... Covid-19 ...

 

Kelly Servick [Traduzione di Andrea Sparacino]
# Stati Uniti. Il virus offre un'opportunità per ripensare il carcere
Internazionale, 24 settembre 2020

I focolai negli istituti di pena evidenziano le disuguaglianze rispetto all'incidenza del virus. Tra gli afroamericani il tasso d'incarcerazione è più alto rispetto a quello tra i bianchi, e lo stesso vale per la durata delle condanne. Inoltre i detenuti presentano un tasso più elevato di malattie pregresse, un aspetto che li rende più esposti alle forme gravi di covid-19. Un altro elemento rilevante è il fatto che la salute dei detenuti è legata a quella della comunità che circonda i penitenziari. Il virus può entrare nelle strutture tramite i dipendenti (almeno 23mila persone che lavorano nelle carceri sono risultate positive) o essere portato dalle persone detenute per brevi periodi o trasferite da una struttura all'altra.

 

The Lancet
# COVID-19: a stress test for trust in science
www.thelancet.com/ September 19, 2020

 

WHO Africa
# Ministry of Health and WHO Respond to a Spike of COVID-19 Infection in Amuru Prison
https://www.afro.who.int/ 14 September 2020

 

Equal Justice Initiative
# Covid-19’s Impact on People in Prison
https://eji.org/ Updated 08.21.20

 

Ministry of Justice
# HM Prison and Probation Service COVID-19 Official Statistics. Data to 7 August 2020
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/ Ministry of Justice, 14 august 2020

 

Brendan Saloner, Kalind Parish, Julie A. Ward, Grace DiLaura, Sharon Dolovich
# COVID-19 Cases and Deaths in Federal and State Prisons
JAMA August 11, 2020 Volume 324, Number 6
By June 6, 2020, there had been 42 107 cases of COVID-19 and 510 deaths among 1 295 285 prisoners with a case rate of 3251 per 100 000 prisoners. The COVID-19 case rate for prisoners was 5.5 times higher than the US population case rate of 587 per 100 000. The crude COVID-19 death rate in prisons was 39 deaths per 100 000 prisoners, which was higher than the US population rate of 29 deaths per 100 000...

 

Rong-Gong Lin II, Kim Christensen
# San Quentin's coronavirus shows why ‘herd immunity’ could mean disaster
Los Angels Times, August 11, 2020

 

Antigone
# Il carcere alla prova della fase 2. Salute, tecnologia, spazi, vita interna
www.antigone.it/ 10 agosto 2020

 

Daniela Vigoni
# Il carcere e l’emergenza covid-19: le misure sollecitate dagli organismi internazionali
processopenaleegiustizia.it/ 23 luglio 2020
Sono evidenti i pericoli che derivano dalla pandemia di Coronavirus in una comunità artificiale, chiusa e regolata da rigide regole come il carcere, in cui si devono implementare ulteriori eccezionali disposizioni a tutela della salute nella prospettiva non solo individuale, dei singoli detenuti e del personale di settore, ma anche collettiva, della comunità penitenziaria e dell’intera popolazione. Coniugare sicurezza e salute è tanto più complicato nei Paesi in cui sovraffollamento carcerario e precarie situazioni igienico- anitarie aggravano le difficoltà concrete di mettere in atto le modalità di distanziamento: le misure di prevenzione, protezione e controllo, infatti, rischiano di comprimere i diritti dei detenuti, rendendoli ancor più vulnerabili ed esponendoli anche al pericolo di maltrattamenti.

 

Nicholas Chan | NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research
# The impact of COVID-19 measures on the size of the NSW adult prison population
www.bocsar.nsw.gov.au/ July 2020
Between 15 March and 10 May 2020 the NSW adult prison population decreased by 10.7% (1,508 people). Decreases in both the male and female custody population as well as the Aboriginal custody population were evident during this period. The majority of this decline was due to a drop in the remand population which fell by 21.2% (1,049 people). A smaller decline (6.1%) in the sentenced custody population was observed from 22 March The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with large falls in the NSW adult prison population. Most of this decline was due to a drop in remand receptions and increase in discharges to bail.

