutativo comune, rendendolo esplicito, discutibile e controllabile.


Edith Greene, Brian S. Cahill
# Effects of Neuroimaging Evidence on Mock Juror Decision Making
Behav. Sci. Law 30: 280–296 (2012)
During the penalty phase of capital trials, defendantsmay introducemitigating evidence that argues for a punishment “less than death.” In the past few years, a novel form of mitigating evidence—brain scans made possible by technological advances in neuroscience— has been proffered by defendants to support claims that brain abnormalities reduce their culpability.


The Royal Society
# Brain Waves Module 4: Neurosciences and the Law December 2011
Recommendation 1: An international meeting should take place every three years to bring together those working across the legal system with experts in neuroscience and related disciplines. The aim of this meeting should be to discuss the latest advances in areas at the intersection of neuroscience and the law to identify practical applications that need to be addressed...


Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche
# Quando la genetica sfida la giustizia Roma, 13 dicembre 2011
In che misura il comportamento criminale dipende dai geni? Quali strumenti offrono le neuroscienze per la valutazione della colpevolezza? Le scoperte sulla struttura del cervello modificheranno il modo di intendere la responsabilità e come influenzeranno la società ed eventualmente le decisioni dei tribunali?


Julian C. Motzkin, Joseph P. Newman,Kent A. Kiehl, Michael Koenigs
# Reduced Prefrontal Connectivity in Psychopathy
The Journal of Neuroscience, November 30, 2011
Linking psychopathy to a specific brain abnormality could have significant clinical, legal, and scientific implications. Theories on the neurobiological basis of the disorder typically propose dysfunction in a circuit involving ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). However,to datethere is limited brain imaging datato directlytest whether psychopathy may indeed be associated with any structural or functional abnormality within this brain area.


Oliver R. Goodenough, Micaela Tucker
# Neuroscience Basics for Lawyers
Mercer Law Review, vol. 62, 2011
The new models of thought arising out of cognitive neuroscience can help us to resolve questions in law that have proved hard for traditional psychology and the other social sciences to resolve. The enriched psychology that cognitive approaches make possible is a particularly useful tool in seeking to understand topics when current approaches of law, folk psychology, and traditional academic psychology are not delivering satisfactory results for society. This summary can only begin the process of introducing practitioners and legal scholars to the richness of the knowledge emerging from neuroscience, but even an entry-level understanding can provide intellectual access to the advances–and perhaps steps sideways and even backwards–provided by neurolaw.


Francis X. Shen, Owen D. Jones
# Brain Scans as Evidence: Truths, Proofs, Lies, and Lessons
Mercer Law Review, vol. 62, 2011
Neurolaw is not just a fanciful fiction of the future. For better or worse, it is already entering contemporary jurisprudence. As United States v. Semrau illustrates in the brain-based lie detection context, attempts to use brain scans in legal contexts will often precede the full appropriateness of doing so.


Owen D. Jones, Francis X. Shen
# Law and Neuroscience in the United States International Neurolaw 2011

Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly reaching United States courtrooms in a number of legal contexts. And the emerging field of Law and Neuroscience is being built on a foundation that joins: a) rapidly developing technologies and techniques of neuroscience; b) quickly expanding legal scholarship on the implications of neuroscience; and c) neuroscientific research designed specifically to explore legally relevant topics. Despite the sharply increasing interest in neuroscientific evidence, it remains unclear how the legal system – at the courtroom, regulatory, and policy levels – will resolve the many challenges that new neuroscience applications raise.


Rolando Rengifo
# The Cognitive Neuroscience of Deception: Advances in Neuroscience, Criminal Law Applications and Ethics | Fall 2011 | Vol 1 Issue 1
Neuroscientific advances promise to change the way the law and the legal system are viewed. In this paper, neuroimaging technology is discussed in terms of its development and how it has improved understanding of deception pathways. As knowledge builds, mistaken convictions that lead to wrongful punishment of innocent parties could be avoided. Likewise, the release of dangerous criminals back into society could also be prevented. In addition, ethical issues (i.e. premature adoption, misapplication through misunderstanding of technology and privacy concerns) that currently prevent the implementation of mind reading or deception detection technology in the courtroom are discussed. Limitations of such technology are also discussed along with advances and future directions in research. Finally, a pathway is proposed that could explain the origins of the mechanism of deception and how it could be tested.


David P. McCabe, Alan D. Castel, Matthew G. Rhodes
# The Influence of fMRI Lie Detection Evidence on Juror Decision-Making
Behav. Sci. Law 29: 566–577 (2011)
In the current study, we report on an experiment examining whether functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) lie detection evidence would influence potential jurors’ assessment of guilt in a criminal trial. Potential jurors (N= 330) read a vignette summarizing a trial, with some versions of the vignette including lie detection evidence indicating that the defendant was lying about having committed the crime. Lie detector evidence was based on evidence from the polygraph, fMRI (functional brain imaging), or thermal facial imaging. Results showed that fMRI lie detection evidence led to more guilty verdicts than lie detection evidence based on polygraph evidence, thermal facial imaging, or a control condition that did not include lie detection evidence.


Sagari Sarkar, Ben S. Clark, Quinton Deeley
# Differences between psychopathy and other personality disorders: evidence from neuroimaging
Advances in psychiatric treatment, vol. 17, 191–200, 2011
ICD-1O and DSM-IV-TR diagnostic guidelines do not list psychopathy as a distinct psychiatric entity. However, there are significant overlaps between psychopathy and DSM-IV-TR Cluster B personality disorders. Neuroimaging studies implicate deficits in structure and function of frontal and limbic regions in this group of personality disorders, while highlighting both distinctions and overlaps between syndromes. Here, these data are reviewed and implications for diagnosis and clinical practice are discussed.


Per B. Sederberg, Samuel J. Gershman, Sean M. Polyn, Kenneth A. Norman
# Human memory reconsolidation can be explained using the Temporal Context Model
Psychon Bull Rev. 2011 June ; 18(3): 455–468.
One of the most provocative and exciting ideas to emerge from the animal learning and memory literature in recent years is the idea of reconsolidation. According to this idea, retrieving a memory makes its molecular substrate malleable; when the memory is in this malleable state, it can be changed or even erased...


Eyal Aharoni, Olga Antonenko, Kent A. Kiehl
# Disparities in the moral intuitions of criminal offenders: The role of psychopathy
J Res Pers. 2011 June 1; 45(3): 322–327

The present study examined whether and in what ways psychopathy is associated with abnormal
moral intuitions among criminal offenders. Using Haidt et al.’s Moral Foundations Questionnaire, 222 adult male offenders assessed for clinical psychopathy reported their degree of support for five moral domains: Harm Prevention, Fairness, Respect for Authority, Ingroup Loyalty, and Purity/Sanctity. As predicted, psychopathy total score explained a substantial proportion of the variance in reduced support for Harm Prevention and Fairness, but not the other domains. These results confirm that psychopathy entails a discrete set of moral abnormalities and suggest that these abnormalities could potentially help to explain the characteristic antisocial behavior of individuals with psychopathy.


Andrea L. Glenn, Adrian Raine, William S. Laufer
# Is it Wrong to Criminalize and Punish Psychopaths?
Emotion Review, Vol. 3, No. 3 (July 2011) 302–304
Increasing evidence from psychology and neuroscience suggests that emotion plays an important and sometimes critical role in moral judgment and moral behavior. At the same time, there is increasing psychological and neuroscientific evidence that brain regions critical in emotional and moral capacity are impaired in psychopaths. We ask how the criminal law should accommodate these two streams of research, in light of a new normative and legal account of the criminal responsibility of psychopaths.


J.R.H. Law
# Cherry-Picking Memories: Why Neuroimaging-Based Lie Detection Requires a New Framework for the Admissibility of Scientific Evidence under FRE 702 and Daubert
14 YALE J.L. & TECH. 1 (2011)
Neuroimaging techniques have been in heavy rotation in the news lately. Increasingly, companies have used neuroimaging techniques—specifically, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)—in an attempt to determine whether an individual is telling a falsehood. More troublingly, these companies have proffered factual conclusions for use in jury trials. This Article discusses the capabilities and limitations of the technique. In doing so, the Article also discusses why the technology will require the federal judiciary to reevaluate its current interpretation of Federal Rule of Evidence 702 and the Daubert doctrine for admitting novel sources of scientific evidence.


Bernardo Feijoo Sánchez
# Derecho Penal y Neurociencias. ¿Una relación tormentosa?
InDret. Revista para el analisidel derecho, abril del 2011
Las neurociencias, en gran medida gracias a las enormes posibilidades que ofrecen los nuevos métodos de experimentación y neuroimagen -tomografía por emisión de positrones (PET), resonancia magnética funcional o nuclear (RM o fMRI), magnetoencefalografía, etc.-,  han sufrido un avance espectacular en los últimos años y nos han abierto la ilusionante posibilidad de conocer mejor lo que denominamos “naturaleza humana”. De tal manera que algún autor no ha tenido reparos en hablar de una “revolución neurocientífica”...


Adam Teitcher
# Weaving Functional Brain Imaging Into the Tapestry of Evidence: A Case for Functional Neuroimaging in Federal Criminal Courts
Fordham L. Rev. 355 (2011)
Recent advances in brain imaging technologies allow researchers to “peer inside” a defendant’s brain. Although functional neuroimaging evidence is frequently used in civil litigation, federal courts have been hesitant to admit it into evidence in criminal trials. Scholars and  commentators alike continue to debate the merits, detriments, and general admissibility of functional neuroimaging evidence in the criminal context. Meanwhile, federal judges repeatedly admit various forms of forensic science into evidence without evaluating them under the appropriate admissibility standards. This Note argues that this has created a double  standard for evidence admissibility. Functional neuroimaging evidence  may, in fact, be more scientifically reliable than some of the forensic  science evidence currently admitted at trial. Accordingly, this Note  proposes that judges should consider the disparity in evidentiary standards  when considering the admissibility of functional neuroimaging evidence,  and should carefully and fairly examine such evidence when proffered in  federal criminal trials.


Kent A. Kiehl, Morris B. Hoffman
# The Criminal Psychopath: History, Neuroscience, Treatment, and Economics Jurimetrics, Summer 2011
Individuals with psychopathic personality, or psychopaths, have a disproportionate impact on the criminal justice system. Psychopaths are twenty to twenty-five times more likely than non-psychopaths to be in prison, four to eight times more likely to violently recidivate compared to non- sychopaths, and are resistant to most forms of treatment. This article presents the most current clinical efforts and neuroscience research in the field of psychopathy. Given psychopathy’s enormous impact on society in general and on the criminal justice system in particular, there are significant benefits to increasing awareness of the condition. This review also highlights a recent, compelling and costeffective treatment program that has shown a significant reduction in violent recidivism in youth on a putative trajectory to psychopathic personality.


Jean Decety, Kalina J. Michalska, Katherine D. Kinzler
# The Contribution of Emotion and Cognition to Moral Sensitivity: A Neurodevelopmental Study

Cerebral Cortex may 2011
While neuroimaging studies alone are insufficient to determine what computations are involved in moral reasoning, combining fMRI data, physiological recordings of the autonomic nervous system with explicit evaluations of mental states, moral sensitivity, and empathy in a developmental perspective provides a more complete account of the component processes that mediate moral reasoning, from which we hope that future research will build. Finally, our study indicates that neurodevelopmental approaches provide added value to developmental psychology, even in places in which behavioral responses are remarkably similar across age.


Katja Karg, Margit Burmeister, Kerby Shedden, Srijan Sen
# The Serotonin Transporter Promoter Variant (5-HTTLPR), Stress, and Depression Meta-Analysis Revisited: Evidence of Genetic Moderation
Arch Gen Psychiatry, 2011 May ; 68(5): 444–454
We included 54 studies and found strong evidence that 5-HTTLPR moderates the relationship between stress and depression, with the 5-HTTLPR s allele associated with an increased risk of developing depression under stress (p<0.0001). When restricting our analysis to the studies included in the previous meta-analyses, we found no evidence of association (Munafo studies p=0.16; Risch studies p=0.11). This suggests that the difference in results between previous meta-analyses and ours was not due to the difference in meta-analytic technique but instead to the expanded set of studies included in this analysis. 


Morse, S. J.
# Avoiding Irrational NeuroLaw Exuberance: A Plea for Neuromodesty
Mercer L. Rev. 837 (Spring, 2011)
At present, neuroscience has little to contribute to more just and accurate criminal law decision-making concerning policy, doctrine, and individual case adjudication. This was the conclusion reached when I tentatively identified "brain overclaim syndrome" five years ago, and it remains true today. In the future, however, as the philosophies of mind and action and neuroscience mutually mature and inform each other, neuroscience will help us understand criminal behavior.

# Stephen J. Morse, The Status of NeuroLaw: A Plea for Current Modesty and Future Cautious Optimism, J. Psychiatry & L. 595 (2011)


Ombretta Di Giovine
# Chi ha paura delle neuroscienze?
Archivio Penale, n. 3, 2011
Ovviamente una conoscenza complessa esige anche una epistemologia complessa, che esamini «non soltanto gli strumenti di conoscenza in se stessi ma anche le condizioni di produzione (neuro-cerebrali, socio-culturali) degli strumenti di conoscenza. In questo senso, la conoscenza della conoscenza non potrà fare a meno dei problemi e delle acquisizioni delle conoscenze scientifiche che riguardano il cervello, la psicologia cognitiva, l’intelligenza artificiale, la sociologia della conoscenza ecc., ma perché tutto ciò assuma un senso, non dovrà essere trascurata la dimensione epistemologica...


Enrica Nordio
# Could an antisocial behaviour be influenced by our genes?
Roskilde University International Basic Studies in Natural Sciences - December, 20th 2011


Kenneth K. Kidd
# Population Genetics of SNPs for Forensic Purposes November 2011


Matthew L. Baum
# The Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA) Genetic Predisposition to Impulsive Violence: Is It Relevant to Criminal Trials? Neuroethics 2011


Deborah W. Denno
# Courts’ Increasing Consideration of Behavioral Genetics Evidence in Criminal Cases: Results of a Longitudinal Study
Michigan State Law Review Vol. 2011:967


Charlotte Walsh
# Youth Justice. A Dual-Use Dilemma
Brit. J. Criminol. (2011)51
Neuroscientists posit a direct correlation between brain structure, brain activity and behaviour; thus, it is apparent why their findings are of interest to the legal system and to criminal justice policy makers. This paper considers the prospective relevance of the new brain sciences to youth justice policy. Drawing upon comparative research from the United States, it illustrates how neuroscientific findings have there been co-opted as a liberalizing tool, used to help soften a system that had become increasingly adult-erated. The lure of a parallel reliance on these studies in England and Wales is foreseeable, given how neatly these discoveries can be made to mesh with arguments in support of raising the age of criminal responsibility, reinstating the principle of doli incapax (or something akin to it) and the advocation of de-carceration, alongside seemingly vindicating the philosophy of diversion.


Kent A. Kiehl, Morris B. Hoffman
# The Criminal Psychopath: History, Neuroscience, Treatment, and Economics
Jurimetrics, Summer 2011
Psychopaths consume an astonishingly disproportionate amount of criminal justice resources. Individuals with psychopathic personality, or psychopaths, have a disproportionate impact on the criminal justice system. Psychopaths are twenty to twenty-five times more likely than non- sychopaths to be in prison, four to eight times more likely to violently recidivate compared to non- sychopaths, and are resistant to most forms of treatment. Given psychopathy’s enormous impact on society in general and on the criminal justice system in particular, there are significant benefits to increasing awareness of the condition. This review also highlights a recent, compelling and costeffective treatment program that has shown a significant reduction in violent recidivism in youth on a putative trajectory to psychopathic personality.