 

Luigi Spera
# Brasile. Nelle carceri il Covid corre veloce e a giugno +800% dei casi
Il Fatto Quotidiano, 15 luglio 2020
La gravità della situazione ha spinto 200 Ong attive nella difesa dei diritti umani a inviare un documento all'Onu, alla Commissione  interamericana dei diritti umani e alla stessa Oms, per denunciare le mancanze del governo. Nel limbo tra periferie e carcere, dove i confini tra dentro e fuori si confondono lungo perimetri estremamente porosi che dividono l'interno delle celle sovraffollate dal degrado esterno fatto di crimine, povertà e ingiustizia sociale, il coronavirus si diffonde rapido...

 

Stefano Cecconi
# Covid e salute mentale. Mai più manicomi
https://ilmanifesto.it/ 15 luglio 2020

 

Council of Anti-Torture Committee
# Eradicating prison overcrowding: CPT urges intensifying temporary measures introduced to prevent COVID-19
Strasbourg, 9 July 2020

 

Mary Van Beusekom
# US prison inmates among those hit hard with COVID-19
cidrap.umn.edu/ CIDRAP News | Jul 09, 2020

 

Brendan Saloner, Kalind Parish, Julie A. Ward, Grace DiLaura, Sharon Dolovich
# COVID-19 Cases and Deaths in Federal and State Prisons
JAMA American Medical Association, July 8, 2020
COVID-19 case rates have been substantially higher and escalating much more rapidly in prisons than in the US population. One limitation of the study is that it relied on officially reported data, which may be subject to inaccuracies and reporting delays... Mass testing in select prisons revealed wide COVID-19 outbreaks, with infection rates exceeding 65% in several facilities... 

 

Cinzia Caporale, Alberto Pirni (Consulta Scientifica del Cortile dei Gentili)
# Pandemia e resilienza. Persona, comunità e modelli di sviluppo dopo la Covid-19 (Prefazione di Giuliano Amato)
www.cortiledeigentili.com/ Edizioni Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 2020

# Carla Collicelli, Pandemia e resilienza: il ruolo della comunità | www.quotidianosanita.it/ 6 luglio 2020

 

Ecdc - European Centre for Disease Preventionn and Control
# Infection prevention and control and surveillance for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in prisons in EU/EEA countries and the UK
www.ecdc.europa.eu/ 3 July 2020
According to the Council of Europe Annual Penal Statistics (SPACE), on 31 January 2019 approximately 1.5 million inmates were in penal institutions with available data in the European region [13]. The median age of this population was 35 years old, with 15% aged over 50, and 95% male. Fifteen countries reported overcrowding, of which 10 (8/10 EU Member States) reported serious over-crowding...

 

Andrew Welsh-Huggins
# New outbreaks push inmate coronavirus cases past 50,000
www.wwnytv.com/ Associated Press | July 3, 2020

At the end of June, the total number of coronavirus cases among prisoners had reached at least 52,649, an increase of 8% from the week before, according to data compiled by the Marshall Project, a nonprofit news organization focusing on criminal justice, and The Associated Press. Of those, at least 35,796 have recovered, and at least 616 inmates have died, the data showed. Among staff, more than 11,180 cases of coronavirus have been reported, including 43 deaths...

 

 

Pietro Buffa
# Carcere e pandemia
https://dirittopenaleuomo.org/ 1 luglio 2020
Nel frattempo il carcere, come gli ospizi, sono luoghi ove la strategia esterna delbdistanziamento non potrà essere mai applicata perché la nostra modernità democratica, via via, li ha già distanziati dalla società stessa e li affolla di scarti sociali frutto dell’incapacità di prendersi cura veramente dei problemi essenziali. Contenitori di disagio affrontato con l’allontanamento oggi saliti all’onor delle cronache per gli effetti che il virus ha avuto nelle R.S.A. e che potenzialmente poteva generare anche negli istituti di pena.