Andrea L. Glenn
# The other allele: Exploring the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene as a potential risk factor for psychopathy: A review of the parallels in findings
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011 January ; 35(3): 612–620
Converging evidence suggests that the short allele of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism increases risk for a variety of psychological disorders, including depression, anxiety, and alcoholism. Thus, the short allele is typically considered the “risk” allele, and findings related to the long allele are rarely discussed. However, upon closer examination, findings associated with the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene share striking similarities with findings from studies of psychopathy. Here, the parallels between findings associated with the long/long genotype and findings associated with psychopathic traits in the areas of neuropsychology, psychophysiology, hormones, and brain imaging are reviewed. It is suggested that the long/long genotype may be a potential risk factor for the development of psychopathic traits. 


Adam Lamparello
# Using Cognitive Neuroscience to Predict Future Dangerousness
Columbia Human Rights Law Review, 42:481 2011
It is, of course, not easy to predict future behavior. The fact  that such a determination is difficult, however, does not mean that it cannot be made. Indeed, prediction of future criminal conduct is an essential element in many of the decisions rendered throughout our criminal justice system. . . . And any sentencing authority must predict a convicted person’s probable future conduct when it engages in the process of determining what punishment to impose. . . . The task that a [capital sentencing] jury must perform in answering the statutory question in issue is thus basically no different from the task performed countless times each day throughout the American system of criminal justice.


Donatella Pianezzi
# La sentenza Franzese e la sua applicazione giurisprudenziale negli anni 2002-2010
Università degli studi di Sassari / Tesi dott. 2011


Emilia Musumeci
# Cesare Lombroso e le neuroscienze: un parricidio mancato?
Università degli Studi di Catania 2011


Stanislas Dehaene, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Lionel Naccache
# The Global Neuronal Workspace Model of Conscious Access: From Neuronal Architectures to Clinical Applications 2011
While a considerable body of experimental data has been accumulated on the differences between conscious and non- conscious processing, a theory is needed to bridge the neuro-psychological gap and establish a causal relationship between objective neurophysiological data and subjective reports. In the present review, we first briefly outline the detailed postulates and predictions of our working hypothesis, referred to as the global neuronal workspace (GNW) model.


Ugo Fornari, Ambrogio Pennati
# Gli indicatori genetici nella valutazione della pericolosità sociale psichiatrica Martedì 22 Marzo 2011

L'utilizzo dell'analisi genetica sul piano clinico non fornisce, allo stato attuale, informazioni rilevanti. In particolare, la valutazione della pericolosità sociale psichiatrica è una valutazione clinica con indubbie conseguenze sul piano prognostico. L'analisi genetica, per le sue attuali caratteristiche strutturali e per le informazioni che oggi può fornire, non è in grado di prendere nella necessaria considerazione gli aspetti dinamico-evolutivi e trasformativi insiti nella nozione stessa di pericolosità sociale psichiatrica.


Luca Casartelli
# How Cognitive Neuroscience interacts with Psychiatric Forensic Examination: Conceptual Clarification and Methodological Assessment
Studia Bioethica - vol. 4 (2011) n. 1 , pp. 34-39
Considering the implications of psychiatric forensic evaluation, we defend a prudential attitude, although prudence must not become blindness towards new neuroscientific possibilities. To appropriately use neuroscientific evidences we need a neurocognitive model capable to explain and categorize empirical data better. Further empirical, methodological and conceptual studies may provide more consistent agreement and open new ways to consider the relation between neuroscience and law.


Abigail A. Marsh, Elizabeth C. Finger, Katherine A. Fowler, Ilana T.N. Jurkowitz, Julia C. Schechter, Henry H. Yu, Daniel S. Pine, R.J.R. Blair
# Reduced amygdala–orbitofrontal connectivity during moral judgments in youths with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging 194 (2011) 279–286
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate dysfunction in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex in adolescents with disruptive behavior disorders and psychopathic traits during a moral judgment task. Fourteen adolescents with psychopathic traits and 14 healthy controls were assessed using fMRI while they categorized illegal and legal behaviors in a moral judgment implicit association task. fMRI data were then analyzed using random-effects analysis of variance and functional connectivity. Youths with psychopathic traits showed reduced amygdala activity when making judgments about legal actions and reduced functional connectivity between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex during task performance. These results suggest that psychopathic traits are associated with amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction. This dysfunction may relate to previous findings of disrupted moral judgment in this population.


Cristina M. Alberini
# The role of reconsolidation and the dynamic process of long‑term memory formation and storage Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience March 2011
It is becoming increasingly clear that the processes of memory formation and storage are exquisitely dynamic. Elucidating the nature and temporal evolution of the biological changes that accompany encoding, storage, and retrieval is key to understand memory formation. For explicit or medial temporal lobe-dependent memories that form after a discrete event and are stored for a long time, the physical changes underlying the encoding and processing of the information (memory trace or engram) remain in a fragile state for some time. However, over time, the new memory becomes increasingly resistant to disruption until it is consolidated...


Charles F. Manski
# Genes, Eyeglasses, and Social Policy
Journal of Economic Perspectives — Volume 25, Number 4 — Fall 2011
Ethical issues sometimes arise when conditioning treatment on covariates. thical issues sometimes arise when conditioning treatment on covariates. Writers have called attention to potential ethical issues associated with riters have called attention to potential ethical issues associated with genetic profi ling (for example, Almond, 2006). These issues require attention, and may limit. These issues require attention, and may limit aapplications. However, society already faces ethical issues when contemplating use pplications. However, society already faces ethical issues when contemplating use oof gender, race, and other personal attributes to choose treatments. It seems to me f gender, race, and other personal attributes to choose treatments. It seems to me that using genes as covariates does not raise unique ethical concerns. hat using genes as covariates does not raise unique ethical concerns.


Jaak Panksepp, Douglas Watt
# Why Does Depression Hurt? Ancestral PrimaryProcess Separation-Distress (PANIC/GRIEF) and Diminished Brain Reward (SEEKING) Processes in the Genesis of Depressive Affect
Psychiatry, 74(1) Spring 2011
A critical question about genesis of depression is: Which negative affect-generating networks of mammalian brains are most important for understanding depressive “pain” and what new therapeutics might such knowledge engender? Affective neuroscience has outlined seven primary process (i.e., genetically provided) emotional systems. All are subcortically situated...


Roope Tikkanen, Laura Auvinen-Lintunen, Francesca Ducci, Rickard L. Sjöberg, David Goldman,  Jari Tiihonen, Ilkka Ojansuu, Matti Virkkunen
# Psychopathy, PCL-R, and MAOA genotype as predictors of violent reconvictions
Psychiatry Res. 2011 February 28
The Revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R) has shown a moderate association with violence. The efficacy of PCL-R in varying monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotypes is, however, unexamined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PCL-R and psychopathy on the risk for violent reconvictions among 167 MAOA genotyped alcoholic offenders.


Jason Roach, Ken Pease
# Evolution and the Prevention of Violent Crime
Psychology 2011, Vol.2, No.4, 393-404


Mercer Law
# The Brain Sciences in the Courtroom. A Symposium of the Mercer Law Review, October 22, 2010
Mercer Law Review, Vol. 62, 2011
So, a decade of neurolaw. Where has it brought us? My talk will follow this simple outline: first, where did neurolaw come from; second, some history; third, substantive topics and cautions... So, where did neurolaw come from, and what is its history?... Are there neuroscience discoveries that will help me as a lawyer?... Can we use scientific techniques to get behind the opacity of the skull and start to say what is going on in our subjective thinking?


Giorgio Ganis, J. Peter Rosenfeld, John Meixner, Rogier A. Kievit, Haline E. Schendan
# Lying in the scanner: Covert countermeasures disrupt deception detection by functional magnetic resonance imaging
NeuroImage 55 (2011) 312–319
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have documented differences between deceptive and honest responses. Capitalizing on this research, companies marketing fMRI-based lie detection services have been founded, generating methodological and ethical concerns in scientific and legal communities. Critically, no fMRI study has examined directly the effect of countermeasures, methods used by prevaricators to defeat deception detection procedures.


Charlotte Walsh
# Youth Justice and Neuroscience. A Dual-Use Dilemma
Brit. J. Criminol. (2011) 51, 21–39
Neuroscience is rapidly increasing comprehension of the human brain. This paper considers its prospective relevance to youth justice policy. In the United States, neuroscientific findings have been co-opted as a liberalizing tool. The parallel lure of these studies in the United Kingdom is foreseeable, given how they plausibly mesh with arguments in support of raising the age of criminal responsibility, along with bolstering policies of de-carceration and diversion. However, caution should be exercised: neuroscience can be used in ways that both contribute to human flourishing, along with potentially diminishing it. In science, this is a well recognized quandary, referred to as the dual-use dilemma. More problematically, neuroscience could be utilized to ‘prove’ poor parenting, to ‘predict’ future criminality.


Andrea L. Glenn, Spassena Koleva, Ravi Iyer, Jesse Graham, Peter H. Ditto
# Moral identity in psychopathy
Judgment and Decision Making, Vol. 5, No. 7, December 2010, pp. 497–505
The concept of psychopathy stands in sharp contrast to Socrates’ famous dictum “to know the good is to do the good.” Individuals with psychopathic traits know the difference between right and wrong — at least in straightforward cases such as knowing whether an act is illegal. Nevertheless, they often engage in frequent and flagrant bad behavior (Hare, 2003). This discrepancy between the judgments people make about what they should do and their actual behavior is not unique to psychopathic individuals.


Steven K. Erickson
# Blaming the Brain
Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology, Vol. 11, 2010
Criminal law scholarship has recently become absorbed with the ideas of neuroscience in the emerging field of neurolaw. This mixture of cognitive neuroscience and law suggests that long established conceptions of human agency and responsibility are fundamentally at odds with the findings of science. Using sophisticated technology, cognitive neuroscience claims to be upon the threshold of unraveling the mysteries of the mind by elucidating the mechanical nature of the brain. Despite the limitations of that technology, neurolaw supporters eagerly suggest that those revelations entail that an inevitable and radical overhaul of our criminal justice system is soon at hand.


Thomas R. Insel
# Rethinking schizophrenia
Nature, 11 november 2010
How will we view schizophrenia in 2030? Schizophrenia today is a chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder that affects about one per cent of the world’s population. After a century of studying schizophrenia, the cause of the disorder remains unknown. Treatments, especially pharmacological treatments, have been in wide use for nearly half a century, yet there is little evidence that these treatments have substantially improved outcomes for most people with schizophrenia. These current unsatisfactory outcomes may change as we approach schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder with psychosis as a late, potentially preventable stage of the illness. This ‘rethinking’ of schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder, which is profoundly different from the way we have seen this illness for the past century, yields new hope for prevention and cure over the next two decades


Niklas Nordquist, Lars Oreland
# Serotonin, genetic variability, behaviour, and psychiatric disorders - a review
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010; 115: 2–10
There is a clear discrepancy in prevalence for neuropsychiatric disorders between the sexes, where, for example, females more often tend to develop major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder, whereas, in males, antisocial personality disorder, childhood attention-defecit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and alcohol and drug dependence are more frequent.


Kent A. Kiehl, Joshua W. Buckholtz
# Inside the Mind of a Psychopath
Scientific American, September/October 2010
Neuroscientists are discovering that some of the most cold-blooded killers aren’t bad. They suffer from a brain abnormality that sets them adrift in an emotionless world. Psychopaths are not merely selfish. Their brains process information differently from those of other people. It’s as if they have a learning disability that impairs emotional development...


John Matthew Fabian
# Neuropsychological and neurological correlates in violent and homicidal offenders: A legal and neuroscience perspective
Aggression and Violent Behavior, Volume 15, Issue 3, May–June 2010, Pages 209–223

Violence and murder have their roots in biological, psychological, and sociological factors. This article will focus on one specific element of the biological aspects of violence and murder; specifically; neurological and neuropsychological aspects. The author will provide a literature review contrasting structural brain abnormalities and dysfunction (neuropathology) and brain–behavior (neuropsychological) relational attributes to violence, aggression, and homicidal behavior in particular.


Thomas J. Crowley, Manish S. Dalwani, Susan K. Mikulich-Gilbertson, Yiping P. Du, Carl W. Lejuez, Kristen M. Raymond, Marie T. Banich
# Risky Decisions and Their Consequences: Neural Processing by Boys with Antisocial Substance Disorder PLoS ONE, 1 September 2010 | Volume 5 | Issue 9
Adolescent boys with "Antisocial Substance Disorder" (ASD) had extensive neural hypoactivity during risky decision-making, coupled with decreased activity during reward and increased activity during loss. These neural patterns may underlie the dangerous, excessive, sustained risk- taking of such boys. The findings suggest that the dysphoria, reward insensitivity, and suppressed neural activity observed among older addicted persons also characterize youths early in the development of substance use disorders.


Thomas Nadelhoffer, Stephanos Bibas, Scott Grafton, Kent A. Kiehl,  Andrew Mansfield, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Michael Gazzaniga
# Neuroprediction, Violence, and the Law: Setting the Stage
Neuroethics, 2010
We have seen that neuroprediction of violence is controversial and potentially problematic but still promising. Opponents raise various objections, but none seems conclusive. Neuroprediction of violence does not conflict with current practices, since other forms of violence prediction are already used in other legal arenas, including capital sentencing, civil commitment, and post-punishment detention of some sexually violent predators. Violence predictions can do tremendous harm when mistaken, but all that shows is that the legal system should use the best possible methods when it relies on these predictions. As we saw, clinical predictions are usually less reliable than actuarial predictions, and there is some reason to hope that neuroscience might improve the accuracy of actuarial predictions.


Laura Baker, Catherine Tuvblad, Adrian Raine
# Genetics and crime | In E. McLaughlin, & T. Newburn (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of criminological theory (pp. 21-40) London 2010
Molecular genetic studies have the potential to identify specific gene variants that increase risk for criminal offending, aggressive behavior, and externalizing behavior disorders. Some polymorphisms, such as mutations in the MAO-A gene, have already shown relationships to antisocial behavior, including violence, across several studies...


Martin A. Kohli, Daria Salyakina, Andrea Pfennig, Susanne Lucae, Sonja Horstmann, Andreas Menke, Stefan Kloiber, MD, Johannes Hennings, Bekh B. Bradley, Kerry J. Ressler, Manfred Uhr, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Florian Holsboer, Elisabeth B. Binder
# Association of Genetic Variants in the Neurotrophic Receptor– Encoding Gene NTRK2 and a Lifetime History of Suicide Attempts in Depressed Patients Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 April
This study shows association of several independent common variants of NTRK2 with SA among depressed patients in independent samples. This supports the large body of evidence that dysfunctional neurotrophic signaling might be involved in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior. 


Thomas R. Insel
# Faulty Circuits. Neuroscience is revealing the malfunctioning connections underlying psychological disorders and forcing psychiatrists to rethink the causes of mental illness Scientific American, April 2010
From the scientific standpoint, it is difficult to find a precedent in medicine for what is beginning to happen in psychiatry. The intellectual basis of this field is shifting from one discipline, based on subjective “mental” phenomena, to another, neuroscience. Indeed, today’s developing science-based understanding of mental illness very likely will revolutionize prevention and treatment and bring real and lasting relief to millions of people worldwide.


Virginia Hughes
# Head Case. Last year, functional magnetic resonance imaging made its debut in court Nature, Vol 464, 18 March 2010
Brain imaging has a long history in legal cases. Lawyers have often used scans as a way to tip the scale in the perpetual battle between opposing expert psychiatric witnesses. You can’t control your brain waves, the theory goes, and scans are an objective measure of mental state. “The psychiatric diagnosis is still soft data — it’s behaviour,” notes Ruben Gur, director of the Brain Behavior Center at the University  of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. “The brain scan doesn’t lie. If there is tissue missing from your brain, there is no way you could have manufactured it for the purpose of the trial.”