 

Carlos Franco-Paredes, Katherine Jankousky, Jonathan Schultz, Jessica Bernfeld, Kimberly Cullen, Nicolas G. Quan, Shelley Kon, Peter Hotez, Andre´s F. Henao-Martinez, Martin Krsak
# COVID-19 in jails and prisons: A neglected infection in a marginalized population
https://journals.plos.org/ PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, june 22, 2020

 

Giuseppe Forte, Francesca Favieri, Renata Tambelli, Maria Casagrande
# The Enemy Which Sealed the World: Effects of COVID-19 Diffusion on the Psychological State of the Italian Population
Journal of Clinical Medicine, June 2020
The high prevalence of anxiety evidenced in our sample highlights that the COVID-19 pandemic has increased alert levels and generated a high level of state anxiety in the population, confirming results of previous studies on SARS, Influenza A virus subtype H1N1, and COVID-19. In our sample, 27.72% of the respondents presented PTSD symptomatology, and risk of PTSD higher than that reported in the general population, at least as regards the symptoms evaluated with the IES-R questionnaire...

 

Rosanna Mancinelli, Fortunato Paolo D’Ancona, Sandro Libianchi, Alessandro Mustazzolu, Lara Tavoschi, Annalisa Pantosti
# Indicazioni per la prevenzione e il controllo di Covid-19 negli Istituti penitenziari e in altre strutture con limitazione delle libertà personali per adulti e minori
Notiziario Istituto Superiore Sanità, 2020;33(6):23-27

Al fine di fornire indicazioni per la prevenzione e controllo per COVID-19 nella popolazione di detenuti adulti e minori, presso l’Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) è stato costituito un Gruppo di lavoro formato da ricercatori ISS ed esperti esterni. L’attività scientifica del Gruppo ha portato in evidenza problemi sanitari a oggi ancora poco conosciuti e rappresenta una opportunità per affrontare importanti problemi di salute pubblica e superare le diseguaglianze di salute attraverso lo sviluppo di specifiche strategie di intervento dedicate a questo gruppo di popolazione vulnerabile.

 

Marco Musumeci, Francesco Marelli
# How organized crime is expanding during the COVID-19 crisis
http://unicri.it/ 29 June 2020
Over the last century, organized crime has demonstrated a remarkable capacity to rapidly adapt to mutated social, political and economic conditions. While in some cases this adaptation was the result of a reactive response to improved legislation targeting their interests, in many others it was ignited by the pursuit of new possibilities for economic profit. Examples in this sense include how quickly criminal groups adapted to new scenarios created, for instance, by geopolitical changes, the integration of global markets or the generalized use of the world wide web as a marketplace for a variety of licit and illicit goods and services.

 

Francesco Maisto
# Il carcere: come non si è governata l’emergenza infezione
www.giustiziainsieme.it, 26 giugno 2020

 

Emily Widra, Dylan Hayre | ACLU - Prison Policy Initiative
# Failing Grades: States’ Responses to COVID-19 in Jails & Prisons

www.aclu.org/ June 25, 2020

When the pandemic struck, it was obvious what needed to be done: take all actions possible to “flatten the curve.” This was especially urgent in prisons and jails, which are crowded facilities where social distancing is impossible, sanitation is poor, and medical resources are extremely limited. Public health experts warned that the consequences of inaction or inadequate response were dire: prisons and jails would become petri dishes where, once inside, COVID-19 would spread rapidly, cause illness and death, and then boomerang back out to the surrounding communities with greater force than ever before...