Anthony R. Cashmore
# The Lucretian swerve: The biological basis of human behavior and the criminal justice system PNAS | March 9, 2010
If free will is an illusion, then it becomes more difficult to hold people responsible for their actions. I have argued that one of the reasons that individuals have been so reluctant to question the reality of free will is the belief that it would be difficult for society to function under a system in which this concept was abandoned.


Francesca Forzano, Pascal Borry, Anne Cambon-Thomsen, Shirley V Hodgson, Aad Tibben, Petrus de Vries, Carla van El, Martina Cornel
# Italian appeal court: a genetic predisposition to commit murder?
European Journal of Human Genetics (2010) 18, 519–521
A few months ago, the controversial debate on connection between genetic variants and antisocial behaviour gained renewed prominence after the sentence of an Italian judge who decided to further reduce the prison sentence of a person convicted of murder by 1 year – from 9 to 8 years – because he was found to be a carrier of a few genetic variants thought to be associated with a predisposition to aggressiveness. We discuss the social implication of this view, the lack of evidence of the clinical utility of this test, and in particular the risks of offering susceptibility testing in the context of legal proceedings.


The Law and Neuroscience Project | Floyd E. Bloom, Howard L. Fields, Michael S. Gazzaniga, Scott T. Grafton, Kent Kiehl, Helen Mayberg, Read Montague, Louis J. Ptáček, Marcus Raichle, Adina Roskies, Anthony Wagner
# A Judge's Guide to Neuroscience: A Concise Introduction
University of California, Santa Barbara 2010
The Law and Neuroscience Project is developing more extensive materials for judges that are intended to be of service as neuroscience enters the  courtroom. This pamphlet is more in the nature of an introduction. However, the very breadth of the questions it undertakes to address reflects the growing perception among judges that neuroscience has the potential to be of great use, and a challenge, to many aspects of the law. If this little pamphlet can serve to clarify that perception and help meet that challenge, it will have served its purpose.


Kate Bloch
# Changing the Topography of Sentencing
Hastings Race & Poverty Law Journal, vol. 7, Winter 2010
Advances in neuroscience offer the possibility of understanding and modifying human behavior in remarkable ways. A new scholarly discipline sometimes labeled "neurolaw" has evolved to investigate the relationship between these advances in neuroscience and the law.


Giulia Capra
# Le Neuroscienze e la genetica molecolare nella valutazione della capacità di intendere e di volere. Commento alla sentenza della Corte d’Assise d’Appello di Trieste n. 5/2009 del 18/09/2009 2010
Particolarmente significative sono risultate le indagini genetiche effettuate dai periti alla “ricerca di polimorfismi genetici significativi per modulare le reazioni a variabili ambientali fra i quali in particolare per quello che interessa nel caso di specie l’esposizione ad eventi stressanti ed a reagire agli stessi con comportamenti di tipo impulsivo” . […] Tale indagine, del tutto innovativa rispetto al livello di approfondimento corrente degli accertamenti giudiziari avrebbe consentito di accertare che l’imputato “risulta possedere, per ciascuno dei polimorfismi esaminati, almeno uno se non tutti e due gli alleli che, in base a numerosi studi internazionali riportati sinora in letteratura, sono stati riscontrati conferire un significativo aumento del rischio di sviluppo di comportamento aggressivo, impulsivo (socialmente inaccettabile)...


Adina L. Roskies
# How Does Neuroscience Affect Our Conception of Volition?
Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 2010. 33:109–30
Although there is no clear concept of volition or the will, we do have intuitive ideas that characterize the will, agency, and voluntary behavior. Here I review results from a number of strands of neuroscientific research that bear upon our intuitive notions of the will. These neuroscientific results provide some insight into the neural circuitsmediating behaviors that we identify as related to will and volition. Although some researchers contend that neuroscience will undermine our views about free will, to date no results have succeeded in fundamentally disrupting our commonsensical beliefs. Still, the picture emerging from neuroscience does raise new questions, and ultimately may put pressure on some intuitive notions about what is necessary for free will.


Frederick Schauer
# Can Bad ScienceBe Good Evidence? Neuroscience, Lie Detection, and Beyond Cornell Law Review, vol. 95, 2010
Law must listen to what neuroscientists say about neuroscience, but it must also be attentive to the adjectives and adverbs. When neuroscientists say that there is no “compelling” evidence of fMRI’s lie-detecting reliability, that there is “very little basis” for confidence in the results produced so far, or that claims about fMRI results have been made “prematurely,” they are imposing an evaluative standard on the experimental results.


Martin Gottschalk, Lee Ellis
# Evolutionary and Genetic Explanations of Violent Crime
in Violent Crime. Clinical and Social Implications, Christopher J. Ferguson, Texas A&M International University 2010


Carla L. Harenski, Keith A. Harenski, Matthew S. Shane, Kent A. Kiehl
# Aberrant Neural Processing of Moral Violations in Criminal Psychopaths
Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2010, Vol. 119, No. 4, 863– 874
The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record hemodynamic activity in 72 incarcerated male adults, stratified into psychopathic (n 16) and nonpsychopathic (n 16) groups based on scores from the Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (R. D. Hare, 2003), while they made decisions regarding the severity of moral violations of pictures that did or did not depict moral situations. Consistent with hypotheses, an analysis of brain activity during the evaluation of pictures depicting moral violations in psychopaths versus nonpsychopaths showed atypical activity in several regions involved in moral decision-making...


Andrea Colorio
# Diritto e cervello: verso le nuove frontiere del neurodiritto Scienze Giuridiche, Scienze Cognitive e Intelligenza artificiale Ottobre 2010, numero 10
La recente pubblicazione del pregevole volume collettaneo Von der Neuroethik zum Neurorecht, curato da Schleim, Spranger e Henrik, rafforza la sensazione che questo settore scientifico stia iniziando a riscontrare interesse in larghe fasce del mondo di civil law, per certi versi affiancandosi al già consolidato biodiritto, ma soprattutto conferma lo strettissimo collegamento con la tematica della neuroetica, a propria volta al centro di un dibattito scientifico di primissimo piano.


Sofia Moratti, Raffaella Ida Rumiati
# Neuroetica: sì, no, forse
Giornale Italiano di Psicologia, n. 4, dicembre 2010


Gabriella Marando
# L'acquisizione della prova scientifica nel processo penale
Università degli studi di Trieste Dottorato di ricerca 2009-2010


Oliver R. Goodenough, Micaela Tucker
# Law and Cognitive Neuroscience
Annu. Rev. Law Soc. Sci. 2010. 6:61–92
Law and neuroscience (sometimes neurolaw) has become a recognized field of study. The advances of neuroscience are proving useful in solving some perennial challenges of legal scholarship and are leading to applications in law and policy. While caution is appropriate in considering neurolaw approaches, the new knowledge should—and will— be put to use. Areas of special attention in current neurolaw scholarship include (a) techniques for the objective investigation of subjective states such as pain, memory, and truth-telling; (b) evidentiary issues for admitting neuroscience facts and approaches into a court proceeding; (c) free will, responsibility, moral judgment, and punishment; (d ) juvenile offenders; (e) addiction; ( f )mental health; ( g) bias; (h) emotion; and (i ) the neuroeconomics of decision making and cooperation. The future of neurolaw will be more productive if challenges to collaboration between lawyers and scientists can be resolved.


Philip Hunter
# The psycho gene
European Molecular Biology Organization reports VOL 11 | NO 9 | 2010

While the idea of a ‘criminal gene’ is nonsense, there is growing evidence that some psychopathic behaviour might indeed be grounded in genes. “…it is useful to think of psychopathy as mainly the product of genes and sociopathy as more subject to environmental influences”


Sarina M. Rodrigues, Laura R. Saslow, Natalia Garcia, Oliver P. John, and Dacher Keltner
# Oxytocin receptor genetic variation relates to empathy and stress reactivity in humans PNAS December 15, 2009
Oxytocin, a peptide that functions as both a hormone and neurotransmitter, has broad influences on social and emotional processing throughout the body and the brain. In this study, we tested how a polymorphism (rs53576) of the oxytocin receptor relates to two key social processes related to oxytocin: empathy and stress reactivity.


Odette Eronia
# Enhancement Technologies e diritto penale
Università degli Studi di Palermo, 2009


Songfa Zhong, Salomon Israel, Hong Xue, Richard P. Ebstein, Soo Hong Chew
# Monoamine Oxidase A Gene (MAOA) Associated with Attitude Towards Longshot Risks
PLoS ONE December 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 12 |
Decision making often entails longshot risks involving a small chance of receiving a substantial outcome. People tend to be risk preferring (averse) when facing longshot risks involving significant gains (losses). This differentiation towards longshot risks underpins the markets for lottery as well as for insurance. Both lottery and insurance have emerged since ancient times and continue to play a useful role in the modern economy. In this study, we observe subjects’ incentivized choices in a controlled laboratory setting, and investigate their association with a widely studied, promoter- egion repeat functional polymorphism in monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA). We find that subjects with the high activity (4-repeat) allele are characterized by a preference for the longshot lottery and also less insurance purchasing than subjects with the low activity (3-repeat) allele. This is the first result to link attitude towards longshot risks to a specific gene. It complements recent findings on the neurobiological basis of economic risk taking.


Joshua D. Greene
# The Cognitive Neuroscience of Moral Judgment 2009
Individuals with high psychopathy scores exhibited decreased amygdala activity during the contemplation of moral dilemmas involving “personal” harm. Thus, the evidence from functional imaging suggests that the amygdala plays an important role in triggering emotional responses to physically harmful actions... The physical basis of moral judgment is no longer a complete mystery. We’ve not only identified brain regions that are “involved” in moral judgment, but have begun to carve the moral brain at its functional joints


Yu Gao, Andrea L. Glenn, Robert A. Schug, Yaling Yang, Adrian Raine
# The neurobiology of psychopathy: A neurodevelopmental perspective
Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 2009, 54(12), 813-823.
Although it is clearly difficult to conduct longitudinal studies on psychopathy, examining the development of neurobiological measures for psychopathic personality from an early age is crucial to furthering our knowledge on etiology and testing a neurodevelopmental hypothesis of psychopathy. Continued efforts to identify and assess psychopathiclike children and adolescents using prospective longitudinal designs could have potentially important implications for the prevention and management of adult psychopathy. If psychopathic traits and serious offending are, in part, neurodevelopmentally determined, successful prevention and intervention efforts would be most effective if they begin in early childhood, infancy, or even prenatally...


A.L Glenn, Adrian Raine, R.A. Schug,

# The Neural Correlates of Moral Decision-Making in Psychopathy " Molecular Psychiatry, (2009) Vol. 14, 5-6

Findings demonstrate that amygdala functioning is disrupted during moral decision-making in psychopathy, and is evident in all features of psychopathy, suggesting that amygdala dysfunction may be a core deficit in psychopathy. The amygdala is thought to respond to cues indicating distress in others, thus guiding individuals away from antisocial behavior. Reduced amygdala functioning in more psychopathic individuals suggests reduced responsivity to the thought of causing harm to others when contemplating personal moral dilemmas.


Andrea L. Glenn, Ravi Iyer, Jesse Graham, Spassena Koleva, J. Haidt
# Are all types of morality compromised in psychopathy?
Journal of Personality Disorders, 2009, 23, 384-398
Psychopathy is a clinical construct defined as a constellation of personality and behavioral features, including callousness; manipulativeness; a lack of guilt, remorse, and empathy; impulsiveness; sensation-seeking; and frequent antisocial and immoral behavior. Previous descriptions of the relationship between psychopathy and morality have used general terms such as “morally insanity” and “without conscience”, or have focused on a few aspects of morality such as the willingness to harm and cheat others or the ability to distinguish between moral and conventional transgressions...


Rose McDermott, Dustin Tingley, Jonathan Cowden, Giovanni Frazzetto, Dominic D. P. Johnsone
# Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) predicts behavioral aggression following provocation
PNAS, February 17, 2009 (vol. 106 no. 7)
Monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has earned the nickname ‘‘warrior gene’’ because it has been linked to aggression in observational and survey-based studies. However, no controlled experimental studies have tested whether the warrior gene actually drives behavioral manifestations of these tendencies.Wereport an experiment, synthesizing work in psychology and behavioral economics, which demonstrates that aggression occurs with greater intensity and frequency as provocation is experimentally manipulated upwards, especially among low activity MAOA (MAOA-L) subjects.


Owen D. Jones, Joshua W. Buckholtz, Jeffrey D. Schall, Rene Marois
# Brain Imaging for Legal Thinkers: A Guide for the Perplexed
Stanford Technology Law Review, 2009
Legal decision-making in criminal contexts includes two essential functions performed by “third parties” unaffected by the crime: assessing responsibility and determining an appropriate punishment. To explore the neural underpinnings of these processes, we scanned subjects with fMRI while they determined the appropriate punishment for crimes that varied in both perpetrator responsibility and crime severity. Activity within regions linked to social and affective processing (amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex) predicted punishment magnitude for a range of  criminal scenarios. By contrast, activity in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex strongly distinguished between scenarios on  the basis of criminal responsibility alone, suggesting that it plays a key role in third-party punishment...


Yadin Dudai
# Predicting not to predict too much: how the cellular machinery of memory anticipates the uncertain future
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2009) 364
Although the faculty of memory holds information about the past, it is mostly about the present and the future, because it permits adaptive responses to ongoing events as well as to events yet to come. Since many elements in the future are uncertain, the plasticity machinery that encodes memories in the brain has to operate under the assumption that stored information is likely to require fast and recurrent updating. This assumption is reflected at multiple levels of the brain, including the synaptic and the cellular level. Recent findings cast new light on how combinations of plasticity and metaplasticity mechanisms could permit the brain to balance over time between stability and plasticity of the information stored.


Amanda Pustilnik
# Violence on the Brain: A Critique of Neuroscience in Criminal Law
Wake Forrest Law Review, vol. 44 2009
his Article first demonstrates parallels between certain current claims about the neurobiology of criminal violence and past movements that were concerned with the law and neuroscience of violence: phrenology, Lombrosian biological criminology, and lobotomy. It then engages in a substantive review and critique of several current claims about the neurological bases of criminal violence. Drawing on research and interviews with neuroscientists, this Article shows that causally localizing what we call “criminal violence” to bits of the brain is scientifically contestable and epistemologically untenable. In viewing the criminal law-neuroscience relationship through the lens of history of science, this Article hopes to offer a constructive portrait of how current neuroscience might inform criminal law discourse about regulating violence


Amedeo Santosuosso
# Il dilemma del diritto di fronte alle neuroscienze
in Santosuosso A., Le neuroscienze e il diritto, Ibis, Como-Pavia 2009
La risposta alla domanda se bisogna creare oggi un neurodiritto (neurolaw), sul modello (diciamo così) del biodiritto, è la seguente: il problema non sono le etichette, ma quello che sotto le etichette accade. Se la neuroetica è il modo di uscire dalle secche in cui si è cacciata la bioetica, ben venga anche la neuroetica e il corrispondente neurodiritto.sente


Yves Hémery
# Irresponsabilité pénale, évolutions du concept
L’Information psychiatrique 2009 ; 85 : 727-33
L’échec des politiques pénales de réinsertion, la surpopulation carcérale, la disparition de trop nombreux lits de psychiatrie, l’avènement de préoccupations sécuritaires et utilitaristes conduisent à une interrogation difficile : il n’y a jamais eu autant de malades mentaux en prison, pourtant l’incidence des pratiques expertales sur cet état de fait semble réduite... Aujourd’hui, il devient indifférent que l’auteur d’un crime soit malade mental ou non, puisque le critère déterminant devient celui la protection de la société, par la réduction du risque de récidive, par l’enfermement ou le contrôle indéfini des mesures de sûreté. Peu importe que le lieu de l’application de telles précautions soit hospitalier, carcéral, ou « entre les deux », peu importe la personnalité du mis en cause, quand les soins sont imposés comme élément du contrôle social !


Ilina Singh, Nikolas Rose
# Biomarkers in psychiatry
Nature | Vol 460 | 9 July 2009
Psychiatry has long been a second-class citizen in science and medicine. Despite much effort, the causes of many psychiatric disorders remain unclear, and it has been difficult even to categorize such disorders precisely. In the past decade, however, there has been a large shift towards incorporating biomarkers into psychiatry, and there is hope that such biological indicators will improve psychiatric diagnoses by underpinning them with physiological evidence. But biomarkers promise far more than a basis for better diagnoses.


Pietro Pietrini

# Intervista su sentenza di Trieste

Effettuata da Marco Mozzoni il 16/11/2009 per BRAINFACTOR Cervello e Neuroscienze

Per la perizia abbiamo utilizzato una serie di strumenti, a partire dalla raccolta dei dati anamnestici e l’esame clinico, il colloquio psichiatrico, la somministrazione di test cognitivi e di personalità, l’esame di risonanza magnetica strutturale e funzionale del cervello e, infine, gli esami genetici per verificare la presenza di varianti polimorfiche che in letteratura sono state riscontrate essere significativamente associate con un aumentato rischio di comportamento impulsivo, aggressivo e antisociale. Le conclusioni alle quali il Prof. Sartori ed io siamo giunti nella nostra relazione peritale sono basate sull’insieme dei risultati ottenuti nei vari esami sopradescritti, compresi in primo luogo le valutazioni “classiche” e certamente non solo nè principalmente sui dati dello studio genetico.


Sabrina Peron
# Neuroetica e diritto: commento alla sentenza di Trieste
Mercoledì 04 Novembre 2009
... L’essere potatore dell’allele a bassa attività per il gene MAOA (MAOA-L) potrebbe rendere il soggetto maggiormente incline a manifestare aggressività se provocato o escluso socialmente”. Ad avviso della Corte, dunque, tale “vulnerabilità genetica”, renderebbe l’imputato “particolarmente reattivo in termini di aggressività – e, conseguentemente, vulnerabile – in presenza di situazioni di stress”; conseguentemente la Corte ha ritenuto di poter applicare per la parziale incapacità di intendere e di volere la riduzione della pena nella misura massima di un terzo.


William P. Banks and Eve A. Isham
# We Infer Rather Than Perceivethe Moment We Decided to Act
Psychol. Sci. 2009
The question of free will has been debated since antiquity. The debate has traditionally been conducted only in theoretical or logical terms, but has recently been given empirical content by the research of Libet, Gleason, Wright, and Pearl (1983). They made the question of volition a neurophysiological one, and thus opened it to scientific investigation.


Oliver R. Goodenough
# Strategic Mechanisms, Functional Modeling and Experimental Design in Neurolaw 2009
The investigations of Neurolaw have a number of different targets, ranging from courtroom applications to policy considerations. One of these targets is the neural processes involved in normative judgments, both about our own actions and about the  actions of others. Game theory, illuminated by the insights of mechanism design,  provides a set of expectations about the shape of solutions to strategic problems. These  expectations can be a source for modeling the structures that we can look for in the  functionality of the brain as it addresses these problems. Taking these structures into account can provide a roadmap for empirical studies about normative thinking, and the empirical studies, in turn, will provide a test for the roadmap and for the underlying method


Stephen M. Fleming, Rogier B. Mars, Thomas E. Gladwin, Patrick Haggard
# When the Brain Changes Its Mind: Flexibility of Action Selection in Instructed and Free Choices
Cerebral Cortex October 2009;19
Many human actions are determined by a combination of current external cues and internal representations within the brain, such as memories, goals, and motivations. ‘‘Free choices’’ can be defined as actions occurring when current external cues guiding behavior are largely absent. In particular, the choice of which of a number of possible alternative actions to make in a given situation is an important aspect of free choice because most situations afford a number of possible responses.


Emiliano Feresin
# Lighter sentence for murderer with 'bad genes'. Italian court reduces jail term after tests identify genes linked to violent behaviour
Nature 30 October 2009

An Italian court has cut the sentence given to a convicted murderer by a year because he has genes linked to violent behaviour. Some fear that such cases could lead to the acceptance of genetic determinism — the idea that genes determine the behaviour of an organism — in criminal cases. "90% of all murders are committed by people with a Y chromosome — males. Should we always give males a shorter sentence?" says Steve Jones, a geneticist at University College London. "I have low MAOA activity but I don't go around attacking people."


J. Arturo Silva
# Forensic Psychiatry, Neuroscience, and the Law
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 37:489 –502, 2009
The rise of modern neuroscience is transforming psychiatry and other behavioral sciences. Neuroscientific progress also has had major impact in forensic neuropsychiatric practice, resulting in the increased use of neuroscientific technologies in cases of a psychiatric-legal nature. This article is focused on the impact of neuroscientific progress in forensic psychiatry in relation to criminal law. Also addressed are some emerging questions involving the practice of forensic neuropsychiatry. These questions will be reframed by providing alternative perspectives consistent with the objectives of forensic neuropsychiatric practice. The last part of the article is a discussion of potential developments that may facilitate the integration of neuroscientific knowledge in forensic neuropsychiatric practice.


Noel Shafi
# Neuroscience and Law: The Evidentiary Value of Brain Imaging
Graduate Student Journal of Psychology - 2009, Vol. 11
Neuroimaging evidence should be restricted in terms of admissibility in the courts, and should only be considered reliable under scientifically valid clinical methods. This topic will be approached in four stages: (1) a brief introduction to neuroscience and law, (2) a discussion of evidentiary laws in the American legal system, (3) a review of modern neuroimaging and the admissibility and applicability of neuroimaging evidence in the courtroom using actual cases, and 4) a closing argument, including  interdisciplinary perspectives on neuroscience and law.


Natalie Weder, Bao Zhu Yang, Heather Douglas-Palumberi, Johari Massey, John H. Krystal, Joel Gelernter, Joan Kaufman
# MAOAGenotype, Maltreatment, and Aggressive Behavior: The Changing Impact of Genotype at Varying Levels of Trauma
Biol Psychiatry 2009;65:417– 424


Tali Sharot, Tamara Shiner, Annemarie C. Brown, Judy Fan, Raymond J. Dolan
# Dopamine Enhances Expectation of Pleasure in Humans
Current Biology (2009)
Yet, little is known about the biological basis of subjective estimations of future hedonic reactions. Here, we show that administration of a drug that enhances dopaminergic function (dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine; L-DOPA) during the imaginative construction of positive future life events subsequently enhances estimates of the hedonic pleasure to be derived from these same events.


Björn Hofvander, Daniel Ossowski, Sebastian Lundström, Henrik Anckarsäter
# Continuity of aggressive antisocial behavior from  childhood to adulthood: The question of phenotype definition

International journal of law and psychiatry, 2009 May 8

During recent years, intense interest has been focused on interactions between specific genotypes and environmental factors as a possible key to disentangle the inconsistent findings from univariate association studies. The first paper to identify such effects was  published in 2002 by Caspi and co-workers, who could show that maltreated boys with the high-activity polymorphism in the MAO-A gene were less likely to develop antisocial behaviours than maltreated boys with the low-activity polymorphism, while the polymorphism did not have any effect on the variation of antisocial behaviours in the population at large


Stephen W. Porges
# The polyvagal theory: New insights into adaptive reactions of the autonomic nervous system
Cleve Clin J Med. 2009 April ; 76(Suppl 2)
The polyvagal theory describes an autonomic nervous system that is influenced by the central nervous system, sensitive to afferent influences, characterized by an adaptive reactivity dependent on the phylogeny of the neural circuits, and interactive with source nuclei in the brainstem regulating the striated muscles of the face and head. The theory is dependent on accumulated knowledge describing the phylogenetic transitions in the vertebrate autonomic nervous system. 


S. W. Porges
# Stress and Parasympathetic Control 2009
Historically, arousal theories provided scientists who studied brain–behavior relations with a model that assumed that activation of peripheral physiological measures regulated by the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system provided ‘sensitive’ indicators of brain ‘arousal’ or ‘activation.’  This view was based on a rudimentary understanding of the autonomic nervous system in which changes in easily measured peripheral organs (e.g., sweat glands and heart) were assumed to be accurate indicators  of how the brain was processing emotional stimuli...


Jay D. Aronson
# Neuroscience and Juvenile Justice
Akron Law Review, 42, 2009
Recent advances in the field of neuroscience, especially improved magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, are providing scientists and decision-makers with an increasingly complex understanding of how our brains develop from birth to adulthood. While these studies are still in their infancy, they have already made it clear that the brain typically continues to develop long after the point at which an individual becomes a legal adult (i.e., at age 18), and that the slow maturation process that plays out in the social context is mirrored by a slow maturation process at the neural level...


Kevin M. Beaver, Matt DeLisi, Michael G. Vaughn, J.C. Barnes
# Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use
Comprehensive Psychiatry 2009


Christopher J. Ferguson, Kevin M. Beaver
# Natural born killers: The genetic origins of extreme violence
Aggression and Violent Behavior 14 (2009)


Nicole A. Vincent
# Neuroimaging and Responsibility Assessments 2009
Could neuroimaging evidence help us to assess the degree of a person’s responsibility for a crime which we know that they committed? This essay defends an affirmative answer to this question. A range of standard objections to this high-tech approach to assessing people’s responsibility is considered and then set aside, but I also bring to light and then reject a novel objection—an objection which is only encountered when functional (rather than structural) neuroimaging is used to assess people’s responsibility.


Michael S. Gazzaniga
# The Law and Neuroscience
Neuron 60, November 6, 2008
Some of the implications for law of recent discoveries in neuroscience are considered in a new program established by the MacArthur Foundation. A group of neuroscientists, lawyers, philosophers, and jurists are examining issues in criminal law and, in particular, problems in responsibility and prediction and problems in legal decision making.


Adrian Raine
# From Genes to Brain to Antisocial Behavior
Current Directions in Psychological Science 17(5) · October 2008
Here I highlight key brain regions implicated in antisocial behavior, with an emphasis on the prefrontal cortex, along with ways these areas give expression to risk factors for antisocial behavior. Environmental influences may alter gene expression to trigger the cascade of events that translate genes into antisocial behavior.


The Rupture and Repair of Cooperation in Borderline Personality Disorder
# Brooks King-Casas, Carla Sharp, Laura Lomax-Bream, Terry Lohrenz, Peter Fonagy, P. Read Montague
Science, vol. 321, 8 August 2008
Behaviorally, individuals with BPD showed a profound incapacity to maintain cooperation, and were impaired in their ability to repair broken cooperation on the basis of a quantitative measure of coaxing. Neurally, activity in the anterior insula, a region known to respond to norm violations across affective, interoceptive, economic, and social dimensions, strongly differentiated healthy participants from individuals with BPD...


Larry J. Siever
# Neurobiology of Aggression and Violence
Am J Psychiatry 165:4, April 2008
Aggressive behavior has often been associated with poor executive function and verbal processing in adolescents and adults. Cognitive performance is particularly impaired in neuropsychological tests that are sensitive to frontal and temporal dysfunction. Tasks that rely on behavioral inhibition were most likely to show deficits in individuals with aggressive behavior and violence, and reduced responses in evoked potential tasks have predicted impulsiveness in aggressive prison populations.


Andrea L. Glenn, Adrian Raine
# The neurobiology of psychopathy
Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2008, 31, 463-475.
It is becoming increasingly clear that understanding the neurobiology of psychopathy goes far beyond identifying brain regions that may be involved. Genetics, neurotransmitters, and hormones all impact the functioning of brain structures and the connectivity between them. In future research it will be important to identify how these systems work together to produce the unique compilation of traits and behaviors characteristic of psychopathy.


Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Adina Roskies, Teneille Brown, Emily Murphy
# Brain Images As Legal Evidence
Episteme, 2008
This paper explores whether brain images may be admitted as evidence in criminaltrials underFederalRule ofEvidence 403,whichweighs probative value against the danger of being prejudicial, confusing, or misleading to fact finders. The papersummarizes and evaluatesrecent empirical research relevant to these issues. We argue that currently the probative value of neuroimages for criminal responsibility is minimal, and there is some evidence of their potential to be prejudicial or misleading. We also propose experiments that will directly assess howjurors are influenced by brain imagesto aid future decisions of admissibility.


David P. McCabe, Alan D. Castel
# Seeing is believing: The effect of brain images on judgments of scientific reasoning
Cognition 107 (2008) 343–352
Brain images are believed to have a particularly persuasive influence on the public perception of research on cognition. Three experiments are reported showing that presenting brain images with articles summarizing cognitive neuroscience research resulted in higher ratings of scientific reasoning for arguments made in those articles, as compared to articles accompanied by bar graphs, a topographical map of brain activation, or no image. These data lend support to the notion that part of the fascination, and the credibility, of brain imaging research lies in the persuasive power of the actual brain images themselves. We argue that brain images are influential because they provide a physical basis for abstract cognitive processes, appealing to people’s affinity for reductionistic explanations of cognitive phenomena.


John Seabrook
# Suffering Souls. The search for the roots of psychopathy. The New Yorker, Noovember 10, 2008
There is also little consensus among researchers about what causes psychopathy. Considerable evidence, including several large-scale studies of twins, points toward a genetic component. Yet psychopaths are more likely to come from neglectful families than from loving, nurturing ones. Psychopathy could be dimensional, like high blood pressure, or it might be categorical, like leukemia. Researchers argue over whether tests used to measure it should focus on behavior or attempt to incorporate personality traits—like deceitfulness, glibness, and lack of remorse—as well. The only point on which everyone agrees is that psychopathy is extremely difficult to treat. Psychopathy also raises fundamental issues about justice...


Carlo Brusco
# La valutazione della prova scientifica
Dir. pen. proc., 2008


Luca Sammicheli, Giuseppe Sartori
# Neuroscienze e imputabilità 23 ott 2008
L'imputabilità rappresenta di fatto il cardine, il punto di appoggio, di un sistema penale basato su una certa visione dell’uomo: essa definisce quelle funzioni psichiche che delimitano il confine di senso dell’ordinamento penale. Le capacità di intendere e di volere esprimono con una  formula sintetica quella “normalità psichica” sulla quale si poggia, quale esperienza comunemente condivisa, e al di là delle discussioni filosofiche, il cosiddetto libero arbitrio. O meglio, per dirla con le parole degli psicologi, un libero arbitrio sufficientemente buono...


Nikos K. Logothetis
# What we can do and what we cannot do with fMRI
Nature, Vol 453, 12 June 2008
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is currently the mainstay of neuroimaging in cognitive neuroscience. Advances in scanner technology, image acquisition protocols, experimental design, and analysis methods promise to push forward fMRI from mere cartography to the true study of brain organization. However, fundamental questions concerning the interpretation of fMRI data abound, as the conclusions drawn often ignore the actual limitations of the methodology. Here I give an overview of the current state of fMRI, and draw on neuroimaging and physiological data to present the current understanding of the haemodynamic signals and the constraints they impose on neuroimaging data  interpretation.


The British Psychological Society
# Guidelines on Memory and the Law. Recommendations from the Scientific Study of Human Memory June 2008
Remembering is a constructive process. Memories are mental constructions that bring together different types of knowledge in an act of remembering. As a consequence, memory is prone to error and is easily influenced by the recall environment, including police interviews and cross-examination in court... People can remember events that they have not in reality experienced. This does not necessarily entail deliberate deception. For example, an event that was imagined, was a blend of a number of different events, or that makes personal sense for some other eason, can come to be genuinely experienced as a memory, (these are often referred to as ‘confabulations’).