 

Rosemary Ricciardelli, Sandra Bucerius
# Canadian prisons in the time of COVID-19: Recommendations for the pandemic and beyond
www.theglobeandmail.com/ June 23, 2020

 

Marco Nardone
# Le Covid-19 en prison
in Fiorenza Gamba, Marco Nardone, Toni Ricciardi, Sandro Cattacin (eds), Covid-19. Le regard des sciences sociales, June 2020
Nous aimerions enfin mettre en garde les personnes qui se lanceraient dans l’analyse critique, de ne pas tomber ni dans le piège de la critique « carcéralo-centrée » vouée à perpétuer les dynamiques reproductives de l’institution carcérale et de son échec (ce qui arrive exactement lors des crises, où l’on tente de résoudre des problèmes urgents), ni dans le piège de la critique abolitionniste qui, par son opposition nette aux réformes de la prison, tendrait à négliger les besoins concrets et urgents d’améliorer l’état des personnes détenues

 

Marcelo F. Aebi, Mélanie M. Tiago
# Prisons and Prisoners in Europe in Pandemic Times: An evaluation of the short-term impact of the COVID-19 on prison populations
http://wp.unil.ch/space/ Strasbourg and Lausanne: 18 June 2020

... More than 128,000 inmates were released in 20 member states as a preventive measure to reduce the spread of COVID-19: - The vast majority of these inmates (102,944) were released after 15th April in Turkey, a country that had until then the second biggest prison population in Europe. - The total numbers of releases, however, includes 10,188 inmates released in France, a country that reported all its releases and not only those related to the COVID-19 pandemic...

 

Simone Lonati, Carlo Melzi d'Eril
# Così il coronavirus è rimasto fuori dal carcere
lavoce.info, 11 giugno 2020

 

Maria Vittoria Ambrosone
# Emergenza sanitaria e sistema carcerario italiano
penaledp.it, 1 giugno 2020
Invero, il contesto nel quale la libertà personale subisce il maggiore grado di compressione consentito dalla nostra Costituzione è il carcere. Ebbene, anche nel caso in cui l’individuo si trovi in un ambiente per sua natura destinato a separarlo dalla società civile, la dignità della persona deve essere sempre tutelata, così come ci ricorda non solo la Corte Costituzionale, ma anche, a più riprese, la Corte europea dei diritti dell’uomo.

 

Radha Kothari, Andrew Forrester, Neil Greenberg, Natasha Sarkissian, Derek K Tracy
# COVID-19 and prisons: Providing mental health care for people in prison, minimising moral injury and psychological distress in mental health staff
Medicine, Science and the Law, May 29, 2020
As has often been repeated in relation to COVID19, perfect is the enemy of the good; however, whilst resources are stretched, failing to support our staff is a false economy. Presenteeism is a greater burden on organisations than absenteeism, and sickness rates and staff retention will be worse in those organisations which fail to support staff adequately.

 

World Health Organization - Regional Office for Europe
# Experience of health professionals, police staff and prisoners in Italy informs WHO COVID-19 guidelines for prisons
www.euro.who.int/ 28-05-2020
The Italian health system was another factor that contributed to the effectiveness of penitentiary infection control measures”, added Dr Roberto Ranieri, who also devotes his work to infection control in the San Vittore prison. March brought the third phase of infection control measures in Lombardy prisons, when the first cases of COVID-19 transmission in detention facilities were detected. On 9 March the news led to riots in numerous prisons all over Italy. “The riots calmed down really quickly, in a couple of days. It became evident that there was huge stress and concern among detainees, as well as among prison staff, so we set up compulsory psychological consultations for people to help them cope with stress”, Dr Giuliani recalls. Dr Roberto Ranieri points out that, overall, the measures would not have been a success without the detainees’ help...

 

Benedetto Saraceno (ed)
# Lezioni per il dopo: salute comunità democrazia
Communitas, Maggio 2020

Aldo Bonomi, Editoriale - Angelo Richetti, Il welfare da ricostruire. Una proposta. Dai budget educativi ai budget di salute

 

Open Evidence
# Longitudinal study on the effects of COVID 19 and lockdown in Italy, Spain, and United Kingdom
https://open-evidence.com/ May 2020

 

Antigone
# Il carcere al tempo del Coronavirus. XVI Rapporto di Antigone sulle condizioni di detenzione
www.antigone.it/ 22 maggio 2020

 

Garante delle persone sottoposte a misure restrittive della libertà personale della Regione Campania
# Relazione annuale 2019
Maggio 2020

 

# UNODC, WHO, UNAIDS and OHCHR joint statement on COVID-19 in prisons and other closed settings
https://www.who.int/news-room/ 13 May 2020

We, the leaders of global health, human rights and development institutions, come together to urgently draw the attention of political leaders to the heightened vulnerability of prisoners and other people deprived of liberty to the COVID-19 pandemic, and urge them to take all appropriate public health measures in respect of this vulnerable population that is part of our communities.

 

Fabio Gianfilippi
# La rivalutazione delle detenzioni domiciliari per gli appartenenti alla criminalità organizzata, la magistratura di sorveglianza e il corpo dei condannati nel d.l. 10 maggio 2020 n. 29.
www.giustiziainsieme.it/ 12 maggio 2020
1. Il perimetro del nuovo intervento urgente. 2. La revoca della detenzione domiciliare surrogatoria del differimento della pena e la sua irretroattività. 3. La rivalutazione obbligatoria frequentissima delle detenzioni domiciliari connesse all’emergenza sanitaria concesse ai condannati per reati di criminalità organizzata e la sua portata retroattiva. 4. Competenza ed adempimenti istruttori. 5. La ratio dell’istituto, con lo sguardo più indietro che avanti.

 

Emilio Santoro
# Diritto alla salute e prevenzione in carcere: problemi teorici e pratici di gestione del coronavirus negli Istituti di pena
La legislazione penale, 4 maggio 2020

Se non si coglie la tremenda occasione della pandemia per inglobare definitivamente la prevenzione nel diritto alla salute dei detenuti, se qualcuno di loro risultasse contagiato, in una sezione in cui si trovava un agente o un detenuto positivo, questi potrebbe chiamare lo Stato italiano a rispondere del proprio contagio in base alla responsabilità da contatto sociale. 

 

Talha Burki
# Prisons are “in no way equipped” to deal with COVID-19
www.thelancet.com/ Vol 395, May 2, 2020

... Iran announced the release of 85000 prisoners in March. France and Italy have reduced their prison populations by 10000 and 6000, respectively. Chile has let out 1300 low-risk offenders, and states across the USA are releasing varying numbers of prisoners. “There is absolutely no doubt that this crisis calls for reducing overcrowding and finding alternatives to prison for people in particular categories, definitely those in pretrial detention for non-violent offences”, Broner told The Lancet.

 

EUROPOL
# Beyond the pandemic. How COVID-19 will shape the serious and organised crime landscape in the EU
www.europol.europa.eu/ 30 April 2020
Europol expects the impact of the current crisis on serious and organised crime and terrorism to unfold in three phases, equivalent to the shortterm/immediate outlook, a mid-term and long-term perspective.... Drug markets are resilient and adaptable... The trafficking of cannabis, cocaine, and heroin has continued throughout the pandemic, albeit at lower levels than before. After the withdrawal of lockdown and quarantine measures across the EU, it is expected that regular supply will resume at pre-pandemic levels with little or no id- or long-term impact.