Guang Guo, Michael E. Roettger
# The Integration of Genetic Propensities into Social-Control Models of Delinquency and Violence among Male Youths
American Sociological Review, 2008, VOL. 73 (August:543–568)
This study, drawing on approximately 1,100 males from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, demonstrates the importance of genetics, and genetic–environmental interactions, for understanding adolescent delinquency and violence. Our analyses show that three genetic polymorphisms—specifically, the 30-bp promoter- region variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) in MAOA, the 40-bp VNTR in DAT1, and the Taq1 polymorphism in DRD2—are significant predictors of serious and violent delinquency when added to a social-control model of delinquency.


Gina M. Vincent, Candice L. Odgers, Amanda V. McCormick, Raymond R. Corrado
# The PCL: YV and recidivism in male and female juveniles: A follow-up into young adulthood
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 31 (2008) 287–296
Adolescents, and most recently, adolescent females, have emerged as an important population in violence risk assessment and have sparked a debate regarding the downward and gendered extension of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV). This article evaluates the differential prediction of the three and four-factor models of the PCL:YV for male (n= 201) and female (n= 55) juvenile offenders using a prospective four and one-half year follow-up (M= 3 years) study.


Francis X. Shen
# Neuroscience, Mental Privacy, and the Law
Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy vol. 36 2008

This Article has argued that the legal system is readily equipped to provide citizens with adequate protection against government‐compelled or coerced mind reading with neuroimaging. The law has seen, and protected citizens from, previous analogs, and the technology itself is unlikely to be as dangerous as some prognosticators believe. We should certainly be concerned about the government tracking our minds, but we should be most concerned about government carrying out that tracking by observing and inferring mental states from our behavior, not our brains.


Sheri Alpert
# Neuroethics and Nanoethics: Do We Risk Ethical Myopia?
Neuroethics (2008) 1:55–68
In recent years, two distinct trajectories of bioethical inquiry have emerged: neuroethics and nanoethics. The former deals with issues in neuroscience, whereas the latter deals with issues in nanoscience and nanotechnology. In both cases, the ethical inquiries have coalesced in response to rapidly increasing scientific and engineering developments in each field.


Anne K Churchland, Roozbeh Kiani, Michael N Shadlen
# Decision-making with multiple alternatives
Nature Neuroscience, n. 6, vol. 11, June 2008
Organisms face decisions of varying complexity. In simple decisions, perceptual observations allow an animal to choose between action and inaction, or between two alternative actions. These are simple instances of complex cognitive processes, which may require additional information from the environment or from memory. The ability to delay a response to consider incoming information is a hallmark of higher brain function.


Eric García
# Neurociencia, conducta e imputabilidad
QUARK n. 39-40 diciembre 2007
Una breve reflexión sobre el vínculo que existe entre el cerebro y la conducta –y a través del comportamiento humano, la relación con las normas jurídicas, pues éstas regulan la conducta externa del individuo– se plantea en este texto, donde se mencionan términos como la imputabilidad y la edad penal, pues los avances científicos de las neurociencias son susceptibles de brindar sustento a dichos conceptos. El texto forma parte del homenaje que la revista Quark dedica a Ramón y Cajal, tras la celebración del primer siglo del Nobel otorgado a este destacado científico. universal.


J. Arturo Silva
# The Relevance of Neuroscience to Forensic Psychiatry
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 35:6 –9, 2007
Significant progress in forensic neuropsychiatry also has affected the practice of law, in which an understanding of the complex interplay among mind, brain, and behavior is becoming increasingly desirable and even necessary. Practitioners and scholars of criminal law in particular have taken an interest in neuroscientific developments within psychiatry, forensic psychiatry, and other behavioral sciences.


Klaus A. Miczek, Rosa M. M. de Almeida, Edward A. Kravitz, Emilie F. Rissman, Sietse F. de Boer, Adrian Raine
# Neurobiology of Escalated Aggression and Violence
The Journal of Neuroscience, October 31, 2007•27(44):
Research on aggression and violence is pursued by social and biological scientists with profoundly divergent approaches. At present, the schism between these approaches promises to be overcome by advancing our knowledge of the molecular events through which social experiences sculpt future aggressive acts. Insights into the gene– environment interactions are critical for the way in which the criminal justice and the public health systems deal with aggression and violence. Neurobiological research of aggressive behavior is emerging from several shameful episodes during the past century ranging from the eugenics movement to lobotomies to stigmatizing individuals with phrenologically defined biomarkers.


Kolja Schiltz, Joachim Witzel, Georg Northoff, Kathrin Zierhut, Udo Gubka, Hermann Fellmann, Jörn Kaufmann, Claus Tempelmann, Christine Wiebking, Bernhard Bogerts
# Brain Pathology in Pedophilic Offenders. Evidence of Volume Reduction in the Right Amygdala and Related Diencephalic Structures
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64:737-746
Pedophilic perpetrators show structural impairments of brain regions critical for sexual development. These impairments are not related to age, and their extent predicts how focused the scope of sexual offenses is on uniform pedophilic activity. Subtle defects of the right amygdala and closely related structures might be implicated in the pathogenesis of pedophilia and might possibly reflect developmental disturbances or environmental insults at critical periods.


Thomas R. Insel
# Shining Light on Depression
Science, vol. 317, 10 August 2007
Just as research during the Decade of the Brain (1990–2000) forged the bridge between the mind and the brain, research in the current decade is helping us to understand mental illnesses as brain disorders. As a result, the distinction between disorders of neurology (e.g., Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases) and disorders of psychiatry (e.g., schizophrenia and depression) may turn out to be increasingly subtle. That is, the former may result from focal lesions in the brain, whereas the latter arise from abnormal activity in specific brain circuits in the absence of a detectable lesion. As we become more adept at detecting lesions that  lead to abnormal function, it is even possible that the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders will vanish, leading to a combined discipline of clinical neuroscience.


Giuseppe Di Chiara
# Il canto delle sirene. Processo penale e modernità scientifico-tecnologica: prova dichiarativa e diagnostica della verità
Criminalia 2007
1. Scienza e modernità: spunti su scientismo, antiscientismo e intolleranza. – 2. Nuove tecnologie e processo penale: qualche sguardo esemplificativo. – 3. La parabola dei dispositivi tecnologici di governo e controllo dell’attendibilità dei contributi dichiarativi: primi appunti. – 4. Libertà morale della persona e divieto di «metodi o tecniche» perturbanti: tra norma e prassi. – 5. «Mezzi coercitivi della volontà» e «spie sull’interno organico»: quale discrimen? – 6. Tecniche diagnostiche di deception processing e truth telling processing: la risonanza magnetica funzionale per immagini. – 7. Risonanza magnetica e nuove frontiere tra modernismo efficientista e valori dell’accertamento giudiziario: gli scenari.


William Bernet, Cindy L. Vnencak-Jones,Nita Farahany, Stephen A. Montgomery 
# Bad Nature, Bad Nurture, and Testimony regarding MAOA and SLC6A4 Genotyping at Murder Trials
J Forensic Sci, November 2007, Vol. 52, No. 6


Melissa S. Caulum
# Postadolescente Brain Development: A Disconnect Between Neuroscience, Emerging Adults, and the Corrections System Wisconsin Law Review, 2007

There is very little empirical research regarding first- time emergingadult offenders. Regardless, states should consider their behavioral and brain development when determining policy and sentencing. The brain is more malleable than scientists once believed: Research confirms growth well beyond the age of eighteen, and has allowed for a deeper understanding of the end of adolescence and the transition to adulthood. Studies have shown that, during this developmental stage, the brain responds to learning- and training- nduced and environmentally stimulated structural changes.


J. Arturo Silva
# The Relevance of Neuroscience to Forensic Psychiatry
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 35:6 –9, 2007
Applied neuroscientific knowledge is finding widespread application in the medical diagnostic and treatment areas and continues to grow at an unprecedented pace. Furthermore, neuroscientific progress made during the past two decades is invigorating fields of practical endeavor, such as forensic neuropsychiatry, developmental psychiatry, and cultural psychiatry, and is paving the way to new areas of knowledge, such as neuroeconomics


Stephen J. Morse, Morris B. Hoffman
# The Uneasy Entente between Legal Insanity and Mens Rea: Beyond Clark v. Arizona
Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Summer 2007
Can mens rea alone be a sufficient basis for a sensible theory of criminal responsibility? Are there constitutional limits to a state's power to eliminate or restrict the insanity defense or the mens rea requirement? May states constitutionally preclude defense evidence directly relevant to insanity or lack of mens rea? More generally, what impact should recognized mental disorders have on criminal responsibility? Should evolving ideas about the nature and causes of mental disorders and of human behavior in general require changes in our settled views of blameworthiness? 


Marcel Brass, Patrick Haggard
# To Do or Not to Do: The Neural Signature of Self-Control
The Journal of Neuroscience, August 22, 2007•27(34)
Our results suggest that the human brain network for intentional action includes a control structure for self-initiated inhibition or withholding of intended actions. The mental control of action has an enduring scientific interest, linked to the philosophical concept of “free will.” Our results identify a candidate brain area that reflects the crucial decision to do or not to do.


Jeffrey Rosen
# The Brain on the Stand
The New York Times, March 11, 2007
Neuroscience, it seems, points two ways: it can absolve individuals of responsibility for acts they’ve committed, but it can also place individuals in jeopardy for acts they haven’t committed — but might someday. “This opens up a Pandora’s box in civilized society that I’m willing to fight against,” says Helen S. Mayberg, a professor of psychiatry, behavioral sciences and neurology at Emory University School of Medicine, who has testified against the admission of neuroscience evidence in criminal trials. “If you believe at the time of trial that the picture informs us about what they were like at the time of the crime, then the picture moves forward. You need to be prepared for: ‘This spot is a sign of future dangerousness,’ when someone is up for parole. They have a scan, the spot is there, so they don’t get out. It’s carved in your brain.”


Stacey A. Tovino
# Functional Neuroimaging and the Law: Trends and Directions for Future Scholarship
The American Journal of Bioethics, 7(9): 44-56, 2007
In determining the constitutionality of a brain scan under the Fourth Amendment, would the courts consider how the relevant government actor conducted the fMRI test? what type of personnel would be permitted to conduct a government-ordered brain scan? Radiology technicians? Ivy Leaguemneuroscientists? In what type of facility may the testing occur? A police station? A cognitive neuroscience laboratory? What precautions and protocols must be followed?


Edward Gondolf
# Cautions About Applying Neuroscience to Batterer Intervetion
Court Review , Winter 2007
Researchers have recently pointed out the high prevalence of "intermittent explosive disorder" (IED) underlying many of the violent outbursts in our society.  They estimate that at least a third of domestic violence perpetrators, or those we frequently refer to as "batterers," are likely to suffer from this disorder.  This claim, along with a number of related findings, appears to have implications for domestic violence courts and judges' decisions to mandate offenders to batterer programs. The issue is that if this disorder is related to brain activity that warrants medical treatment, then in many cases, domestic violence offenders may be unresponsive to more conventional counseling and education efforts that typify batterer intervention. The assertions about IED come from a rapidly advancing line of research in neuroscience--that is, brain activity and its association with behavior. The emerging concern is that the implications stemming from this research are subject to misuse and overuse and therefore warrant some clarification and caution


Quirino Cordeiro, Jacqueline Siqueira-Roberto, Homero Vallada
# Gene-environment interaction and violence manifestation
Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2007;29(3):291-7


Luciano Floridi
# A look into the future impact of ICT on our lives 2007


Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Joshua W. Buckholtz, Bhaskar Kolachana, Ahmad R. Hariri, Lukas Pezawas, Giuseppe Blasi, Ashley Wabnitz, Robyn Honea, Beth Verchinski, Joseph H. Callicott, Michael Egan, Venkata Mattay, Daniel R. Weinberger
# Neural Mechanisms of Genetic Risk for Impulsivity and Violence in Humans
PNAS April 18, 2006


J Kim-Cohen, A Caspi, A Taylor, B Williams, R Newcombe, IW Craig, TE Moffitt
# MAOA, maltreatment, and gene–environment interaction predicting child
Molecular Psychiatry (2006) 11, 903–913


Adam J. Kolber
# Therapeutic Forgetting: The Legal and Ethical Implications of Memory Dampening
Vanderbilt Law Review, Vol. 59, p. 1561, 2006
The mere possibility of memory dampening raises fundamental questions about who owns our memories and how we should balance the rights of memory-holders against society as a whole. Answers to such questions will ultimately shape the contours of our freedom of memory, a bundle of rights that will take on greater importance and develop greater coherence as we confront new neuroscience technologies that improve our ability to manipulate memory.


Michael Rutter
# Implications of Resilience Concepts for Scientific Understanding
Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1094: 1–12 (2006)
Five main implications stem from the research to date: (1) resistance to hazardsmay derive fromcontrolled exposure to risk (rather than its avoidance); (2) resistancemay derive fromtraits or circumstances that are without major effects in the absence of the relevant environmental hazards; (3) resistance may derive from physiological or psychological coping processes rather than external risk or protective factors; (4) delayed recovery may derive from “turning point” experiences in adult life; and (5) resilience may be constrained by biological programming or damaging effects of stress/adversity on neural structures.


Kenneth S. Kendler, Ralph J. Greenspan
# The Nature of Genetic Influences on Behavior: Lessons From “Simpler” Organisms
Am J Psychiatry 2006
The authors examine the degree of similarity between the genetic underpinnings of psychiatric illness and genetic influences on behavior in such simpler organisms. Six topics are reviewed: 1) the extent of natural genetic variation, 2) the multigenic nature of natural variation, 3) the impact of individual genes on multiple traits, 4) gene-environment interactions, 5) genetic effects on the environment, and 6) gene-by-sex interactions. The results suggest that the pattern of results emerging in psychiatric genetics is generally consistent with the findings of behavioral genetics in simpler  organisms.


Brent Garland, Paul W Glimcher
# Cognitive neuroscience and the law
Current Opinion in Neurobiology 2006, 16:130–134
Advances in cognitive neuroscience now allow us to use physiological techniques to measure and assess mental states under a growing set of circumstances. The implication of this growing ability has not been lost on the western legal community. If biologists can accurately measure mental state, then legal conflicts that turn on the true mental states of individuals might well be resolvable with techniques ranging from electroencephalography to functional magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, legal practitioners have increasingly sought to employ cognitive neuroscientific methods and data as evidence to influence legal proceedings. This poses a risk, because these scientific methodologies have largely been designed and validated for experimental use only.


Yadin Dudai
# The Neurobiology of Consolidations, Or, How Stable Is the Engram?
Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2004
In the domain of memory research and theory, consolidation (Latin for “to make firm”), or memory consolidation, refers to the progressive postacquisition stabilization of long-term memory, as well as to the memory phase(s) during which such presumed stabilization takes place (Dudai 2002a). It has long been suggested that fresh memories need time to stabilize, and that often, such traces are prone to interference by distracting stimuli, injuries, or toxins, which, however, lose their effectiveness with the passage of time.


Deborah W. Denno
# Revisiting the Legal Link Between Genetics and Crime
Law and Contemporary Problems [Vol. 69:209 Winter/Spring 2006]


Kent A. Kiehl
# A cognitive neuroscience perspective on psychopathy: Evidence for paralimbic system dysfunction
Psychiatry Res. 2006 June 15; 142(2-3): 107–128
Psychopathy is a complex personality disorder that includes interpersonal and affective traits such as glibness, lack of empathy, guilt or remorse, shallow affect, and irresponsibility, and behavioral characteristics such as impulsivity, poor behavioral control, and promiscuity. Much is known about the assessment of psychopathy; however, relatively little is understood about the relevant brain disturbances. The present review integrates data from studies of behavioral and cognitive changes associated with focal brain lesions or insults and results from psychophysiology, cognitive psychology and cognitive and affective neuroscience in health and psychopathy.


Bärbel Hüsing, Lutz Jäncke, Brigitte Tag
# Impact Assessment of Neuroimaging
vdf Hochschulverlag AG an der ETH Zürich 2006
This is shown exemplarily in the field of criminal law: whether performing neuroimaging constitutes an offence of bodily harm caused wilfully or negligently, whether the accused committed a crime while capable of acting and sane, what effects emotions may have had on the crime committed, whether the prisoner or the detainee should be freed at all, all of these cases require a solid knowledge of neuroimaging and its  significance.


Brent Garland, Mark S. Frankel
# Considering convergence: a policy dialogue about behavioral genetics, neurosciences, and law
Law and Contemporary Problems, vol. 69, Winter/Spring 2006
The impact of neuroscience and behavioral genetics on the criminal law offers an opportunity to start such an effort on a small scale, by building on the types of discussions that are included in this volume and in other relevant proceedings. Without such an effort in place, the public policy dialogue will go along in fits and starts—and our policies will be constantly playing “catch up” as the science surges forward.


Nigel Eastman, Colin Campbell
# Neuroscience and legal determination of criminal responsibility

Neurosciences, April 2006
Neuroscience is increasingly identifying associations between biology and violence that appear to offer courts evidence relevant to criminal responsibility. In addition, in a policy era of ‘zero tolerance of risk’, evidence of biological abnormality in some of those who are violent, or biological markers of violence, may be seized on as a possible basis for preventive detention in the interest of public safety. However, there is a mismatch between questions that the courts and society wish answered and those that neuroscience is capable of answering. This poses a risk to the proper exercise of justice and to civil liberties.


Stephen J. Morse
# Brain Overclaim Syndrome and Criminal Responsibility: A Diagnostic Note
Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, vol. 3, 2006
Brains do not commit crimes; people commit crimes. This conclusion should be self-evident, but, infected and inflamed by stunning advances in our understanding of the brain, advocates all too often make moral and legal claims that the new neuroscience does not entail and cannot sustain. Particular brain findings are thought to lead inevitably to moral or legal conclusions. Brains are blamed for offenses; agency and responsibility disappear from the legal landscape... 


James H. Fallon
# Neuroanatomical Background to Understanding the Brain of the Young Psychopath
Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, vol. 3:341, 2006
This paper is intended to provide a basic neuroanatomical framework upon which to interpret the range of normal and psychopathic phenotypes that may be encountered during a criminal trial where culpability, especially of an adolescent  or young adult defendant, may be at issue. In considering this question from a scientific perspective, there are nevertheless several caveats that must be made about the material that will follow...


Thomas Fuchs
# Ethical issues in neuroscience
Current Opinion in Psychiatry 2006, 19:600–607

Ethical problems resulting from brain research have induced the emergence of a new discipline termed neuroethics. Critical questions concern issues, such as prediction of disease, psychopharmacological enhancement of attention, memory or mood, and technologies such as psychosurgery, deep-brain stimulation or brain implants. Such techniques are capable of affecting the individual’s sense of privacy, autonomy and identity. Moreover, reductionist interpretations of neuroscientific results challenge notions of free will, responsibility, personhood and the self which are essential for western culture and society.


Carlo Alberto Redi, Valentina Sellaroli, Amedeo Santosuosso
# Giudici & Geni
Le Scienze, febbraio 2006
La reciproca mancanza di conoscenza è il terreno fertile di ogni pregiudizio, sia pro sia contro la scienza. Lo scientismo è il tipico pregiudizio a favore della scienza, mentre il tipico pregiudizio contro la scienza è il rifiuto ideologico, e quindi acritico, di essa. Entrambi questi pregiudizi sono parimenti dannosi e dovrebbero essere superati o, quanto meno, arginati. 


Tania Singer
# The neuronal basis and ontogeny of empathy and mind reading: Review of literature and implications for future research Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 30 (2006) 855–863
... Finally, it is suggested that the abilities to understand other people’s thoughts and to share their affects display different ontogenetic trajectories reflecting the different developmental paths of their underlying neural structures. In particular, empathy develops much earlier than mentalizing abilities, because the former relys on limbic structures which develop early in ontogeny, whereas the latter rely on lateral temporal lobe and pre-frontal structures which are among the last to fully mature.


Tania Singer, Ben Seymour, John P. O'Doherty, Klaas E. Stephan, Raymond J. Dolan, Chris D. Frith
# Empathic neural responses are modulated by the perceived fairness of others Nature, January 2006
The neural processes underlying empathy are a subject of intense interest within the social neurosciences... We show here that empathic responses are modulated by learned preferences, a result consistent with economic models of social preferences. We engaged male and female volunteers in an economic game, in which two confederates played fairly or unfairly, and then measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging while these same volunteers observed the confederates receiving pain. Both sexes exhibited empathy-related activation in pain-related brain areas (fronto-insular and anterior cingulate cortices) towards fair players. However, these empathy-related responses were significantly reduced in males when observing an unfair person receiving pain. This effect was accompanied by increased activation in reward-related areas, correlated with an expressed desire for revenge. We conclude that in men (at least) empathic responses are shaped by valuation of other people's social behaviour, such that they empathize with fair opponents while favouring the physical punishment of unfair opponents, a finding that echoes recent evidence for altruistic punishment.


Sheila Jasanoff
# Law’s Knowledge: Science for Justice in Legal Settings
Am J Public Health 2005
Legal developments following Daubert v Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc indicate a growing need to reevaluate the decision’s fundamental assumptions about law, science, and their interactions. I argue that in Daubert and two successor cases, the Supreme Court misconceived both the nature of scientific practice and its links to legal fact-finding. The decisions endorsed a separatist model of law and science, presupposing a sharper boundary between the institutions than exists or should exist. A better approach is to recognize that law and science are both knowledgegenerating institutions, but that fact-making serves different functions in these two settings. The important question for the law is not how judges can best do justice to science, but rather how courts can better render justice under conditions of uncertainty and ignorance.


Elizabeth F. Loftus
# Planting misinformation in the human mind: A 30-year investigation of the malleability of memory
Learning & Memory 2005
The misinformation effect refers to the impairment in memory for the past that arises after exposure to misleading information. The phenomenon has been investigated for at least 30 years, as investigators have addressed a number of issues. These include the conditions under which people are especially susceptible to the negative impact of misinformation, and conversely when are they resistant. Warnings about the potential for misinformation sometimes work to inhibit its damaging effects, but only under limited circumstances. The misinformation effect has been observed in a variety of human and nonhuman species...


Avshalom Caspi, Joseph McClay, Terrie E. Moffitt, Jonathan Mill, Judy Martin, Ian W. Craig, Alan Taylor, Riechie Poulton
# Role of Genotype in the Cycle of Violence in Maltreated Children. Fears of the Future in Children and Young People
Journal for Sociology of Education and Socialization 2/2005


Avshalom Caspi, Terrie E. Moffitt, Mary Cannon, Joseph McClay, Robin Murray, HonaLee Harrington, Alan Taylor, Louise Arseneault, Ben Williams, Antony Braithwaite, Richie Poulton, Ian W. Craig
# Moderation of the Effect of Adolescent-Onset Cannabis Use on Adult Psychosis by a Functional Polymorphism in the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Gene: Longitudinal Evidence of a Gene X Environment Interaction
Biol Psychiatry, 57 : 2005


Lisa Schriner Lewis
# The Role Genetic Information Plays in the Criminal Justice System
Arizona Law Review Vol. 47:519 2005


Joshua Greene, Jonathan Cohen
# For the law, neuroscience changes nothing and everything
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B (2004) 359
Some suggest that our emerging understanding of the physical causes of human (mis)behaviour will have a transformative effect on the law. Others argue that new neuroscience will provide only new details and that existing legal doctrine can accommodate whatever new information neuroscience will provide. We argue that neuroscience will probably have a transformative effect on the law, despite the fact that existing legal doctrine can, in principle, accommodate whatever neuroscience will tell us. New neuroscience will change the law, not by undermining its current assumptions, but by transforming people’s moral intuitions about free will and responsibility. This change in moral outlook will result not from the discovery of crucial new facts or clever new arguments, but from a new appreciation of  old arguments.


Jean Decety, Philip L. Jackson, Jessica A. Sommerville, Thierry Chaminade, Andrew N. Meltzoff
# The neural bases of cooperation and competition: an fMRI investigation
Neuroimage 2004 October ; 23(2): 744–751
The available evidence indicates that social interactions involve a specific set of cortical regions, but further investigation is needed to elucidate the respective contribution of these neural structures in the different mind sets of the agent when they cooperate toward a common goal or when they compete for this goal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural basis of these two social cognitive processes in the same individuals while they engage in well-controlled social interactions. We designed a computer game to provide fMRI-compatible, controlled bouts of cooperation and competition...


Michael F. Lorber
# Psychophysiology of Aggression, Psychopathy, and Conduct Problems: A Meta-Analysis
Psychological Bulletin 2004, Vol. 130, No. 4, 531–552

A meta-analysis of 95 studies was conducted to investigate the relations of heart rate (HR) and electrodermal activity (EDA) with aggression, psychopathy, and conduct problems. Analyses revealed a complex constellation of interactive effects, with a failure in some cases of autonomic patterns to generalize across antisocial spectrum behavior constructs. Low resting EDA and low task EDA were associated with psychopathy/ sociopathy and conduct problems. However, EDA reactivity was positively associated with aggression and negatively associated with psychopathy/ sociopathy. Low resting HR andhigh HR reactivity were associated with aggression and conduct problems. Physiology– behavior relations varied with age and stimulus valence in several cases. Empirical and clinical implications are discussed.


Robert M. Sapolsky
# The frontal cortex and the criminal justice system
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B (2004) 359
In recent decades, the general trend in the criminal justice system in the USA has been to narrow the range of insanity defences available, with an increasing dependence solely on the M’Naghten rule. This states that innocence by reason of insanity requires that the perpetrator could not understand the nature of their criminal act, or did not know that the act was wrong, by reason of a mental illness. In this essay, I question the appropriateness of this, in light of contemporary neuroscience. Specifically, I focus on the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognition, emotional regulation, control of impulsive behaviour and moral reasoning...


Dominique J.-F. de Quervain, Urs Fischbacher, Valerie Treyer, Melanie Schellhammer, Ulrich Schnyder, Alfred Buck, Ernst Fehr
# The Neural Basis of Altruistic Punishment 27 August 2004
Many people voluntarily incur costs to punish violations of social norms. Evolutionary models and empirical evidence indicate that such altruistic punishment has been a decisive force in the evolution of human cooperation. We used H2 15O positron emission tomography to examine the neural basis for altruistic punishment of defectors in an economic exchange.


Raymond E. Collins
# Onset and Desistance in Criminal Careers: Neurobiology and the Age-Crime Relationship
Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, Vol. 39 (3), 2004
Until recently, attempts to understand and explain criminal offending have been grounded in theories from sociological, legal, and psychological perspectives. In the preceding twenty years, or so, however, some research in the field has endeavored to look at offending from a psychobiological viewpoint. This research concerns the potential consequences of the effects of neurobiological influences on brain behavior and, consequently, human behavior.


Hakwan C. Lau, Robert D. Rogers, Patrick Haggard, Richard E. Passingham
# Attention to Intention
Science, 20 February 2004 Vol 303
Intention is central to the concept of voluntary action. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared conditions in which participants made self-paced actions and attended either to their intention to move or to the actual movement. When they attended to their intention rather than their movement, there was an enhancement of activity in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA). We also found activations in the right dorsal prefrontal cortexand left intraparietal cortex. Prefrontal activity, but not parietal activity, was more strongly coupled with activity in the pre- MA. We conclude that activity in the pre-SMA reflects the representation of intention.


Brent Garland
# Neuroscience and the Law. Brain, Mind and the Scales of Justice
Dana Press | The American Association for the Advancement of Science | 2004


Erin Ann O'Hara
# How neuroscience might advance the law
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B (2004) 359
This essay discusses the strengths and limitations of the new, growing field of law and biology and suggests that advancements in neuroscience can help to bolster that field. It also briefly discusses some ways that neuroscience can help to improve the workings of law more generally.


Joshua Greene
# From neural ‘is’ to moral ‘ought’: what are the moral implications of neuroscientific moral psychology? Nature Neuroscience October 2003
Philosophers routinely distinguish between ethics and ‘meta-ethics’. Ethics concerns particular moral issues (such as our obligations to the poor) and theories that attempt to resolve such issues (such as utilitarianism or Aristotelian virtue ethics).Meta-ethics, by contrast, is concerned with more foundational issues, with the status of ethics as a whole.What do we mean when we say something like “Capital punishment is wrong”? Are we stating a putative fact, or merely expressing an opinion?


James R. Blair
# Neurobiological basis of psychopathy
The British Journal of Psychiatry (2003) 182: 5-7
To understand a psychiatric disorder we need to know why the pathology causes the behavioural disturbance, the neural structures implicated in the pathology and the cause of the dysfunction in the neural structures. With regard to psychopathy, we have clear indications regarding why the pathology gives rise to the emotional and behavioural disturbance and important insights into the neural systems implicated in this pathology. What remains unclear is why these neural systems are dysfunctional.


Jim Hom
# Forensic Neuropsychology: are we there yet?
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 18 (2003) 827–845
The primary responsibility of the forensic neuropsychologist is to provide information based on scientifically-validated neuropsychological principles and clinical methodology that is pertinent to the Forensic Question at hand—which is not just whether the patient has dysfunction, but whether the dysfunction results from the event under consideration. To best answer the Forensic Question, the neuropsychologist must use a methodology that has been scientifically-validated on brain-impaired individuals, and can distinguish various brain conditions from each other as well as from normal variation.


Alfred J. Lewy
# Clinical applications of melatonin in circadian disorders
Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience - Vol 5 . No. 4 . 2003

Chronobiological disorders and syndromes include seasonal affective disorder (SAD), total blindness, advanced and delayed sleep phase syndrome, jet lag, and shift work maladaptation. These disorders are treated by adjusting circadian phase, using appropriately timed bright light exposure and melatonin administration (at doses of 0.5 mg or less). In some cases, it may be necessary to measure internal circadían phase, using the time when endogenous melatonin levels rise.


C. Cajochen, K. Kräuchi, A. Wirz-Justice
# Role of Melatonin in the Regulation of Human Circadian Rhythms and Sleep
Journal of Neuroendocrinology, Vol. 15, 2003
The circadian rhythm of pineal melatonin is the best marker of internal time under low ambient light levels. The endogenous melatonin rhythm exhibits a close association with the endogenous circadian component of the sleep propensity rhythm. This has led to the idea that melatonin is an internal sleep ‘facilitator’ in humans, and therefore useful in the treatment of insomnia and the readjustment of circadian rhythms...


Jonathan D. Moreno
# Neuroethics: an agenda for neuroscience and society
Neuroscience, vol. 4, February 2003
In the context of this new interest on neuroethics, there are long-standing issues on the control or alteration of mind and brain that are sure to surface again. There is no better example than free will and determinism, a potential philosophical quagmire that has, since the ancient Greeks, inspired some of the most imaginative intellectual footwork. Does our growing knowledge about the origins and physical basis of mental states, let alone the possibility of controlling them with some specificity, threaten the liberal ideals of freedom and personal responsibility? In short, is neuroscience on the road to showing, once and for all, that mental states reduce to brain states, and even to brain states that could be subject to direct manipulation?