 

Sarah Figgatt
# Reentry Reforms Are More Critical Than Ever Amid the Coronavirus Pandemic
www.americanprogress.org/ April 30, 2020
Therefore, crime and recidivism rates are not a measure of one’s criminality, but rather the resources and supports to which they do, or do not, have access. Reforming the U.S. reentry system is an opportunity to eliminate the factors that perpetuate the cycle of incarceration for justice-involved people. Additionally, reentry reforms benefit not only justice-involved people but also the communities that they return to following incarceration. When formerly incarcerated people have access to social support programs, such as food assistance and health care, recidivism rates fall, keeping people out of prison and their communities safer. Especially now, with the threat of prison or jail COVID-19 outbreaks spilling over into the broader community, releasing people from correctional facilities and reforming the U.S. reentry system would improve the safety and health of all community members.

 

Laura Hawks, Steffie Woolhandler, Danny McCormick
# COVID-19 in Prisons and Jails in the United States
https://jamanetwork.com/ April 28, 2020
In the 2 weeks following release from incarceration, people are at increased risk of death, particularly from drug overdose and cardiovascular disease.9 If more people are to leave prisons and jails, correctional officials and community members should take steps to mitigate these risks. Pharmacologic treatment for opioid use disorder is now available via telemedicine, and all prisoners who might benefit from such programs should be referred to them. Similarly, older prisoners and those with chronic health conditions should have pre-arranged primary care follow-up, and the means (eg, an appropriate computer or smartphone) to engage in telehealth visits.

 

Lisa Kerr
# Coronavirus in Canadian prisons
www.queensu.ca/ April 23, 2020
It is always the case that the interests of incarcerated people are closely tied to those of us living free in the community. The pandemic has altered much about normal life, including the ability to deny those ties.

 

Davide Galliani - Intervista di Michela Petrini
# Emergenza  Covid-19, carceri e diritto alla salute
Giustizia Insieme, n. 999, 11 aprile 2020
Lei mi chiede quali sono le ragioni del silenzio sul problema pandemia in carcere. La risposta più sincera e più giuridica che riesco a darle è questa: abbiamo smesso di provare i brividi che provoca l’umana miseria, e non comprendiamo che esitare significa morire...

 

Fabio Gianfilippi
# Emergenza sanitaria e differimento pena nelle forme della detenzione domiciliare: il fardello della M. di sorveglianza. Note a Trib.Sorv.Milano, 31.3.20.
www.giustiziainsieme.it/ 11 aprile 2020
1. L’ordinanza del Tribunale di sorveglianza di Milano. 2. L’accertamento in concreto della sussistenza delle condizioni che legittimano il differimento della pena. 3. Alcuni documenti in materia di detenuti in condizioni di fragilità di fronte all’emergenza 4. Il differimento della pena per condizioni di salute che espongono a particolari rischi in caso di contagio

 

Ministère des Solidarités et de la Santé
# Coronavirus (Covid-19). Fiche établissements pénitentiaires. Organisation de la prise en charge sanitaire des patients détenus nécessitant des soins psychiatriques
https://solidarites-sante.gouv.fr/ 2 avril 2020

 

ONUDC
# Note d'information. Covid-19: préparation et intervention en prison      # COVID-19 preparedness and responses in prisons
www.unodc.org/ 31 mars 2020
Les prisons et autres lieux de détention devraient faire partie intégrante des plans nationaux de santé et d’urgence adoptés face à la pandémie de COVID-19. Les mesures de préparation, de prévention et d’intervention dans les établissements pénitentiaires devraient être conçues et mises en œuvre suivant les orientations spécialement élaborées par l’Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS). Elles  devraient comprendre des évaluations des risques et des plans d’urgence spécifiques; des mesures renforcées d’hygiène et de contrôle des infections; la disponibilité ininterrompue des fournitures nécessaires, y compris des équipements de protection individuelle; l’entretien de liens étroits avec les autorités de santé publique locales et nationales; ainsi que le soutien et le renforcement des capacités du personnel pénitentiaire et des professionnels de la santé.