Adrian Raine
# The Biological Basis of Crime 
Chapter in Crime: Public Policies for Crime Control,  J.Q- Wilson and J.Petersilia (Editors) 2002, ICS Press: Oakland, California (pp. 43- 74)


Nuffield Council on Bioethics
# Genetics and human behaviour: the ethical context October 2002
Human behaviour is influenced both by the genes that we inherit and the environment in which we live. With the significant advances in our knowledge of genetics and publication of the draft sequence of the human genome, the focus of research has moved once again towards understanding the biological contribution to behaviour. Some researchers are attempting to locate specific genes, or groups of genes, associated with behavioural traits and to understand the complex relationship between genes and the environment. This is called research in behavioural genetics. In contrast to research into the genetic basis of diseases and disorders, researchers in behavioural genetics investigate aspects of our personalities such as intelligence, sexual orientation, susceptibility to aggression and other antisocial conduct, and tendencies towards extraversion and novelty-seeking.


Martha J. Farah
# Emerging ethical issues in neuroscience nature neuroscience, november 2002
If drugs and other forms of central nervous system intervention can be used to improve the mood, cognition or behavior of people with problems in these areas, what might they do for normal individuals? Some treatments can be viewed as 'normalizers', which have little or no effect on systems that are already normal (for instance, the mood stablizer lithium) and will not therefore figure in debates over enhancement. Other treatments can indeed make normal people 'better than normal'. Pharmacological enhancement is arguably being practiced now in several psychological domains: enhancement of mood, cognition and vegetative functions, including sleep, appetite and sex.


The Economist
# The ethics of brain science. Open your mind May 23rd 2002
Although often overlooked, advances in neurotechnology raise ethical and legal questions of the same nature and gravity as advances in genetics... Concerns about neurotechnology fall into the same three groups. Neuroscientists may soon be able to screen people's brains to assess their mental health; to distribute that information, possibly accidentally, to employers or insurers; and to “fix” faulty personality traits with drugs or implants on demand. They may also, according to some philosophers, expose fallacies in philosophical thinking that go to the heart of human nature by showing how the brain actually makes decisions


Jaak Panksepp, Brian Knutson, Jeff Burgdorf
# The role of brain emotional systems in addictions: a neuro-evolutionary perspective and new ‘self-report’ animal model
Addiction, 2002, 97


R J R Blair
# Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;71:727–731
The goal of this paper is to consider neurocognitive models of aggression and relate these accounts to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. However, firstly it is necessary to differentiate between the disorders conduct disorder (CD), antisocial personality disorder (APD), “acquired sociopathy” and psychopathy, and reactive and instrumental aggression.


Stefano Rodotà
# Una scommessa impegnativa sul terreno dei nuovi diritti. Discorso del presidente del Garante per la protezione dei dati personali tenuto l'8 maggio 2001 alla presentazione della Relazione per il 2001 15 maggio 2002
I cittadini mostrano di preoccuparsi assai del loro "corpo elettronico", di una esistenza sempre più affidata alla dimensione astratta del trattamento elettronico delle loro informazioni. Le persone sono ormai conosciute da soggetti pubblici e privati quasi esclusivamente attraverso i dati che le riguardano, e che fanno di esse una entità disincarnata. Con enfasi riduzionista, per molti versi pericolosa, si dice che "noi siamo le nostre informazioni". La nostra identità viene così affidata al modo in cui queste informazioni vengono trattate, collegate, fatte circolare


Kent A. Kiehl, Andra M. Smith, Robert D. Hare, Adrianna Mendrek, Bruce B. Forster, Johann Brink, Peter F. Liddle
# Limbic Abnormalities in Affective Processing by Criminal Psychopaths as Revealed by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Biol Psychiatry, 2001;50:677–684
Compared with criminal nonpsychopaths and noncriminal control participants, criminal psychopaths showed significantly less affect-related activity in the amygdala/hippocampal formation, parahippocampal gyrus, ventral striatum, and in the anterior and posterior cingulate gyri. Psychopathic criminals also showed evidence of overactivation in the bilateral fronto- emporal cortex for processing affective stimuli. Conclusions: These data suggest that the affective abnormalities so often observed in psychopathic offenders may be linked to deficient or weakened input from limbic structures.


M C Brower, B H Price
# Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behaviour: a critical review

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2001;71:720–726
Clinically significant focal frontal lobe dysfunction is associated with aggressive dyscontrol, but the increased risk of violence seems less than is widely presumed. Evidence is strongest for an association between focal prefrontal damage and an impulsive subtype of aggressive behaviour.


Eric R. Kandel, Larry R. Squire
# Neuroscience: Breaking Down Scientific Barriers to the Study of Brain and Mind 10 November 2000


Karim Nader, Glenn E. Schafe, Joseph E. Le Doux
# Fear memories require protein synthesis in the amygdala for reconsolidation after retrieval Nature 17 august 2000
`New' memories are initially labile and sensitive to disruption before being consolidated into stable long-term memories. Much evidence indicates that this consolidation involves the synthesis of new proteins in neurons6±9. The lateral and basal nuclei of the amygdala (LBA) are believed to be a site of memory storage in fear learning.


Justine Kruger, David Dunning
# Unskilled and unaware of it: How difficulties in recognizing one's own incompetence lead to inflated self-assessments
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 77(6), Dec 1999, 1121-1134
People tend to hold overly favorable views of their abilities in many social and intellectual domains. The authors suggest that this overestimation occurs, in part, because people who are unskilled in these domains suffer a dual burden: Not only do these people reach erroneous conclusions and make unfortunate choices, but their incompetence robs them of the metacognitive ability to realize it. Across 4 studies, the authors found that participants scoring in the bottom quartile on tests of humor, grammar, and logic grossly overestimated their test performance and ability. Although their test scores put them in the 12th percentile, they estimated themselves to be in the 62nd. Several analyses linked this miscalibration to deficits in metacognitive skill, or the capacity to distinguish accuracy from error. Paradoxically, improving the skills of the participants, and thus increasing their metacognitive competence, helped them recognize the limitations of their abilities


Jan Volavka
# The Neurobiology of Violence: An Update
J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 11:3, Summer 1999
Clinical correlates of violent behavior are known, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This article reviews recent progress in the understanding of such mechanisms involving complex interactions between genes, prenatal and perinatal environmental factors, and rearing conditions. Violent behavior is heterogeneous; that is, impulsive and premeditated violent acts differ in their origins, mechanisms, and management. Recent molecular genetic studies of neurotransmitter regulation are providing new insights into pathophysiology of violent behavior...


Eric R. Kandel
# A New Intellectual Framework for Psychiatry
Am J Psychiatry 155:4, April 1998
In an attempt to place psychiatric thinking and the training of future psychiatrists more centrally into the context of modern biology, the author outlines the beginnings of a new intellectual framework for psychiatry that derives from current biological thinking about the relationship of mind to brain. The purpose of this framework is twofold. First, it is designed to emphasize that the professional requirements for future psychiatrists will demand a greater knowledge of the structure and functioning of the brain than is currently available in most training programs. Second, it is designed to illustrate that the unique domain which psychiatry occupies within academic medicine, the analysis of the interaction between social and biological determinants of behavior, can best be studied by also having a full understanding of the biological components of behavior.


Antoine Bechara, Daniel Tranel, Hanna Damasio, Antonio R. Damasio
# Failure to Respond Autonomically to Anticipated Future Outcomes Following Damage to Prefrontal Cortex
Cerebral Cortex, Mar/Apr 1996
Ascribing a good or bad value to a given deck requires a mechanism for weighing the overall proportion of reward versus punishment within that deck, that is, an association between a stimulus (a given deck) and either its goodness (average reward value) and badness (average punishment value). We propose that in normal individuals, the ventromedial prefrontal cortices contain neural circuitry that links the stimulus configuration of a given deck (neutral stimulus), to the representations of both reward and punishment, of goodness and badness.


H Damasio, T Grabowski, R Frank, AM Galaburda, AR Damasio
# The return of Phineas Gage: clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient Science 20 May 1994: Vol. 264 no. 5162 pp. 1102-1105
When the landmark patient Phineas Gage died in 1861, no autopsy was performed, but his skull was later recovered. The brain lesion that caused the profound personality changes for which his case became famous has been presumed to have involved the left frontal region, but questions have been raised about the involvement of other regions and about the exact placement of the lesion within the vast frontal territory. Measurements from Gage's skull and modern neuroimaging techniques were used to reconstitute the accident and determine the probable location of the lesion. The damage involved both left and right prefrontal cortices in a pattern that, as confirmed by Gage's modern counterparts, causes a defect in rational decision making and the processing of emotion.


Antoine Bechara, Antonio R. Damasio, Hanna Damasio, Steven W. Anderson
# Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex
Cognition, 50 (1994)
Following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, humans develop a defect in real-life decision-making, which contrasts with otherwise normal intellectual functions. Currently, there is no neuropsychological probe to detect in the laboratory, and the cognitive and neural mechanisms responsible for this defect have resisted explanation. Here, using a novel task which simulates real-life decision-making in the way it factors uncertainty of premises and outcomes, as well as reward and punishment, we find that prefrontal patients, unlike controls, are oblivious to the future consequences of their actions, and seem to be guided by immediate prospects only. This finding offers, for the first time, the possibility of detecting these patients’ elusive impairment in the laboratory, measuring it, and investigating its possible causes.


US Supreme Court
# Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. - 509 U.S. 579 (1993)

1. La tecnica scientifica utilizzata è testabile ed è stata testata? 2. La tecnica è stata sottoposta a revisioni fatte da revisori specializzati nel campo ed è stata pubblicata? 3. Qual è il grado di errore? 4. Ci sono degli standard/limiti che ne regolano l’applicazione? 5. La comunità scientifica ha accettato la tecnica?

Suzanne Orofino
# Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc.: The Battle Over Admissibility Standards for Scientific Evidence in Court
J. Undergrad. Sci. 3: 109-111 (Summer 1996)


H. G. Brunner, M. R. Nelen, P. van Zandvoort, N. G. G. M. Abeling, A. H. van Gennip, E. C. Wolters, M. A. Kuiper, H. H. Ropers, B. A. van Oost
# X-Linked Borderline Mental Retardation with Prominent Behavioral Disturbance: Phenotype, Genetic Localization, and Evidence for Disturbed Monoamine Metabolism
Am.J. Hum. Genet. 52:1032-1039, 1993

We have identified a large Dutch kindred with a new form of X-linked nondysmorphic mild mental retardation. All affected males in this family show very characteristic abnormal behavior, in particular aggressive and sometimes violent behavior. Other types of impulsive behavior include arson, attempted rape, and exhibitionism... The results of genetic linkage analyses and of biochemical studies suggest that a mutation affecting the structural gene for monoamine oxidase type A (MAOA) may be responsible for this syndrome.


Brenda Egolf, Judith Lasker, Stewart Wolf, Louise Potvin
# The Roseto Effect: A 50-Year Comparison of Mortality Rates
American Journal of Public Health, August 1992, 82, n. 8
After a very thorough search of all sources of data for mortality in two small Pennsylvania communities over the course  of 50 years, our examiation of death certificates  as confirmed the earlier inference, based on a shorter span of years, that the death rate from myocardial infarction was lower in Roseto than in immediately adjacent Bangor in three decades prior to 1965. The difference between the two communities is statistically significant despite the small number of myocardial infarctions. The sharp rise that followed involved mainly young Rosetan men and elderly women at a time when the predicted decrease in social cohesion became clearly manifest... 


R. W. Sperry
# A Modified Concept of Consciousness
Psychological Review, vol 76, n. 6, nov 1969

Challenges the assumption that the subjective phenomena of conscious experiences do not exert any causal influence on the sequence of events in the physical brain process. A theory of mind is suggested in which consciousness, interpreted to be a direct emergent property of cerebral activity, is conceived to be an integral component of the brain process that functions as an essential constituent of the action and exerts a directive holistic form of control over the flow pattern of cerebral excitation.


Martin E. Seligman, Steven F. Maier
# Failure to Escape Traumatic Shock
Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (1): 1967
Overmier and Seligman (1967) have shown that the prior exposure of dogs to inescapable shock in a Pavlovian harness reliably results in interference with subsequent escape/avoidance learning in a shuttle box. Typically, these dogs do not even escape from shock in the shuttle box. They initially show normal reactivity to shock, but after a few trials, they passively "accept" shock and fail to make escape movements. Moreover, if an escape or avoidance response does occur, it does not reliably predict future escapes or avoidances, as it does in normal dogs.




dna... genomica


Marco Nigro
# Banca dati del dna: note a prima lettura all’indomani dell’entrata in vigore del DPR 7 Aprile 2016 n. 87
Giurisprudenza Penale Web, 2016, 9 – ISSN 2499-846X |Articolo scritto il 8 settembre 2016
Ad un’attenta analisi criminologica e considerato l’alto tasso di recidiva criminale, la Banca dati andrà infatti a raccogliere proprio i profili di quelle persone tendenzialmente più esposte ad essere coinvolte in futuri reati. Pertanto, vista sotto questa nuova ottica, la nuova Banca dati si presterà non solo a perseguire finalità investigative ma anche finalità di deterrenza; chi verrà sottoposto a misura privativa della libertà personale (sia in base a una sentenza definitiva sia semplicemente in applicazione di una misura cautelare ), subirà come conseguenza automatica anche il prelievo coattivo del DNA e, pertanto, sarà consapevole (o almeno si spera) che nell’ipotesi un cui dovesse commettere un altro reato nell’ambito del quale sarà possibile lasciare sulla scena del crimine tracce biologiche, sarà piuttosto facile accertarne la colpevolezza.


Giuliana Ubbiali
# Il capo della banca dati del Dna: «Nessun nome, privacy da garantire». Saranno conservati soltanto codici e il metodo di analisi sarà più accurato rispetto agli Usa e al resto d’Europa. Da mappare il 90% dei detenuti
Corriere della Sera, 22 agosto 2016


Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica 7 aprile 2016, n. 87
# Regolamento recante disposizioni di attuazione della legge 30 giugno 2009, n. 85, concernente l'istituzione della banca dati nazionale del DNA e del laboratorio centrale per la banca dati nazionale del DNA, ai sensi dell'articolo 16 della legge n. 85 del 2009. (16G00091) (GU Serie Generale n.122 del 26-5-2016) note: Entrata in vigore del provvedimento: 10/06/2016 


Ministero della Giustizia
# Banca dati e laboratorio Dna, Orlando: a magistrati e forze dell’ordine tecnologie all’avanguardia sabato 4 luglio 2015

# Ministero della Giustizia, Schema di regolamento recante “Disposizioni di attuazione della legge 30 giugno 2009, n. 85, concernente l’istituzione della banca datti nazionale del DNA e del laboratorio centrale per la banca dati nazionale del DNA, ai sensi dell’articolo 16 della legge n. 85 del 2009”.


Spencer S. Hsu
# FBI discloses errors in DNA analysis
The Washington Post, May 30, 2015

The FBI has notified crime labs across the country that it has discovered errors in data used by forensic scientists in thousands of cases to calculate the chances that DNA found at a crime scene matches a particular person, several people familiar with the issue said... The disclosure comes as some private researchers and lawyers in recent years questioned whether errors in the FBI’s national database of 13 million DNA profiles may have led judges and juries to give undue weight to DNA matches, long considered the “gold standard” in forensic science.


Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium
# Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci 24 july 2014
Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported.