 

Brie Williams, Cyrus Ahalt , David Cloud, Dallas Augustine, Leah Rorvig, David Sears
# Correctional Facilities In The Shadow Of COVID-19: Unique Challenges And Proposed Solutions
www.healthaffairs.org/ March 26, 2020

In this moment we must all remember that incarcerated people, and all those who work in prisons and jails, are part of our families and our communities. We have constitutional and ethical obligations to protect these populations and to take all appropriate actions needed to mitigate the effects of a potential outbreak in correctional facilities.

 

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
# Interim Guidance on Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Correctional and Detention Facilities
www.cdc.gov/ March 23, 2020

 

UNODC
# Suggestions about treatment, care and rehabilitation of people with drug use disorder in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. A contribution to the health security of countries and communities
www.unodc.org/ March 2020

 

Glauco Giostra
# Disinnescare in modo sano la bomba-virus nelle carceri. Gli effetti della pandemia di Covid-19 sulla realtà dei penitenziari e le soluzioni possibili
Avvenire, 21 marzo 2020

... Se il virus comincia a circolare nelle vene penitenziarie sarà impossibile fermarlo alle mura del carcere... L'importante è agire subito, con la consapevolezza che ancora una volta i provvedimenti che fanno bene alla popolazione penitenziaria fanno bene alla società tutta.

 

Stuart A. Kinner, Jesse T. Young, Kathryn Snow, Louise Southalan, Daniel Lopez-Acuña, Carina Ferreira-Borges, Éamonn O'Moore
# Prisons and custodial settings are part of a comprehensive response to COVID-19
www.thelancet.com/ March 17, 2020
Prison health is public health by definition. Despite this and the very porous borders between prisons and communities, prisons are often excluded or treated as separate from public health efforts. The fast spread of COVID-19 will, like most epidemics, disproportionately affect the most disadvantaged people. Therefore, to mitigate the effects of prison outbreaks on tertiary health-care facilities and reduce morbidity and mortality among society's most marginalised, it is crucial that prisons, youth detention centres, and immigration detention centres are embedded within the broader public health response.

 

Penal Reform Internationa
# Coronavirus: Healthcare and human rights of people in prison. Do no harm, equality, transparency, humanity: values should guide the criminal justice sector’s response to coronavirus
https://cdn.penalreform.org/ Briefing note, 16 March 2020
Under international human rights law, every human being has the right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. When a state deprives someone of their liberty, it takes on the duty of care to provide medical treatment and to protect and promote his or her physical and mental health and well-being, as laid out by the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Nelson Mandela Rules). This duty of care is critical, because prisoners have no alternative but to rely on the authorities to promote and protect their health...

 

Amanda Klonsky
# An Epicenter of the Pandemic Will Be Jails and Prisons, if Inaction Continues . The conditions inside, which are inhumane, are now a threat to any American with a jail in their county — meaning just about everyone.
www.nytimes.com/ March 16, 2020

 

World Health Organization
# Preparedness, prevention and control of COVID-19 in prisons and other places of detention. Interim guidance
www.euro.who.int/ 15 march 2020

Experience shows that prisons, jails and similar settings where people are gathered in close proximity may act as a source of infection, amplification and spread of infectious diseases within and beyond prisons. Prison health is therefore widely considered as public health... Efforts to control COVID-19 in the community are likely to fail if strong infection prevention and control (IPC) measures, adequate testing, treatment and care are not carried out in prisons and other places of detention as well.

 

Francesca Vianello
# Il carcere insostenibile
www.rivistailmulino.it/12 marzo 2020

 

Guido Travaini, Palmina Caruso, Isabella Merzagora
# Crime in Italy at the time of the pandemic
Acta Biomed 2020; Vol. 91, N. 2: 199-203
Nothing is more dynamic than crime, able to rapidly adapt to the changes of society, while trying to take advantage of them. In other words, delinquency seems to follow the economic and social growth of modern societies, replicating their mechanisms.With regard to the data published so far, according to the Ministry of Interior, the overall number of crimes committed in Italy has dropped significantly in March