# Banca dati dna, Orlando: avvio entro il 2015
Roma, 4 feb. (askanews)


Walter D'Amario
# Banca dati del Dna, c'è la sede e lo spot tv. Ma l'istituto funzionerà dal 2015 04 febbraio 2014


E Vassos, DA Collier and S Fazel
# Systematic meta-analyses and field synopsis of genetic association studies of violence and aggression
Molecular Psychiatry (2013)


Giuseppe Gennari
# US Supreme Court, Jeremy Bentham e il panopticon genetico
www.penalecontemporaneo/ Diritto Penale Contemporaneo, n. 4, 2013


Robert Kumsta, Elisabeth Hummel, Frances S. Chen, Markus Heinrichs
# Epigenetic regulation of the oxytocin receptor gene: implications for behavioral neuroscience Frontiers in Neurosciences, May 2013


David H. Kaye
# What the Supreme Court Hasn’t Told You About DNA Databases 2 August 2013


David H. Kaye
# A Fourth Amendment Theory for Arrestee DNA and Other Biometric Databases
Journal of Constitutional Law, Vol. 15:4, Apr. 2013


Republic of South Africa
# Notice of Intention to Introduce the Criminal Law (Forensic Procedures) Amendment Bill, 2013 in the National Assembly and Publication of the Explanatory Summary of the Bill Government Gazette, 26 April 2013


Alfredo Gaito, Bello Valerio, DeNunzio Nicol, Dipasquale Salvina, Gnisci Debora, Liburdi Martina, Longo Ilaria (eds)
# La prova del DNA edil ruolo degli esperti nel processo penale 15 aprile 2013


Roberta Catalano
# Indagini genetiche, imputabilità e libero arbitrio: questioni giurisprudenziali e nuovi bisogni di tutela della persona
Revista do Instituto do Direito Brasileiro - RIDB, Ano 2 (2013), nº 5


Supreme Court of the United States
# Maryland v. King | Supreme Court ruled that states may collect DNA from people when they are arrested
Argued February 26, 2013—Decided June 3, 2013


Fabio Tonacci
# Polizia 2.0
La Repubblica 23.09.2013


Anna Maria Capitta
# Conservazione dei DNA profiles e tutela europea dei diritti dell’uomo
Archivio Penale 2013, n. 1

Se in tema di prelievo di campioni biologici si riscontra, an-che nell’ambito dei contributi dottrinali di casa nostra, una consistente quantità di interventi, meno arato appare il campo che attiene al fenomeno cronologicamente successivo alla raccolta e alla tipizzazione dei profili del DNA, vale a dire quello della conservazione delle informazioni genetiche nella banca dati.


Annaleda Galluzzo
# Diritto alla riservatezza e indagini penali. Nuove dimensioni dell'indagine genetica e informatica
Università degli Studi di Padova, 2013


Brendan Keating, Aruna T. Bansal, Susan Walsh, Jonathan Millman, Jonathan Newman, Kenneth Kidd, Bruce Budowle, Arthur Eisenberg, Joseph Donfack, Paolo Gasparini, Zoran Budimlija, Anjali K. Henders, Hareesh Chandrupatla, David L. Duffy, Scott D. Gordon, Pirro Hysi, Fan Liu, Sarah E. Medland, Laurence Rubin, Nicholas G. Martin, Timothy D. Spector, Manfred Kayser
# First all-in-one diagnostic tool for DNA intelligence: genome-wide inference of biogeographic ancestry, appearance, relatedness, and sex with the Identitas v1 Forensic Chip
Int J Legal Med 2012


Rebeca Souto Santos
# Contributos da Epigenética no âmbito da Medicina Legal
Universidade do Porto, 2012


Paola Felicioni
# La prova del dna tra esaltazione mediatica e realtà applicativa
Archivio Penale, n. 2, 2012


Andrew Thibedeau
# National Forensic DNA Databases. Council for Responsible Genetics National DNA Databases 2011


Mijke Visser, Dmitry Zubakov, Kaye N. Ballantyne, Manfred Kayser
# mRNA-based skin identification for forensic applications
Int J Legal Med (2011) 125:253–263


Giovanni Canzio
# La valutazione della prova scientifica fra verità processuale e ragionevole dubbio
Archivio Penale 2011, n. 3
Nel vertiginoso intreccio dei rapporti tra scienza e diritto, teorie generali della conoscenza, epistemologia della prova, libero convincimento del giudice e giustificazione razionale della decisione, si segnala il progressivo irrompere della scienza nel processo penale e, nello stesso tempo, si avverte il persistere del dramma di giudicare in condizioni d’incertezza probatoria, pur quando l’indagine sui fatti di reato e la loro ricostruzione viene – sempre più spesso – affidata a modelli scientifici, introdotti attraverso il sapere specialistico del consulente tecnico o del perito.


Katina Michael
# The legal, social and ethical controversy of the collection and storage of fingerprint profiles and DNA samples in forensic science
In K. Michael (Eds.), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society: Social Implications of Emerging Techologies


Department of Corrections | Raleigh, North Carolina
# Rules and Policies. Governing the Management and Conduct of Inmates under the Control of the Division of Prisons April 2010

DNA testing: North Carolina state law requires that the Division of Prisons obtain DNA blood samples from all new and existing felon prisoners and some misdemeanants prior to release or parole. The misdemeanants who must be tested are those convicted of Stalking, Assault on a Handicapped  Person or Sexual Battery. If an inmate is a felon or a misdemeanant convicted of Stalking, Assault on a Handicapped Person or Sexual Battery, they will be required to give a blood sample during processing. Failure to comply with this requirement can result in use of force and disciplinary proceedings


Hanna Edlund
# Sensitive Identification Tools in Forensic DNA Analysis
Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, Uppsala 2010


Sameer P. Sarkar, Gwen Adshead
# Whose DNA Is It Anyway? European Court, Junk DNA, and the Problem With Prediction
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law 38:247–50, 2010


Philip Hunter
# The psycho gene | While the idea of a ‘criminal gene’ is nonsense, there is growing evidence that some psychopathic behaviour might indeed be grounded in genes
European Molecular Biology Organization EMBO VOL 11 | NO 9 | 2010


Ilaria Anna Colussi
# Dati genetici e forze di polizia: intersezioni europee
XV Convegno della Società Italiana di Diritto Internazionale (SIDI), “La protezione dei diritti fondamentali: Carta dei diritti UE e standards internazionali” - Bologna, 10 e 11 giugno 2010


Gabriella Marando
# L'acquisizione della prova scientifica nel processo penale
Università degli Studi di Trieste, 2009-2010


Salvatore Meloni
# Le banche dati tecnico scientifiche nell'ambito dell'indagine forense
Università degli Studi di Trieste, 2010


Andrea Molteni
# Profili sospetti. Strumenti di identificazione criminale e pratiche di classificazione: la banca dati nazionale del DNA
Università degli Studi di Milano - 2009-2010


Parlamento Italiano

# Legge 30 giugno 2009, n. 85 | Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 160 del 13 luglio 2009 - Supplemento ordinario n. 108

"Adesione della Repubblica italiana al Trattato concluso il 27 maggio 2005 tra il Regno del Belgio, la Repubblica federale di Germania, il Regno di Spagna, la Repubblica francese, il Granducato di Lussemburgo, il Regno dei Paesi Bassi e la Repubblica d'Austria, relativo all'approfondimento della cooperazione transfrontaliera, in particolare allo scopo di contrastare il terrorismo, la criminalità transfrontaliera e la migrazione illegale (Trattato di Prum). Istituzione della banca dati nazionale del DNA e del laboratorio centrale per la banca dati nazionale del DNA. Delega al Governo per l'istituzione dei ruoli tecnici del Corpo di polizia penitenziaria. Modifiche al codice di procedura penale in materia di accertamenti tecnici idonei ad incidere sulla libertà personale"


Antonella Marandola 
# Information sharing nella prospettiva del Trattato di Prüm e della decisione di recepimento nel quadro giuridico dell'Unione
EUT - Edizioni Università di Trieste 2009
Il presente saggio analizza quella forma di cooperazione “rafforzata” esterna alla cornice dell’Unione rappresentata dal Trattato di Prüm e il suo successivo recepimento nell’acquis communaitaire con la decisione 2008/615/GAI. Particolare attenzione viene dedicata ai meccanismi di trasmissione tra Stati membri dei dati biometrici e al progetto di legge volto a dare attuazione a tali fonti nell’ordinamento italiano


Mark A. Rothstein, Yu Cai, and Gary E. Marchant
# The Ghost in Our Genes: Legal and Ethical Implications of Epigenetics
Health Matrix Clevel. 2009 ; 19(1): 1–62.


The Police Foundation
# The use of DNA in forensic policing The Briefing April 2009


American Civil Liberties Union ACLU - Vermont
# Focus: Dna January 2009


Comitato Nazionale per la Biosicurezza, le Biotecnologie e le Scienze della Vita
# Raccolta di campioni biologici a fini di ricerca: consenso informato 16 febbraio 2009

Uno dei problemi più rilevanti, per chi lavora nel settore della ricerca scientifica con materiale biologico, consiste nello stabilire entro quali limiti e con quali modalità sia lecito conservare campioni oltre il tempo necessario per raggiungere lo scopo per cui il campione è stato raccolto, e se sia legittimo utilizzare i campioni anche per scopi diversi da quelli inizialmente individuati.


William TM Dunsmuir, Cuong Tran, Don Weatherburn
# Assessing the Impact of Mandatory DNA Testing of Prison Inmates in NSW on Clearance, Charge and Conviction Rates for Selected Crime Categories
NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research 2008


Ciro Sbailò

# Trattato di Prüm. Una rivoluzione silenziosa (finora)

Forum di Quaderni Costituzionali, 7 agosto 2009


Lucia Scaffardi
# Le banche dati genetiche per fini giudiziari e i diritti della persona 2008
1. Introduzione: i database genetici tra aumento della criminalità e richieste di sicurezza 2. Inghilterra e Scozia, esempi di differenti scelte normative 3. Segue. La legislazione in tema di DNA databases in altri Paesi europei. L’Italia e la mancanza di norme in materia 4. La normativa inter e sovra-nazionale di riferimento. Il Trattato di Prüm: raccolta, accesso e scambio di dati 5. La Corte dei Diritti dell’Uomo e la decisione S. and Marper v. United Kingdom 6. Osservazioni (per nulla) conclusive.


Paola Balbo
# Trattato di Prüm o Schengen II
Diritto Internazionale, 30.10.2008


William T.M. Dunsmuir, Cuong Tran, Don Weatherburn
# Assessing the Impact of Mandatory DNA Testing of Prison Inmates in NSW on Clearance, Charge and Conviction Rates for Selected Crime Categories NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research 2008


Antonino Carlo
# La proiezione costituzionale della banza dati italiana del dna per finalità di indagine criminale. Riflessioni a margine dei progetti di legge presentati nel corso della XV legislatura


Jeffrey M. Prottas, Alice A. Noble
# Use of Forensic DNA Evidence in Prosecutors’ Offices
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics - Summer 2007


Paul M. Monteleoni
# Dna Databases, Universality, and the Fourth Amendment
New York University Law Review, vol. 82, April 2007


Consiglio dell'Unione Europea
# Trattato di Prüm ( il 27 maggio 2005)
CRIMORG 194 | ENFOPOL 216 | MIGR 172 | Bruxelles, 6 dicembre 2006

Trattato tra il Regno del Belgio, la Repubblica Federale di Germania, Il Regno di Spagna, la Repubblica Francese, il Granducato di Lussemburgo, il Regno dei Paesi Bassi e la Repubblica d’Austria riguardante l’approfondimento della cooperazione transfrontaliera, in particolare al fine di lottare contro il terrorismo, la criminalità transfrontaliera e la migrazione illegale


Elizabeth E. Joh
# Reclaiming 'Abandoned' DNA: The Fourth Amendment and Genetic Privacy
Northwestern University Law Review Vol. 100, No. 2 2006


Tania Simoncelli
# Dangerous Excursions: The Case Against Expanding Forensic DNA Databases to Innocent Persons Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics | Dna Fingerprinting & Civil Liberties • Summer 2006

While subjecting persons who have been convicted of a crime to inclusion in a DNA database is inherently problematic, subjecting those who have never been convicted of a crime subverts our notion of a free and autonomous society and is characteristic of an authoritarian regime...


D.H. Kaye
# Science Fiction and Shed Dna Northwestern University Law Review Colloquy , vol 101 2006


Seth Axelrad
# Survey of State DNA Database Statutes
American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics (2006)


Giovanni Canzio
# Prova scientifica, ricerca della “verità” e decisione giudiziaria nel processo penale
Relazione dell’11 dicembre 2004 (Sedicesima giornata di studio organizzata dalla Rivista Trimestrale di Diritto e Procedura Civile)


American Prosecutors Research Institute APRI | Lisa R. Kreeger, Danielle M.Weiss
# Forensic DNA Fundamentals for the Prosecutor. Be Not Afraid November 2003


Ben Quarmby
# The Case for National DNA Identification Cards Duke Law & Technology Review 2003


National Institute of Justice NIJ
# The Future of Forensic DNA Testing. Predictions of the Research and Development Working Group November 2000


D.H. Kaye
# The Constitutionality of DNA Sampling on Arrest
An Interim Report to the Legal Issues Working Group of the National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence October 1, 1999 (revised January 22, 2000)


Dennis J. Reeder
# Impact of DNA Typing on Standards and Practice in the Forensic Community
Arch Pathol Lab Med—Vol 123, November 1999




Rivista di criminologia criminale
# Per una criminologia del corpo Rivista di criminologia criminale, Anno X – n. 2 giugno 2017
La mente ordina, il corpo esegue, le mani ubbidiscono? Nella mia esperienza sono le mani a consentire di entrare in contatto con il pensiero, sono volti senza occhi e senza voce ma che vedono e parlano. La mano non è un oggetto, la mano pensa e il corpo l’accompagna nella sua azione. Anche in stato di quiete la mano non è un utensile senz’anima: in essa permane la volontà di azione...


Angela Balzano
# Normare la vita. Biocontrollo e nuove tecnologie
Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna, 2015
La domanda da porre diviene: chi può davvero partecipare ai processi di creazione del biodiritto? Le lobby presenti nel paese considerato, siano esse neoliberisteconservatrici, piuttosto che neoliberiste-progressiste? Oppure è possibile un’inversione di tendenza, un modello più inclusivo, che contempli la consultazione delle soggettività reali? Le associazioni femminili, le categorie di professioniste, le leghe delle ginecologhe, le unioni di pazienti, le biblioteche e le case delle donne, i collettivi femministi, quelli di artiste e intellettuali, i movimenti contro il sessismo, più in generale tutte e tutti coloro che operano per il rispetto delle differenze di genere, possono sperare di prendere parte a tale progetto di regolamentazione giuridica? 


Rosamaria Alibrandi
# Il corpo come password. Il futuro è biometrico 17 luglio 2015
Riconoscimento facciale, lettura delle impronte e del tracciato cardiaco, scansione vocale, identificazione dell’occhio e persino dell’orecchio, sostituiranno le password...


Laura Bazzicalupo
# Biopolitica come governamentalità: la cattura neoliberale della vita
La Deleuziana - Rivista on line di filosofia, n. 1, 2015


Igor Marchetti, Ernst H. W. Koster
# Brain and intersubjectivity: a Hegelian hypothesis on the self-other neurodynamics Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, January 2014 | Volume 8


Edoardo Fugali
# Scritto sulla pelle. Le sensazioni localizzate e l’origine del sé corporeo nella fenomenologia husserliana
Rivista Internazionale di Filosofia e Psicologia, vol. 4, n. 1, 2013


Edoardo Fugali
# “I limiti del mio corpo sono i limiti del mio mondo”. Il tema del corpo proprio nella riflessione filosofica contemporanea e nella scienza cognitiva incarnata
Reti, Saperi, Linguaggi | Anno 4 | N. 2 | 2012


Domenica Bruni, Edoardo Fugali
# Scienza cognitiva incarnata e modelli evoluzionistici
Reti, Saperi, Linguaggi | Anno 4 | N. 2 | 2012